Anthony Peratt - Characteristics for the Occurrence of a High-Current, Z-Pinch Aurora as Recorded in Antiquity var NREUMQ=NREUMQ

||[];NREUMQ.push(["mark","firstbyte",new Date().getTime()]); if (!window.Scribd) var Scribd = new Object(); Scribd.cdn_path = 'http://s6.scribdassets.com/'; Scribd.rails_env = 'production'; Scribd.logged_in = false; var perfStart = new Date(); Scribd.current_doc = {"word_upload_id":16393823,"show_archive_paywall":true,"thumbnail_url":"http://i mgv2-2.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/14145750/54x70/421327cb4d/1337735408", "child_category_id":null,"is_commentable":true,"secret_password":null,"is_bad":f alse,"converting":false,"is_downloadable":true,"page_count":23,"aspect_ratio":0. 772727272727273,"is_deletable":true,"short_title":"Anthony Peratt - Characteristics for the Occurrenc...","description":"The discovery that objects from the Neolithic or Early\r\nBronze Age carry patterns associated with high-current Z-pinches\r\nprovides a possible insight into the origin and meaning of these ancient\r\nsymbols produced by man. This paper directly compares the\r\ngraphical and radiation data from high-current Z-pinches to these\r\npatterns. The paper focuses primarily, but not exclusively, on petroglyphs.\r\nIt is found that a great many archaic petroglyphs can be\r\nclassified according to plasma stability and instability data. As the\r\nsame morphological types are found worldwide, the comparisons\r\nsuggest the occurrence of an intense aurora, as might be produced\r\nif the solar wind had increased between one and two orders of magnitude,\r\nmillennia ago.\r\nIndex Terms\u2014Aurora, high-energy-density plasma, magnetohydrodynamics\r\n(MHD) instabilities, petroglyphs, pictographs, stonehenge,\r\nZ-pinch\r\n\r\nON July 9, 1962, the United States detonated a 1.4-megaton\r\nthermonuclear device in the atmosphere 400 km above\r\nJohnston Island. The event produced a plasma whose initial\r\nspherical shape striated within a few minutes as the plasma electrons\r\nand ions streamed along the Earth\u2019s magnetic field to produce\r\nan artificial aurora. Fig. 1 shows a photograph of the artificial\r\naurora three minutes after detonation as recorded from a\r\nKC-135 aircraft.\r\nConcomitant with the artificial aurora was a degradation of\r\nradio communications over wide areas of the Pacific, lightning\r\ndischarges, destruction of electronics in monitoring satellites,\r\nand an electromagnetic pulse that affected some power circuitry\r\nas far away as Hawaii.\r\nThe event was recorded worldwide as the plasma formed at\r\nleast two intense equatorial tubes, artificial Van Allen belts,\r\naround the Earth [1], [2]. These tubes, or plasma toroids,\r\ncontained relativistic electrons bound by magnetic fields; the\r\nsource of intense amounts of synchrotron radiation. The radiation\r\nlasted far longer than expected; the decay constant was\r\nof the order of 100 days. (Mankind, unknowing, has viewed\r\nsynchrotron radiation from the Crab nebula for centuries. The\r\nonly known mechanism that produces synchrotron radiation are\r\nelectrons spiraling about a magnetic field at nearly the speed\r\nof light).\r\nThus, the shape of the phenomena as recorded at radio, visible,\r\nand high frequencies was that of plasma \u201cdonuts\u201d encircling\r\nthe Earth, which mimicked the Van Allen belts.\r\nManuscript received May 19, 2003; revised October 15, 2003. This work was\r\nsupported by the Mainwaring Foundation, in association with the University of\r\nPennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia.\r\nThe author is with the Plasma Physics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory,\r\nLos Alamos, NM 87545 USA (e-mail: alp@ lanl.gov).\r\nDigital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPS.2003.820956\r\nFig. 1. Starfish thermonuclear detonation July 9, 1962, 400 km above\r\nJohnston Island. The photograph was taken from a Los Alamos KC-135 aircraft\r\nthree minutes after initiation time. An artificial

striated aurora has already\r\nformed from the plasma particles, spreading along the earth\u2019s magnetic field.\r\nThe brightest background object (mark) at the top, left-hand corner, is the star\r\nantares, while the right-most object is \u0012-Centauri. The burst point is two-thirds\r\nof the way up from the lowest plasma striation.\r\nThe artificial aurora shown in Fig. 1 also shows plasma\r\nstriations that arise from instabilities. This paper describes\r\ncharacteristic features of laboratory plasma experiments and\r\nsimulations, especially for high-current Z-pinch conditions,\r\nand compares these features with petroglyphs and other ancient\r\nwritings, which may have been associated with auroral\r\nobservations.\r\nAs in the natural aurorae at the northern and southern magnetic\r\npoles, the streaming charged particle electrical currents,\r\nBirkeland currents, are of the order of megaamperes [3].\r\n","url":"http://www.scribd.com/doc/14145750/Anthony-Peratt-Characteristi cs-for-the-Occurrence-of-a-HighCurrent-ZPinch-Aurora-as-Recorded-in-Antiquity"," sharing_data":{"thumbnail_url":"http://imgv2-2.scribdassets.com/img/word_documen t/14145750/54x70/421327cb4d/1337735408","page_count":23,"description":"Thee discovery that objects from the Neolithic or Early\r\nBronze Age carry patterns associated with high-current Z-pinches\r\nprovides a possible insight into the origin and meaning of these ancient\r\nsymbols produced by man. This paper directly compares the\r\ngraphical and radiation data from high-current Z-pinches to these\r\npatterns. The paper focuses primarily, but not exclusively, on petroglyphs.\r\nIt is found that a great many archaic petroglyphs can be\r\nclassified according to plasma stability and instability data. As the\r\nsame morphological types are found worldwide, the comparisons\r\nsuggest the occurrence of an intense aurora, as might be produced\r\nif the solar wind had increased between one and two orders of magnitude,\r\nmillennia ago.\r\nIndex Terms\u2014Aurora, high-energy-density plasma, magnetohydrodynamics\r\n(MHD) instabilities, petroglyphs, pictographs, stonehenge,\r\nZ-pinch\r\n\r\nON July 9, 1962, the United States detonated a 1.4-megaton\r\nthermonuclear device in the atmosphere 400 km above\r\nJohnston Island. The event produced a plasma whose initial\r\nspherical shape striated within a few minutes as the plasma electrons\r\nand ions streamed along the Earth\u2019s magnetic field to produce\r\nan artificial aurora. Fig. 1 shows a photograph of the artificial\r\naurora three minutes after detonation as recorded from a\r\nKC-135 aircraft.\r\nConcomitant with the artificial aurora was a degradation of\r\nradio communications over wide areas of the Pacific, lightning\r\ndischarges, destruction of electronics in monitoring satellites,\r\nand an electromagnetic pulse that affected some power circuitry\r\nas far away as Hawaii.\r\nThe event was recorded worldwide as the plasma formed at\r\nleast two intense equatorial tubes, artificial Van Allen belts,\r\naround the Earth [1], [2]. These tubes, or plasma toroids,\r\ncontained relativistic electrons bound by magnetic fields; the\r\nsource of intense amounts of synchrotron radiation. The radiation\r\nlasted far longer than expected; the decay constant was\r\nof the order of 100 days. (Mankind, unknowing, has viewed\r\nsynchrotron radiation from the Crab nebula for centuries. The\r\nonly known mechanism that produces synchrotron radiation are\r\nelectrons spiraling about a magnetic field at nearly the speed\r\nof light).\r\nThus, the shape of the phenomena as recorded at radio, visible,\r\nand high frequencies was that of plasma \u201cdonuts\u201d encircling\r\nthe Earth, which mimicked the Van Allen belts.\r\nManuscript received May 19, 2003; revised October 15, 2003. This work was\r\nsupported by the Mainwaring Foundation, in association with the University of\r\nPennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia.\r\nThe author is with the Plasma Physics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory,\r\nLos Alamos, NM 87545 USA (e-mail: alp@ lanl.gov).\r\nDigital Object Identifier

10.1109/TPS.2003.820956\r\nFig. 1. Starfish thermonuclear detonation July 9, 1962, 400 km above\r\nJohnston Island. The photograph was taken from a Los Alamos KC-135 aircraft\r\nthree minutes after initiation time. An artificial striated aurora has already\r\nformed from the plasma particles, spreading along the earth\u2019s magnetic field.\r\nThe brightest background object (mark) at the top, left-hand corner, is the star\r\nantares, while the right-most object is \u0012-Centauri. The burst point is two-thirds\r\nof the way up from the lowest plasma striation.\r\nThe artificial aurora shown in Fig. 1 also shows plasma\r\nstriations that arise from instabilities. This paper describes\r\ncharacteristic features of laboratory plasma experiments and\r\nsimulations, especially for high-current Z-pinch conditions,\r\nand compares these features with petroglyphs and other ancient\r\nwritings, which may have been associated with auroral\r\nobservations.\r\nAs in the natural aurorae at the northern and southern magnetic\r\npoles, the streaming charged particle electrical currents,\r\nBirkeland currents, are of the order of megaamperes [3].\r\n","url":"http://www.scribd.com/doc/14145750/Anthony-Peratt-Characteristi cs-for-the-Occurrence-of-a-HighCurrent-ZPinch-Aurora-as-Recorded-in-Antiquity"," id":14145750,"author":{"url":"http://www.scribd.com/hronoya","name":"Borisf Petrovic"},"title":"Anthony Peratt - Characteristics for the Occurrence of a High-Current, Z-Pinch Aurora as Recorded in Antiquity"},"access_key":"key-18pd2qd9s45c1z2lbn95","is_searchable":true,"is_pri vate":false,"preferred_ext":"pdf","top_category_id":54,"private":false,"id":1414 5750,"is_owner":false,"reads":0,"paid":false,"created_at":"04h / 11 / 2009","title":"Anthony Peratt - Characteristics for the Occurrence of a High-Current, Z-Pinch Aurora as Recorded in Antiquity"};document.fire('scribd:docinfo_ready'); window['$perf'] = new Scribd.Perf(); $perf.registerOnbeforeunload(); window['$rat'] = ratInit( ["http://rs1.scribd.com/","http://rs2.scribd.com/","http://rs3.scribd.com/","htt p://rs4.scribd.com/","http://rs5.scribd.com/","http://rs6.scribd.com/","http://r s7.scribd.com/","http://rs8.scribd.com/"],r {"user_id":null,"doc_id":14145750}, false ); I18n.defaultLocale = "en_US"; I18n.locale = "en_US"; if(typeof(Scribd) === 'undefined') Scribd = {}; Scribd.Ads = { enabled: ('https:' !== document.location.protocol ) && true }; if(Scribd.Ads.enabled) { var writeScript = function(src) { document.write('\x3Cscript type="text/javascript" src="'+src+'">\x3C/script>'); }; var googletag = googletag || {}; googletag.cmd = googletag.cmd || []; var loadAds = function() { if(Scribd.Ads.loaded) return; Scribd.Ads.loaded = true; var gads = document.createElement('script'); gads.async = true; gads.type = 'text/javascript'; gads.src = 'http://www.googletagservices.com/tag/js/gpt.js'; var node = document.getElementsByTagName('script')[0]; node.parentNode.insertBefore(gads, node); //detecting if ad block is enabled... setTimeout(function() { if(typeof(googletag.pubads) === 'undefined') trackEvent('AdBlock', '', '', 1, false); }, 5e3); }; (function() { var observe = null; //this is for mobile where prototype isn't included... if(typeof(Event) === 'undefined' || Event.observe === undefined) { observe = function(target, eventName, callback) { if(typeof(target.addEventListener) !== 'undefined') target.addEventListener(eventName, callback); else target.attachEvent(eventName, callback); }; } else { observe = Event.observe; } observe(document, "scribd:load_ads", loadAds); observe(window, 'load', loadAds); }()); } else { Scribd.Ads.use_house_ads = false; } if( Scribd.Ads.enabled ) { Scribd.Ads.addAttribute("AdLayout", -1026550441); Scribd.Ads.addAttribute("Category", 54); Scribd.Ads.addAttribute("DocUser", 918833); Scribd.Ads.addAttribute("Document", 14145750); Scribd.Ads.addAttribute("Extension", "pdf"); Scribd.Ads.addAttribute("IABChild", ["International News","Physics","Space/Astronomy"]);

Scribd.Ads.addAttribute("IABParent", ["News","Science"]); Scribd.Ads.addAttribute("IAB_M-Z", ["News","News::International News","Science","Science::Physics","Science::Space/Astronomy"]); Scribd.Ads.addAttribute("Language", "eng"); Scribd.Ads.addAttribute("Naughty", ["ugc"]); Scribd.Ads.addAttribute("Owner", 918833); Scribd.Ads.addAttribute("ProfUser", 918833); Scribd.Ads.addAttribute("SubDomain", "www"); Scribd.Ads.addAttribute("UserState", "Out"); //adding testing segments Scribd.Ads.addAttribute('UseTest', Math.floor(Math.random() * 10) + ''); // Start Quantcast User Segmentation var quantSegs = []; function qc_results(result) { for (var i = 0; i < result.segments.length; i++) quantSegs.push(result.segments[i].id); Scribd.Ads.addAttribute("QuantSegs", quantSegs); } writeScript("http://pixel.quantserve.com/api/segments.json?a=p-13DPpb-yg8ofc&cal lback=qc_results");A // End Quantcast User Segmentation } if(Scribd.Ads.enabled) { Scribd.Ads.gpt_slots = []; Scribd.Ads.gpt_slots_by_name = {}; //(for gpt execute targeting) and finalize ad fetching... googletag.cmd.push(function() { for (var unit_name in Scribd.Ads.adUnits) { var node_id = Scribd.Ads.adUnits[unit_name]; var full_name = '/1024966/' + unit_name; var size = unit_name.match(/.*_(\d+)x(\d+)/) .slice(1) .map(function(f){return parseInt(f);}); var slot = googletag.defineSlot(full_name, size, node_id).addService(googletag.pubads()); Scribd.Ads.gpt_slots.push(slot); Scribd.Ads.gpt_slots_by_name[unit_name] = slot; } //set targeting for (var targetKey in Scribd.Ads.attributes) { var value = Scribd.Ads.attributes[targetKey]; if( value instanceof Array) { value = value.map(function(f) {return f + '';}); } else { value = value + ''; } googletag.pubads().setTargeting(targetKey, value); } // googletag.pubads().enableSingleRequest(); googletag.pubads().collapseEmptyDivs(); googletag.enableServices(); }); } var _gaq = _gaq || []; _gaq.push(['_setAccount', "UA-443684-2"]); _gaq.push(['_setCustomVar', 1, 'logged_in', 'false', 1]); _gaq.push(['_setCustomVar', 3, 'domain', document.location.host, 3]); document.observe('dom:loaded', function() { // wait until dom loaded so all A/B test custom vars can be set first var ga = document.createElement('script'); ga.type = 'text/javascript'; ga.async = true; ga.src = ('https:' == document.location.protocol ? 'https://ssl' : 'http://www') + '.google-analytics.com/ga.js'; var s = document.getElementsByTagName('script')[0]; s.parentNode.insertBefore(ga, s); _gaq.push(['_trackPageview']); _gaq.push(['_trackPageLoadTime']); }); j kstrp(function(){ Scribd.UI.social_panel = new Scribd.UI.SocialPanel("autogen_id_13097752", "document_column"); }, "Newdoc::Social"); jkstrp(function(){ Scribd.UI.pager = new Scribd.UI.Pager("autogen_id_13102184", "viewer", {}); $$('.missing_page_buy_button').each(function(el) { el.hide();}); }, "Newdoc::Pager"); jkstrp(function(){ new Scribd.UI.CommentForm("autogen_id_13100132"); }, "Newdoc::CommentForm"); jkstrp(function(){ new Scribd.UI.CommentList("autogen_id_13103935"); }, "Newdoc::Comments"); jkstrp(function(){ new Scribd.UI.MiniSocialPanel("autogen_id_13093035", "li"); }, "Newdoc::Sidebar::MiniSocial"); jkstrp(function(){ new Scribd.UI.DocumentSearch($("autogen_id_13114109")); }, "Newdoc::Search"); jkstrp(function(){ new Scribd.UI.DocumentListTabs("autogen_id_13115775"); }, "Newdoc::Sidebar::CollectionTabs"); jkstrp(function(){ Scribd.current_doc.rating = 5.0; Scribd.current_doc.rating_url = ["/", "r", "a", "t", "i", "n", "g", "s", "?", "w", "o", "r", "d", "_", "d", "o", "c", "u", "m", "e", "n", "t", "_", "i", "d", "=", "1", "4", "1", "4", "5", "7", "5", "0"].join(''); new

Scribd.UI.Sidebar("sidebar"); }, "Newdoc::Sidebar"); jkstrp(function(){ Scribd.UI.setup_scrolling(); }, "Newdoc::Show::Web"); jkstrp(function(){ Scribd.trackSessionLength('newdoc', 'Metrics', 'SessionLengthSec'); }, "Newdoc::Show"); div.ff0 span {font-family: ff0, Times New Roman, Times, serif; font-weight: bold; font-style: normal; } div.ff1 span {font-family: ff1, Times New Roman, Times, serif; font-weight: normal; font-style: normal; } div.ff2 span {font-family: ff2, Arial, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-weight: normal; font-style: normal; } div.ff3 span {font-family: ff3, Times New Roman, Times, serif; font-weight: normal; font-style: normal; } div.ff4 span {font-family: ff4, Arial, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-weight: normal; font-style: normal; } div.ff5 span {font-family: ff5, Times New Roman, Times, serif; font-weight: normal; font-style: normal; } .ff0, .ff1, .ff2, .ff3, .ff4, .ff5 {display: none;} #font_preload_bed span {display: block; visibility: hidden}

Scribd Upload Search

Explore

Documents Books - Fiction Books - Non-fiction Health & Medicine Brochures/Catalogs

Government Docs How-To Guides/Manuals Magazines/Newspapers Recipes/Menus School Work + all categories Featured Recent

People Authors Students Researchers Publishers Government & Nonprofits Businesses Musicians Artists & Designers Teachers + all categories Most Followed Popular Sign Up | Log In

Scribd.Ads.addUnit('Doc_Top_Leaderboard_ATF_728x90'); Scribd.Ads.addUnit('Doc_Top_Leaderboard_ATF_728x91');

We've updated our privacy policy! Click here to read about it.

inShare0

Embed Doc

Copy Link Readcast Collections

5 CommentGo Back

Download

if(navigator && navigator.userAgent && !!navigator.userAgent.match(/Google (Web|Instant) Preview/)) { $('document_thumbnail_preview').show(); } var defaultViewWidth = 679.0; var docManager = new DocumentManager("scroll", "web" == "mobile"); // Our global manager for this view page window.docManager = docManager; docManager.setEmbeddedDoc('False'); docManager.fontAggregatorHosts = ["http://fonts1.scribdassets.com", "http://fonts2.scribdassets.com", "http://fonts3.scribdassets.com", "http://fonts4.scribdassets.com"]; docManager.assetPrefix = "w5copxqps9rdjz"; docManager.addFont(1, "", "ff1", "Times New Roman, Times, serif", "normal", "normal"); docManager.addFont(0, "b", "ff0", "Times New Roman, Times, serif", "bold", "normal"); docManager.addFont(3, "", "ff3", "Times New Roman, Times, serif", "normal", "normal"); docManager.addFont(2, "", "ff2", "Arial, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif", "normal", "normal"); docManager.addFont(5, "", "ff5", "Times New Roman, Times, serif", "normal", "normal"); docManager.addFont(4, "", "ff4", "Arial, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif", "normal", "normal"); docManager.displayType = "vector"; docManager.initStyles(); docManager.setPageWidths(679.0); docManager.setImageDomainSubstitution(/http:\/\/html.scribd.com/, ["http://htmlimg1.scribdassets.com", "http://htmlimg2.scribdassets.com", "http://htmlimg3.scribdassets.com", "http://htmlimg4.scribdassets.com"]); docManager.setupTestElements();

1192 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 31, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2003 Characteristics for the Occurrence of a High-Current,Z-Pinch Aurora as Recorded in Antiquity Anthony L. Peratt , Fellow, IEEE Abstract—

ThediscoverythatobjectsfromtheNeolithicorEarlyBronze Age carry patterns associated with high-current Z-pinchesprovides a possible insight into the origin and meaning of these an-cient symbols produced by man. This paper directly compares thegraphical and radiation data from high-current Z-pinches to thesepatterns. The paper focuses primarily, but not exclusively, on pet-roglyphs. It is found that a great many archaic petroglyphs can beclassified according to plasma stability and instability data. As thesame morphological types are found worldwide, the comparisonssuggest the occurrence of an intense aurora, as might be producedifthesolarwindhadincreasedbetweenoneandtwoordersofmag-nitude, millennia ago. Index Terms— Aurora, high-energy-density plasma, magnetohy-drodynamics (MHD) instabilities, petroglyphs, pictographs, stone-henge, Z-pinch. I. I NTRODUCTION O NJuly9,1962,theUnitedStatesdetonateda1.4-megatonthermonuclear device in the atmosphere 400 km aboveJohnston Island. The event produced a plasma whose initialsphericalshapestriatedwithinafewminutesastheplasmaelec-trons and ions streamed along the Earth’s magnetic field to pro-duce an artificial aurora. Fig. 1 shows a photograph of the arti-ficial aurora three minutes after detonation as recorded from aKC-135 aircraft.Concomitant with the artificial aurora was a degradation of radio communications over wide areas of the Pacific, lightningdischarges, destruction of electronics in monitoring satellites,and an electromagnetic pulse that affected some power circuitryas far away as Hawaii.The event was recorded worldwide as the plasma formed atleast two intense equatorial tubes, artificial Van Allen belts,around the Earth [1], [2]. These tubes, or plasma toroids,contained relativistic electrons bound by magnetic fields; thesource of intense amounts of synchrotron radiation. The radi-ation lasted far longer than expected; the decay constant wasof the order of 100 days. (Mankind, unknowing, has viewedsynchrotron radiation from the Crab nebula for centuries. Theonly known mechanism that produces synchrotron radiation areelectrons spiraling about a magnetic field at nearly the speedof light).Thus, the shape of the phenomena as recorded at radio, vis-ible, and high frequencies was that of plasma “donuts” encir-cling the Earth, which mimicked the Van Allen belts. Manuscript received May 19, 2003; revised October 15, 2003. This work wassupported by the Mainwaring Foundation, in association with the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia.The author is with the Plasma Physics Group, Los Alamos National Labora-tory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 USA (e-mail: alp@ lanl.gov).Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPS.2003.820956Fig. 1. Starfish thermonuclear detonation July 9, 1962, 400 km aboveJohnston Island. The photograph was taken from a Los Alamos KC-135 aircraftthree minutes after initiation time. An artificial striated aurora has alreadyformed from the plasma particles, spreading along the earth’s magnetic field.The brightest background object (mark) at the top, left-hand corner, is the starantares, while the right-most object is

-Centauri. The burst point is two-thirdsof the way up from the lowest plasma striation. The artificial aurora shown in Fig. 1 also shows plasmastriations that arise from instabilities. This paper describescharacteristic features of laboratory plasma experiments andsimulations, especially for high-current Z-pinch conditions,and compares these features with petroglyphs and other an-cient writings, which may have been associated with auroralobservations.As in the natural aurorae at the northern and southern mag-netic poles, the streaming charged particle electrical currents,Birkeland currents, are of the order of megaamperes [3].II. D YNAMICS OF AN I NTENSE A URORA The shape of the aurora is determined by the supersonic solarwind, Earth’s magnetospheric shield (approximately 100 kmabove the Earth surface), and Earth’s dipolar magnetic field. (Itis the magnetopause that diverts the impingement of the solarfluxintoatear-droppedshapedshell.Atthewidest,thewidthof the magnetopause is of the order of 130000–150000 km whilethe tail may stretch away from the Earth far beyond 1000000km. For comparison, the mean distance between the Earth andMoon is 384402 km).The circular or oval inflowing and outflowing electrical cur-rentsareshowninFig.2.Thesesheetsofelectricalcurrentsformthe rapid waving curtains of light in an auroral display (Fig. 3),a result of the electrons interacting with and exciting molecules 0093-3813/03$17.00 © 2003 IEEE

(function() { var pageParams = {"origHeight": 1167, "origWidth": 902, "fonts": [1, 5, 3, 0, 4], "pageNum": 1}; pageParams.containerElem = document.getElementById("outer_page_1"); pageParams.innerPageElem = document.getElementById("page1"); var page = docManager.addPage(pageParams); })(); Scribd.Ads.addBetweenPageUnit(1);

PERATT: CHARACTERISTICS FOR THE OCCURRENCE OF A HIGH-CURRENT, Z-PINCH AURORA 1193 Fig. 2. Artists depiction of Birkeland currents flowing into and out of theearth’s atmosphere at high latitude. These currents, once the subject of intensedebate,areroutinelymeasuredbytoday’ssatellitesandhavetotalmagnitudesof millions of amperes (megaamperes). Courtesy of S. G. Smith, Applied PhysicsLaboratory, The Johns Hopkins University.Fig. 3. (Left) View of the Earth’s aurora obtained by UV light by the Vikingsatellite. The auroral emissions completely encircle the geomagnetic pole,located approximately in the center, and are brightest near midnight, locatedin the lower right corner. The diameter of this auroral ring is about 5000km. (Right) The solar wind plasmas filtered through Earth’s magnetosphereresponsible for the aurora on Earth. These spectacular phenomena occur intwo auroral arcs lying at polar latitudes in both the northern and southernhemispheres, and are caused by plasma electrons flowing down in sheets alongthe Earth’s magnetic field. These sheets of electrons, or electrical currents,filament up to form the rapid waving curtains of light in an auroral display,a result of the electrons interacting with and exciting molecules in the upperatmosphere. in the upper atmosphere [4], [5]. The aurora is sporadic, usually lasting for a maximum of several hours but sometimes for days.The most intense and largest auroral displays occur during asolar storm when the incoming flux increases dramatically [6].III. I NSTABILITY OF THE A URORAL S HEETS A. Auroral Morphologies The auroral plasma column is susceptible to two plasma in-stabilities; hollowing of the relativistic electron beam to formthe sheets and the diocotron instability that cause the sheets tofilament into individual current strands causing the “swirls” or“curtains” [7], [8]. These instabilities also produce the radia-tion observed over a wide range of the electromagnetic spec-trum [9]–[11].The dimensions of the auroral circle can be hundreds of kilo-meters in diameter while the width of the sheet can be tens of kilometers. Fig. 4. Depiction of an intense auroral funnel. The figures show both down-flowing and up-flowing Birkeland currents contained with two Concentricsheets. (Left) Oblique upward view. (Right) Side view. Barely discernible atthe lower center are the Z-pinch instabilities. For an intense inflow of plasma, the aurora would be shapedby the strength of its own azimuthal magnetic field, i.e., aZ-pinch.In the case of a strong aurora

involving many tens of megaamperes of current, most of the funnel would be visiblein light emission and the individual filaments and vorticesstrongly visible. In a narrow field-of-view, the light-emittingfilaments would appear as “dots” or “elongated dots” andfilamentary strands. This geometry would predominate if thecharged particle outflow from the sun were to increase an orderof magnitude or more for an appreciable length of time. 1 Inaddition, portions of the magnetosphere and its tail would alsobe visible [12].Fig. 4 is a graphic depiction of an intense auroral funnel. Thethin outer plasma has filamented into small diameter plasmacurrents and inner plasma sheets and core. The upper part of the funnel has either a diamond, mottled, or cellular structure,while the incoming part of the funnel consists (looking up) of concentrics of dots and cylinders. The instabilities that occur inthe mid to bottom part of the funnel will be a topic of study inthis paper.For an intense aurora, the converging filaments are seen notonlyasdots,butalsoasdotsconnectedtothevisibleconvergingfilamentsathigheraltit ude.Weshalldelineatetheauroraplasmasheetn into two parts, the upper funnel or inflow region and thelower plasma sheet and solid columns. B. Auroral Luminance Charged particle excitation from the inflowing plasma isresponsiblefortheluminosityandcolorofatmosphericauroras.The color depends on the upper atmosphere’s state and heightabove the Earth. Various deexcitation processes in atoms of oxygen and nitrogen cause mostly green, red, and blue auroras.Exceptionally yellow auroras can be observed in places wherered and green auroras overlap. The most common green color iscaused by the emission line 557.7 nm of the oxygen O(1S) [3]. 1 An increased outflow of plasma from the Sun in the past was first suggestedthree decades ago by Gold [70].

(function() { var pageParams = {"origHeight": 1167, "origWidth": 902, "fonts": [1, 5], "pageNum": 2}; pageParams.containerElem = document.getElementById("outer_page_2"); pageParams.innerPageElem = document.getElementById("page2"); var page = docManager.addPage(pageParams); })();

Scribd.Ads.addBetweenPageUnit(2);

1194 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 31, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2003 The luminance of auroras ranges from 4.83 10 lm persterradian per meter square to4.83 10 lm persterradian permeter squared. In comparison, the full moon luminance is 6000lm per sterradian per meter square.Observations suggest that the geomagnetic storm producinganenergeticauroraderivesfromthedirectinjectionof10eV–10KeV electrons from the solar plasma flux. In fact, the source of the high-energy electrons need not necessarily be solar but maybeanyelectricspacephenomenathatcausesaninflowofplasmato the Earth.Anupdateofresearchinsolarplasma,interactionofsolarandthe Earth’s space plasmas, geomagnetic storms, substorms, andaurorae, the magnetosphere and ionosphere, and the simulationof space weather may be found in [13].IV. E XPERIMENTAL AND A NALYTICAL M ETHODOLOGY Theexperimentaldatawastakenfromvariousterawattpowermachines with a majority of the data taken by the author onthe Maxwell Laboratories Blackjack 5 pulsed-power generator.DatawasalsodrawnfromtheU.S.DepartmentofEnergyLabo-ratoriespulsed-power facilitiesattheLosAlamosNationalLab-oratoryi and Sandia National Laboratories [14]. High-explosivegenerators in the U.S. and Russia added to the data set. The cur-rents ranged from hundreds of kiloamperes to 150 MA and timescales from tens of nanoseconds to microseconds [15], [16].The plasma load geometries were generated by applyinghigh-voltage pulses to gas-puffs to simulate an aurora-likeplasma inflow, wire arrays to simulate filamentation dynamics,and concentric plasma sheets formed by nested cylindrical foilsto produce high velocity shock waves [17], [18]. In size, thegeometries were a few centimeters in diameter and 2–3 cmin length. Thicknesses of the wires and foils were typically10–30 m. A. Diagnostics The diagnostics generally included laser shadowgraphy,Schlieren photography, laser-double pulse holography, fastframing cameras, streak cameras, X-ray detectors, bolometers,soft and hard X-ray pinhole cameras, Rogowski coils, andwaveform recording probes.In some experiments, thermoluminescent detectors measuredthe photon spectrum over 1–10 MeV, electron energy spectra,bremsstrahlung spectrum, and their angular distribution. B. Solution of the Chandrasekhar–Fermi Equations on High-Performance Computers Theoretical and computational analysis of a plasma columnare based on a

fundamental plasma theorem for conditions of dynamical stability. This theorem was first used in magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) by Chandrasekhar and Fermi to estab-lish the condition for dynamic stability of cosmic gravitationalmasses balanced by gravitational, magnetic, and kinetic pres-sures [19]. The basic geometry under consideration by Chan-drasekhar and Fermi was cylindrical as was that of Shafranov,who extended the use of the theorem to investigate equilibriumconditions for current-carrying plasma columns [20].Extension of the theory to account for three-dimensional(3-D) kinetic motions were carried out by Peratt, Green, and Fig. 5. Conical inflow of a current conducting plasma column. The flow isfrom top to bottom with striations in the body of the column, and the beginningof a plasma feature at top-center. These experimental photographs pertain to a5 MV, 3 MA plasma.Fig. 6. Helical instabilities in the laboratory and space. (Left) 1.3-MA plasmacolumn.(Middle)Centimeter-lengthplasmacolumnconducting2MA.Framingcamera picture, 5 ns (5 billionths of a second). (Right) Ten-kilometer, 150-mAelectron current injected approximately 100 km above the earth. Nielsen, who benchmarked the computations against both low-and high-current plasma columns with 3-D relativistic particlecodes [21], [22]. (See also Section XVIII).Verification and validation of the computer codes are a ne-cessity [23]. All simulations are benchmarked to high-energydensity data. Similarly, experimental data are benchmarked tothe simulations to understand the column evolution.V. E VOLUTION OF THE H IGH -C URRENT Z-P INCH The overall time history of the pinched column, from for-mation to eventual breakup, has been a topic of some interest.The evolution is studied with the 3-D, electromagnetic and rel-ativistic particle in cell simulation code TRISTAN [8], [24]. Other works on the topic are found in the literature [25]–[28].Overall, the data give a picture similar to that shown in Fig. 4where inflowing plasma converges into a striated or patternedplasma column (Fig. 5). A. Instability of a Solid Plasma Column A solid plasma column such as that shown in the center of Fig. 4 (or the lower column of Fig. 5) is susceptible to two typesof instabilities,(sausage) and (helix), whereis the number of azimuthal variations, [8], [20]–[23].The , or helix, is a common instability in both labora-toryandspaceplasmasandoccurswhenamagneticfieldaxialtothe column preexists. (It is not unusual for a plasma to producea circular magnetic field with a slight vertical component thatrapidly develops into the axial field

needed for the developmentof a helix). Fig. 6 shows examples of both cases, respectively.

(function() { var pageParams = {"origHeight": 1167, "origWidth": 902, "fonts": [1, 5], "pageNum": 3}; pageParams.containerElem = document.getElementById("outer_page_3"); pageParams.innerPageElem = document.getElementById("page3"); var page = docManager.addPage(pageParams); })(); Scribd.Ads.addBetweenPageUnit(3);

PERATT: CHARACTERISTICS FOR THE OCCURRENCE OF A HIGH-CURRENT, Z-PINCH AURORA 1195 Fig. 7. Outer spheroids produced by the plasma pinch. (Top Left) Experi-mental, early time. (Bottom Left) Later time. (Right) MHD supercomputergraphical solution of the Chandraskhar–Fermi equations. From left to right: a 1.3 MA plasma; a 5-ns 3-cm-long 2-MAplasma and a millisecond 150-milliampere beam, about 10 kmlong. Increasing the current in all cases produces a smaller di-ameter helix. B. Column Structure The morphology of the Z-pinch as it evolves in time is that of a self organizing structure of an outer spheroidal plasma enve-lope and inner toroids, as discussed by Ortiz-Tapia and Kubes[29], [30]. Generally,inanintenseelectricaldischargeinthemultimega-volt, multimegaampere range, as would be measured in an in-tense aurora, nine distinct pinches that are spheroidal in shapeare formed. While there is no known theoretical basis for ninespheroids, experimentalists most often mention “between eightand ten.” In Fig. 7, the bottom two were cut off in the recording.These spheroids, or “plasmoids” consist of an outer spheroidalplasma envelope and inner toroids that define both the magneticfields and the currents within them [8]. 1) Spheroids: The frames in Fig. 7 portray the outerspheroid isophotes, some including the central visible core(the central plasma core is not plotted in the simulation). Thepictures on the left are X-radiographs while that on the right isa computer

simulation. Generally, one, two, or three plasmoidsare visible at a time but as many as eight are common. It is alsonot unusual to find a truncation or modification of the top-mostspheroid. 2) Inner Toroids: Intense optical radiation, synchrotron ra-diation, and X-rays are recorded from the inner plasma toroids.The basic geometry is shown in Fig. 8, where (a) is the basicgeometry, (b) is a framing camera picture of the centimetersize 1.3-MA pinch [29], (c) is the centimeter-size 6-MA pinch,and (d) is the centimeter-size 6-MA pinch with optically dense(brightest) plasma shown. Note that the densest plasma forms Fig. 8. Inner toroids within the stack of spheroids produced in a multi-megaampere plasma column. (a) Basic geometry. (b) Centimeter-size 1.3-MApinch. (c) Centimeter-size 6-MA pinch. (d) Centimeter-size 6–MA pinch withoptically dense (brightest) plasma shown.Fig. 9. (Left) Illustrations of simulations of the flattening of a stack of multimegaampere conducting plasma toroids. The current causes the toroidsto both flatten out in the center and start to warp and fold at the ends asshown. (Right) X-ray radiograph of a l6-MA pinched plasma 4 cm in diameter.(Top) Plasma sinusoidal pinch perturbation at 6.5

s. (Bottom) Formation of flattened toroids from the initial ripples at 9.5

s. The bottom figure rungsappear cutoff, but are the natural shape. (Los Alamos Plasma Physics, P-24). the top feature, the sides of the toroids, and the bottom base thatflares downwards and away from the column.VI. E VOLUTION OF THE P LASMA C OLUMN T OROIDS Inpairs,theelectromagneticforcesonthetoroidsinthestacksshown in Fig. 8 are long-range attractive, short-range repulsive,or force-free (merging) [31]–[33]. However, in a stack, the repulsive-attractiveforcestendtoflattenallbutthetopandbottomtoroids. This is illustrated on the left side of Fig. 9.ApinchedplasmaX-rayradiographisshownontherightsideofFig.9.Thetopradiographisap lasmacolumnwithsinusoidalpinch perturbation at early time. On the bottom, the radiographshows that these ripples have rapidly converged inward by theintense self-magnetic pressure to

produce flattened toroids.The radiographs in Fig. 9 are sequential, measured in theX-rayregimeat6.5and9.5saftercolumnformation.Thetotalcurrentconductedthrougha4 -cmcolumndiameterwas16MA.Thebottome toroids appearto becutoff photographicallybutthisis the actual untouched radiograph.

(function() { var pageParams = {"origHeight": 1167, "origWidth": 902, "fonts": [1, 5, 2], "pageNum": 4}; pageParams.containerElem = document.getElementById("outer_page_4"); pageParams.contentUrl = "http://html4.scribdassets.com/w5copxqps9rdjz/pages/4-138b8dce26.jsonp"; var page = docManager.addPage(pageParams); })(); Scribd.Ads.addBetweenPageUnit(4);

(function() { var pageParams = {"origHeight": 1167, "origWidth": 902, "fonts": [1], "pageNum": 5}; pageParams.containerElem = document.getElementById("outer_page_5"); pageParams.contentUrl = "http://html1.scribdassets.com/w5copxqps9rdjz/pages/5-8fa53bee20.jsonp"; var page = docManager.addPage(pageParams); })(); Scribd.Ads.addBetweenPageUnit(5);

(function() { var pageParams = {"origHeight": 1167, "origWidth": 902, "fonts": [1, 5], "pageNum": 6}; pageParams.containerElem = document.getElementById("outer_page_6"); pageParams.contentUrl = "http://html3.scribdassets.com/w5copxqps9rdjz/pages/6-8f1970a04a.jsonp"; var page = docManager.addPage(pageParams); })(); Scribd.Ads.addBetweenPageUnit(6);

(function() { var pageParams = {"origHeight": 1167, "origWidth": 902, "fonts": [1, 5], "pageNum": 7}; pageParams.containerElem = document.getElementById("outer_page_7"); pageParams.contentUrl = "http://html3.scribdassets.com/w5copxqps9rdjz/pages/7-81ab23f021.jsonp"; var page = docManager.addPage(pageParams); })(); Scribd.Ads.addBetweenPageUnit(7);

(function() { var pageParams = {"origHeight": 1167, "origWidth": 902, "fonts": [1, 5], "pageNum": 8}; pageParams.containerElem = document.getElementById("outer_page_8"); pageParams.contentUrl = "http://html3.scribdassets.com/w5copxqps9rdjz/pages/8-5c03e05c29.jsonp"; var page = docManager.addPage(pageParams); })(); Scribd.Ads.addBetweenPageUnit(8);

(function() { var pageParams = {"origHeight": 1167, "origWidth": 902, "fonts": [1, 5], "pageNum": 9}; pageParams.containerElem = document.getElementById("outer_page_9"); pageParams.contentUrl = "http://html1.scribdassets.com/w5copxqps9rdjz/pages/9-7aca3b18da.jsonp"; var page = docManager.addPage(pageParams); })(); Scribd.Ads.addBetweenPageUnit(9);

(function() { var pageParams = {"origHeight": 1167, "origWidth": 902, "fonts": [1, 5], "pageNum": 10}; pageParams.containerElem = document.getElementById("outer_page_10"); pageParams.contentUrl = "http://html2.scribdassets.com/w5copxqps9rdjz/pages/10-2bcdc389be.jsonp"; var page = docManager.addPage(pageParams); })(); Scribd.Ads.addBetweenPageUnit(10);

(function() { var pageParams = {"origHeight": 1167, "origWidth": 902, "fonts": [1, 5], "pageNum": 11}; pageParams.containerElem = document.getElementById("outer_page_11"); pageParams.contentUrl = "http://html1.scribdassets.com/w5copxqps9rdjz/pages/11-03df748211.jsonp"; var page = docManager.addPage(pageParams); })(); Scribd.Ads.addBetweenPageUnit(11);

(function() { var pageParams = {"origHeight": 1167, "origWidth": 902, "fonts": [1, 5], "pageNum": 12}; pageParams.containerElem = document.getElementById("outer_page_12"); pageParams.contentUrl = "http://html3.scribdassets.com/w5copxqps9rdjz/pages/12-9230450fbe.jsonp"; var page = docManager.addPage(pageParams); })(); Scribd.Ads.addBetweenPageUnit(12);

(function() { var pageParams = {"origHeight": 1167, "origWidth": 902, "fonts": [1, 5], "pageNum": 13}; pageParams.containerElem = document.getElementById("outer_page_13"); pageParams.contentUrl = "http://html1.scribdassets.com/w5copxqps9rdjz/pages/13-620be52405.jsonp"; var page = docManager.addPage(pageParams); })(); Scribd.Ads.addBetweenPageUnit(13);

(function() { var pageParams = {"origHeight": 1167, "origWidth": 902, "fonts": [1, 5], "pageNum": 14}; pageParams.containerElem = document.getElementById("outer_page_14"); pageParams.contentUrl = "http://html3.scribdassets.com/w5copxqps9rdjz/pages/14-dbbe9b1f48.jsonp"; var page = docManager.addPage(pageParams); })(); Scribd.Ads.addBetweenPageUnit(14);

(function() { var pageParams = {"origHeight": 1167, "origWidth": 902, "fonts": [1, 5], "pageNum": 15}; pageParams.containerElem = document.getElementById("outer_page_15"); pageParams.contentUrl = "http://html1.scribdassets.com/w5copxqps9rdjz/pages/15-13fc4fe30c.jsonp"; var page = docManager.addPage(pageParams); })(); Scribd.Ads.addBetweenPageUnit(15);

(function() { var pageParams = {"origHeight": 1167, "origWidth": 902, "fonts": [1, 5], "pageNum": 16}; pageParams.containerElem = document.getElementById("outer_page_16"); pageParams.contentUrl = "http://html1.scribdassets.com/w5copxqps9rdjz/pages/16-a09a300999.jsonp"; var page = docManager.addPage(pageParams); })(); Scribd.Ads.addBetweenPageUnit(16);

(function() { var pageParams = {"origHeight": 1167, "origWidth": 902, "fonts": [1, 5], "pageNum": 17}; pageParams.containerElem = document.getElementById("outer_page_17"); pageParams.contentUrl = "http://html4.scribdassets.com/w5copxqps9rdjz/pages/17-0d2a786f51.jsonp"; var page = docManager.addPage(pageParams); })(); Scribd.Ads.addBetweenPageUnit(17);

(function() { var pageParams = {"origHeight": 1167, "origWidth": 902, "fonts": [1, 5], "pageNum": 18}; pageParams.containerElem = document.getElementById("outer_page_18"); pageParams.contentUrl = "http://html2.scribdassets.com/w5copxqps9rdjz/pages/18-d0aa3114f2.jsonp"; var

page = docManager.addPage(pageParams); })(); Scribd.Ads.addBetweenPageUnit(18);

(function() { var pageParams = {"origHeight": 1167, "origWidth": 902, "fonts": [1], "pageNum": 19}; pageParams.containerElem = document.getElementById("outer_page_19"); pageParams.contentUrl = "http://html4.scribdassets.com/w5copxqps9rdjz/pages/19-ecad8c72f4.jsonp"; var page = docManager.addPage(pageParams); })(); Scribd.Ads.addBetweenPageUnit(19);

(function() { var pageParams = {"origHeight": 1167, "origWidth": 902, "fonts": [1, 5], "pageNum": 20}; pageParams.containerElem = document.getElementById("outer_page_20"); pageParams.contentUrl = "http://html3.scribdassets.com/w5copxqps9rdjz/pages/20-debf8c7460.jsonp"; var page = docManager.addPage(pageParams); })(); Scribd.Ads.addBetweenPageUnit(20);

(function() { var pageParams = {"origHeight": 1167, "origWidth": 902, "fonts": [1], "pageNum": 21}; pageParams.containerElem = document.getElementById("outer_page_21"); pageParams.contentUrl = "http://html4.scribdassets.com/w5copxqps9rdjz/pages/21-35f4979434.jsonp"; var page = docManager.addPage(pageParams); })(); Scribd.Ads.addBetweenPageUnit(21);

(function() { var pageParams = {"origHeight": 1167, "origWidth": 902, "fonts": [1, 5], "pageNum": 22}; pageParams.containerElem =

document.getElementById("outer_page_22"); pageParams.contentUrl = "http://html1.scribdassets.com/w5copxqps9rdjz/pages/22-a48a1070f6.jsonp"; var page = docManager.addPage(pageParams); })(); Scribd.Ads.addBetweenPageUnit(22);

(function() { var pageParams = {"origHeight": 1167, "origWidth": 902, "fonts": [1, 5, 0], "pageNum": 23}; pageParams.containerElem = document.getElementById("outer_page_23"); pageParams.contentUrl = "http://html2.scribdassets.com/w5copxqps9rdjz/pages/23-2383e3885f.jsonp"; var page = docManager.addPage(pageParams); })(); Scribd.Ads.addBetweenPageUnit(23); window.docManagerIEAdded = true; if (document.observe) { document.observe( dom:loaded , function () { docManager.allPagesAdded(); }); } else { window.attachEvent( onload , function () { docManager.allPagesAdded(); }); } if (window.docManagerIEAdded != true) { docManager.allPagesAdded(); }

of 23

Leave a Comment

Comment must not be empty. You must be logged in to leave a comment.

 

 

 

 

Submit Characters: 400

Paul Defoe http://www.kpornoizle.com/ ve http://www.oyuncagim.info/ ve http://www.kpornoizle.com/tum-etiketler.html ve http://www.havadurumum.info/ ve http://www.youtubefck.info/ ve http://www.kdiziizle.com/ reply12 / 02 / 2010

platypusfoot Perhaps one of the most important and fascinating papers of our times. Be sure to read part II as well. reply06 / 08 / 2010

numerousseries57996 what+ reply02 / 21 / 2010

12 / 16 / 2009This document made it onto the Rising List!

TiruRayalu

An outstanding Contribution by Anthony Peratt.This helps Cosmology Vedas Interlinks to Petroglyphs, Vadavamukham[Thailand-Combodia], Arts Culture and need to preserve Millenium records. Indian Dolerite rocks date back to 2100 Million Years-Adi-Maha Yuga. This data cn help not to repeat similar Nuclear explosions and preseve EARTH Planet and Life-support. The subject of Cosmology ,taken in the right spirit with inputs from Nobel.Laur.Alfven, can provide Knowledge Expansion beyond the present domains of confined thinking-Blackholes,Big-Bang,Singularity and LHC or chaotic theories Vidyardhi Nanduri Cosmology World Peace reply10 / 20 / 2009

Comment must not be empty. You must be logged in to leave a comment.

Submit Characters: ...

Anthony Peratt - Characteristics for the Occurrence of a High-Current, Z-Pinch Aurora as Recorded in Antiquity The discovery that objects from the Neolithic or Early Bronze Age carry patterns associated with high-current Z-pinches provides a possible insight into the origin and meaning... (More) The discovery that objects from the Neolithic or Early Bronze Age carry patterns associated with high-current Z-pinches provides a possible insight into the origin and meaning of these ancient symbols produced by man. This paper directly compares the graphical and radiation data from high-current Z-pinches to these patterns. The paper focuses primarily, but not exclusively, on petroglyphs. It is found that a great many archaic petroglyphs can be classified according to plasma stability and instability data. As the same morphological types are found worldwide, the comparisons suggest the occurrence of an intense aurora, as might be produced if the solar wind had increased between one and two orders of magnitude, millennia ago. Index Terms—Aurora, high-energy-density plasma, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) instabilities, petroglyphs, pictographs, stonehenge, Z-pinch ON July 9, 1962, the United States detonated a 1.4-megaton

thermonuclear device in the atmosphere 400 km above Johnston Island. The event produced a plasma whose initial spherical shape striated within a few minutes as the plasma electrons and ions streamed along the Earth’s magnetic field to produce an artificial aurora. Fig. 1 shows a photograph of the artificial aurora three minutes after detonation as recorded from a KC-135 aircraft. Concomitant with the artificial aurora was a degradation of radio communications over wide areas of the Pacific, lightning discharges, destruction of electronics in monitoring satellites, and an electromagnetic pulse that affected some power circuitry as far away as Hawaii. The event was recorded worldwide as the plasma formed at least two intense equatorial tubes, artificial Van Allen belts, around the Earth [1], [2]. These tubes, or plasma toroids, contained relativistic electrons bound by magnetic fields; the source of intense amounts of synchrotron radiation. The radiation lasted far longer than expected; the decay constant was of the order of 100 days. (Mankind, unknowing, has viewed synchrotron radiation from the Crab nebula for centuries. The only known mechanism that produces synchrotron radiation are electrons spiraling about a magnetic field at nearly the speed of light). Thus, the shape of the phenomena as recorded at radio, visible, and high frequencies was that of plasma “donuts” encircling the Earth, which mimicked the Van Allen belts. Manuscript received May 19, 2003; revised October 15, 2003. This work was supported by the Mainwaring Foundation, in association with the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia. The author is with the Plasma Physics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 USA (e-mail: alp@ lanl.gov). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPS.2003.820956 Fig. 1. Starfish thermonuclear detonation July 9, 1962, 400 km above Johnston Island. The photograph was taken from a Los Alamos KC-135 aircraft three minutes after initiation time. An artificial striated aurora has already formed from the plasma particles, spreading along the earth’s magnetic field. The brightest background object (mark) at the top, left-hand corner, is the star antares, while the right-most object is -Centauri. The burst point is two-thirds of the way up from the lowest plasma striation. The artificial aurora shown in Fig. 1 also shows plasma striations that arise from instabilities. This paper describes characteristic features of laboratory plasma experiments and simulations, especially for high-current Z-pinch conditions, and compares these features with petroglyphs and other ancient writings, which may have been associated with auroral observations. As in the natural aurorae at the northern and southern magnetic poles, the streaming charged particle electrical currents, Birkeland currents, are of the order of megaamperes [3]. (Less) Download or Print 19,007 Reads Info and Rating

Category: Research

Rating: (2 Ratings)

Upload Date: 04/11/2009

Copyright: Attribution Non-commercial

Tags:

plasma AURORA magnetohydrodynamics z pinch highenergydensity plasma plasma AURORA magnetohydrodynamics z pinch highenergydensity plasma (fewer) var tag_list = $( tag_list ); if(tag_list) { var fullList = $( tags_all ); var truncatedList = $( tags_truncated ); tag_list.select( .control_btn ).invoke( observe , click , function(e) { e.stop(); fullList.toggle(); truncatedList.toggle(); }); }

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

   

 

Free download as PDF File (.pdf), text file (.txt) or read online for free. Flag document for inapproriate content

This is a private document.

Uploaded by hronoya Follow

Download Embed Doc Copy Link Add To Collection Comments Readcast Share

×

Share on Scribd: Readcast

Scribd.Ads.addUnit( Doc_Sideboard_MediumRectangle_ATF_300x250 );

Search TIP Press Ctrl-F F to quickly search anywhere in the document.

Search Search History: Searching...

Result 00 of 00 00 results for result for

p.

More From This User Related Documents

More From This User

 

 

33 p. The Emerging Inner Solar System Economy

6 p. Projected Lunar Cargo Capabilities of High Power VASIMR Propulsion

8 p. Principal VASIMR Results and Present Objectives Next

4 p. Investigation of a Light Gas Helicon Plasma Source for the VASIMR S...

9 p. High Power VASIMR Experiments Using Deuterium Neon and Argon

15 p. Combined RF and Transport Effects in Magnetized Capacitive Discharges Prev · Next

50 p. Kistler Launch Vehicle Payload Planners Guide

20 p. Is Space Exploitation Arriving

51 p. Java Astrodynamics Toolkit Prev · Next

15 p. Software Architecture for Satellite Ground System Development

41 p. Reference Architecture for Space Data Systems

13 p. Modular Data Driven System Architecture for GSFC Ground Systems Prev · Next

15 p. Implementing a Ground Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)

19 p. Implementation of a Middle Ware Based Ground System

3 p. Ground System Costs Breakout Prev · Next

18 p. Enterprise Service Bus for Ground Systems Integration

1 p. Emergent Orbit Determination Toolbox

1 p. Emergent Modelling and Simulation Prev · Next

1 p. Emergent Ground Systems

30 p. Critical Cost Issues for Ground Systems

28 p.

COTS Packaged Software Systems Prev · Next

15 p. COTS Ground Systems Developing and Negotiating Requirements

6 p. Component and Web Based Ground System Architectures

15 p. Web Technology for Satellite Control and Operations Prev · Next

19 p. Vega SIMSAT Platform Independent Simulation Infrastructure Prev //<![CDATA[ jkstrp(function(){ new Scribd.UI.DocumentListPager($("autogen_id_216569263").down(".document_list")); }, "Newdoc::DocumentCollection"); //]]> Related

30 p. Characteristics for the Occurrence of a High-Current Z-Pinch Aurora... Petroglyph and pictograph images of a squatting stick man have been found on ... From historysaver3684

112 p. Plasma Bubble From Vincent J. Cataldi

24 p. B. Bauer et al- Magnetized High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas From Olmnop Next

11 p. Y. C. Francis Thio- Magneto-inertial fusion: An emerging concept fo... From Cola7890

109 p. Plasma Bubble From Vincent J. Cataldi

10 p. plasmatorch From Erhan Ozen Prev · Next

17 p. Plasma Physics From anb243

122 p. Plasma Bubble From Vincent J. Cataldi

2 p. The Fourth State of Matter From attyarispestano Prev · Next

4 p. M. Habibi, R. Amrollahi and M. Farrahi- Study of Dense Plasma-Surfa... From Olmnop

16 p. Plasma From brianeugenek-general1841

93 p. 4.4 Initial Data Analysis From Naudin van den Heuvel Prev · Next

93 p. 5.5 Collisions From Naudin van den Heuvel

93 p. Lab Manual From Naudin van den Heuvel

13 p. Kapitsa Lecture From Alexander Pulido Prev · Next

24 p. pptPLasma From Arun Soni

1 p. 5 Shocking Points to Choose a Quality Fitness Instructor 5 Shocking Points to Consider When Deciding on a Fitness Instructor - Since t... From tomsmith91

42 p. Nonconformist but Existent From Sepehr Lajevardi Prev · Next

42 p.

Sources for Wide- Ranging Applications From Sepehr Lajevardi

42 p. Plasma Technology From Sepehr Lajevardi

26 p. VPA From Vishwas Vishu Prev · Next

28 p. chap01m From PARTHA SARATHI PAL

13 p. PlasmaAndLCD From krkr_mca26 Prev !function(d,s,id){var js,fjs=d.getElementsByTagName(s)[0];if(!d.getElementById(id)){js=d.createElement (s);js.id=id;js.src="//platform.twitter.com/widgets.js";fjs.parentNode.insertBef ore(js,fjs);}}(document,"script","twitter-wjs");l (function() { var po = document.createElement( script ); po.type = text/javascript ; po.async = true; po.src = https://apis.google.com/js/plusone.js ; var s = document.getElementsByTagName( script )[0]; s.parentNode.insertBefore(po, s); })();

 

 

   

 

 

   

Use your Facebook login and see what your friends are reading and sharing. Other login options Login with Facebook

Signup I don t have a Facebook account

email address (required) create username (required) password (required)

Send me the Scribd Newsletter, and occasional account related communications. Sign UpPrivacy policy You will receive email notifications regarding your account activity. You can manage these notifications in your account settings. We promise to respect your privacy. Why Sign up? 1. Discover and Connect With people of similar interests 2. Publish Your Documents Quickly and easily 3. Share Your Reading Interest On Scribd and social sites like Facebook and Twitter

Already have a Scribd account?

 

email address or username password Log InTrouble logging in?

Login Successful Now bringing you back...

Reset Your Password

« Back to Login Please enter your email address below to reset your password. We will send you an email with instructions on how to continue.

Email Address: You need to provide a login for this account as well. Login Submit

Login

Anthony Peratt - Characteristics for the Occurrence of a High-Current, Z-Pinch Aurora as Recorded in Antiquity

Boris Petrovic File Types Available: PDF, TXT The discovery that objects from the Neolithic or Early Bronze Age carry patterns associated with high-current Z-pinches provides a possible insight into the origin and meaning of these ancient symbols produced by man. This paper directly compares the graphical and radiation data from high-current Z-pinches to these patterns. The paper focuses primarily, but not exclusively, on petroglyphs. It is found that a great many archaic petroglyphs can be classified according to plasma stability and instability data. As the same morphological types are found worldwide, the comparisons suggest the occurrence of an intense aurora, as might be produced if the solar wind had increased between one and two orders of magnitude, millennia ago. Index Terms—Aurora, high-energy-density plasma, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) instabilities, petroglyphs, pictographs, stonehenge, Z-pinch ON July 9, 1962, the United States detonated a 1.4-megaton thermonuclear device in the atmosphere 400 km above Johnston Island. The event produced a plasma whose initial spherical shape striated within a few minutes as the plasma electrons and ions streamed along the Earth’s magnetic field to produce an artificial aurora. Fig. 1 shows a photograph of the artificial aurora three minutes after detonation as recorded from a KC-135 aircraft. Concomitant with the artificial aurora was a degradation of radio communications over wide areas of the Pacific, lightning discharges, destruction of electronics in monitoring satellites, and an electromagnetic pulse that affected some power circuitry as far away as Hawaii. The event was recorded worldwide as the plasma formed at least two intense equatorial tubes, artificial Van Allen belts, around the Earth [1], [2]. These tubes, or plasma toroids, contained relativistic electrons bound by magnetic fields; the source of intense amounts of synchrotron radiation. The radiation lasted far longer than expected; the decay constant was of the order of 100 days. (Mankind, unknowing, has viewed synchrotron radiation from the Crab nebula for centuries. The only known mechanism that produces synchrotron radiation are electrons spiraling about a magnetic field at nearly the speed of light). Thus, the shape of the phenomena as recorded at radio, visible, and high frequencies was that of plasma “donuts” encircling the Earth, which mimicked the Van Allen belts. Manuscript received May 19, 2003; revised October 15, 2003. This work was supported by the Mainwaring Foundation, in association with the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia. The author is with the Plasma Physics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 USA (e-mail: alp@ lanl.gov). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPS.2003.820956 Fig. 1. Starfish thermonuclear detonation July 9, 1962, 400 km above Johnston Island. The photograph was taken from a Los Alamos KC-135 aircraft three minutes after initiation time. An artificial striated aurora has already formed from the plasma particles, spreading along the earth’s magnetic field. The brightest background object (mark) at the top, left-hand corner, is the star antares, while the right-most object is -Centauri. The burst point is two-thirds of the way up from the lowest plasma striation. The artificial aurora

shown in Fig. 1 also shows plasma striations that arise from instabilities. This paper describes characteristic features of laboratory plasma experiments and simulations, especially for high-current Z-pinch conditions, and compares these features with petroglyphs and other ancient writings, which may have been associated with auroral observations. As in the natural aurorae at the northern and southern magnetic poles, the streaming charged particle electrical currents, Birkeland currents, are of the order of megaamperes [3]. Login with Facebook

Use my Scribd Login Skip Login

email address or username password Log InTrouble logging in?

Upload Search Follow Us! scribd.com/scribd twitter.com/scribd facebook.com/scribd About Press Blog Partners Scribd 101 Web Stuff Support FAQ Developers / API Jobs Terms Copyright Privacy

Copyright © 2012 Scribd Inc.

Language: English Choose the language in which you want to experience Scribd: English Español Português scribd. scribd. scribd. scribd. scribd. scribd. if (typeof(_gaq) != undefined ) { _gaq.push(function() { _gaq._createAsyncTracker( UA-443684-17 , pageTrackerPerf ); }); _gaq.push([ pageTrackerPerf._trackPageview ]); } else { console.warn( _gaq undefined ); } document.observe( dom:loaded , function() { if (typeof(perfStart) != undefined ) { trackPerfAnalytics(null, perfStart, new Date(), false); } }); Event.observe(window, load , function() { if (typeof(perfStart) != undefined ) { trackPerfAnalytics(null, perfStart, new Date(), true); } }); var _qevents = _qevents || []; (function() { var elem = document.createElement( script ); elem.src = (document.location.protocol == "https:" ? "https://secure" : "http://edge") + ".quantserve.com/quant.js"; elem.async = true; elem.type = "text/javascript"; var scpt = document.getElementsByTagName( script )[0]; scpt.parentNode.insertBefore(elem, scpt); })(); _qevents.push( { qacct:"p-13DPpb-yg8ofc"} ); < div style="display: none;"><img src="//pixel.quantserve.com/pixel/p-13DPpb-yg8ofc.gif" height="1" width="1" alt="Quantcast"/></div> Scribd.Facebook.scribdSessionActive = false; Scribd.Facebook.serverEnableInstantConnect = Scribd.getOption("FBAutoLoginEnabled", false); Scribd.Facebook.sessionEnableInstantConnect = true; Scribd.Facebook.requestEnableInstantConnect = true; Scribd.Facebook.beforeFacebookInitialize(); Scribd.Request = { referrer: http://www.bullbeartalk.com/forum/general-topics/186-welcome-spitz-talk.html , controller: newdoc , action: show }; // This calls the initialization once Facebook libraries are loaded window.fbAsyncInit = Scribd.Facebook.initializeConnect.bind(Scribd.Facebook); if (!NREUMQ.f) { NREUMQ.f=function() { NREUMQ.push(["load",new Date().getTime()]); var e=document.createElement("script"); e.type="text/javascript";e.async=true;e.src="https://d1ros97qkrwjf5.cloudfront. net/39/eum/rum.js"; document.body.appendChild(e); if(NREUMQ.a)NREUMQ.a(); }; NREUMQ.a=window.onload;window.onload=NREUMQ.f; }; NREUMQ.push(["nrfj","beacon-1.newrelic.com","a3dc4ea499",16587,"clZeFxYOCQhTQhh ZAUZdXwBLEg0LQQ==",1,534,newo Date().getTime(),"","","","",""]) document.observe("dom:loaded", function() { Scribd.Pingback.run(["/", "d", "o", "c", "u", "m", "e", "n", "t", "s", "/", "1", "4", "1", "4", "5", "7", "5", "0", "/", "p", "i", "n", "g", "b", "a", "c", "k"].join( )); }); Scribd.Lightbox.initialize(); $( word_user_login_login_lb ).observe( keypress , Scribd.restrictCharactersForUsername); Event.observe(window, load , function(){ $(document.forms.lb_forgot_password_form).observe( submit , Scribd.login.sendForm); }); Scribd.login = new Scribd.loginManager(); Scribd.Lightbox.setTitle( archive_lb , Login ); Scribd.archive_login = new Scribd.loginManager({container: "archive_lb"}); // Load the FB JS API Asychronously document.observe( dom:loaded , function() { var e = document.createElement( script ); e.async = true; e.src = document.location.protocol + //connect.facebook.net/en_US/all.js ;

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

       

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

   

 

  

 

 

 

 

document.getElementById( fb-root ).appendChild(e); if (document.cookie.match( user_forced_logout=true )) { $$( .facepile_wrap ).invoke( hide ); } }); // Handle DOM updates to re-parse FBML tags document.observe( Scribd:dom_updated , function(e){ var el = e.element(); if(window.FB && FB.XFBML) FB.XFBML.parse(el); }); document.observe(Scribd.Facebook.EVENTS.loaded, Scribd.blueBarUtil.onLoadHandler); var facebookUser = false; Event.observe(window, load , function() { new Scribd.AdHider(); }); Scribd.I18n = new Scribd.I18nManager(); Event.observe(document, dom:loaded , function(event) { (new Scribd.Facebook.LoginButton({"widget_dom_id":"autogen_id_13116234"})).onDomLoade d(event); (new Scribd.Facebook.LoginButton({"widget_dom_id":"autogen_id_13107907"})).onDomLoade d(event); (new Scribd.Layouts.Footer.LanguageSelector({"widget_dom_id":"autogen_id_13104089"})) .onDomLoaded(event);n Event.fire(document, Scribd:widgets_loaded , event); }); var xgJsHost = (("https:" == document.location.protocol) ? "https://sxcdn." : "http://xcdn."); var refValue = ""; try {refValue = top.document.referrer;} catch (xgErr) {refValue = "";} var params = "pid=14345&sid=83112&pcid=site&type=us&ref="+escape(refValue)+"&dref="+escape(do cument.referrer);B var browser_id = null; var scribd_user_id = null; var hashed_facebook_id = null; var search_query = null; if (browser_id) params += &p_bid= + escape(browser_id); if (scribd_user_id) params += &p_lid= + escape(scribd_user_id); if (hashed_facebook_id) params += &hfid= + escape(hashed_facebook_id); if (search_query) params += &p_qry= + escape(search_query); document.write(unescape("%3Cimg src= "+xgJsHost+"xgraph.net/14345/us/xg.gif?")+params+unescape(" class= ad_img width= 0 height= 0 %3E%3C/img%3E")); // INSERT DATA HERE IN THE FORM: // bk_addPageCtx("SOMEKEY", "SOMEVALUE"); // bk_addUserCtx("SOMEKY", "SOMEVALUE") bk_addUserCtx("UserState","Out"); bk_addPageCtx("Language", "eng"); bk_addPageCtx("Extension", "pdf"); bk_addPageCtx("SubDomain", "www"); bk_addPageCtx("IABParent", "NewsScience"); bk_addPageCtx("IABChild", "International NewsPhysicsSpace/Astronomy"); bk_addPageCtx("IAB_M-Z", "NewsNews::International NewsScienceScience::PhysicsScience::Space/Astronomy"); bk_doJSTag(4072, 4); var vglnk = { api_url: //api.viglink.com/api , key: 281fa59684d475871170f9b0a1866770 }; (function(d, t) { var s = d.createElement(t); s.type = text/javascript ; s.async = true; s.src = ( https: == document.location.protocol ? vglnk.api_url : //cdn.viglink.com/api ) + /vglnk.js ; var r = d.getElementsByTagName(t)[0]; r.parentNode.insertBefore(s, r); }(document, script )); if((Scribd && Scribd.Ads && Scribd.Ads.attributes && Scribd.Ads.attributes.UseTest && Scribd.Ads.attributes.UseTest.indexOf( 1 ) >= 0) || window.location.href.match(/force_infolinks/)) { var infolink_pid = 469269; var infolink_wsid = 0; (function() { var script = document.createElement( script ); script.type = text/javascript ; script.src = http://resources.infolinks.com/js/infolinks_main.js ; var firstScript = document.getElementsByTagName( script )[0]; firstScript.parentNode.insertBefore(script, firstScript); })(); } $perf.registerOnload();

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

     

 

 

 

       

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

     

 

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful