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What made Herschel particularly suited for discovering planets? In what 2 ways did Uranus reveal itself to Herschel as a planet? What is it about Uranus' orbit that caused it to be considered a planet instead of a comet? What is the origin of Uranus' name? He was looking for Stellar Parallax He was well suited because he built the biggest telescopes of his time Way 1: it increased in size when he increased the telescope’s magnification Way 2: it had a near-circular orbit. It was not eccentric, it was elliptical. Greek god of the sky. 2. What did Kepler believe existed between the large space between Mars and Jupiter? Explain why Bode's Law supported this idea. He believed it contained an unknown planet. Bode’s law supported this idea because planetary distances follow a numeric sequence. Uranus followed this sequence as well. 3. What is the name of the object found in 1801 between Mars and Jupiter? What was this object finally classified as, and why? What is this object a part of? It was a star-like object with a near – circular orbit. It was smaller than the moon so it was downgraded as an asteroid. Object was a part of an asteroid belt. 4. What caused Adams and Leverrier to suspect the existence of a planet beyond Uranus? When this planet was found, what was it named, and why? There were deviations in Uranus’ orbit. It was named Neptune, roman god of the sea because of its bluish colour. 5. How were the masses of Uranus and Neptune 1st measured? How do their masses compare with the other planets? Based on the masses and sizes, what do we know about their densities and compositions? They were first measured by using the orbits of the planet’s moons. They are compared in relative to Earth, and are bigger. Therefore they are gas giants.
6. What is today's theory for why all the planets in our solar system orbit the Sun in the same direction and in roughly the same plane? What is the observational evidence for this theory?\ after the Sun was born from a spinning, collapsing gas cloud, the remaining gaseous and rocky particles in the Sun's spinning circumstellar disk coalesced into planets disks of matter have been found around newborn stars in star-forming nebulae 7. What is today's theory for the asteroid belt? What about planetary rings? Asteroid belt: likely the leftover debris from the Sun's circumstellar disk that couldn't coalesce into a planet due to the opposing gravitational pulls of the Sun and nearby giant Jupiter Planetary rings: planetary rings are likely leftover debris from protoplanetary disks which couldn't coalesce into a moon 8. What 3 attributes are unique to the 4 planets beyond Mars? What is the current explanation for this? Gas giants, numerous moons, and have rings. This is because the outer circumstellar disk contained more material, allowing the outer planets to collect more mass and to attract more debris into orbit as moons and rings 9. Which planets are the terrestrial planets? What is the current explanation for their lack of gas? Mercury, venus, earth, mars. This is because the planets’ solid cores were likely the first to form. Since the outer planets grew faster, they had ore gravity to draw in the gas particles, leaving the inner planets with much less gas . 10. What is the current theory for the origin of Mars' two moons? What is the evidence to support this theory? Mars' 2 moons appear non-active to Mars (both look like asteroids and one is retrograde) 11. Why is it unusual for Earth to have such a large moon? What is the current theory for the origin of Earth's moon? the large size and composition of Earth's one moon suggests that it came from a large Earth impact 12. What belief about Mars was popularized by Percival Lowell, and why? Was he right? lowell believed that intelligent life exists on mars, cuz he thought he saw martian-made canals on the planet's surface. he was wrong.
Pluto was the amazing shrinking planet). What is Pluto now considered? What are the condition(s) for this type of object? Is this type of object expected to be common in our solar system? pluto is a dwarf planet. the conditions are #1 and #2 from the IAU's planet definition. Why was there suspected to be a planet beyond Neptune? initial underestimate of Neptune's mass led to the theory that an additional planet is perturbing Uranus' orbit 14. What are the IAU's planet conditions? Which condition(s) does Pluto fail? What condition(s) do comets fail? What condition(s) do asteroids fail? Conditions: .13. who named it. and why did she choose this name? planet was named "Pluto" (Greek god of the Underworld) by a young girl from England because it was dark. Why did the discovery of Pluto turn out to be a coincidence? the discovery of Charon (largest of Pluto's three moons) revealed Pluto's mass (0. dwarf planets are expected to be common.it must have cleared the debris around its orbit (excludes all asteroid and KBOs) Pluto failed criterion #3 and is now considered a dwarf planet (an object which only meets the first two criteria for a planet) Comets fail #2 Asteroids fail #3 18. The discovery of what kind of objects motivated the IAU to define the conditions for being a planet? Where are these objects? What was the significance of the object now known as Eris? Disks of icy debris around the planets motivated the IAU to define the conditions for being a planet.it must be in solar orbit (orbit around the sun) (exclude moons) .it must be a sphere by its own gravity (excludes comets and some asteroid) . It motivated the IAU to define what it means to be a planet. These objects are dwarf planets. 17. what was it named. 15. Eris was the 1st KBO (Kuiper Belt Objects) discovered with a mass greater than Pluto's.002 x Earth. When Lowell's predicted planet was finally detected. too small to perturb Uranus. Pluto's discovery was therefore a coincidence 16. .
and by approximately how much? Distance light travels in a year the distance of an object with a parallax of 1 arcsecond. and how far away is it (approximately) in light years? Alpha Centauri is the nearest star and has a distance of 4. 1pc = 3ly 5. What is the definition of a light year? What is the definition of a parsec? (NOTE: the specific values in km aren't necessary here). owing to the incorrect assumption that the brightest stars are the nearest stars 2. what are all light waves composed of? Wave of oscillating electric and magnetic fields 6. 4. Parsec is bigger by a third. Describe how a wave from a bright blue light source is different from a wave from a faint red light source. Now that they move. What colour of visible light is shortest in wavelength? What colour of visible light is longest in wavelength? What colour of visible light has the lowest frequency? What colour of visible light has the most energy? Blue is shortest Red is longest Red has lowest frequency Blue has most energy . According to the wave theory of light. it is known that brightest stars aren’t always the nearest.4 ly.Chapter Nine 1. Which unit is bigger. What is our nearest star. What did Halley announce about stars in the early 1700s? How did this discovery aid the detection of stellar parallax? Halley compared ancient star catalogues with current star positions and found three moving stars. Why did all attempts to detect stellar parallax fail until the 1830s? there were many failed attempts to detect stellar parallax. ? 7. 3.
Describe (briefly) how the chemical composition of a star can be determined. absorption lines. continuum emission. What is a spectroscope? Fraunhofer passed sunlight through glass and observed the spectrum through a telescope (a spectroscope) 10. Their explanation for this was that the suns core. and emission lines 11. What is Fraunhofer’s Spectrum a spectrum of? What does it contain (ie.. what do emission lines appear as? What do absorption lines appear as? Emission lines: Bright Lines Absorption Lines: Black Lines 15. absorption lines. Prediction proven by observing emission lines in the spectrum of the Sun's atmosphere during a solar eclipse 13. What did Bunsen and Kirchhoff observe in the spectrum of sunlight combined with a gas flame? What was their correct explanation for this. 14. what kind of light is shortest in wavelength? What kind of light is longest in wavelength? What kind of light has the most energy? Ultraviolet is shortest Red is the longest Ultraviolet has the most energy 9. and what did it cause them to predict about the Sun? How was their prediction proven in the 1860s? Bunsen and Kirchoff observed that after a spectrum of sunlight passed through a gas flame the dark lines got thicker. and/or emission lines)? he saw approx. In a graphical spectrum. How did the element Helium get its name? Helium gets its name from Helios. the Greek god of the sun. and/or . What does the spectrum of a star contain (ie. you take a star's spectrum and u match up its absorption lines with the wavelengths of emission lines in the spectra of known substances. continuum emission. In the full spectrum of light. 600 thin dark lines and labeled them with letters to designate their wavelength (Fraunhofer's spectrum) Contained absorption lines. which produces the full spectrum of light. is surrounded by a gas layer (an atmosphere). 12.8..
. what does this tell us about the motion of the light source? How about if the spectrum is blueshifted? if the spectral lines (absorption or emission) of a light source are at wavelengths that are either longer (redder) or shorter (bluer) than they are for a light source at rest. Henry Draper was a pioneer of it. They are long exposure. then the light source is redshifted or blueshifted. Conducted a photographic spectroscopic survey of all visible stars 21. What is astrophotography? Why does it allow us to see deeper into space than with the eye and telescope alone? Who was one of the pioneers of this? What sort of survey did he conduct? the production of long-exposure sky photos using a camera attached to a telescope.. what are they made of)? Emission lines. blueshift = an approaching light source 20.000 stars . absorption lines. a star cluster. what did it prove about planetary nebulae (ie. absorption lines. and a gas/star system? Star: continuum and absorption Gas cloud: emission Star cluster: continuum emission. continuum emission. What were the members of "Pickering's Harem" hired to do? They were hired to complete the Henry Draper Catalogue of spectra of over 225. absorption lines. and/or emission lines)? When Huggins discovered this. 19. What is radial motion? How does it effect light waves? What is the name of this effect? radial motion is motion towards or away from the observer. How does a light source's spectral lines reveal that the spectrum is redshifted? How about blueshifted? If a spectrum is redshifted. Proved they are made of oxygen. Why was the element Oxygen originally named "Nebulium"? Because it was found in a planetary nebula 17. redshift = a receding light source. recessional motion causes light waves to compress (blue shift) and receding motion causes light waves to strech (redshift). and emission lines Gas/star system: continuum emission. and emission lines 16.emission lines)? How about the spectra of a gas cloud. this is the doppler effect. What does the spectrum of a planetary nebula contain (ie. 18.
which type of star is it more similar to. What is a photon? A photon is a particle of light 26. During a total solar eclipse. causing an absorption line. neutrons and electrons. According to the Bohr model of the atom. 27. Explain (briefly) what causes atoms to produce absorption lines. What property of stars was used to place the spectral types in their original alphabetical order? What property of stars was used to re-arrange their order into their current order (O-B-AF-G-K-M)? Strength of their Hydrogen lines was originally used.22. the # of protons determines the chemical element. it emits a photon with the exact energy or wavelength to return to ground state. What do we know about the chemical composition of the reddest stars. causing an emission line. What about emission lines? when an electron absorbs a photon with the exact energy or wavelength it needs to get excited. What unusual discovery did Cecilia Payne make about the chemical composition of stars? All stars are predominantly composed of H and He 29. when an excited electron drops down a shell. electrons jump to a higher shell. due to their numerous spectral lines? Reddest stars have more metals than other spectral types 24. Describe how Eddington proved one of the predictions of Einstein's General Relativity theory. then changed to a star's color 23. O or A? A 25. what are the 3 components of an atom? What determines an atom's chemical element? Protons. he proved GR by observing that when light rays pass near the Sun. their path is bent by the curved space around the Sun . If a star has a spectral type of B8. 28.
while intrinsic brightness is the TRUE power of a light source.apparent brightness is what we SEE.e. What was Eddington and Bethe's correct explanation for the energy source of stars? Why does this process release energy? How does it explain why stars produce so much energy? How does it explain the existence of Helium in stars? How does it explain the full spectrum of light that we receive from stars? How does it explain the long lifetimes of stars? the energy from stars is produced from the fusion of Hydrogen nuclei into Helium at high temperatures: Nuclearfusion. White Dwarfs. how can we tell which stars are the most luminous? Depends on their spectral type (O stars are most luminous. Which appears brighter.e. H-atoms are plentiful in stars the gamma ray downgrade to other wavelengths as they interact with atoms in the air the initial fusion reaction of Hydrogen takes a billion years 31. For a group of stars in the same star cluster (i. The amount of light we recieve from a source is 1/d2 of its actual light production 32. a star with an apparent magnitude of 2 or a star with an apparent magnitude of -2? -2 34. What is the difference between the apparent brightness and the intrinsic brightness of a light source? The short answer . What relationship among Main Sequence stars was found by Hertzsprung & Russell in the 1910s? What two kinds of stars were found to not follow this relationship? the apparent magnitudes reflected the stars' relative luminosities A and M stars – Red Giants. What is the spectral type of the Sun? Spectral type refers to O-B-A-F-G-K-M. 33.30. The Sun is a G star. . 36. M stars are least 35. You lose mass. at the same distance from Earth). At what rate does light dim with distance? light dims with distance according to the inverse-square law (i.
solar systems with planets which contain heavy elements. What relationship among Main Sequence stars was found by Eddington in the 1920s? What 2 things did this discovery tell us about the Sun? The more luminous a star. the most common kind 40. What determines a star's spectral type on the Main Sequence? How do we know that a star's Main Sequence spectral type can't change? spectral type is set by a star's mass. Main Sequence O Temp: Hot Colour: Blue Size: Big Mass: Big Main Sequence M Temp: Cold Colour: Red Size: Small Mass: Small 41. which violates the law of conservation of mass and energy. but their mass is also small. compare the luminosity. Everything is less. ejecting their heavy elements into gas clouds in interstellar space. Compare the luminosity. and size of Red Giants to the Sun. temperature. spectral type can't change cuz that would require a main sequence star to increase in mass and luminosity at the same time. size and mass of a Main Sequence O star to a Main Sequence M star.37. temperature. Red Giants are 106 as luminous as the sun. colour. What was Hoyle's correct explanation for the existence of elements heavier than Helium in stars? How do these elements get on to planets like ours? elements heavier than helium are posted by nucleosynthesis in stars (ie fusion of the produces of hydrogen-fusion). but they are bigger than the sun. Using the HR diagram. 38. compare their luminosity. They are very small. . the gas clouds collapse into new solar systems like ours . and colour to the Sun. Using the HR diagram. when massive stars die. they are like 2000K less than the Sun. temperature. they explode. colour. Describe the mass and size of a White Dwarf. 39. the higher its mass The sun is a low mass star. 42.
Chapter Ten 1. The core shrinks into a dense. When a star is on the Main Sequence. What kinds of stars are able to fuse elements heavier than Helium. cools and reddens into a Red Giant when He runs out. colour and size will change as it evolves. and how these changes are due to the shifting in the balance between gravity and radiation pressure. hot. 45. B (RP > GP) Red Giant (RP << GP) Supernova Neutron Star Black hole. What is the "Island Universe" theory? The island universe theory is the theory that our galaxy is just one among billions of other . stars fuse their He. colour and size will change as it evolves. and why? high mass stars are hot enough to fuse He-products into higher elements up to Iron because they have not burned out yet. during hydrogen fusion. so the star remains stable. 49. This ends when the star runs out of hydrogen. at which point it leaves the main seq cuz its properties change. He fusion produces more energy. Describe what will happen to an O-star from the time it leaves the Main Sequence to its ultimate corpse. a star's radiation pressure equals its gravitational pressure. temperature. Why do we find more low-mass Main Sequence stars than high-mass ones? low mass stars take longer to fuse hydrogen but high mass stars fuse faster. so they leave the sequence fast 47. How do we know that our solar system must have come from the ejecta of other stars? 44. Include how its luminosity. and how these changes are due to the shifting in the balance between gravity and radiation pressure. Describe what will happen to our Sun from the time it leaves the Main Sequence to its ultimate corpse. which causes RP > GP. what allows its properties to remain stable? when a star is on the main seq.43. temperature. Include how its luminosity. This causes RP < GP. O. when H runs out. 46. low mass stars are too cold to fuse He-products. The star expands. it is fusing hydrogen. brightens. low luminosity corpse (a White Dwarf). while the outer layers shed into a Planetary Nebula 48. What causes stars to leave the Main Sequence? Stars leave the main sequence when they run out of hydrogen.
which temporarily expands the star and reduces its opacity 7. What did William. Why did the Ancient Greeks use the word "galaxy" to describe the bright strip of light across the sky? What do we call this strip of light today? What part of our galaxy does this strip represent? Greek: Milky. the Herschels couldn't come to a general conclusion about their composition 4. Variable star: star which fluctuate in brightness at regular time intervals Cepheids: has a lightly opaque surface . Why valuable? because this relation can give you the distance to a cepheid in another galaxy. What did Herschel's map of the visible stars reveal about the shape of our galaxy? It was disk-shaped. the longer the period. What are the SMC and LMC? What did Henrietta Leavitt discover when she observed Cepheids in the SMC? Why was this discovery so valuable? Who used her discovery to determine the boundaries of our galaxy? The smc and lmc are our nearest galaxies (they stand for Small and Large Magellanic Cloud). Caroline and John Herschel produce together? What was Herschel attempting to prove from this research? Why was he not able to prove this? Giant Telescopes.this is now known to be true) 2. What is a variable star? What characterizes the Cepheid variables? Explain briefly why Cepheids pulsate. They attempted to identify whether nebulae are distant star systems or nearby glowing gas clouds Owing to the large variety of nebulae. 3. Shapley used this relation to determine the boundaries of our galaxy. the more luminous the cepheid). Us: Milky Way Represent: Our view through the disk’s length. 5. Leavitt discovered the period-luminosity relation for cepheids in the SMC (ie. .its outwards photons push the surface outwards.galaxies in the Universe (no longer a theory . What did Lord Rosse discover when he looked at the elliptical-shaped nebulae through his Leviathan telescope? 6.
What observation led Curtis to suspect that the disks of galaxies are filled with interstellar dust? Where does this dust come from? Heber Curtis completed a high resolution survey of nebulae. (CORRECT) 11. revealing obscuring matter ("dust") in their disks. Why was Shapley convinced that the spiral nebulae are within our galaxy's boundaries? spirals are pushed from or disk by radiation pressure from its high density of stars. In the Shapley-Curtis Debate. Therefore spirals are within our galaxy 10. then if spirals are outside the galaxy. What was NASA's tribute to this discovery? Hubble? 15. What are the 3 components of our galaxy. or is it one of many Island universes? 14. Describe (briefly) the 4 types of galaxies in Hubble's Classification system? Which are the most numerous? Which are the least numerous? What are the two types of spiral galaxies? What type of galaxy is the Milky Way? . according to Shapley's model? Where is the Sun located in this model? Where is the Galaxy's centre? In what 2 ways is this model incorrect? Its disk is 300. creating a "Zone of Avoidance".000 ly in diameter. Who finally resolved the Shapley-Curtis debate? Explain how he did this. Curtis: if the milky way's disk contains a band of dust. they aren't seen in the "Zone of Avoidance" because they are obscured by the dust. this large size implied.000 – couldn’t account for dust) Our sun resides in the outskirts of its disk The Milky Way centre is in Sagittarius 9. What did Vesto Slipher observe about the spectra of spirals? he observed that many of them have big redshifts. What is the Zone of Avoidance? What was Shapley's explanation for it? What was Curtis'? Who was correct? Shapley: Radiation pressure pushing things out of the galaxy. all nebulae are systems within our galaxy (INCORRECT: actually 100. which suggest that the spirals are receding from us at high speeds 13. 12.8. what did Shapley argue? What did Curtis argue? What 4 pieces of evidence did Curtis present? 1920: a formal debate was held between Shapley and Curtis: Is our Galaxy the entire universe.
Universe expands at accelerating rate forever: density is less than or equal to. remain constant or decrease. the further its distance. (Big Freeze) Universe’s expansion halts and contracts: density is greater than and constant is equal to (Bing Crunch) . Describe the 4 possible fates of the Universe according to Einstein's cosmological equation. constant equals 0 (Big Chill) Universe’s expansion halts: density is equal. What is the Local Group? How does the size of the Milky Way and M31 compare to other galaxies in the Local Group? How did the Milky Way and M31 get this way? Most galaxies cluster together into gravitationally bound groups of galaxies. He did not believe that the universe could expand or contract. Prior to the discovery of Hubble's Law. What is Hubble's Law? What does the slope of Hubble's Law tell us? What does the inverse of the slope tell us? Hubble showed: the larger a galaxy's redshift. and constant is greater than 0. ellipticals (least numerous). spirals can be barred or non-barred. For each fate. (or recessional velocity). who had found theoretically that the Universe is expanding? Einstein.spirals. 18. But he was right. constant is equal. state whether Hubble's Constant will increase. What is the Local Supercluster? The Local Group is part of the "Local Supercluster". lenticulars and irregulars (most numerous). the milky way is a barred spiral 16. 21. 17. including the density and Cosmological Constant associated with each fate. (Big Chill or Rip) Universe expands forever: density is less than. Describe what Einstein referred to as the "biggest blunder" of his career. 20. Slope: rate of Universe’s expansion Inverse of the slope: Universe’s Age? 19. so he created a cosmological constant to fix it.
Evidence of Dark Matter (DM). suggesting the presence of intergalactic DM Gravitational lensing of background galaxies suggest the presence of dark matter in a galaxy halos as well as in the intracluster dark matter (the space between the galaxies in clusters) . toward a Big Chill or Rip) 25. 26. new galaxies take their place Hubble’s Law: Big Bang theory predicts that galaxies were closer together in the past. Describe the observational evidence that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating. and why? Pictures the distribution of matter 400. 1950s: radio surveys of the most distant galaxies revealed that they are closer together than the nearby galaxies The all-sky microwaves were detected (the Cosmic Microwave Background. What does a map of the CMB give us a picture of. What did WMAP tell us about the composition of the Universe? What effect is "dark energy" believed to be having on the Universe? How is dark energy now accounted for in Einstein's cosmology equation? Composition With normal matter comprising 27% of the universe (4% we can see. or CMB) 24. decreasing in density Steady State: the density of a universe is constant as galaxies recede from each other. Describe the ways that dark matter has been detected in galaxies and in intracluster space. Describe the 2 pieces of observational evidence for the Big Bang. the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate. while Steady State theory predicts the galaxy spacing has remained constant (?) 23. A survey of extragalactic supernovae was used and Hubble's Constant (H0) was lower in the past (therefore.000 years after Big Bang. the rest is dark matter) The remaining 73% of the universe may be responsible for the universe's accelerated expansion 27. What is the Big Bang theory? What is the Steady State theory? What is the Steady State explanation for Hubble's Law? Big Bang: the universe began from a single point and is expanding with time. Outer stars not galaxies rotate faster than predicted by a galaxy's visible mass.22.
what did he find? "Discrete" radio sources . What did maps of the 21-cm radio emission in our galaxy reveal about the structure of our galaxy? Where is the Sun located in this structure? The maps revealed our Spiral arms.meaning. Since the flippedover state is lover in energy. In a Hydrogen atom. The spin-flip transition of Hydrogen. 3. 6.Chapter Eleven 1. What are the advantages of radio astronomy compared to visible-light astronomy? Make sure that you understand *why* radio waves have each of these advantages. Who was the 1st person to detect radio emission from space? Where was this emission coming from? How did he know this? 1931: Jansky ("father of radio astronomy") detected radio emission from our galaxy Emission: strongly emitted by distant (young) galaxies. when the magnetic poles of the proton and electron are aligned. and What . the electron eventually flips over. This suggested that there were some sort of radioproducing objects out there. spots in the sky that were producing more radio emission than their surroundings. 4. How has this effected the Sun's magnetic field. Describe how the Sun spins. The energy corresponds to λ = 21cm (Radio) 5. the electron emits a photon with energy equal to the energy difference between the two states. The Sun is located in a spiral arm near the outer disk of our galaxy. Describe the process that is producing the 21-cm radio emission in our galaxy. What are solar flares? Eruptions of radiation which trace out magnetic field lines from sunspots 8. can be detected on Earth both night and day (not overwhelmed by sunlight) as well as through clouds easily detected with ground level telescopes (they completely penetrate Earth's atmosphere) 2. allowing us to observe galaxies as they appeared in the distant past. What did Stanley Hey identify as the source of the radio emission that was interfering with British radar during WWII? Solar flares from the sun 7. When Grote Reber mapped out the radio emission from the Milky Way.
What is a radio galaxy? Typically giant ellipticals with jets of radio emission from the galaxy's nucleus 16. What was developed in the 1960s to extend the limits of the observable Universe in radio light? Radio arrays 13. What does "quasar" stand for? What do quasars look like in visible light? What do they look . magnetic storms and aurora every 11 years. What causes magnetic storms on Earth? Caused by winds of charged particles produced by sunspots 10. Seen at high latitudes: that is where the magnetic field is strongest. but a complex field which twists and untwists every 11 yrs this causes the frequency of sun spots ad flares to increase every 11 yrs 9.happens to the Sun's magnetic field every 11 years as a result? spins differentially ( Its rotation speed decreases with latitude) Magnetic Field: is not a simple bar-magnet. What happens to the number and intensity of sunspots. 11. What causes aurora on Earth? Why are aurora most often seen at high latitudes? Caused by winds of charged particles produced by sunspots. What did Hewish initially suspect that the signal was coming from? What is the true explanation for the pulses? Are all neutron stars pulsars? Why/why not? 1960: pulsating radio signals were detected from the cores of supernova remnants named "pulsars" there are neutron stars (dead cores. Describe the radio emission from a pulsar. What is time dilation? How was it proven to exist using pulsars in binary systems? Binary pulsars were found to tick slower when closest to their center of mass.proving the prediction of General Reactivity that time slows down in a strong gravity field 15. due to the Sun's magnetic cycle? They increase 12. energy depleted) whose radio beams are periodically aimed at Earth you see a Pulsar only when the beam isn't aligned with the magnetic poles 14.
What kind of object is Cygnus X-1? What is believed to be the cause of its X-ray emission? How was this proven in 1972? At what observatory was this discovery made. cuz our atm blocks xray light. it's in space. It is proposed to be from an accretion disk around a stellar black hole. In 1972 proof of black holes were found when optical images of Cygnus X-1 revealed a massive star in orbit around an unseen companion. What is the current explanation for why radio galaxies aren't as radio-loud as quasars? all galaxies likely have a central black hole but most are presently quiet having consumed all nearby matter 20. Chapter Twelve . and in what city? Cygnus X-1 is the strongest x-ray source discovered. highly dense stars imploded into a blackhole 21. What kind of telescope is the Chandra Observatory. Ontario. What is currently believed to be the cause of the radio emission produced by radio galaxies and quasars? What is the observational proof in support of this? Cause: the strong radio lobes are a result if the strong magnetic field produced from the Black hole’s spin The evidence: high-res images of radio galaxies revealed huge disks of hit gas and dust around a central dark object 18. and why is it in space? XRAY telescope.like in radio light? What revealed that quasars are distant galaxies? Quasi Stellar Radio Sources Look: Star like Radio: Strong radio sources. What is the current explanation for why quasars are only seen in the distant Universe? since only distant quasars are seen. 22. when galaxy cores were denser (more fuel for blackhole) 19.e billion of ly away) 17. These images were obtained by a U of T professor at the David Dunlap Observatory in Richmond Hill. What is suspected to be at the centre of the Milky Way? What is the observational evidence in support of this? Black hole is in the centre. every galaxy has a blackhole and are tightly packed with stars. they may be a young phase. The spectra were indicative of galaxies with huge red shifts (i.
What kinds of animals were first launched into space by the U. Yuri deployed from craft once in earth’s atmosphere wearing a parachute. 4. How were the 1st photographs of Earth taken from space? the Soviet's 3 Luna craft (unmanned) successfully orbited the Moon. Which country made the first manned landing on the Moon? What was this name of the astronaut who first stepped on the Moon? . the german and rocket scientist He later became one of the key architects of the American Space program 2. Why can't we see the far side of the Moon from Earth? Why is the far side more cratered than the near side? not visible from Earth due to the moon's synchronous rotation. upon landing. 6. no control of craft (however he was given an override code if needed). 8. V2 rocket. 108 minutes in space. The Soviet Union launched the first human (Yuri Gagnarin) into space. It remained in orbit for three months 5. a german WW2 missile. 7. More cratered: former lava basins. One orbit around earth. Photographed its far side. Wernher von Braun. Dogs.S (after the fruit flies)? What about the Soviet Union? Monkeys. and what was this satellite called? Soviets launched "Sputnik 1". Which country launched the 1st human into space? Describe how this trip was made. Which country made the first unmanned landings and orbits of the Moon? What did the Luna 3 take photographs of for the 1st time? Russia.1. landed on it. What is the van Karman line? What was the first man-made object to breach it? Who designed this object. the first unmanned satellite to orbit the Earth. and took the first photographs of its far side (not visible from Earth due to the moon's synchronous rotation) 3. Which country launched the first satellite into Earth-orbit. and where did he end up working? Earth’s Boundary.
Which planets in our solar system have been landed on by human-made crafts? Were these missions manned or unmanned? Mars and Venus: unmanned. an orbiter and a space plane. What did NASA's Space Shuttle consist of? What was its purpose? Rockets. a habitable satellite for conducting space experiments. Proved organisms can survive. 9.America: Neil Armstrong. What have our space missions left behind around the Earth? Space Junk 15. Hydrothermal vents. and what is their purpose? the first "canadarm" (15-m robotic arm) was used in a space shuttle mission. . It has been continuously occupied for ten years 13. What are extremophiles? What are some of the extreme environments on Earth where extremophiles are found? Extremophiles are life forms that can survive extreme conditions that human can’t. Antarctic water. 11. What is the International Space Station? What is its purpose? the ISS. Canadarms have now been used in over 50 shuttle missions and are currently installed in ISS 14. What is an orbiter? What is a lander? What is a rover? Orbiter: Orbits Lander: Lands Rover: Moves 10. What discovery was made when Pete Conrad returned from the Apollo 12 mission to the Moon? Bacteria on the camera from earth.to bring humans and cargo to space (primarily to the international space station) 12. What is the Canadarm? Where are Canadarms permanently installed. was launched into Earth orbit in a joint effort by 5 space agencies. Purpose . 16.
20. What evidence of water was found by the Phoenix lander? What about the Opportunity rover? What is the mission of the Curiosity rover? the Phoenix found frozen H2O in Mars' polar ice caps. which may have enough adapted to the current lack of water and freezing temperatures Atmosphere: No carbon.17. Where is Europa? What is the evidence for liquid water on this celestial body? . 23. What is it about the Carbon atom that makes carbon-based life likely? Can form complex molecules 19. Opportunity found water-carrying veins in rocks. What 2 surface features of Mars suggest that it could have supported life in the past. Why was the Galileo spacecraft intentionally crashed into Jupiter? To eliminate any chance of a future impact with Europa that could contaminate the icy moon with terrestrial bacteria. 25. so it was concluded – no life on Mars. and why? What is it about Mars' atmosphere that makes Earth-like life currently unlikely? Mars polar ice caps contains at least 50% water ice (may have been liquid when the solar system was younger and hotter) Mars canyons are evidence of ancient rivers. and why? Viking Space probes were looking for Carbon. What was found when synthesized Martian soil was studied on Earth? a new detection method found live micro organisms in synthesized Martian soil 22. What was the mission of the Viking space probes? What was concluded on their return. only Earth is in the zone. They found none. What is the Habitable Zone? Which planets in our solar system are in this zone? Habitable Zone is the region that a planet can be while sustaining liquid water. 21. in our solar system. 18. but it is a fossil as well. Curiosity rover will drill into rocks and soil. What is rock ALH 84001? Why does it suggest that life once existed on Mars? It is a meteorite. These may have held primitive life. looking for evidence of subsurface water 24.
Titan also has methane lakes (methane contains carbon). founded by Frank Drake. What is the mission of SETI's Project Pheonix? Has it been successful so far? Project Pheonix listens for radio transmissions from other solar systems .no success so far 29. Briefly describe the 3 attempts that Earth has made to send messages into space. 28. they possess ice volcanos. Describe the Doppler-Wobble method for detecting extrasolar planets. What does SETI stand for. Where are Titan and Enceladus? What is the evidence for carbon and liquid water on these celestial bodies? What is Titan the only moon in the solar system to possess? moons around Saturn.000 yrs 32. it can't be solved cuz we don't know the values of all of its terms 30. It will make its closest approach to a star about two light years away in 40. which are spewing h2o and carbon. 27. Where is Voyager 1 right now? Voyager-one is approximately 20 years from reaching interstellar space. Evidence: found a cracked icy surface on Europa. we can detect that wobble as regular blueshifting and redshifting of the star's absorption lines blueshift when the star wobbles toward us and redshift when the star wobbles away from us . What were the general contents of each message? The arecibo message. What does the Drake Equation measure? Can it currently be accurately solved? Why/why not? The drake eqn measures the number of communicating civilizations in our galaxy. stars with planets wobble back and forth due to the gravity pull of their planets. and who was its original founder? The Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence. Titan is the only moon with a thick atmosphere. making it the furthest man made object.Jupiter’s moon. the pioneer plaques. and the voyager record. possibly due to a liquid ocean underneath where temperatures are warmer 26. they all contained information about humans and the planet Earth. 31.
Is Kepler surveying a large or small fraction of the stars in the Milky Way? Based on their preliminary results. if the spectrum contains artificial pollutants. 37. which is indicative of a planet passing in front of the star. ARTICLE yep . What types of planets are most likely to be found with the Doppler-Wobble method. earth-like planets are common. then we can guess the planet has life on it. gas giants that are very close to their stars.. then you take another spectrum when the planet is NOT in front of the star. Kepler looks for a periodic drop in light from a star. Yes.33. including earth-like. What is the goal of the Kepler Mission? How will it aid SETI? Kepler is looking for Earth-like planets. making them easier to detect 34. 38. why? cuz such planets induce BIG wobbles in their stars. This will provide SETI with a list of target solar systems to listen to for radio transmissions from intelligent extraterrestrials. and why? Hot jupiters (ie. Yes. The transit method. Millions of planets in Habitable Zone projected for our entire galaxy. By subtracting the two spectra. some found in the Habitable Zone. Why could "Hot Jupiters" not have been born at their present locations? How are they suspected to have reached their present locations? since a hot Jupiter can't form close to its star (not enough matter). 35.. U get the spectrum of the planet's atmosphere.the article is on the galaxy seen through a gravitational lens . Describe how planets can be investigated for Earth-like habitability and signs of life. Describe the method that the Kepler Mission is using to detect extrasolar planets. our Earth-like planets common or rare? Has Kepler found any planet candidates in the Habitable Zone? How about Earth-like planet candidates in the Habitable Zone? How many planets in the Habitable Zone have been projected for our entire Galaxy? Tiny fraction of stars in the Milky Way. Could earth like planets survive in these systems? Still unknown. it must have migrated inward. If this spectrum looks the like the spectrum of our atmosphere. 36. that tells us that the planet has an earth-like atmosphere. You take a spectrum of a star when its planet is passing in front of it.
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