Introduction

Overview
The module presents a thorough overview of quality of service models and mechanisms as implemented in complex service provider and enterprise networks. It includes the following topics:
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Introduction to IP Quality of Service Integrated Services Model Differentiated Services Model Building Blocks of IP QoS Mechanisms Enterprise Network Case Study Service Provider Case Study

Objectives
Upon completion of this module, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
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Describe the need for IP QoS Describe the Integrated Services model Describe the Differentiated Services model Describe the building blocks of IP QoS mechanisms (classification, marking, metering, policing, shaping, dropping, forwarding, queuing) List the IP QoS mechanisms available in the Cisco IOS Describe what QoS features are supported by different IP QoS mechanisms

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Introduction to IP Quality of Service
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
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Describe different types of applications and services that have special resource requirements List the network components that affect the throughput, delay and jitter in IP networks List the benefits of deploying QoS mechanisms in IP networks List QoS mechanisms available in Cisco IOS Describe typical enterprise and service provider networks and their QoS-related requirements

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Why IP QoS?
• Application X is slow! • Video broadcast occasionally stalls! • Phone calls over IP are no better than over satellite! • Phone calls have really bad voice quality! • ATM (the money-dispensing-type) are nonresponsive! • ...

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IP QoS Introduction-5

The purpose of this module is to determine the following:
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What is, or might be, missing in today’s IP networks? What can IP Quality of Service (QoS) do to help solve the problem?

A decade ago when the Internet was still in its early stages there was not much available. Most users were using Gopher to find information and FTP to retrieve it. The Internet was something new and exciting and no one was really bothered by the fact that it was slow. Today, however, the Internet is serving a large population of all walks of life. The Internet has also grown in its service offering. Users are using the Internet to view static or dynamic information, transmit voice and video, shop, play etc. Along with these new applications of the Internet come some demands on the service(s) it provides:
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Some applications are slow Video broadcast or conferencing may have bad picture quality or appear jerky Voice sessions may have bad voice quality or periods of silence Critical transactions may take too long (too many seconds) Bulk transfers take too long (too many hours)

This module focuses on most common quality-related problems people encounter in IP networks.

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IP QoS Introduction

3

Because ...
• Application X is slow! (not enough BANDWIDTH) • Video broadcast occasionally stalls! (DELAY temporarily increases – JITTER) • Phone calls over IP are no better than over satellite! (too much DELAY) • Phone calls have really bad voice quality! (too many phone calls – ADMISSION CONTROL) • ATM (the money-dispensing-type) are non responsive! (too many DROPs) • ...

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IP QoS Introduction-6

Quality of Service is usually identified by the following parameters:
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Amount of bandwidth available to a certain application or user Average delay experienced by IP packets on end-to-end or link basis Jitter that affects applications that transmit packets at a certain fixed rate and expect to receive them at approximately the same rate (for example, voice and video) Drops of packets when a link is congested can severely impact fragile applications Admission control which prevents too many sessions from congesting links and causing degradation in quality of service (for example, voice sessions)

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What Causes ...
• Lack of bandwidth – multiple flows are contesting for a limited amount of bandwidth • Too much delay – packets have to traverse many network devices and links that add up to the overall delay • Variable delay – sometimes there is a lot of other traffic which results in more delay • Drops – packets have to be dropped when a link is congested

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction-7

If the network is empty any application should get enough bandwidth, acceptable low and fixed delay and not experience any drops. The reality, however, is that there are multiple users or applications using the network at the same time.

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IP QoS Introduction

5

Available Bandwidth

IP

IP

IP

IP

256 kbps 10 Mbps

512 kbps 100 Mbps

BW max = min(10M, 256k, 512k, 100M)=256kbps BW avail = BWmax /Flows
• Maximum available bandwidth equals the bandwidth of the weakest link • Multiple flows are contesting for the same bandwidth resulting in much less bandwidth being available to one single application.
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-8

The example above illustrates an empty network with four hops between a server and a client. Each hop is using different media with a different bandwidth. The maximum available bandwidth is equal to the bandwidth of the slowest link. The calculation of the available bandwidth, however, is much more complex in cases where there are multiple flows traversing the network. The calculation of the available bandwidth in the illustration is a rough approximation.

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End-to-end Delay

IP

IP

IP

IP

Propagation delay (P1) Processing and queuing delay (Q1)

Propagation delay (P2) Processing and queuing delay (Q2)

Propagation delay (P3) Processing and queuing delay (Q3)

Propagation delay (P4)

Delay = P1 + Q1 + P2 + Q2 + P3 + Q3 + P4 = X ms

• End-to-end delay equals a sum of all propagation, processing and queuing delays in the path • Propagation delay is fixed, processing and queuing delays are unpredictable in best-effort networks
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-9

The figure illustrates the impact a network has on the end-to-end delay of packets going from one end to the other. Each hop in the network adds to the overall delay because of the following two factors: 1. Propagation (serialization) delay of the media that, for the most part, depends solely on the bandwidth. 2. Processing and queuing delays within a router, which can be caused by a wide variety of conditions. Ping (ICMP echoes and replies) can be used to measure the round-trip time of IP packets in a network. There are other tools available to periodically measure responsiveness of a network.

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IP QoS Introduction

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Processing and Queuing Delay

Forwarding

IP

IP

IP

IP

Processing Delay

Queuing Delay Propagation Delay

• Processing Delay is the time it takes for a router to take the packet from an input interface and put it into the output queue of the output interface. • Queuing Delay is the time a packets resides in the output queue of a router. • Propagation or Serialization Delay is the time it takes to transmit a packet.

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IP QoS Introduction-10

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Processing Delay is the time it takes for a router to take the packet from an input interface and put it into the output queue of the output interface. The processing delay depends on various factors, such as:
– – – – –

CPU speed CPU utilization IP switching mode Router architecture Configured features on both input and output interface

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Queuing Delay is the time a packet resides in the output queue of a router. It depends on the number and sizes of packets already in the queue and on the bandwidth of the interface. It also depends on the queuing mechanism. Propagation or Serialization Delay is the time it takes to transmit a packet. It usually only depends on the bandwidth of the interface. CSMA/CD media may add slightly more delay due to the increased probability of collisions when an interface is nearing congestion.

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bandwidth

Packet Loss

Forwarding

IP

IP

IP

IP

IP

Tail-drop

• Tail-drops occur when the output queue is full. These are the most common drops which happen when a link is congested. • There are also many other types of drops that are not as common and may require a hardware upgrade (input drop, ignore, overrun, no buffer, ...). These drops are usually a result of router congestion.
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The usual packet loss occurs when routers run out of buffer space for a particular interface (output queue). The figure illustrates a full output queue of an interface, which causes newly arriving packets to be dropped. The term used for such drops is simply “output drop” or “tail-drop” (packets are dropped at the tail of the queue). Routers might also drop packets for other (less common) reasons, for example:
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Input queue drop - main CPU is congested and cannot process packets (the input queue is full) Ignore - router ran out of buffer space Overrun - CPU is congested and cannot assign a free buffer to the new packet Frame errors (CRC, runt, giant)—hardware-detected error in a frame

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How to Increase Available Bandwidth?
TCP Header Compression RTP Header Compression cTCP data

Compress the Headers IP TCP data Compress the Payload Stacker Predictor Priority Queuing (PQ) Custom Queuing (CQ) Modified Deficit Round Robin (MDRR) Class-based Weighted Fair Queing (CB-WFQ)

Fancyqueuing FIFO queuing

Compressed packet

• Upgrade the link. The best solution but also the most expensive. • Take some bandwidth from less important applications. • Compress the payload of layer-2 frames. • Compress the header of IP packets.
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There are several approaches to solving a problem of insufficient bandwidth:
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The best approach is to increase the link capacity to accommodate all applications and users with some extra bandwidth to spare. This solution sounds simple enough but in the real world it brings a high cost in terms of the money and time it takes to implement. Very often there are also technological limitations to upgrading to a higher bandwidth. Another option is to classify traffic into QoS classes and prioritize it according to importance (business-critical traffic should get enough bandwidth, voice should get enough bandwidth and prioritized forwarding and the least important traffic should get the remaining bandwidth). There are a wide variety of mechanisms available in the Cisco IOS that provide bandwidth guarantees, for example:
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Priority or Custom Queuing Modified Deficit Round Robin (on Cisco 12000 series routers) Distributed ToS-based and QoS-group-based Weighted Fair Queuing (on Cisco 7x00 series routers) Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing

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Optimizing link usage by compressing the payload of frames (virtually) increases the link bandwidth. Compression, on the other hand, also increases delay due to complexity of compression algorithms. Using hardware compression can accelerate the compression of packet payloads. Stacker and Predictor are two compression algorithms available in Cisco IOS. Another link efficiency mechanism is header compression. This mechanism is especially effective in networks where most packets carry small amounts of

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data (payload-to-header ratio is small). Typical examples of header compression are TCP Header Compression and RTP Header Compression.

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How to Reduce Delay?
TCP Header Compression RTP Header Compression cRTP data

Compress the Headers IP UDP RTP data

Fancyqueuing FIFO queuing
Priority Queuing (PQ) Custom Queuing (CQ) Strict Priority MDRR IP RTP prioritization Class-based Low-latency Queuing (CB-LLQ)

Compress the Payload Stacker Predictor

Compressed packet

• Upgrade the link. The best solution but also the most expensive. • Forward the important packets first. • Compress the payload of layer-2 frames (it takes time). • Compress the header of IP packets.
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-13

Assuming that a router is powerful enough to make a forwarding decision in a negligible time it can be said that most of the processing, queuing delay and propagation delay is influenced by the following factors:
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Average length of the queue Average length of packets in the queue Link bandwidth

There are several approaches to accelerate packet dispatching of delay-sensitive flows:
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Increase link capacity. Enough bandwidth causes queues to shrink, making sure packets do not have to wait long before they can be transmitted. Additionally, more bandwidth reduces serialization time. On the other hand, this might be an unrealistic approach due to the costs associated with the upgrade. A more cost-effective approach is to enable a queuing mechanism that can give priority to delay-sensitive packets by forwarding them ahead of other packets. There are a wide variety of queuing mechanisms available in Cisco IOS that have pre-emptive queuing capabilities, for example:
– – –

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Priority Queuing Custom Queuing Strict-priority or Alternate Priority queuing within the Modified Deficit Round Robin (on Cisco 12000 series routers) IP RTP prioritization Class-based Low-latency Queuing

– –

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n

Payload compression reduces the size of packets and, therefore, virtually increases link bandwidth. Additionally, compressed packets are smaller and need less time to be transmitted. On the other hand, compression uses complex algorithms that take time and add to the delay. This approach is, therefore, not used to provide low-delay propagation of packets. Header compression on the other hand is not as CPU-intensive and can be used in combination with other mechanisms to reduce delay. It is especially useful for voice packets that have a bad payload-to-header ratio, which is improved by reducing the header of the packet (RTP header compression).

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By minimizing delay, jitter is also reduced (delay is more predictable).

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How to Prevent Packet Loss?

Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED)

IP

data

Dropper

Fancyqueuing FIFO queuing

Custom Queuing (CQ) Modified Deficit Round Robin (MDRR) Class -based Weighted Fair Queuing (CB-WFQ)

• Upgrade the link. The best solution but also the most expensive. • Guarantee enough bandwidth to sensitive packets. • Prevent congestion by randomly dropping less important packets before congestion occurs
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-14

Packet loss is usually a result of congestion on an interface. Most applications that use TCP experience slow down due to TCP adjusting to the network’s resources (dropped TCP segments cause TCP sessions to reduce their window sizes). There are some other applications that do not use TCP and cannot handle drops (fragile flows). The following approaches can be taken to prevent drops of sensitive applications:
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Increased link capacity to ease or prevent congestion. Guarantee enough bandwidth and increase buffer space to accommodate bursts of fragile applications. There are several mechanisms available in Cisco IOS that can guarantee bandwidth and/or provide prioritized forwarding to dropsensitive applications, for example:
– – – – – –

Priority Queuing Custom Queuing Modified Deficit Round Robin (on Cisco 12000 series routers) IP RTP prioritization Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing Class-based Low-latency Queuing

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Prevent congestion by dropping other packets before congestion occurs. Weighted Random Early Detection can be used to start dropping other packets before congestion occurs.

There are some other mechanisms that can also be used to prevent congestion:
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Traffic Shaping delays packets instead of dropping them (Generic Traffic Shaping, Frame Relay Traffic Shaping and Class-based Shaping).
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IP QoS Introduction

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Traffic Policing can limit the rate of less important packets to provide better service to drop-sensitive packets (Committed Access Rate and Class-based Policing).

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Which Applications Have Which QoS Requirements?
Throughput Interactive (e.g. Telnet) Batch (e.g. FTP) Fragile (e.g. SNA) Voice Video Low High High Low Low High High Delay Low Not Important Low Low and Predictable Low and Predictable Loss Loss Low Low None Low Low Jitter Not Important Not Important Not Important Low Low

• Enterprise networks are typically focused on providing QoS to applications
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-15

When QoS is considered in a network implementation, important applications and their QoS requirements have to be identified. The figure illustrates a table of different types of applications with the corresponding QoS requirements (throughput or bandwidth, delay, loss and jitter). Once the applications are identified and prioritized it must be decided which QoS mechanisms are to be put in place. The approach to provide QoS to applications is usually used in Enterprise Networks where important (business-critical) applications are easy to identify. Most applications can be classified based on TCP or UDP port numbers. Some applications use dynamic port numbers that, somewhat, makes classification more difficult. Cisco IOS supports Network-based Application Recognition (NBAR), which can be used for such application.

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Which Services can be Implemented in a Network?
Throughput Gold Silver Silver Bronze Best Effort ... Guaranteed Guaranteed Guaranteed Limitted No Guarantee . . .. Delay Low No Guarantee No Guarantee No Guarantee . . .. Loss Loss Low No Guarantee No Guarantee No Guarantee . . .. Jitter Low No Guarantee No Guarantee No Guarantee . . ..

• Service provider networks typically offer services based on source and destination addresses
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-16

Service providers, on the other hand, are there to provide connectivity to customers. They typically are not concerned with the applications that customers are using. They are, however, interested in providing different levels of services to customers. Some customers are willing to pay more for their connectivity to the Internet, providing they obtain some guarantees. The figure illustrates one of the many different approaches to defining services. In reality, each service provider creates its own list of services according to market research and competitive needs. Cisco IOS is simply the tool used to implement those services.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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17

How can QoS be Applied?
• Best effort – no QoS is applied to packets (default behavior) • Integrated Services model – applications signal to the network that they require special QoS • Differentiated Services model – the network recognizes classes that requires special QoS

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction-17

By investigating the history of the Internet it can be divided into three QoS-related periods:
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Best-effort. The Internet was designed for best-effort, no-guarantee delivery of packets. This behavior is still predominant in today’s Internet. Integrated Services model. Introduced to supplement the best-effort delivery by setting aside some bandwidth for applications that require bandwidth and delay guarantees. The Integrated Services model expects applications to signal their requirements to the network. Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) is used to signal QoS requirements to the network. Differentiated Services model. Added to provide more scalability in providing QoS to IP packets. The main difference is that the network recognizes packets (no signaling is needed) and provides the appropriate services to them.

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Today’s IP networks can use all three models at the same time.

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Summary
IP Quality of Service is used to improve performance of IP networks. Quality of Service can be measured based on available bandwidth, end-to-end delay, packet loss and jitter. Different QoS mechanisms can be used to provide a predictable service. There are many different types of QoS mechanisms available in the Cisco IOS:
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Queuing mechanisms: Priority Queuing (PQ), Custom Queuing (CQ), Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) with its distributed versions, IP RTP Prioritization, Modified Deficit Round Robin (MDRR), Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing (CB-WFQ) and Class-based Low-latency Queuing (CB-LLQ) Traffic Shaping mechanisms: Generic Traffic Shaping (GTS), Frame Relay Traffic Shaping (FRTS) and Class-based Shaping Traffic Policing mechanisms: Committed Access Rate (CAR) and Classbased Policing Dropping mechanisms: Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) Link Efficiency mechanisms: Stacker, Predictor, TCP Header Compression and RTP Header Compression Signaling mechanism: Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP)

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Review Questions
Answer the following questions:
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What are the relevant parameters that define the quality of service? What can be done to give more bandwidth to an application? What can be done to reduce delay? What can be done to prevent packet loss? Name the three QoS models?

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19

Integrated Services Model
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
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Describe the IntServ model List the key benefits and drawbacks of the IntServ model List some implementations that are based on the IntServ model Describe the need for Common Open Policy Service (COPS)

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Integrated Services
• The Internet was initially based on a besteffort packet delivery service • Today's Internet carries many more different applications than 20 years ago • Some applications have special bandwidth and/or delay requirements • The Integrated Services model (RFC1633) was introduced to guarantee a predictable behavior of the network for these applications

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction-22

The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is responsible for standardization of the Internet and most of the protocols used in the Internet. When faced with a challenge, vendors introduce their own solutions. However, the IETF is there to create standards that allow different vendor’s equipment to interoperate. One of the challenges in the past was to introduce Quality of Service into the best-effort driven Internet. The Integrated Services (IntServ) model was proposed as standard with Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) as the mechanism used to signal QoS requirements to the network. The IntServ model is described in the RFC 1633 (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1633.txt). The use of RSVP for Integrated Services is described in RFC 2210 (http://www.ie tf.org/rfc/rfc2210.txt).

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21

IntServ Building Blocks
Local Admission Control request Remote Admission Control Policy Enforcement Point (PEP) request Local Admission Control request

request

reserve

reserve

reserve reply Policy Decision Point (PDP)

reserve

• Resource Reservation is used to identify an application (flow) and signal if there are enough available resources for it • Admission Control is used to determine if the application (flow) can get the requested resources
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-23

The IntServ model itself describes the application of QoS in IP networks. Additional standards were developed to cover the exact protocols used to implement Quality of Service:
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Resource Reservation is implemented using the Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) Admission Control is either implemented locally on the routers or offloaded to central servers

request

n

Common Open Policy Service (COPS) is another IETF standard that defines a protocol that can be used for policy exchange between network devices (Policy Enforcement Point or PEP) and policy servers (Policy Decision Point or PDP). An additional standard was added to integrate RSVP with COPS. The COPS (Common Open Policy Service) Protocol is defined in RFC 2748 (http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2748.txt). COPS usage for RSVP is defined in RFC 2749 (http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2749.txt).

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Reservation and Admission Protocols
• The resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) was developed to communicate resource needs between hosts and network devices (RFC 2205-2215) • Common Open Policy Service (COPS) was developed to offload admission control to a central policy server (RFC 2748-2753)

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IP QoS Introduction-24

Following is a list of some of the IETF standards (RFCs) that describe RSVP, COPS, the IntServ model and applications:
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Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP), Version 1, Functional Specification (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2205.txt) RSVP Management Information Base using SMIv2 (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2206.txt) RSVP Extensions for IPSEC Data Flows (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2207.txt) Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP), Version 1, Applicability Statement, Some Guidelines on Deployment (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2208.txt) Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP), Version 1, Message Processing Rules (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2209.txt) The Use of RSVP with IETF Integrated Services (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2210.txt) Specification of the Controlled-Load Network Element Service (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2211.txt) Specification of Guaranteed Quality of Service (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2212.txt) Integrated Services Management Information Base using SMIv2 (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2213.txt) Integrated Services Management Information Base, Guaranteed Service Extensions using SMIv2 (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2214.txt) General Characterization Parameters for Integrated Service Network Elements (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2215.txt)
IP QoS Introduction 23

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The COPS (Common Open Policy Service) Protocol (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2748.txt) COPS usage for RSVP (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2749.txt) RSVP Extensions for Policy Control (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2750.txt) Signaled Preemption Priority Policy Element (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2751.txt) Identity Representation for RSVP (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2752.txt) A Framework for Policy-based Admission Control (http://www.ie tf.org/rfc/rfc2753.txt) SBM (Subnet Bandwidth Manager): A Protocol for RSVP-based Admission Control over IEEE 802-style networks (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2814.txt) Definitions of Managed Objects for Common Open Policy Service (COPS) Protocol Clients (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2940.txt) COPS Usage for Policy Provisioning (COPS-PR) (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3084.txt)

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RSVP-enabled Applications
• RSVP is typically used by applications carrying voice or video over IP networks (initiated by a host) • RSVP with extensions is also used by MPLS Traffic Engineering to establish MPLS/TE tunnels (initiated by a router)

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RSVP, as a resource reservation protocol, was designed for use by end devices in networks (for example, personal computers and servers). It is a protocol that has to be supported by an application that requires network resources and needs guarantees.
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Typical examples of applications that would benefit from RSVP are voice sessions that require a small amount of bandwidth with low-delay propagation. Cisco routers that act as voice gateways can use RSVP to request resources (controlled-load and guaranteed-delay). Cisco routers that use Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Traffic Engineering (MPLS/TE) use RSVP with extensions to reserve bandwidth and set up MPLS/TE tunnels through MPLS and RSVP enabled networks. Cisco Soft Phone or Microsoft NetMeeting are Windows applications that use RSVP to get resources for their VoIP sessions.

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There are an increasing number of applications that use RSVP to request QoS guarantees from a network.

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IntServ Implementation Options
1) Explicit RSVP on each network node

RSVP

Class of Service or Best Effort 2) RSVP ‘pass -through’ and CoS transport - map RSVP to CoS at network edge - pass -through RSVP request to egress 3) RSVP at network edges and ‘pass -through’ with - best-effort forwarding in the core (if there is enough bandwidth in the core)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction-26

The figure illustrates three options available when implementing QoS mechanisms via RSVP in a network. 1. The first option is to simply enable RSVP on all interfaces of all the routers in the network. This approach is mainly used in enterprise networks that have more predictable RSVP flows (in terms of quantity and direction because they typically use hub-and-spoke topology). Large service provider networks are less inclined to use RSVP throughout their networks either because RSVP would require too many concurrent reservations on a single interface or because the routers are not capable of providing guarantees to individual flows on high-bandwidth interfaces. 2. An alternative option is to use RSVP on network edges where there is typically less bandwidth per interface and congestion is more likely. The edgeto-core routers (for example, access or distribution layer routers) mark RSVP flows with IP markers, which can then be used in a DiffServ enabled core— the Differentiated Services model is covered in the next lesson). 3. Another option is to use RSVP on network edges and rely on best-effort delivery in a non-congested core.

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Explicit RSVP Transport IntServ End-to-End
RSVP

All Routers
• WFQ applied per flow based on RSVP requests

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction-27

In the first scenario, each router in the network processes RSVP messages and keeps track of the special resource needs for each individual RSVP flow. Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) can be used in the backbone to provide resource allocation on a flow-by-flow basis. One concern with this approach is that RSVP is resource intensive on backbone routers - in terms of the amount of signaling and the amount of special information that they need to keep on each RSVP flow. A second issue is that WFQ is a very CPU-intensive algorithm and does not run at high speed on today’s routers. In the backbone, high speed is a mandatory requirement.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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RSVP Pass-Through IntServ - DiffServ Integration
RSVP RSVP

Precedence Classifier

Premium Standard

WRED

Egress Router
• RSVP protocol sent on to destination • WFQ applied to manage egress flow

Ingress Router
• RSVP protocol
Mapped to classes Passed through to egress

Backbone
• WRED applied based on class

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction-28

An alternative to enabling RSVP end-to-end is to use RSVP as a means to signal special requirements between the customer and the ISP edge, but not to use it in the backbone. In this model, packets are mapped on RSVP flows into special service classes which give each class preferential treatment in the core of the network when congestion occurs. This avoids the scalability problem of end-to-end RSVP, since these flows are processed between the end station and the network edge and not in the middle of the backbone. By using WRED on routers, instead of WFQ, much higher speeds can be supported. Alternatively, Class-based WFQ can be used on moderate-speed links to provide better control of bandwidth allocation. The third option is not to use RSVP in the core and rely on best-effort delivery if the core is not congested. Lastly, mapping classes of service to ATM is more straightforward than mapping RSVP directly to ATM. This concept may accelerate the ability of ISPs to offer an RSVP service and enable new application areas.

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IntServ Support in IOS
• RSVP and Weighted Fair Queuing supported since ’95 • RSVP signaling for VoIP calls supported on all VoIP platforms • IOS supports hop-by-hop and pass-through RSVP • RSVP-to-DSCP (DiffServ Code Point) mapping (RSVP proxy) in 12.1T

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction-29

Both RSVP and WFQ have been available for some time and can be used on all low-end platforms and on high-end platforms that are typically used to concentrate customer networks. Newer RSVP mechanisms include:
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Mapping of RSVP to DSCP (the Differentiated Services model with the details of the DiffServ Code point is covered in the next lesson). Mapping of RSVP to ATM SVCs (this technology is covered in the “IP QoS IP over ATM” module).

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29

Benefits and Drawbacks of the IntServ Model
+ RSVP benefits:
• Explicit resource admission control (end to end) • Per-request policy admission control (authorization object, policy object) • Signaling of dynamic port numbers (for example, H.323)

–RSVP drawbacks:
• Continuous signaling due to stateless architecture • Not scalable

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The main benefits of RSVP are:
n

It signals QoS requests per individual flow. The network can then provide guarantees to these individual flows. The problem of this is that it does not scale to large networks because of the large numbers of concurrent RSVP flows. It informs network devices of flow parameters (IP addresses and port numbers). Some applications use dynamic port numbers, which can be difficult for network devices to recognize. NBAR is a mechanism that has been introduced to supplement RSVP for applications that use dynamic port numbers but do not use RSVP.

n

It supports admission control that allows a network to reject (or down-grade) new RSVP sessions if one of the interfaces in the path has reached the limit (all reservable bandwidth is booked). The main drawbacks of RSVP are:
n n

Continuous signaling due to stateless operation of RSVP. RSVP is not scalable to large networks where per-flow guarantees would have to be made to thousands of flows.

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Common Open Policy Service
• Common Open Policy Service (COPS) provides the following benefits when used with RSVP:
– Centralized management of services – Centralized admission control and authorization of RSVP flows

• RSVP-based QoS solutions become more scalable

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The Common Open Policy Service (COPS) is an add-on to RSVP. It can be used to offload certain tasks from network devices to a central server. The result is that the configuration of individual devices is more standardized (template-based) and all individual parameters are managed from a centralized location. In addition, COPS supports admission control of individual flows (the network device determines the available resources and the central server authorizes the flow).

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31

Summary
The Integrated Services (IntServ) model was introduced to allow vendors of routers to add interoperable QoS mechanisms to their best-effort packet forwarding. Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) is used by end-devices to signal QoS requirements to the network. Common Open Policy Service (COPS) is used to offload policy management to central servers.

Review Questions
Answer the following questions:
n n

What are the two building blocks of the Integrated Services model? Which protocol is used to signal QoS requirements to the network?

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Differentiated Services Model
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n

Describe the DiffServ model List the key benefits of the DiffServ model compared to the IntServ model Describe the purpose of the DS field in IP headers Describe the interoperability between DSCP-based and IP-precedence-based devices in a network Describe the Expedited Forwarding service Describe the Assured Forwarding service

n n

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Differentiated Services Model
• Differentiated Services model describes services associated with traffic classes • Complex traffic classification and conditioning is performed at network edge resulting in a per-packet Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP). • No per-flow/per-application state in the core • Core only performs simple ‘per-hop behavior's’ on traffic aggregates • Goal is Scalability
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-36

The Differentiated Services (DiffServ) model describes services associated with traffic classes. Traffic classes are identified by the value of the DiffServ Code Point (DSCP replaces IP precedence in the ToS field of the IP header). The main goals of the DiffServ model are to provide scalability and a similar level of QoS to the IntServ model, without having to do it on a per-flow basis. The network simply identifies a class (not application) and applies the appropriate perhop behavior (QoS mechanism). The DiffServ model and associated standards are described in the following IETF standardization documents (RFCs):
n

An Architecture for Differentiated Services (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2475.txt) Definition of the Differentiated Services Field (DS Field) in the IPv4 and IPv6 Headers (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2474.txt) Assured Forwarding per-hop behavior (PHB) Group (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2597.txt) An Expedited Forwarding per-hop behavior (PHB) (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2598.txt)

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Additional Requirements
• Wide variety of services and provisioning policies • Decouple service and application in use • No application modification • No hop-by-hop signaling • Interoperability with non-DS-compliant nodes • Incremental deployment

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The DiffServ model describes services and allows for more user-defined services to be used in a DiffServ-enabled network. Services are provided to classes. A class can be identified as a single application or, as in most cases, it can be identified based on source or destination IP address. The idea is for the network to recognize a class without having to receive any request from applications. This allows the QoS mechanisms to be applied to other applications that do not have the RSVP functionality, which is the case for 99% of applications that use IP. The introduction of the DiffServ Code Point (DSCP) replaces the IP precedence but maintains interoperability with non-DS compliant devices (those that still use IP precedence). Because of this backward-compatibility DiffServ can be gradually deployed in large networks.

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DiffServ Elements
• The service defines QoS requirements and guarantees provided to a traffic aggregate; • The conditioning functions and per-hop behaviors are used to realize services; • The DS field value (DS code point) is used to mark packets to select a per-hop behavior • Per-hop Behavior (PHB) is realized using a particular QoS mechanism • Provisioning is used to allocate resources to traffic classes

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A traffic aggregate is a collection of all flows that require the same service. A service is implemented using different QoS mechanisms (a QoS mechanism implements a per-hop behavior). The DiffServ field (DS fie ld) is the former 8-bit Type of Service field. The main difference is that the DSCP supports more classes (64) than IP precedence (8). The most important part of designing QoS is to provision services as explained on the next page.

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Why is Provisioning Important?
• QoS does not create bandwidth! • QoS manages bandwidth usage among multiple classes • QoS gives better service to a wellprovisioned class with respect to another class

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Provisioning requires a thorough network analysis to determine parameters for services that are being deployed in the network. The result of provisioning is the allocation of bandwidth among all classes in times of congestion. Services are implemented by defining per-hop behavior (PHB) properties. PHBs are implemented by using the available QoS mechanisms in networks devices.

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Topological Terminology
DS interior node

DS Ingress Boundary node

DS Egress Boundary node Boundary link

Upstream DS domain

Downstream DS domain DS region

Traffic Stream = set of flows Behaviour Aggregate (flows with the same DSCP)

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A DS domain consists of DS boundary nodes and DS interior nodes. DS boundary nodes interconnect the DS domain to other DS or non-DS-capable domains. While DS interior nodes only connect to other DS interior or boundary nodes within the same DS domain. Both DS boundary nodes and interior nodes must be able to apply the appropriate PHB to packets based on the DS code point; otherwise unpredictable behaviour may result. DS boundary nodes act both as a DS ingress node and as a DS egress node for traffic traversing the network in different directions. Traffic enters a DS domain at a DS ingress node and leaves a DS domain at a DS egress node. A DS ingress node is responsible for ensuring that the traffic entering the DS domain conforms to any Traffic Conditioning Agreement (TCA) between it and the other domain to which the ingress node is connected. A DS egress node may perform traffic conditioning functions on traffic forwarded to a directly connected peering domain, depending on the details of the TCA between the two domains. A differentiated services region (DS Region) is a set of one or more contiguous DS domains. DS regions are capable of supporting differentiated services along paths that span the domains within the region. The DS domains in a DS region may support different PHB groups internally and different code point-PHB mappings. However, to permit services that span across the domains, the peering DS domains must each establish a peering Service Level Agreement (SLA) that defines (either explicitly or implicitly) a TCA. The TCA specifies how transit traffic from one DS domain to another is conditioned at the boundary between the two DS domains. It is possible that several DS domains within a DS region may adopt a common service provisioning policy and may support a common set of PHB groups and

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code point mappings. This eliminates the need for traffic conditioning between those DS domains.

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Traffic Terminology
• Flow: a single instance of an application-toapplication flow of packets which is identified by source address, source port, destination address, destination port and protocol id. • Traffic stream: an administratively significant set of one or more flows which traverse a path segment. A traffic stream may consist of a set of active flows which are selected by a particular classifier. • Traffic profile: a description of the temporal properties of a traffic stream such as average and peak rate and burst size.

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The terminology used throughout the course includes the following:
n

Flow (or microflow) is a sequence of packets identified by source and destination IP addresses, protocol identifier (for example, TCP and UDP) and source and destination port numbers. Traffic stream is a collection of flows with a common set of parameters (for example, the same port number and the same source and destination network). Traffic profile specifies typical properties of a traffic stream (average rate and burstiness). Provisioning should be performed based on traffic profiles and the importance of traffic streams.

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n

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Traffic Terminology
• Behavior Aggregate (BA) is a collection of packets with the same DS code point crossing a link in a particular direction. • Per-Hop Behavior (queuing in a node) externally observable forwarding behavior applied at a DS-compliant node to a DS behavior aggregate. • PHB Mechanism: a specific algorithm or operation (e.g., queuing discipline) that is implemented in a node to realize a set of one or more per-hop behaviors.
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-42

Other important terms used throughout the course are:
n n n

Behavior Aggregate (BA) identifies packets marked with the same DSCP Per-hop Behavior (PHB) is applied to each BA according to the QoS policy PHB mechanism is the actual QoS mechanism that satisfies PHB specification

Other terms can be found in RFC 2475, which defines the Differentiated Services model (http://www.ie tf.org/rfc/rfc2475.txt).

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Packet Header Terminology

DSCP field: 6bits Former ToS byte = new DS field

Unused: 2bits

• DS code point: a specific value of the DSCP portion of the DS field, used to select a PHB (Per-Hop Behavior; forwarding and queuing method) • DS field: the IPv4 header ToS octet or the IPv6 Traffic Class octet when interpreted in conformance with the definition given in RFC2474. The bits of the DSCP field encode the DS code point, while the remaining bits are currently unused.
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-43

The DiffServ model uses the DS field in the IP header to mark packets according to their classification into Behavior Aggregates (BAs). The DS field occupies the same eight bits of the IP header that were previously used for the Type of Service (ToS) field. There are three IETF standards describing the purpose of those eight bits:
n

RFC 791 includes specification of the ToS field where the high-order three bits are used for IP precedence. The other bits are used for delay, throughput, reliability and cost. RFC 1812 modifies the meaning of the ToS field by removing any meaning from the five low-order bits (those bits should all be zero). RFC 2474 replaces the ToS field with the DS field where the six high-order bits are used for the DiffServ Code Point (DSCP). The remaining two bits are currently not used.

n

n

Each DSCP value identifies a Behavior Aggregate (BA). Each BA is assigned a per-hop behavior (PHB). Each PHB is implemented using the appropriate QoS mechanism or a set of QoS mechanisms.

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DSCP Encoding
• Three pools: – “xxxxx0” – “xxxx11” – “xxxx01” Standard Action Experimental/Local Use EXP/LU (possible std action)

• Default DSCP: “000000” • Default PHB: FIFO, tail-drop

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Unlike IP precedence, which lacked any standard definitions of values and corresponding PHBs, the DSCP has half of its value range reserved for standard defined PHBs. The low-order bit of the DSCP identifies whether the DSCP value identifies a standard action (PHB) or a user-defined action. The second bit could, potentially, (in the future) also be used to identify additional standard actions. The default value of DSCP is 0. The associated PHB is FIFO service with a tail-drop. FIFO queuing is discussed in the “IP QoS – Queuing mechanisms module”. The default DSCP value seamlessly maps to the default IP precedence value, which is also 0 according to RFC 1812.

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DSCP Usage
DS Code point selects per-hop behavior (PHB) throughout the network
• Default PHB • Class Selector (IP precedence) PHB • Expedited Forwarding (EF) PHB • Assured Forwarding (AF) PHB

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The following per-hop behaviors are defined by IETF standards:
n n

Default PHB – used for best-effort service Class Selector PHB – used for backward compatibility with non-DS compliant devices (RFC 1812 compliant devices and, optionally, RFC 791 compliant devices) Expedited Forwarding PHB – used for low-delay service Assured Forwarding PHB – used for guaranteed bandwidth service

n n

The Default PHB and the Class Selector PHB are described in RFC 2474 (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2474.txt), Expedited Forwarding PHB is described in RFC 2598 (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2598.txt) and Assured Forwarding in RFC 2597 (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2597.txt).

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Backward Compatibility Using the Class Selector
• Non-DS compliant node: node that does not interpret the DSCP correctly or that does not support all the standardized PHB’s • Legacy node: a non-DS compliant node that interprets IPv4 ToS such as defined by RFC791 and RFC1812. • DSCP is backward compatible with IP Precedence (Class Selector Code point, RFC 1812) but not with the ToS byte definition from RFC 791 (“DTR” bits)

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The history of the eight bits in question (ToS field alias DS field) can be divided into three periods according to the RFCs describing the purpose of those bits: RFC 791 RFC 791 defines the Type of Service field with the following components:
n n n

Bits seven, six and five are used for IP precedence Bit four is used for delay (0 = Normal Delay, 1 = Low Delay) Bit three is used for throughput (0 = Normal Throughput, 1 = High Throughput) Bit two is used for reliability (0 = Normal Reliability, 1 = High Reliability) Bits one and zero are not used and should be zero (bit one was later applied a meaning of monetary-cost by RFC 1349; this RFC also replaces individual bits with a four-bit ToS value to allow more types of services)

n n

RFC 1812 RFC 1812 loosens the strict representation of the ToS field (obsole tes RFC 795). RFC 2474 RFC 2474 replaces the ToS field with the DS field where a range of eight values (Class Selector) is used for backward compatibility with IP precedence. There is no compatibility with the delay, throughput, reliability and monetary-cost bits.

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Class Selector Code Point
• Compatibility with current IP precedence usage (RFC 1812) • “xxx000” DS code points • Differentiates probability of timely forwarding (PTF) – PTF (xyz000) >= PTF(abc000) if xyz > abc

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RFC 1812 simply prioritizes packets according to the precedence value. The PHB is defined as the probability of timely forwarding. Packets with higher IP precedence should (on the average) be forwarded in less time than packets with lower IP precedence. RFC 2474 adopts this set of PHBs and values by creating the Class Selector PHB group. Class Selector can be identified by the low-order three bits of the DSCP or low-order five bits of the DS field: all bits are zero.

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Expedited Forwarding
• Expedited Forwarding (EF) PHB: – Ensures a minimum departure rate – Guarantees bandwidth – the class is guaranteed an amount of bandwidth with prioritized forwarding – Polices bandwidth – the class is not allowed to exceed the guaranteed amount (excess traffic is dropped) • DSCP value: “101110”; looks like IP precedence 5 to non-DS compliant devices

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The Expedited Forwarding PHB is identified based on the following parameters:
n

Ensures a minimum departure rate to provide the lowest possible delay to delay-sensitive applications Guarantees bandwidth to prevent starvation of the application if there are multiple applications using Expedited Forwarding PHB Polices bandwidth to prevent starvation of other applications or classes that are not using this PHB Packets requiring Expedited Forwarding should be marked with DSCP binary value “101110” (46 or 0x2E)

n

n

n

Non-DS compliant devices will regard EF DSCP value as IP precedence 5 (101), which is the highest user-definable IP precedence and is typically used for delay-sensitive traffic such as Voice over IP.

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IOS EF PHB Implementations
• Priority Queuing • IP RTP Prioritization • Class-based Low-latency Queuing (CB-LLQ) • Strict Priority queuing within Modified Deficit Round Robin (MDRR) on GSR

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Expedited Forwarding PHB can be implemented on Cisco routers using several different QoS mechanisms:
n

Routers running older Cisco IOS versions can use Priority Queuing (PQ) and put delay-sensitive traffic into a “high” priority queue. Priority Queuing, however, does not fully comply with the specification of the EF PHB – it does not have the capability to police the bandwidth used by the EF class. IP RTP Prioritization can be used in combination with Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) or Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing (CB-WFQ). IP RTP Prioritization provides expedited forwarding with bandwidth guarantee and bandwidth policing. Class-based Low-latency Queuing (CB-LLQ) is a mechanism similar to IP RTP Prioritization. It is the preferred mechanism for implementing EF PHB. Strict Priority within Modified Deficit Round Robin (MDRR) on the Cisco 12000 series routers provides low-latency queuing but does not police bandwidth. Alternate Priority MDRR prevents starvation of other classes but it does not police bandwidth of the EF class.

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Assured Forwarding
• Assured Forwarding (AF) PHB: –Guarantees bandwidth –Allows access to extra bandwidth if available • Four standard classes (af1, af2, af3 and af4) • DSCP value range: “aaadd0” where “aaa” is a binary value of the class and “dd” is drop probability

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The Assured Forwarding PHB is identified based on the following parameters:
n n n

Guarantees a certain amount of bandwidth to an AF class Allows access to extra bandwidth, if available Packets requiring AF PHB should be marked with DSCP value “aaadd0” where “aaa” is the number of the class and “dd” is the drop probability

There are four standard-defined AF classes. Each class should be treated independently and have bandwidth allocated based on the QoS policy.

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AF Encoding
Class AF1 AF2 AF3 AF4 Value 001dd0 010dd0 011dd0 100dd0

Drop Probability (dd) Low Medium High

Value

01 10 11

• Each AF class uses three DSCP values • Each AF class is independently forwarded with its guaranteed bandwidth • Differentiated RED is used within each class to prevent congestion within the class
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-51

As the figure illustrates there are three DSCP values assigned to each of the four AF classes. Assured Forwarding class AF class 1 Drop Probability Low Medium High Low Medium High Low Medium High Low Medium High DSCP value 001 01 0 001 10 0 001 11 0 010 01 0 010 10 0 010 11 0 011 01 0 011 10 0 011 11 0 100 01 0 100 10 0 100 11 0

AF class 2

AF class 3

AF class 4

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AF PHB Definition
• A DS node MUST allocate a configurable, minimum amount of forwarding resources (buffer space and bandwidth) per AF class • Excess resources may be allocated between non-idle classes. The manner must be specified. • Reordering of IP packets of the same flow is not allowed if they belong to the same AF class

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An AF implementation must attempt to minimize long-term congestion within each class, while allowing short-term congestion resulting from bursts. This requires an active queue management algorithm. An example of such an algorithm is Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED). The AF specification does not define the use of a particular algorithm, but does require that several properties hold. An AF implementation must detect and respond to long-term congestion within each cla ss by dropping packets, while handling short-term congestion (packet bursts) by queuing packets. This implies the presence of a smoothing or filtering function that monitors the instantaneous congestion level and computes a smoothed congestion level. The dropping algorithm uses this smoothed congestion level to determine when packets should be discarded. The dropping algorithm must treat all packets within a single class and precedence level identically. This implies that, for any given smoothed congestion level, the discard rate of a particular microflow's packets within a single precedence level will be proportional to that flow's percentage of the total amount of traffic passing through that precedence level. The congestion indication feedback to the end nodes, and thus the level of packet discard at each drop precedence in relation to congestion, must be gradual rather than abrupt. This allows the overall system to reach a stable operating point. WRED uses two (configurable) smoothed congestion level thresholds. When the smoothed congestion level is below the first threshold, no packets of the relevant drop precedence are discarded. When the smoothed congestion level is between the first and the second threshold, packets are discarded with linearly increasing probability, ranging from zero to a configurable value reached just prior to the second threshold. When the smoothed congestion level is above the second

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threshold, packets of the relevant drop precedence are discarded with 100% probability. To allow the AF PHB to be used in many different operating environments, the dropping algorithm control parameters must be independently configurable for each packet drop precedence and for each AF class. Within the limits above, this specification allows for a range of packet discard behaviours.

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AF PHB Implementation
• CBWFQ (4 classes) with WRED within each class • (M)DRR with WRED within each class • Optionally Custom Queuing (does not support differentiated dropping)

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As with Expedited Forwarding there are multiple QoS mechanisms in the Cisco IOS that can accommodate some or all of the requirements of Assured Forwarding PHB:
n

The preferred implementation is to use the Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing (CB-WFQ) with four classes (four independent queues) and Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) within each queue. A similar solution can be provided on the Cisco 12000 series routers by using the Modified Deficit Round Robin (MDRR) queuing with WRED in each queue. The AF PHB can also be implemented using the old-fashioned IP precedence. The only restriction is the number of available IP precedence values. Example 1:
n n n n n

n

n

Four classes but no differentiated dropping: AF1—IP precedence 1 AF2—IP precedence 2 AF3—IP precedence 3 AF4—IP precedence 4

n

Example 2:
n n n

Two classes with differentiated dropping (two drop precedence values): AF1—IP precedence 1 for high-drop, IP precedence 2 for low-drop AF1—IP precedence 3 for high-drop, IP precedence 4 for low-drop

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n

In both examples IP precedence 0 can be used for a best-effort class and IP precedence 5 for an EF class. A similar solution as shown in Example 1 is also possible with Custom Queuing, except it has no support for differentiated dropping and DSCP. A workaround is possible if access-lists are used to match the DSCP value (direct matching of DSCP available only in IOS 12.1 and above) with a combination of IP precedence and ToS value.

n

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Summary
After completing this lesson, you should be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n

Describe the DiffServ model List the key benefits of the DiffServ model compared to the IntServ model Describe the purpose of the DS field in IP headers Describe the interoperability between DSCP-based and IP-precedence-based devices in a network Describe the Expedited Forwarding service Describe the Assured Forwarding service

n n

Review Questions
Answer the following questions:
n n n n n n

What are the benefits of the DiffServ model compared to the IntServ model? What is a DiffServ Code Point? Name the standard PHBs? How was backward compatibility with IP precedence achieved? Describe the PHB of Assured Forwarding. Describe the PHB of Expedited Forwarding.

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Building Blocks of IP QoS Mechanisms
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n

Describe different classification options in IP networks Describe different marking options in IP networks List the mechanisms that are capable of measuring the rate of traffic List the mechanisms that are used for traffic conditioning, shaping and avoiding congestion List the forwarding mechanisms available in Cisco IOS List the queuing mechanisms available in Cisco IOS

n n

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Router Functions
Defragmentation Decompression (payload, header) Source -based qos-label/precedence setting Destination-based qos-label/precedence setting Rate -limiting Class -based marking Policy-based-routing ... Rate -limiting Random dropping Shaping Compression (payload, header) Fragmentation Queuing and scheduling ...

Input I/O

Input Processing

Forwarding

Output Processing

Output I/O

Process switching Fast/optimum switching Netflow switching CEF switching

• Depending on the configuration, a router may perform a number of actions prior to forwarding a packet (input processing) • Depending on the configuration, a router may perform a number of actions prior to enqueuing a packet in the hardware queue (output processing)
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-58

Basic router function takes packets received on the input interface, makes a forwarding decision and transmits the packet out through the output interface. Today’s routers, however, can do much more than that. The figure lists a small subset of features that affect packet processing on input or output interfaces. Following is a list of some of the features available with Cisco routers:
n n n

Payload compression (Stacker, Predictor) Header compression (TCP and RTP header compression) BGP-policy marking (CEF-based marking or QoS Policy propagation through BGP) Traffic Policing (CAR, CB Policing) Traffic Shaping (GTS, FRTS, CB-Shaping) Class-based marking Encryption (CET or IPsec) WRED Policy-based Routing Accounting (IP accounting, NetFlow accounting) Filtering (access lists) Reverse-path checking Address and port translation (NAT, PAT) Stateful filtering (firewalling) Web-cache redirection
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n n n n n n n n n n n n

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IP QoS Actions
• Classification – Each class-oriented QoS mechanism has to support some type of classification (access lists, route maps, class maps, etc.) • Metering – Some mechanisms measure the rate of traffic to enforce a certain policy (e.g. rate limiting, shaping, scheduling, etc.) • Dropping – Some mechanisms are used to drop packets (e.g. random early detection) • Policing – Some mechanisms are used to enforce a rate limit based on the metering (excess traffic is dropped) • Shaping – Some mechanisms are used to enforce a rate limit based on the metering (excess traffic is delayed)
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-59

IP QoS mechanisms can perform different types of actions. All QoS mechanisms can be divided into the following QoS actions:
n

Classification – most QoS mechanisms support multiple classes. There are different classification tools available with different QoS mechanisms (for example, access lists, route maps, class maps and rate-limit access lists). Some QoS mechanisms have the capability to match directly on certain parameters. For example:
– – – – – –

CAR (QoS group and DSCP) WRED (IP precedence) ToS-based dWFQ (IP precedence) QoS-group-based dWFQ (QoS group) WFQ (flow parameters) PQ and CQ (interface, packet size and protocol)

n

Some mechanisms require the information about traffic rate of classes (for example, CAR, GTS, FRTS, CB-Shaping, CB-Policing, CB-WFQ, CB-LLQ, MDRR and IP RTP Prioritization). Some mechanisms are used for dropping purposes. They utilize a dropping scheme different from the usual tail-drop. WRED is an example of such mechanism. Some mechanisms are used to limit traffic rate by dropping excess traffic (CAR and CB-Policing). Some mechanisms are used to limit traffic rate by delaying excess traffic (GTS, FRTS and CB-Shaping).
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IP QoS Actions
• Marking – Some mechanisms have the capability to mark packets based on classification and/or metering (e.g. CAR, class-based marking, etc.) • Queuing – Each interface has to have a queuing mechanism • Forwarding – There are several supported forwarding mechanisms (process switching, fast switching, CEF switching, etc.)

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n

Some mechanisms have the capability to mark packets with different types of markers (IP precedence, DSCP, QoS group, MPLS experimental bits, ATM CLP bit, Frame Relay DE bit and 802.1q or ISL priority/cos bits) Some mechanisms are used for queuing on output interfaces (for example, FIFO, PQ, CQ, WFQ, dWFQ, ToS-based dWFQ, QoS-group-based dWFQ, CB-WFQ, IP RTP Prioritization and MDRR) Cisco IOS also has different types of forwarding mechanisms (Process Switching, Fast Switching, Optimum Switching, Silicon Switching, Autonomous Switching, NetFlow Switching, Cisco Express Forwarding and Policy-based routing)

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DiffServ Mechanisms in IOS
Meter

Inbound traffic stream

Classifier

Marker

Conditioner Shaping Dropping

Queuing Scheduling Dropping

• Most traditional QoS mechanisms include extensive built-in classifiers
– – – – – Committed Access Rate (CAR) QoS Policy Propagation via BGP (QPPB) Route-maps Queuing mechanisms ...

• Modular QoS CLI (first implemented in 12.0(5)T) separates classifier from other actions
– Includes all traditional classifiers + Network Based Application Recognition (NBAR)
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-61

Most QoS mechanisms include several different classification options. The following table lists some QoS mechanisms with the corresponding classification options. QoS Mechanism Committed Access Rate (CAR) Classification options Access list Rate limit access list QoS-group DSCP Route map Route map Access list Access list Packet size Input interface Protocol

QoS Policy Propagation through BGP (QPPB) Policy-based routing Generic Traffic Shaping Priority Queuing and Custom Queuing

All mechanisms available using the Class map which can use: another class modular QoS CLI (CB-WFQ, CB-LLQ, map, access list, protocol (including CB-Shaping, CB-Policing, CB-Marking) NBAR), input interface, source or destination MAC address, IP precedence, DSCP, QoS group, MPLS experimental bits, etc.)

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DiffServ Mechanisms in IOS
Meter

Inbound traffic stream

Classifier

Marker

Conditioner Shaping Dropping

Queuing Scheduling Dropping

• Token Bucket model is used for metering
– – – – – – – – Committed Access Rate (CAR) Generic Traffic Shaping (GTS) Frame Relay Traffic Shaping (FRTS) Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing (CB-WFQ) Class-based Low Latency Queuing (CB-LLQ) Class-based Policing Class-based Shaping IP RTP Prioritization
IP QoS Introduction-62

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

The figure lists QoS mechanisms in the Cisco IOS that have the capability to measure the rate of traffic by using the Token Bucket model.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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63

DiffServ Mechanisms in IOS
Meter

Inbound traffic stream

Classifier

Marker

Conditioner Shaping Dropping

Queuing Scheduling Dropping

• Marker is used to set:
– – – – – – – IP precedence DSCP QoS group MPLS experimental bits Frame Relay DE bit ATM CLP bit IEEE 802.1Q or ISL CoS

• Marking mechanisms:
– Comitted Access Rate (CAR) – QoS Policy Propagation through BGP (QPPB) – Policy-based Routing (PBR) – Class-based Marking

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction-63

The figure lists markers that can be set using Cisco routers and the queuing mechanisms that have marking capabilities. The following table lists all the mechanisms that have marking capabilities and the markers that are supported by those mechanisms. QoS Mechanism Committed Access Rate (CAR) Available markers IP precedence DSCP QoS group MPLS experimental bits IP precedence QoS group IP precedence QoS group IP precedence DSCP QoS group MPLS experimental bits ATM CLP bit Frame Relay DE bit 802.1Q/ISL cos/priority

QoS Policy Propagation through BGP (QPPB) Policy-based Routing (PBR) Class-based Marking

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Comparison of Markers
Marker Marker
IP precedence DSCP QoS group group MPLS experimental bits experimental bits Frame Relay DE bit ATM CLP bit IEEE 802.1Q or ISL CoS or ISL CoS

Preservation
Throught a network Throught a network Local to a router
Throughout an MPLS network (optionally throughout an throughout entire IP network)

Value range
8 values, 2 reserved (0 to 7) 64 values, 32 are standard (0 to 63) 100 values (0 to 99) 8 values 2 values (0 or 1) 2 values (0 or 1) 8 values (0 to 7)
IP QoS Introduction-64

Throughout a Frame Relay network Throughout an ATM network Throughout a LAN switched network

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

The figure describes the differences between markers in terms of preservation of the marker and a value range. Markers can:
n

Be local to the router (the QoS group is not part of a packet or frame; it is a piece of information attached to a packet while it is stored in the router’s memory) Have a limited range due to layer-2 technology that they use (ATM CLP, FR DE, 802.1q/ISL cos/priority, MPLS exp bits) Have an unlimited range (IP precedence, DSCP)

n

n

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IP QoS Introduction

65

DiffServ Mechanisms in IOS
Meter

Inbound traffic stream

Classifier

Marker

Conditioner Shaping Dropping

Queuing Scheduling Dropping

• Shaping mechanisms:
– Generic Traffic Shaping (GTS) – Frame Relay Traffic Shaping (FRTS) – Class-based Shaping – Hardware shaping on ATM VC

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction-65

The figure lists four mechanisms that are used for traffic shaping purposes. All of these mechanisms are implemented in software (Cisco IOS) except for ATM shaping which is implemented in hardware. Traffic shaping is used to limit the departure rate of packets, frames or cells by delaying them if they exceed the contractual rate. A token bucket model is used to measure the arrival rate and determine when packets can be forwarded.

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DiffServ Mechanisms in IOS
Meter

Inbound traffic stream

Classifier

Marker

Conditioner Shaping Dropping

Queuing Scheduling Dropping

• Dropping mechanisms
– Committed Access Rate (CAR) and Class-based Policing can drop packets that exceed the contractual rate – Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) can randomly drop packets when an interface is nearing congestion
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-66

Another way of enforcing rate limits is to drop excess traffic. Committed Access Rate (CAR) and Class-based Policing can be used for this purpose. Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) is a congestion-avoidance mechanism that randomly drops packets when interfaces are nearing congestion.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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DiffServ Mechanisms in IOS
Meter

Inbound traffic stream

Classifier

Marker

Conditioner Shaping Dropping

Forwarding

Queuing Scheduling Dropping

• Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) is recommended from IOS 12.0 • Some QoS features work only in combination with CEF

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction-67

The Cisco IOS supports a large number of different forwarding mechanisms (depending on the platform and the IOS version). From the QoS perspective it can be said that:
n n

Most newer mechanisms require Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) Some older mechanisms do not work with CEF (Process or Fast switching is required)

Some other forwarding mechanisms available in the Cisco IOS include:
n

Process switching, which is the oldest forwarding mechanisms available since the first releases of Cisco IOS. Fast switching, which is the first optimization of forwarding. It uses a cache to store most used destinations and it is performed in the interrupt code to improve performance. Optimum switching, which is a further optimized version of fast switching on high-end routers. NetFlow switching, which forwards packets by recognizing and caching flow information.

n

n

n

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DiffServ Mechanisms in IOS
Meter

Inbound traffic stream

Classifier

Marker

Conditioner Shaping Dropping

Forwarding

Queuing Scheduling Dropping

• Traditional queuing mechanisms
– FIFO, Priority Queuing (PQ), Custom Queuing (CQ)

• Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) family
– WFQ, dWFQ, CoS-based dWFQ, QoS-group dWFQ

• Advanced queuing mechanisms
– Class-based WFQ, Class-based LLQ
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-68

The last mechanism that handles packets in the IOS is the queuing mechanism. The figure lists most of the queuing mechanisms.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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69

DiffServ Mechanisms in IOS
Meter

Inbound traffic stream

Classifier

Marker

Conditioner Shaping Dropping

Forwarding

Queuing Scheduling Dropping

• Tail drop on queue congestion • WFQ has an improved tail-drop scheme • WRED randomly drops packets when nearing congestion

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction-69

All queuing mechanisms include a drop policy. Most mechanisms use a simple taildrop scheme (the last packet to arrive is dropped if there is no room in the queue). Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) uses a more intelligent dropping scheme, which is discussed in the “IP QoS – Queuing mechanisms” module. Some queuing mechanisms also include the Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) to prevent congestion in their queues.

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Summary
After completing this lesson, you should be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n

Describe different classification options in IP networks Describe different marking options in IP networks List the mechanisms that are capable of measuring the rate of traffic List the mechanisms that are used for traffic conditioning, shaping and avoiding congestion List the forwarding mechanisms available in the Cisco IOS List the queuing mechanisms available in the Cisco IOS

n n

Review Questions
Answer the following questions:
n n n n n n n n n

Name the QoS building blocks. What is the purpose of classification? What is the purpose of marking? Which markers do you know? Which mechanisms can classify and mark packets? Which mechanisms have the ability to measure the rate of traffic? Which forwarding mechanisms do you know? Which queuing mechanisms do you know? How, when and where do routers drop packets?

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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71

Enterprise Network Case Study
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n

Describe a typical structure of an enterprise network Describe the need for QoS in enterprise networks List typical QoS requirements in enterprise networks List the QoS mechanisms that are typically used in enterprise networks

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Traditional Enterprise Networks
Core
(central sites and data centres)

X.25 (ancient), Frame Relay (old), ATM (newer)

Distribution
(regional centres)

X.25 (ancient), Frame Relay (old), ATM (newer)

Access
(branch offices)

• Traditional enterprise network use a hub-and-spoke topology • Redundant connections are used to improve resilience • Partial mesh can be used between the core sites and the distribution sites
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-74

This lesson describes typical Enterprise Networks to show the topology and technologies involved in such networks. Designing IP QoS networks largely depends on the topology and QoS requirements. The figure illustrates a three-layered network: 1. The core interconnects the data center(s) with the distribution-layer routers. 2. The distribution layer routers concentrate links towards a number of accesslayer routers. 3. The access-layer routers connect branch offices to the network. Most traffic in enterprise networks goes between branches and the data center.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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73

Modern Enterprise Networks
Core
(central sites and data centres)

MPLS/VPN (new)

Access
(branch offices)

• Modern enterprise network use a full mesh topology provided by an MPLS/VPN backbone • Redundant connections to the backbone can be used to improve resilience • The MPLS/VPN backbone uses redundant connections and a partial mesh to improve resilience
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-75

Modern enterprise networks can use MPLS/VPN backbones to get a virtual full mesh even though most traffic still goes between the data center and the branches. Implementing QoS in such environments requires QoS guarantees from the service provider and provisioning in the enterprise part of the network.

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QoS in Enterprise Networks
• Typical enterprise networks have a large number of different applications • Some applications are business-critical and require some guarantees (bandwidth, delay) • The network should provide enough resources to these business-critical applications • Applications are usually identified based on TCP or UDP port numbers

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction-76

Enterprise networks are typically concerned with providing differentiated QoS to applications. Applications can be classified based on TCP or UDP port numbers and marked with IP precedence or DSCP at network edges. The network should guarantee resources to all business-critical applications (classes).

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Case Study
• Typical line speeds
– Core - Distribution – Distribution - Branch < 2 Mbps 64 kbps - 256 kbps

• Typical protocols
– SNA, NetBIOS, Desktop protocols (IPX), Some TCP/IP, Voice, Multimedia

• Typical QoS requirements
– SNA and voice are high priority – Guaranteed bandwidth for some application – Rest of the traffic is best-effort
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-77

The figure shows a case study where relatively low bandwidths are used which calls for QoS to manage bandwidth according to the needs of the enterprise.

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Case Study Implementation #1
• Core - Distribution
– Custom queuing

• Distribution - Branch
– Priority queuing or – Custom Queuing with a priority queue

• Options
– Traffic shaping – Adaptation to Frame Relay congestion notification

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction-78

The figure lists mechanisms that could be used to accommodate the need of the enterprise. This solution would normally be used in networks where an old IOS version is being used and an upgrade is not an option (due to the cost of getting newer IOS versions, memory upgrade, flash upgrade, etc.). The listed mechanisms (Priority Queuing and Custom Queuing) have been available since Cisco IOS version 10.0.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction

77

Case Study Implementation #2
• Core - Distribution
– Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing (CB-WFQ) – Class-based Low Latency Queuing (CB-LLQ)

• Distribution - Branch
– Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing (CB-WFQ) – Class-based Low Latency Queuing (CB-LLQ)

• Options
– Class-based Shaping – Adaptation to Frame Relay congestion notification – Class-based Policing – Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED)
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-79

This figure shows a solution using advanced mechanisms to provide better control of bandwidth usage. This solution requires newer Cisco IOS software versions (12.1 or 12.2, depending on the details of the implementation).

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Summary
After completing this lesson, you should be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n

Describe a typical structure of an enterprise network Describe the need for QoS in enterprise networks List typical QoS requirements in enterprise networks List the QoS mechanisms that are typically used in enterprise networks

Review Questions
Answer the following questions:
n n n

What is the typical enterprise network topology? How is resilience achieved? Based on which information do typical enterprise networks apply QoS?

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction

79

Service Provider Case Study
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n

Describe a typical structure of a service provider network Describe the need for QoS in service provider networks List typical QoS requirements in service provider networks List the QoS mechanisms that can be used in service provider networks

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Typical Service Provider Networks

ATM, SONET/SDH, DPT, GE, ...

Partial mesh Rings

Core

ATM, SONET/SDH, DPT, GE, ...

Redundant connections Rings

Distribution
(regional POPs)

Frame Relay, ATM, Leased line (analog, TDM), dial-up (PSTN, ISDN, GSM), xDSL, (fast)ethernet, ...

Single connections Optional redundant connections Dial backup

Access
(customers)

• • • •

Typical service provider networks use a high -speed partially-meshed core (backbone) Regional POPs use two or more connections to the core There may be another layer of smaller POPs connected to distribution-layer POPs Customers are usually connected to the service provide via a single point-to-point link (a secondary link or a dial line can be used to improve resilience)
IP QoS Introduction-84

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

As the figure illustrates, Service Provider networks significantly differ from typical enterprise networks. Enterprise Networks are used as a tool to support the enterprise whereas with Service Providers the network is the business itself. Enterprise networks are concerned with providing quality to business-critical applications and Service Providers tend to broaden their service offering by introducing QoS.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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81

QoS in Service Provider Networks Networks
• Service providers extend their service offerings by introducing quality • Customers can get bandwidth guarantees (like CIR in Frame Relay) • Customers can get delay guarantees (like CBR in ATM) • Customers can get preferential treatment in case of congestion (Olympic service) • QoS mechanisms have to be deployed where congestion is likely (usually at network edge) • Customer’s traffic is identified based on source or destination IP addresses
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-85

Service Providers want to offer customers more than plain connectivity. Service Providers want to establish differentiated levels of service for customers with incremental pricing and SLA agreements. The customer should not only shop around among a number of service providers that offer connectivity to the Internet or provide MPLS/VPNs, but also have a menu of services they can choose from. Some customers are satisfied with the best-effort service; some want certain service guarantees.

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Case Study
A service provider wants to offer gold, silver, bronze and premium services
• Premium gets 40% of available bandwidth with a low-delay guarantee • Gold gets 30% of available bandwidth • Silver gets 20% of available bandwidth • Bronze gets 10% of available bandwidth

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction-86

The case study shows an example of a Service Provider which offers differentiated service levels where customers can choose the type of service they want and are willing to pay for. The service provider offers four services. Each of the services is basically a virtual service-provider network using a common infrastructure. The Premium service is guaranteed the most bandwidth and low-delay propagation of packets. Each of the following services is guaranteed less bandwidth. Premium customers will benefit most in times of congestion, whereas Bronze customers will only receive 10 percent of any link’s bandwidth.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Case Study Implementation
• Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing (CBWFQ) on slow to moderate-speed links • Class-based Low Latency Queuing (CB-LLQ) on slow to moderate-speed links • Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) on fast links

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction-87

Service Provider networks would generally use newer Cisco IOS software and can therefore deploy the latest available mechanisms. The case study is implemented using CB-WFQ in combination with WRED and CB-LLQ at networks edges (between access and distribution layer). WRED can be used on high-speed links (on core links).

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Summary
After completing this lesson, you should be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n

Describe a typical structure of a service provider network Describe the need for QoS in service provider networks List typical QoS requirements in service provider networks List the QoS mechanisms that can be used in service provider networks

Review Questions
Answer the following questions:
n n n

What is the typical topology of service provider networks? How is resilience achieved? Based on which information do typical service provider networks apply QoS?

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction

85

Summary
After completing this module, you should be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n

Describe the need for IP QoS Describe the Integrated Services model Describe the Differentiated Services model Describe the building blocks of IP QoS mechanisms (classification, marking, metering, policing, shaping, dropping, forwarding and queuing) List the IP QoS mechanisms available in the Cisco IOS Describe what QoS features are supported by different IP QoS mechanisms

n n

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Review Questions and Answers
Introduction to IP Quality of Service
Question: What are the relevant parameters that define the quality of service? Answer: Throughput (bandwidth), delay and jitter. Question: What can be done to give more bandwidth to an application? Answer: An application can get more throughput by increasing the bandwidth of the links in the path and/or using a QoS mechanism to guarantee bandwidth when the application has to contend with other flows. Payload and header compression also virtually increase the available bandwidth by reducing the overhead. Question: What can be done to reduce delay? Answer: Delay can be reduced by increasing the bandwidth of the links in the path and/or using a queuing mechanism that ensures minimum queuing delay for delaysensitive applications. Header compression will also help by reducing the serialization delay of small packets on low-speed links. Payload compression would have a similar result but it increases the delay because of the complexity of the compression algorithm. Question: What can be done to prevent packet loss? Answer: Packet loss can also be prevented by providing enough bandwidth. Alternatively a differentiated dropping mechanism can be used to drop packets of less important flows to prevent drops of high-priority flows. Another option is to use a queuing mechanism to guarantee enough bandwidth to high-priority flows. Question: Name the three QoS models? Answer: Best effort, Integrated services and Differentiated services.

Integrated Services Model Question: What are the two building blocks of the Integrated Services model? Answer: Resource reservation and admission control. Question: Which protocol is used to signal QoS requirements to the network? Answer: Resource reservation protocol (RSVP) is used to reserve network resources for applications.

Differentiated Services Model Question: What are the benefits of the DiffServ model compared to the IntServ model? Answer: DiffServ provides more scalable QoS solutions by applying QoS mechanisms (per-hop behavior) to traffic classes instead of individual applications. The DiffServ model does not require any signaling mechanism thus allowing QoS provisioning to non-RSVP applications.
Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction 87

Questions: What is a DiffServ Code Point? Answer: The DSCP is used to mark IP packets. It occupies the high-order 6 bits of the DiffServ field (former ToS field). Questions: Name the standard PHBs? Answer: Expedited Forwarding (EF), Assured Forwarding (AF) and Class Selector (CS). Questions: How was backward compatibility with IP precedence achieved? Answer: Backward compatibility is provided by using the DSCP values that map into IP precedence values that are typically used to achieve a similar goal: EF maps into IP precedence 5, AF1 maps into IP precedence 1, AF2 maps into IP precedence 2, AF3 maps into IP precedence 3, AF4 maps into IP precedence 4, the default DSCP maps into the default IP precedence 0. Questions: Describe the PHB of Assured Forwarding. Answer: AF PHB provides a bandwidth guarantee to a traffic class with the possibility to use more bandwidth if it is available. Questions: Describe the PHB of Expedited Forwarding. Answer: EF PHB provides a bandwidth guarantee to a traffic class and it ensures a minimum queuing delay. The traffic class is also limited to the provisioned bandwidth.

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Building Blocks of IP QoS Mechanisms
Review Questions
Answer the following questions:
n

Name the QoS building blocks. Classification, marking, metering, dropping, policing, shaping and queuing.

n

What is the purpose of classification? Classification is used to assign packets to traffic classes with different QoS requirements (behavior aggregates).

n

What is the purpose of marking? Marking is used to allow simplified classification on other devices in the network.

n

Which markers do you know? IP precedence, DSCP, MPLS experimental bits, QoS group, Frame Relay DE bit, ATM CLP bit, 802.1q CoS bits, ISL priority bits.

n

Which mechanisms can classify and mark packets? Policy-based Routing (PBR) Committed Access Rate (CAR) QoS Policy Propagation through BGP (QPPB) Class-based Policing Class-based Marking

n

Which mechanisms have the ability to measure the rate of traffic? Committed Access Rate (CAR) Generic Traffic Shaping (GTS) Frame Relay Traffic Shaping (FRTS) Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing (CB-WFQ) Class-based Low Latency Queuing (CB-LLQ) Class-based Policing Class-based Shaping IP RTP Prioritization

n

Which forwarding mechanisms do you know? Process Switching, Fast Switching, Optimum Switching, NetFlow Switching, CEF switching …

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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89

n

Which queuing mechanisms do you know? FIFO, Priority Queuing (PQ), Custom Queuing (CQ), WFQ, dWFQ, CoS-based dWFQ, QoS-group dWFQ, Class-based WFQ, Class-based LLQ

n

How, when and where do routers drop packets? Routers typically drop packets when an output interface is congested. The output queue fills up and the newly arriving packets have to be dropped (tail drop).

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Enterprise Network Case Study
Review Questions
Answer the following questions:
n

What is the typical enterprise network topology? Enterprise networks typically use the hub-and-spoke topology.

n

How is resilience achieved? Resilience is achieved by using redundant links.

n

Based on which information do typical enterprise networks apply QoS? Enterprise networks typically provide QoS to applications. Applications are typically identified based on the TCP or UDP port numbers.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction

91

Service Provider Case Study
Review Questions
Answer the following questions:
n

What is the typical topology of service provider networks? Typical service provider networks use a partially meshed core with a redundant hub-and-spoke topology for the POPs.

n

How is resilience achieved? Resilience is achieved by using partial mesh (core) and redundant links (distribution, access).

n

Based on which information do typical service provider networks apply QoS? Service providers typically apply QoS to customer traffic. Customer traffic is identified based on source or destination IP addresses.

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Classification and Marking

Overview
This module describes the mechanisms that are used to classify and mark IP packets. This module builds on the knowledge acquired from the introductory module where classification and marking is discussed. Theoretical knowledge is supplemented by detailing Policy-based routing (PBR) and QoS Policy Propagation through BGP (QPPB) mechanisms.

Objectives
Upon completion of this module, you will be able to:
n

Describe Policy-based routing and how it is used to classify and mark IP packets Describe QoS Policy Propagation through BGP and how it is used to classify and mark IP packets List other mechanisms that also support classification and marking capabilities (Committed Access Rate, Class-based Policing and Class-based Marking)

n

n

Traffic Classification and Marking
Classification
• Most QoS mechanisms in the Cisco IOS include some type of classification • Some mechanisms classify packets automatically, some require manual configuration

Marking
• Only a small number of mechanisms also include a marking capability

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Classification and Marking-3

This module focuses on the QoS mechanisms that are used for classification and marking purposes only. Most QoS mechanisms include some type of classification but only a small number of mechanisms also include marking capability. Classification is the term used for identifying a Behavior Aggregate to which a packet belongs. A Behavior Aggregate is a collection of flows requiring the same quality of service. Marking is the term used for coloring packets by applying a class-identifying value to one of the following markers: IP precedence, DSCP, QoS group (value is local to a router), MPLS experimental bits (can be used only in MPLS-enabled networks), ATM CLP bit (value can be used only within ATM networks), Frame Relay DE bit (value can be used only within Frame Relay networks), IEEE 802.1q or ISL cos/priority bits (value can be used on within LAN-switched networks).

2-2

IP QoS Classification and Marking

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Traffic Classification and Marking
• This module describes the two mechanisms that are used for classification and marking only:
– Policy-based Routing (PBR) – QoS Policy Propagation through BGP (QPPB)

• Other classification and/or marking mechanisms are described in other QoS modules

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Classification and Marking-4

This module describes the two QoS mechanisms that are used purely for classification and marking purposes:
n n

Policy-based Routing (PBR) QoS Policy Propagation through BGP (QPPB)

There are other QoS mechanisms that also support classification and marking:
n

Committed Access Rate (CAR) – this mechanism is described in the “IP QoS – Traffic Shaping and Policing” module Class-based Policing (CB-Policing) – this mechanism is described in the “IP QoS – Modular QoS CLI (Chapter 2)” module Class-based Marking (CB-Marking) – this mechanism is described in the “IP QoS – Modular QoS CLI (Chapter 2)” module

n

n

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Classification and Marking

2-3

Policy-based Routing
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
n n n

Describe Policy Based Routing (PBR) Configure PBR on Cisco routers Monitor and troubleshoot PBR

2-4

IP QoS Classification and Marking

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Policy-based Routing
• Policy-based Routing (PBR) is a mechanism that can be used to bypass the default destination-based forwarding functionality of routers • PBR is implemented using a route map where match commands are used to classify packets and set commands are used to process packets • Route maps are applied to interfaces for processing of inbound packets (forwarding and/or marking)
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Classification and Marking-7

The primary function of Policy-based Routing (PBR) is to bypass the destination-based forwarding functionality of routers by using a route map to make a forwarding decision based on other information. One additional feature of Policy Based Routing is the ability to modify IP packets by marking them with IP precedence or QoS group.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Classification and Marking

2-5

PBR “match” and “set” Options
Set: • Output interface (bypass the routing table) • Next-hop address (bypass the routing table) • ToS field (QoS marking) • IP precedence (QoS marking) • QoS group (QoS marking)

Match on: • Standard and extended access lists • Length of packets (min,max)

IP
Input interface Output interface

PBR has two primary applications:
• Implementation of more complex routing paradigms than a simple destination-based forwarding • Classification and marking of packets for QoS purposes
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Classification and Marking-8

PBR classifies packets based on standard or extended access lists, the length of packets and the incoming router interface (a route map is applied to an input interface). The route map sets the following parameters:
n

Output interface: force the router to forward packets to an interface even if it would not provide for optimal routing Next-hop address: to make a forwarding decision by using a different next-hop address than the one determined by the routing table ToS value: the ToS value in this case applies to bits 4,3,2 and 1 of the ToS field IP precedence: three-bit field used to identify a class of service QoS group: the local parameter with an expanded value range

n

n n n

The first two parameters (output interface and next-hop address) are used to bypass the default destination-based routing. The other three parameters are used for QoS purposes (ToS value is less commonly used).

2-6

IP QoS Classification and Marking

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

PBR Capabilities
Meter
PBR can only classify and mark inbound or locallyoriginated packets

Inbound or Locally-originated

Classifier

Marker

Dropper

Forwarding
Outbound

Meter

Classifier

Marker

Shaper Dropper

Queuing

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Classification and Marking-9

The figure illustrates the “full” QoS building-block scheme showing that PBR works only on input and that it supports only classification and marking. The “Forwarding” box could be colored as well since PBR can be used to make a forwarding decision. PBR contains no mechanism for metering or dropping of data packets.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Classification and Marking

2-7

Configuring Classification and Marking Using PBR
• Create a route map • Apply the route map to an incoming interface and/or • Apply the route map to locally originated traffic • Monitor and debug policy routing

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Classification and Marking -10

Configuring PBR involves the following steps:
n

Creating a route map where the match statement is used to match with the source or destination IP address or with any other parameter that can be matched by an access list (standard or extended). It can also match packets based on their size. Applying the route-map to:
n n

n

An input interface to process inbound packets on that interface or To locally originated packets

2-8

IP QoS Classification and Marking

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Route Map Rules
Router(config)#

route-map <name> [permit | deny] [<sequence-number>] match <condition> set <parameter> • Route maps are identified by a case sensitive name • Route maps can have multiple statements (same name, different sequence number) • Packets are processed in the specified sequence • Packets not matched by the route map are forwarded using the default destination-based forwarding • If packets are matched by the “match” condition but the route map statement is using the “deny” option, the default destination-based forwarding is applied to the packet
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Classification and Marking -11

A brief refresher about route maps:
n

Route maps can have one or more statements. A route map, or a set of route-map statements with the same name is identified by a case-sensitive name . Individual route-map statements are identified by their name and sequence number. When packets are processed by a route map they are evaluated in the order specified by sequence numbers. A route map is basically made to be a filtering mechanism. When used for PBR:
n n

n

n

permit means “do whatever the set commands says” deny means “do not do anything”

n

When a packet is matched by one of the route-map statements it is processed by that statement and the processing of the packet ends. Ordering route-map statements correctly is therefore necessary.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Classification and Marking

2-9

PBR Classification
Router(config-route-map)#

match ip address <#acl>

• Classify using a standard access list against the source address • Classify using an extended access list against the source and/or destination address, source and/or destination TCP/UDP port, IP precedence, DSCP, ToS
Router(config-route-map)#

match length <min> <max>

• Classify using a range of packet lengths that will be matched by the route map statement

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Classification and Marking -12

Route maps have a number of match options but only two can be used for policybased routing purposes:
n

match ip address is used to examine the packet’s headers with a standard or an extended access list match length is used to mach packets based on their length

n

2-10

IP QoS Classification and Marking

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

PBR Marking
Router(config-route-map)#

set ip precedence <precedence> • Set the specified IP precedence to packets matched by the route map • IP precedence supports 8 classes, two are reserved (6 and 7)
Router(config-route-map)#

set ip qos-group <qos-group> • Classify using a range of packet lengths that will be matched by the route map statement • QoS group supports 100 classes (0-99)
Router(config-route-map)#

set ip tos <tos> • Set the low-order 4 bits of the Type-of-service (ToS) field • These bits are used to specify the delay, throughput and reliability parameters (specified in RFC 791, no longer used after RFC 1812)
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Classification and Marking -13

The following marking options are available with route maps:
n n n

IP precedence QoS group ToS value (the four bits below IP precedence in the ToS field) used for Delay, Throughput, Reliability and Monetary Cost

IP precedence is encoded into the three high-order bits of the ToS field in the IP header. It supports eight classes of which two are reserved and should not be used for user-defined classes (IP precedence 6 and 7). Ip precedence 0 is the default value and is usually used for the best-effort class. QoS group has one major advantage over IP precedence and one major drawback:
n

QoS group supports up to 100 classes. Values 0 to 99 can be used to mark packets. QoS group is a parameter that is local to the router where it is set. It is not part of any header. It is usually set on input interface and later examined (matched) on output interfaces. Once the packet is transmitted, the QoS-group information is lost, and the next router must reclassify and mark the packet.

n

ToS value is encoded into bits 4,3,2 and 1 of the ToS field (according to older RFCs 791 and 1349). This value was made obsolete by the introduction of the DiffServ Code Point, which does not take into account compatibility with these bits.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Classification and Marking

2-11

Applying a Route Map
Router(config-if)#

ip policy-map <route-map-name>

• Specifies the route map used to set QoS and other policy-routing parameters for packets received through the specified interface
Router(config)#

ip local policy-map <route-map-name>

• Specifies the route map used to set QoS and other policy-routing parameters for packets generated by the router

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Classification and Marking -14

Once a route map is configured it must be applied to either packets coming into the router through an interface or to packets being generated by the router. The first command (ip policy-map) is used for forwarded packets. The second command (ip local policy-map) is used for packets generated by a router and is typically used for tunneling packets (e.g. DLSw)
Note Policy-based routing is a mechanism that puts interfaces into Process Switching mode. This will significantly degrade performance. PBR has been available in the fast-switching path since Cisco IOS version 11.3. The ip route-cache policy command can be used on an interface to enable caching for PBR. This command has been available since Cisco IOS software version 12.0.

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IP QoS Classification and Marking

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Monitoring and Troubleshooting PBR
Router#

show route-map <name>

• Displays the route map and number of packets and bytes matched by each statement
Router#

debug ip policy

• Displays all packets matched by policy routing routemaps

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Classification and Marking -15

The show route-map command is used to display the route map with its match and set options. The debug ip policy command is used to display all packets being processed by PBR. The show ip policy command is used to see a list of all interfaces that are enabled for PBR. The output also displays the corresponding route maps. The show ip local policy command is used to display the configured parameters for local PBR with a number of packets and bytes that have been policy-routed by the local PBR.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Classification and Marking

2-13

Monitoring and Debugging Policy Routing
Router#show route-map CPE Router#show route-map CPE route-map CPE, permit, sequence 10 route-map CPE, permit, sequence Match clauses: Match ip address (access-lists): 199 address (access-lists): Set clauses: clauses: ip precedence flash-override precedence flash-override Policy routing matches: 3418 packets, 412108 bytes route-map CPE, permit, sequence 20 route-map CPE, permit, sequence Match clauses: Match ip address (access-lists): MatchPing address (access-lists): MatchPing Set clauses: clauses: ip precedence priority precedence priority Policy routing matches: 82 packets, 31045 bytes Policy routing matches: 82 packets, 31045 bytes Router#show access-list MatchPing Router#show access-list MatchPing Extended IP access list MatchPing Extended IP access MatchPing permit icmp any any echo (25 matches) Router# Router#
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Classification and Marking -16

The figure shows a sample output of the show route-map and show access-list commands.

2-14

IP QoS Classification and Marking

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Monitoring and Debugging Policy-based Routing
Router#debug ip policy Router#debug ip policy Policy routing debugging is on Policy routing debugging is on Router#ping 192.168.1.1 Router#ping 192.168.1.1 Type escape sequence to abort. Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100 -byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds: Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 28/31/32 ms Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round -trip min/avg/max = 28/31/32 ms Router# Router# 2d02h: IP: s=192.168.1.2 (local), d=192.168.1.1, len 100, policy match 2d02h: IP: s=192.168.1.2 (local), d=192.168.1.1, len 100, policy match 2d02h: IP: route map CPE, item 20, permit 2d02h: IP: route map CPE, item 20, permit ... ...

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Classification and Marking -17

The debug ip policy command is similar to the debug ip packet except that the debug ip policy only displays policy-routed packets. This command should be used with caution as it may produce too much output.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Classification and Marking

2-15

IP Precedence Marking Case Study #1
• Branch office of a bank has two LANs connected to an access router
• Ethernet0 is the front office with the real time transactions • Ethernet1 is the back office with non-real time transactions (like e-mail)

• The network provides different services to two classes:
• Business traffic (marked with IP precedence 2) • Other traffic (marked with IP precedence 0)

• Packets coming from Ethernet 0 should be classified and marked as Business traffic • Packets coming from Ethernet 1 should be classified and marked as Other traffic
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Classification and Marking -18

The case study involves a bank branch office where a single router connects two LANs to the corporate network via one serial interface. This case study focuses on the classification and marking part of a larger QoS solution, which includes other QoS mechanisms.

2-16

IP QoS Classification and Marking

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Case #1- Solution
Mark all traffic with precedence 2
E0

Mark all traffic with precedence 0
WAN core

interface ethernet 0 interface ethernet ip policy-map set-prec-2 policy-map set-prec-2 Core E1 ! ! interface ethernet Branch interface ethernet 1 policy-map set-prec-0 office ip policy-map set-prec-0 ! ! route-map set-prec-2 permit 10 route-map set-prec-2 permit 10 set ip precedence 2 ip ! ! route-map set-prec-0 permit 10 route-map set-prec-0 permit 10 set ip precedence 0 ip

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Classification and Marking -19

Policy-based routing can be used to mark packets with IP precedence values. All packets from Ethernet 0 are marked with IP precedence 2. Since matching is applied to all packets no “match” command is needed in the route map. The other route map is applied to the other Ethernet interface and it marks packets with IP precedence 0.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Classification and Marking

2-17

IP Precedence Marking Case Study #2
• Branch office of a bank has one LAN connected to an access router • The network provides different services to three classes:
• Transaction traffic (marked with IP precedence 2) • Business traffic (marked with IP precedence 1) • Other traffic (marked with IP precedence 0)

• TN3270 should be marked as Transaction traffic • Internal HTTP should be marked as Business traffic • All other traffic should be marked as Other traffic

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Classification and Marking -20

The second case study is more complicated because classification is not done based on the input interface. Instead, classification if performed based on application (TCP or UDP port numbers).

2-18

IP QoS Classification and Marking

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Case #2 - Solution

E0

WAN core

interface eth 0 interface eth 0

Core

Mark IP precedence: Mark IP precedence:
Telnet = 2 Telnet 2 Corporate Web = 1 Corporate Web = everything else = 0 everything else =

ip policy-map set-prec ip policy-map set-prec Branch ! ! office route-map set-prec permit route-map set-prec permit

10 10 match ip address CorporateWebTraffic match ip address CorporateWebTraffic set ip precedence 1 set 1 route-map set-prec permit 20 route-map set-prec permit 20 match ip address TN3270 match ip address TN3270 set ip precedence 2 set 2 route-map set-prec permit 30 route-map set-prec permit 30 set ip precedence 0 set 0 ! ! ip access-list extended CorporateWebTraffic ip access-list extended CorporateWebTraffic permit tcp any 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 eq www permit tcp any 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 eq www ip access-list extended TN3270 ip access-list extended TN3270 permit tcp any any eq telnet permit tcp any any eq telnet
Classification and Marking -21

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

A route map is created with three statements, one for each application:
n

The first statement uses an access list to identify corporate web traffic (destination port 80). IP precedence 1 is applied to these packets. The second statement uses another access list to identify outbound telnet sessions. IP precedence 2 is applied to these packets. The last statement sets IP precedence 0 to all other packets.

n

n

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Classification and Marking

2-19

Route Map - Review
• Policy routing with route maps can classify and mark IP packets based on a wide variety of conditions • No metering, shaping or dropping is possible • Performance depends on the IOS version
– Policy routing is fast -switched in 11.3 and 12.0 – (d)CEF or Net Flow-switched in 12.0(3)T

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Classification and Marking -22

Policy-based Routing features:
n

Static classification and marking (no metering, shaping, policing or dropping is possible). PBR has performance limitations due to implementation (complex access lists can degrade performance, sub-optimal order of statements can also degrade performance due to sequential processing) and the IOS version (newer IOS versions support fast-switched operation of PBR).

n

2-20

IP QoS Classification and Marking

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Summary
Policy based routing is used for two purposes:
n n

Bypassing the traditional destination-based forwarding Marking of IP packets with Ip precedence or QoS group

Lesson Review
n n n n n

What are the applications of Policy-based Routing? What configuration tool is used to implement PBR? How can PBR be applied to IP traffic? Describe the classification options with PBR. Describe the marking options with PBR.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Classification and Marking

2-21

QoS Policy Propagation through BGP (QPPB)
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
n n n

Describe the QPPB mechanism Configure the QPPB mechanism on Cisco routers Monitor and troubleshoot QPPB

2-22

IP QoS Classification and Marking

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Policy Propagation Through BGP (QPPB)
• QPPB uses BGP attributes to advertise class of service to other routers in the network • BGP Communities are usually used to propagate class of service information bound to IP networks • Packet classification policy can be propagated via BGP without having to use complex access lists at each of a large number of border (edge) routers • A route map is used to translate BGP information (e.g. BGP Community value) into IP precedence or QoS group

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Classification and Marking -27

QoS Policy Propagation through BGP is a mechanism that can be split into two parts:
n

Policy propagation via BGP, where a QoS policy is encoded into a BGP attribute. BGP Communities are typically used to encode a QoS policy. Marking of packets with IP precedence or QoS group based on the QoS policy learned via BGP.

n

BGP Policy is usually set on ingress routers (ingress for route propagation, egress for packet forwarding) in an Autonomous System. BGP then carries the information to other routers in the AS and translates (using a route map) this information into IP precedence or QoS group. Marking is then enabled on perinterface basis.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Classification and Marking

2-23

QPPB Capabilities
Meter
QPPB can only classify and mark inbound packets

Inbound or Locally-originated

Classifier

Marker

Dropper

Forwarding
Outbound

Meter

Classifier

Marker

Shaper Dropper

Queuing

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Classification and Marking -28

Similar to PBR, QPPB also supports classification and marking only on the input interface.

2-24

IP QoS Classification and Marking

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

BGP Marking
Meter
Inbound traffic stream

Classifier

Marker

Dropper

1. Propagate the class of service by encoding it into BGP attributes:
• • • • BGP communities, AS paths, IP prefixes or any other BGP attribute

2. Translate the selected BGP attribute into either:
• IP precedence or • QoS group

3. Enable Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) and packet marking on interfaces
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Classification and Marking -29

QoS policy can be applied to source or destination IP addresses or networks. When BGP entries are inserted into the routing table a route map is used to translate a certain BGP parameter or attribute into IP precedence or QoS group. Packet marking is then enabled on input interfaces.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Classification and Marking

2-25

Cisco Express Forwarding Review
• The two main components of CEF operation
– Forwarding Information Base – Adjacency Tables

• CEF was first introduced on the following platforms:
– Cisco 7x00 series in 11.1CC – All RISC-based platforms in IOS 12.0

• QPPB is only supported on high-end routers (Cisco 7x00 and above)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Classification and Marking -30

QPPB has the following requirements:
n n

Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) A high end platform (Cisco 7x000 routers)

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IP QoS Classification and Marking

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Review: Standard IP Switching
BGP table Address 10.0.0.0 ... Prefix /8 ... AS-Path 42 13 ... Next hop 1.2.3.4 ... Communities 37:12 ... Other attr. ...

IP routing table

Protocol BGP conn.

Address 10.0.0.0 1.2.3.0

Prefix /8 /24

Next-hop 1.2.3.4 ---

Outgoing interface --Ethernet 0

Switching cache

Address 10.0.0.0 ...

Prefix /8 ...

L2 header MAC header ...

ARP cache

IP address 1.2.3.4 ...

MAC address 0c.00.11.22.33.44 ...
Classification and Marking -31

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

The figure illustrates how BGP routing information is used on routers that are configured with the default switching operation:
n

A BGP entry is inserted into the main routing table (the network points to the BGP next-hop address. A recursive routing lookup is needed when the first packet arrives. After the output interface is identified, a cache entry is generated. Multi-access media requires additional information from the ARP cache. The subsequent packets are forwarded using the fast-switching cache.

n

n

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Classification and Marking

2-27

Review: CEF Switching
BGP table Address 10.0.0.0 ... Prefix /8 ... AS-Path 42 13 ... Next hop 1.2.3.4 ... Communities 37:12 ... Other attr. ...

IP routing table

Protocol BGP OSPF conn.

Address 10.0.0.0 1.2.3.0 1.5.4.0

Prefix /8 /24 /24

Next-hop 1.2.3.4 1.5.4.1 ---

Outgoing interface --Ethernet 0 Ethernet 0

FIB table (CEF cache)

Address 10.0.0.0 ...

Prefix /8 ...

Adjacency pointer 1.5.4.1 ... ARP cache IP address MAC address 1.5.4.1 0c.00.11.22.33.44 ... ...
Classification and Marking -32

IP address Adjacency 1.5.4.1 table ...
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Layer 2 header MAC header ...

CEF switching is different from the default operation in the following ways:
n

CEF switching cache (the FIB table and the adjacency table) reflects the information from the main routing table. Changes in the FIB table are not triggered by packets but by changes in the main routing table itself. The CEF switching cache is split into two tables:
n

n

Forwarding Information Base (FIB) which contains all networks that are taken from the routing table. Those entries point to directly accessible next-hops. Adjacency pointers are used to get information about these next-hops from the Adjacency table Adjacency table contains a list of directly connected neighboring IP devices. A layer-2 header is created in advance to accelerate the encapsulation process.

n

2-28

IP QoS Classification and Marking

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

CEF Switching with QoS Packet Marking
BGP table Address 10.0.0.0 ... Prefix /8 ... AS-Path 42 13 ... Next hop 1.2.3.4 ... Communities Other attr. 37:12 BGP table... map ...

IP routing table

Protocol BGP OSPF conn.

Address 10.0.0.0 1.2.3.0 1.5.4.0

Prefix /8 /24 /24

Next-hop 1.2.3.4 1.5.4.1 ---

Outgoing interface Precedence QoS group --3 7 Ethernet 0 ----Ethernet 0 -----

FIB table (CEF cache)

Address 10.0.0.0 ...

Prefix /8 ...

Adjacency pointer 1.5.4.1 ...

Precedence QoS group 3 7 ... ... ARP cache IP address MAC address 1.5.4.1 0c.00.11.22.33.44 ... ...
Classification and Marking -33

IP address Adjacency 1.5.4.1 table ...
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Layer 2 header MAC header ...

When using CEF for packet marking a table map is used in the BGP configuration mode to process routes inserted into the routing table. A route map (used as a table map in BGP) can translate any BGP parameter or attribute into IP precedence or QoS group. This information is then passed on to the FIB table. Once packet marking is enabled the router will perform two CEF lookups:
n n

The first lookup is used to mark packets The second lookup is used to make a forwarding decision

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Classification and Marking

2-29

QPPB Configuration Tasks
• Create a route map to set IP precedence or QoS group • Apply the route map to BGP routes transferred to main IP routing table • Enable per-interface packet marking

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Classification and Marking -34

Before configuring routers to support QPPB, a QoS design, which must include the following, is needed:
n

BGP attribute used to encode class of service (BGP Communities are usually used) Marker (when using QPPB only IP precedence or QoS group can be used)

n

The following configuration steps are necessary on routers that perform packet marking:
n n

Enable CEF Create a route map that translates a BGP attribute into IP precedence or QoS group Apply the route map to process BGP routes before they are entered into the main routing table. Enable per interface marking.

n

n

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IP QoS Classification and Marking

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Setting IP Precedence or QoS Group in the IP Routing Table
Router(config-router)#

table-map <route-map-name>

• Specifies the route map used to set additional routing table attributes
Router(config)#

route-map <name> permit <seq> set ip precedence <precedence> set ip qos-group <group>

• Specifies IP precedence and QoS group values in the routing table/FIB table entry

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Classification and Marking -35

Use the table -map command in the BGP configuration mode to populate the main routing table with the class of service information. A route map can “tag” networks with IP precedence, QoS group or both.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Classification and Marking

2-31

Enable Per-interface Packet Marking
Router(config-if)#

bgp-policy source ip-prec-map

• Applied to packets received through this interface • Uses FIB to map packet source IP address to IP precedence • Rewrites IP precedence in the packet
Router(config-if)#

bgp-policy source ip-qos-map

• Applied to packets received through this interface • Uses FIB to map packet source IP address to QoS group • QoS group attached to the incoming packet
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Classification and Marking -36

Once the FIB table contains the class of service information (IP precedence or QoS group), marking can be configured on input interfaces. CEF-based marking is performed based on the following:
n

Find the source address (taken from the packet being marked) in the FIB table and mark it with the IP precedence value attached to the address/network. Use the bgp-policy source ip-prec-map interface command to mark the packet. Find the source address (taken from the packet being marked) in the FIB table and mark it with the QoS group value attached to the address/network. Use the bgp-policy source ip-qos-map interface command to mark the packet.

n

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IP QoS Classification and Marking

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Enable Per-interface Packet Marking
Router(config-if)#

bgp-policy destination ip-prec-map

• Applied to packets received through this interface • Uses FIB to map packet destination IP address to IP precedence • Rewrites IP precedence in the packet
Router(config-if)#

bgp-policy destination ip-qos-map

• Applied to packets received through this interface • Uses FIB to map packet destination IP address to QoS group • QoS group attached to the incoming packet
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Classification and Marking -37

n

Find the destination address (taken from the packet being marked) in the FIB table and mark it with the IP precedence value attached to the address/network. Use the bgp-policy destination ip-qos-map interface command to mark the packet. Find the destination address (taken from the packet being marked) in the FIB table and mark it with the QoS group value attached to the address/network. Use the bgp-policy destination ip-qos-map interface command to mark the packet.

n

All four commands can be attached to the same interface (although not recommended) and they are processed in the following order:
n n n n

Source-based IP precedence marking Source-based QoS group marking Destination-based IP precedence marking (overrides source-based marking) Destination-based QoS group marking (overrides source-based marking)

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Classification and Marking

2-33

Case Study

WAN core
NAP router NAP router POP router

AS 24

AS 12

Customer (AS 73)

Create an end-to-end IP QoS solution in a Service Provider network:
• Customer in AS 73 is a Premium customer • All packets to and from AS 73 shall be sent with precedence flash
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Classification and Marking -38

This case study shows how customer networks can be marked with a BGP community identifying a class of service, which is then propagated throughout the Autonomous System 12 and used on edge routers to classify and mark packets towards the customer networks with IP precedence flash (IP precedence 3). Each IP precedence value is also identified by a name: IP precedence value 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 IP precedence name Routine Priority Immediate Flash Flash-override Critical Internet Network

2-34

IP QoS Classification and Marking

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Step #1 Distribute QoS functions

WAN core
NAP router NAP router POP router

AS 24

AS 12

Customer (AS 73)

packets for AS73 marked with precedence flash packets from serial interface marked with precedence flash
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Classification and Marking -39

To achieve the same level of quality in both directions the packets going to and coming from the customer network must first be classified and marked. Classification and marking of packets coming from the customer network is trivial:
n

PBR without a match statement is used on the interface connection from the customer network to the ISP’s network. Another option is to use other mechanisms such as Committed Access Rate (CAR), Class-based Policing or Class-based Marking.

n

Classifying and marking packets going to the customer network is a more difficult task because:
n n

Classifying and marking must be performed on all edge routers. Classifying and marking requires the identification of the customer network. Using PBR, CAR, CB-Policing or CB-Marking does not scale because it involves the use of access lists (this is especially difficult if customer networks are dynamically learned via BGP).

QPPB is the only scalable mechanism that can classify and mark packets based on their source or destination IP address.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Classification and Marking

2-35

Step #2 Select QoS mechanisms

WAN core
NAP router NAP router POP router

AS 24

AS 12

Customer (AS 73)

CEF-based marking packets for AS73 marked with precedence flash packets from serial interface marked with precedence flash
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Classification and Marking -40

PBR on interface

The case study will employ PBR to do the marking of outbound packets (from the customer perspective). QPPB will be used to mark inbound packets on remote edge (border) routers.

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IP QoS Classification and Marking

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Step #3 - Design Individual QoS Mechanisms
Mark BGP routes from AS 73 with special community (12:17) Configure community propagation

WAN core
NAP router NAP router POP router

AS 24

Customer AS 12 FIB table (AS 73) on Set based

BGP community Configure CEF packet marking for packets coming from adjacent AS
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Classification and Marking -41

Customers networks are tagged with BGP Community 12:17 and sent to all internal BGP neighbors. Edge routers use a table map to translate BGP Community 12:17 into IP precedence 3. Destination-based precedence marking is enabled on interfaces connecting the AS to other ASs.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Classification and Marking

2-37

Mark Routes Coming From AS 73

WAN core
NAP router NAP router POP router

AS 24

AS 12

Customer (AS 73)

router bgp 12 neighbor 1.2.3.4 remote-as 73 neighbor 1.2.3.4 route-map Premium in ! route-map Premium permit 10 set community 12:17 additive

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Classification and Marking -42

The figure illustrates how a route map is used to process inbound BGP routing updates coming from the customer’s AS 73. The BGP community attribute 12:17 is added to the routing updates.

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IP QoS Classification and Marking

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Configure Community Propagation

WAN core
NAP router NAP router POP router

AS 24

AS 12

Customer (AS 73)

router bgp 12 neighbor 2.3.4.5 remote-as 12 neighbor 2.3.4.5 send-community

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Classification and Marking -43

BGP Community propagation is not enabled by default. It is, therefore, necessary to use the send-community option on all internal BGP sessions to allow BGP Communities to be propagated throughout the autonomous system.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Classification and Marking

2-39

Set FIB Table Based on BGP Community

WAN core
NAP router NAP router POP router

AS 24

router bgp 12 Customer table-map PremiumCheck AS 12 (AS 73) ! route-map PremiumCheck permit 10 match community 17 set ip precedence flash ! route-map PremiumCheck permit 20 set ip precedence 0 ! ip community-list 17 permit 12:17

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Classification and Marking -44

The edge routers use route maps to translate BGP Community values into appropriate IP precedence values. The figure illustrates how all routes carrying BGP community 12:17 are tagged with IP precedence 3 in the routing table and the FIB table. All other networks are tagged with IP precedence 0.
Note Setting IP precedence 0 on all packets not specifically matched by a table map is also a security feature because it prevents IP precedence spoofing. Anyone trying to use a high IP precedence value (e.g. 6 or 7) will be remarked with IP precedence 0 and get the best-effort service.

2-40

IP QoS Classification and Marking

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Configure CEF Packet Marking

WAN core
NAP router NAP router POP router

AS 24

AS 12

Customer (AS 73)

ip cef ! interface hssi 0/0 bgp-policy destination ip-prec-map !

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Classification and Marking -45

The last configuration step is to enable CEF-based marking on border interfaces. The case study requires that all packets going to (destination-based marking) the customer’s network be marked with IP precedence 3. QPPB marking is only available in combination with CEF switching. The global ip cef command enables CEF switching on all interfaces that support CEF.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Classification and Marking

2-41

IP QoS and BGP Interaction Review
• IP QoS features work independently of BGP routing • BGP is used only to propagate policies for source or destination IP prefixes through the network • QPPB works only on high-end platforms

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Classification and Marking -46

Although QPPB support is only available on high-end routers there is no limitation when it comes to tagging BGP routes. Only marking routers have to support QPPB: all other routers simply have to support BGP.

2-42

IP QoS Classification and Marking

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Summary
QPPB is a mechanism that is used to implement more scalable QoS solutions. It uses BGP to propagate QoS policy information and CEF to mark packets with IP precedence or QoS group.

Lesson Review
n n n n

Why is QPPB needed? How is QoS policy propagated through a network? How are QoS traffic classes defined by QPPB? Which IP forwarding mechanisms support QPPB?

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Classification and Marking

2-43

Other QoS Mechanisms with Classification and Marking Capability
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
n n

Explain how most QoS mechanisms support some type of classification Name CAR, CB-Policing and CB-Marking as mechanisms that support classification and marking

2-44

IP QoS Classification and Marking

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Classification
• Most QoS mechanisms include some type of classification • Some mechanisms have automatic classification (e.g. WFQ, WRED, ...) • Some mechanisms require manual configuration of classification (e.g. CQ, PQ, CB-WFQ, ...)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Classification and Marking -51

Most QoS mechanisms include some type of classification:
n

Some mechanisms classify packets automatically. Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ), for instance, classifies packets into flows. Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) classifies packets based on their IP precedence values, etc. Other mechanisms require manual configuration of classification.

n

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Classification and Marking

2-45

Marking
The following mechanism (in addition to PBR and QPPB) contain classification and marking capability :
• Committed Access Rate (CAR) • Class-based Policing • Class-based Marking

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Classification and Marking -52

Only a few remaining mechanisms have marking capabilities:
n n n

Committed Access Rate (CAR), which is used for traffic policing Class-based Policing, which is also used for traffic policing Class-based Marking, which is used for classification and marking purposes only. It may however be combined with other mechanisms available with the Modular QoS CLI

CAR and Class-based Policing are discussed in detail in the “IP QoS – Traffic Shaping and Policing” module. Class-based Marking is discussed in detail in the “IP QoS – Modular QoS CLI (Service Policy)” module. This module includes a high-level overview of these QoS mechanisms.

2-46

IP QoS Classification and Marking

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Committed Access Rate (CAR)
• CAR is a mechanism used for traffic policing • CAR uses a token bucket model to measure the rate of traffic and (optionally) drop excess traffic • CAR can also be used to mark packets with:
– – – – IP precedence DiffServ Code Point (DSCP) MPLS experimental bits QoS group

• CAR can mark packets with different values depending on whether they conform or exceed the specified policy

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Classification and Marking -53

CAR is a mechanism used to limit the traffic rate of a class and optionally mark packets with one of the following markers:
n n n n

IP precedence DSCP MPLS experimental bits QoS group

CAR can also mark packets with two different values depending on whether they:
n n

Conform to the policy (packet is within the contractual bit-rate) Exceed the policy (packet is over the contractual bit-rate)

Conforming and exceeding packets can be marked with different values.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Classification and Marking

2-47

Class-based Policing
• Class-based Policing is similar to CAR except it is implemented using the modular QoS CLI • CB-Policing uses two token buckets to determine if packets conform, exceed or violate the QoS policy • CB-Policing can also be used to mark packets with:
– – – – – – IP precedence DiffServ Code Point (DSCP) MPLS experimental bits QoS group ATM CLP bit Frame Relay DE bit

• CB-Policing can mark packets with different values depending on whether they conform, exceed or violate the policy
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Classification and Marking -54

Class-based Policing (CB-Policing) is a mechanism similar to CAR with the following main differences:
n n n

Modular QoS CLI is used to implement CB-Policing on Cisco routers CB-Policing supports more marking options than Committed Access Rate CB-Policing uses two token buckets to identify not just conforming and exceeding packets but also violating packets.

Class-based policing can mark packets with three different values depending on whether they conform, exceed or violate the policy. Class-based Marking can mark packets with the following markers:
n n n n n n

IP precedence DSCP MPLS experimental bits QoS group ATM CLP bit Frame Relay DE bit

2-48

IP QoS Classification and Marking

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Class-based Marking
• Class-based Marking is used to classify and mark packets • This mechanism uses the modular QoS CLI where classes are manually configured • Class-based Marking can mark packets with the following markers:
– – – – – – – IP precedence DSCP MPLS experimental bits QoS group ATM CLP bit Frame Relay DE bit IEEE 802.1Q or ISL’s CoS
Classification and Marking -55

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Class-based Marking is also implemented using the Modular QoS CLI. It supports the following markers:
n n n n n n n

IP precedence DSCP MPLS experimental bits QoS group ATM CLP bit Frame Relay DE bit IEEE 802.1Q or ISL cos/priority bits

Class-based marking can be combined with other mechanisms available in the Modular QoS CLI.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Classification and Marking

2-49

Summary
The following mechanisms are used for classification and marking purposes:
n n n n n

Policy-based Routing (PBR) QoS Policy Propagation through BGP (QPPB) Committed Access Rate (CAR) Class-based Policing Class-based Marking

PBR is a mechanism that was primarily intended for bypassing the destinationbased forwarding and marking packets with IP precedence or QoS group. QPPB is a mechanism that can also be used to mark packets with IP precedence or QoS group. Its main advantage is scalability.

Lesson Review
n n

Which mechanisms in IOS support classification and marking of packets? Which fields or parameters can be used to mark packets in Cisco IOS?

2-50

IP QoS Classification and Marking

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Summary
After completing this module, you should be able to perform the following tasks:
n

Describe Policy-based routing and how it is used to classify and mark IP packets Describe QoS Policy Propagation through BGP and how it is used to classify and mark IP packets List other mechanisms that also support classification and marking capabilities (Committed Access Rate, Class-based Marking)

n

n

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Classification and Marking

2-51

Review

Questions and Answers Policy-based Routing Question: What are the applications of Policy-based Routing? Answer: PBR is used to bypass the destination-based forwarding or to classify and mark packets. Question: What configuration tool is used to implement PBR? Answer: Route maps are used to implement PBR. Question: How can PBR be applied to IP traffic? Answer: PBR can be applied to input packets or packets originated by the router. Question: Describe the classification options with PBR. Answer: PBR’s classification options include standard and extended access lists as well as packet size based classification. PBR can also classify based on the input interface because it is used on per-interface basis. Question: Describe the marking options with PBR. Answer: PBR can set the next-hop address or output interface to bypass the default destination based forwarding. PBR can also mark packets with the following options: ToS bits, IP precedence or QoS group.

QoS Policy Propagation through BGP (QPPB)

Question: Why is QPPB needed? Answer: QPPB can propagate a QoS class of service information throughout an
autonomous system. This allows more scalable QoS designs where classification is performed on one router and automatically propagated to all other routers in the AS.

Question: How is QoS policy propagated through a network? Answer: BGP is used to propagate the CoS by encoding it into any available BGP
attribute.

Question: How are QoS traffic classes defined by QPPB? Answer: QPPB is limited to assigning IP networks to traffic classes. Question: Which IP forwarding mechanisms support QPPB? Answer: QPPB requires CEF switching to mark packets with IP precedence or
QoS group.

2-52

IP QoS Classification and Marking

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Other QoS Mechanisms with Classification and Marking Capability

Question: Which mechanisms in IOS support classification and marking of
packets?

Answer:
Policy-based Routing (PBR) Committed Access Rate (CAR) QoS Policy Propagation through BGP (QPPB) Class-based Policing Class based Marking

Question: Which fields or parameters can be used to mark packets in Cisco IOS? Answer: IP precedence, DSCP, MPLS experimental bits, QoS group, Frame Relay
DE bit, ATM CLP bit, 802.1q CoS bits, ISL priority bits.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Classification and Marking

2-53

Queuing Mechanisms

Overview
This module describes the queuing mechanisms that can be used on output interfaces. It includes the following topics:
n n n n n n n n

Queuing Overview FIFO Queuing Priority Queuing Custom Queuing Weighted Fair Queuing Distributed Weighted Fair Queuing Modified Deficit Round-robin IP RTP Prioritization

Objectives
Upon completion of this module, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n

Describe and configure FIFO Queuing (FQ) Describe and configure Priority Queuing (PQ) Describe and configure Custom Queuing (CQ) Describe and configure basic Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ), distributed WFQ, ToS-based distributed WFQ and QoS-group-based distributed WFQ Describe and configure Modified Weighted Round-robin (MDRR) queuing Describe and configure IP RTP Prioritization

n n

Queuing Overview
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n

Understand how queuing works on Cisco routers List the most used queuing mechanisms

3-2

Queuing Mechanisms

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Queuing in Cisco IOS
• Cisco routers running Cisco IOS have a number of different queuing mechanisms • This module focuses on the following: – First In First Out (FIFO) – Priority Queuing (PQ) – Custom Queuing (CQ) – Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) with the different distributed versions – Modified Deficit Round Robin (MDRR) – IP RTP Prioritization • These mechnisms are implemented as software queues
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Queuing Mechanisms -5

The lesson discusses how output queuing mechanisms are implemented on Cisco routers running Cisco IOS. It discusses most of the queuing mechanisms in detail, except Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing and Class-based Low-latency Queuing, which are discussed in the “IP QoS – Modular QoS CLI (Chapter 2)” module.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Queuing Mechanisms

3-3

Output Interface Queue Structure

Forwarder

Software Queuing System

Hardware Queue (TxQ)

Output Interface

Any supported queuing mechanism

Always FIFO

• Each Interface has its hardware and software queuing system • The hardware queuing system always uses FIFO queuing (Transmission queue or TxQ) • The software queuing system can be selected and configured depending on the platform and Cisco IOS version
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Queuing Mechanisms -6

Queuing on routers is necessary to accommodate bursts when the arrival rate of packets is greater than the departure rate due to one of the following two reasons:
n n

Input interface is faster than the output interface Output interface is receiving packets coming in from multiple other interfaces

Initial implementations of queuing used a single FIFO (first-in first-out or first-come first-serve queuing) strategy. More complex queuing mechanisms were introduced when special requirements need routers to differentiate between packets of different importance. Queuing was split into two parts:
n

The hardware queue that still uses FIFO strategy, which is necessary for the interface drivers to transmit packets one by one. The hardware queue is sometimes referred to as the transmit queue or TxQ. The software queue that schedules packets into the hardware queue based on the QoS requirements

n

Listed on the previous graphic are some of the available software queuing strategies with their goals:
n n n n

FIFO: no differentiation of packets (true fairness but no guarantees) Priority Queuing (PQ): strict prioritizing of packets Custom Queuing (CQ): service (bandwidth) guaranteed to up to 16 classes Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) and Distributed WFQ: service (bandwidth) guarantee to individual flows Distributed ToS-based WFQ: service (bandwidth) guaranteed to up to 4 classes

n

3-4

Queuing Mechanisms

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

n

Distributed QoS-group-based WFQ: service (bandwidth) guaranteed to up to 100 classes Modified Deficit Round-robin (MDRR): service (bandwidth) guaranteed to up to 8 classes; low-delay guarantee if Strict or Alternate Priority is used IP RTP Prioritization: low-delay guarantee

n

n

Most queuing mechanisms depend on the availability on different platforms and Cisco IOS versions. For example:
n n

MDRR is only available on Cisco 12000 series routers (GSR) Distributed ToS-based and QoS-group-based WFQ are only available on Cisco 7x00 series routers with Versatile Interface Processors (VIP)

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Queuing Mechanisms

3-5

Bypassing the Software Queue

Software Queue Empty?

Yes

Hardware Queue Full?

No

Hardware Queue (TxQ)

No

Yes

Software Queuing System

• When a packet is being forwarded the router will bypass the software queue if:

– the software queue is empty and – the hardware queue is not full
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Queuing Mechanisms -7

The implementation of software queuing was optimized for periods when the interface is not congested. The software queuing system is bypassed whenever there is no packet in the software queue and there is room in the hardware queue. The software queue is, therefore, only used when data must wait to be placed into the hardware queue.

3-6

Queuing Mechanisms

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Hardware Queue (TxQ) Size
• Routers determine the length of the hardware queue based on the configured bandwidth of the interface • Long TxQ may result in poor performance of the software queue • Short TxQ may result in a large number of interrupts which causes high CPU utilization and low link utilization

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Queuing Mechanisms -8

The double queuing strategy (software and hardware queue) has its impacts on the result of overall queuing:
n

Software queue is used for a certain reason. If the hardware queue is too long it will contain a large number of packets scheduled in the FIFO fashion. This is probably against the QoS design that required a certain complex software queuing system (for example, Custom Queuing).

So why use the hardware queue at all? Or why not just set its length to one? That would force all packets to go through the software queue and be scheduled one by one to the interface for transmission. This approach has the following drawbacks:
n

Each time a packet is transmitted, the interface driver interrupts the CPU and requests more packets to be delivered into its hardware queue. Some queuing mechanisms have complex scheduling that takes time to deliver more packets. The interface does not send anything during that time (link utilization is decreased) if the hardware queue is empty because its maximum size is one. The CPU schedules packets one by one instead of many at the same time (in the same interrupt interval). This increases the CPU utilization.

n

Choosing the appropriate length of the hardware queue is very important. The default TxQ size is determined by the IOS based on the bandwidth of the media and should be fine for most queuing implementations. Faster interfaces have longer hardware queues because they produce less delay. Slower interfaces have shorter hardware queues to prevent too much delay in the worst-case scenario where the entire hardware queue is full of MTU-sized packets.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Queuing Mechanisms

3-7

Queuing Components
Forwarded Packets
Software Queuing System Class 1? Add/Drop Queue 1 Hardware Queuing System Class 2? Add/Drop Queue 2 Scheduler Hardware Q Interface

Class n?

Add/Drop

Queue n

• Each queuing mechanism has three main components that define it:
– Classification (selecting the class) – Insertion policy (determining whether a packet can be enqueued) – Service policy (scheduling packets to be put into the hardware queue)
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Queuing Mechanisms -9

The figure illustrates the actions that have to be taken before a packet can be transmitted:
n n

Most queuing mechanisms include classification of packets. Once a packet is classifie d, a router has to determine whether it can put the packet into the queue or it has to drop the packet. Most queuing mechanisms will drop a packet only if the corresponding queue is full (tail-drop). Some mechanisms use a more intelligent dropping scheme (Weighted Fair Queuing) or a random dropping scheme (Weighted Random Early Detection). If the packet is allowed to be enqueued it will be put into the FIFO queue for that particular class. Packets are then taken from the individual per-class queues and put into the hardware queue.

n

n

Queuing systems differ in the following ways:
n

Classification options: some mechanisms classify packets automatically (for example, WFQ), while other mechanisms require manual configuration of classification (for example, PQ or CQ). Insertion policy: most queuing mechanisms use the tail-dropping scheme. Scheduling policy: this is the most important part of every queuing mechanism because it determines the order in which the packets will leave the router.

n n

3-8

Queuing Mechanisms

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Summary
After completing this lesson, you should be able to perform the following tasks:
n n

Understand how queuing works on Cisco routers List the most used queuing mechanisms

Review Questions
Answer the following questions:
n n n

Which queuing mechanisms do Cisco routers support? When is a software queuing mechanisms not used? How does TxQ length affect the software queuing system?

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Queuing Mechanisms

3-9

FIFO Queuing
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n

Describe FIFO queuing Describe the drawbacks of FIFO queuing Configure FIFO queuing on Cisco routers Monitor and troubleshoot FIFO queuing

3-10

Queuing Mechanisms

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

FIFO Queuing
Forwarded Packets
FIFO Queuing System Hardware Queuing System FIFO Scheduler Hardware Q Interface

All in one queue

Tail-drop

Queue 1

Routers serve packets in the first-come first-serve fashion FIFO uses one single queue Newly arriving packets are dropped if the queue is full

All packets are classified into one class

• Software FIFO queue is basically an extension to the hardware FIFO queue
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Queuing Mechanisms -14

FIFO queuing has no classification because all packets belong to the same class. Packets are dropped when the output queue is full (tail-drop). The scheduler services packets in the order they arrived. Software FIFO queue is basically an extension of the hardware FIFO queue.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Queuing Mechanisms

3-11

Benefits and Drawbacks of FIFO Queuing
+ Benefits
• Simple and fast (one single queue with a simple scheduling mechanism) • Supported on all platforms • Supported in all switching paths • Supported in all IOS versions

– Drawbacks
• Unfair allocation of bandwidth among multiple flows • Causes starvation (aggressive flows can monopolize links) • Causes jitter (bursts or packet trains temporarily fill the queue)
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Queuing Mechanisms -15

FIFO queuing might be regarded as the fairest queuing mechanism but it has a long list of drawbacks:
n

FIFO does not fairly allocate bandwidth among multiple flows. Some flows receive more bandwidth because they use larger packets or send more packets. FIFO is extremely unfair when an aggressive flow is contesting with a fragile flow. Aggressive flows send a large number of packets, many of which are dropped. Fragile flows send a modest amount of packets and most of them are dropped because the queue is always full due to the aggressive flow. This type of behavior is called starvation. Short or long bursts cause a FIFO queue to fill. Packets entering an almost full queue have to wait a long time before they can be transmitted. Another time, the queue might be empty causing packets of the same flow to experience almost no delay. Variation in delay is called jitter.

n

n

In spite of all the drawbacks FIFO is still the most used queuing mechanism because of the following benefits:
n

It is simple and fast. Most high-end routers with fast interfaces are not really challenged by the drawbacks mentioned earlier. Furthermore, routers are not capable of complex classification and scheduling when they have to process a large number of packets per second. FIFO is, therefore, the most suitable queuing mechanisms on these platforms. It is supported on all platforms. It is supported in all IOS versions.

n n

3-12

Queuing Mechanisms

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Configuring FIFO Queuing
Router(config-if)#

no fair-queue fair-queue

• FIFO queuing is enabled by default on all interfaces that have a default bandwidth of more than 2Mbsp • Weighted Fair Queuing is enabled if the bandwidth is less than 2Mbps • Disable WFQ to enable FIFO on interfaces that have less than 2Mbps of bandwidth

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Queuing Mechanisms -16

Cisco routers have two default queuing mechanisms:
n

All interfaces with the default bandwidth above 2Mbps use FIFO queuing. No configuration is necessary on such interfaces. All interfaces with the default bandwidth below 2Mbps use Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ). The no fair-queue command must be used to disable WFQ and enable FIFO.

n

There is no special command that specifically enables FIFO.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Queuing Mechanisms

3-13

Configuring FIFO Queuing
Router(config-if)#

hold-queue <buffers> out <buffers>

• FIFO queuing allows a maximum of 40 packets to be stored in the output queue • This command can be used to increase or decrease the maximum number of buffered packets • A large value can be set to support longer bursts (less drops, more buffer usage) • A small value can be set to prevent bursts (more drops)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Queuing Mechanisms -17

One of the considerations when using FIFO queuing is the maximum burst size. Routers allow (by default) up to 40 packets to be in the output queue. Shortening the queue causes more drops, especially for bursty sessions. Lengthening the queue allows more packets to be enqueued. A long queue should be used to allow bursts without drops. The hold-queue command is used to set the maximum number of packets in the output queue.

3-14

Queuing Mechanisms

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

FIFO Example
The Ethernet interface has a default bandwidth of 10Mbps. FIFO is the default queuing and it does not need to be configured.

interface Ethernet0/0 interface ip address 1.1.1.1 255.0.0.0 ip address 1.1.1.1 255.0.0.0 ! ! interface Serial0/0 interface Serial0/0 ip address 2.2.2.2 255.0.0.0 ip address 2.2.2.2 255.0.0.0 no fair-queue no fair-queue hold-queue 50 out hold-queue 50 out ! !

The serial interface (A/S) has a default bandwidth of 128 kbps. WFQ is the default queuing and it has to be disabled to enable FIFO queuing. Up to 50 frames are allowed to be enqueued before the router will start tail-dropping newely arriving packets.

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Queuing Mechanisms -18

The example shows how FIFO can be enabled on an interface that uses WFQ by default. The serial interface in question has the default bandwidth of 128 kbps (below 2 Mbps). The ethernet interface has the default bandwidth of 10 Mbps (above 2 Mbps) and requires no configuration. The maximum output queue size was also slightly increased from the default 40 to 50.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Queuing Mechanisms

3-15

Monitoring and Troubleshooting FIFO
Router#

show interface [<interface>] interface [<interface>]

• The command displays information about the selected interface(s)
Router#show interface Serial0/0 Router#show interface Serial0/0 The queue is currently empty ( 0/50). Serial0/0 is up, line protocol is up Serial0/0 is up, line protocol is up There can be a maximum of 50 frames in the Hardware is PowerQUICC Serial Hardware queue (0/50). Internet address is 1.1.1.1/8 Internet MTU 1500 bytes, BW 128 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec, MTU 1500 bytes, BW 128 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec, reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255 reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255 Encapsulation HDLC, loopback not set Encapsulation HDLC, loopback not set Keepalive set (10 sec) Keepalive set (10 sec) FIFO queuing is enabled on Last input 00:00:02, output 00:00:04, output hang never an interface with the Last input 00:00:02, default bandwidth of Last clearing of "show interface" counters never Last clearing "show interface" 128kbps. Queueing strategy: fifo Queueing strategy: fifo Output queue 0/50, 0 drops; input queue 0/75, 0 drops Output queue 0/50, 0 drops; input queue 5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec 5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec … …
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Queuing Mechanisms -19

FIFO queuing is not supported by a large arsenal of show and debug commands. The show interface command can be used to determine the queuing strategy of an interface and to display the following statistics:
n n

The current queue size (buffer usage) The maximum queue size (default 40 or whatever is configured with the hold-queue out command)

3-16

Queuing Mechanisms

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Summary
FIFO queuing is the oldest queuing mechanism in the Cisco IOS. It is used on fast interfaces because of its simplicity and speed. FIFO produces undesirable behavior on congested (low-speed) interfaces that manifest itself as:
n n n n

Unfair allocation of bandwidth Starvation of less-aggressive flows Delay Jitter

FIFO is the default queuing mechanism on all interfaces that have the default bandwidth of more than 2 Mbps. FIFO queuing can be enabled on interfaces with the default bandwidth of 2 Mbps or less by disabling WFQ.

Review Questions
Answer the following questions:
n n n

Why is FIFO the fastest queuing mechanism? Describe the classification and scheduling of FIFO queuing. List the drawbacks of FIFO queuing.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Queuing Mechanisms

3-17

Priority Queuing
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n

Describe Priority Queuing Describe the benefits and drawbacks of Priority Queuing Configure Priority Queuing on Cisco routers Monitor and troubleshoot Priority Queuing

3-18

Queuing Mechanisms

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Priority Queuing
Forwarded Packets
Priority Queuing System

High?

Tail-drop

Queue 1

Medium?

Tail-drop

Queue 2 Pre-emptive Scheduler

Hardware Queuing System Hardware Q Interface

Normal?

Tail-drop

Queue 3

Low?

Tail-drop

Queue 4

• Priority Queuing (PQ) uses four FIFO queues
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Queuing Mechanisms -24

Priority Queuing (PQ) is one of the first mechanisms that allowed classification of packets into multiple classes. Scheduling is done in strict priority. PQ can classify packets into one of the four queues:
n n n n

High queue Medium queue Normal queue (the default queue) Low queue

Scheduling prefers packets in the same order. Each class uses one FIFO queue, where packets are dropped if a queue is full.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Queuing Mechanisms

3-19

Priority Queuing Classification
• Priority Queuing classification for IP supports the following options: – Source interface – IP access list (standard and extended) – Packet size (greater or smaller than specified) – Fragments – TCP source or destination port numbers – UDP source or destination port numbers

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Queuing Mechanisms -25

Priority Queuing can classify IP packets with the following tools:
n n

Direct matching on the source interface. Standard or extended IP Access list. Extended IP access lists support matching on the following parameters:
– – – – – – – – –

Source IP address Destination IP address Source TCP or UDP port number or port range Destination TCP or UDP port number or port range IP precedence (high-order three bits of the ToS field) DSCP (high-order six bits of the ToS field) ToS value (bits one through four of the ToS field) Fragments TCP flags (ACK, SYN, RST, URG, PSH)

n n n

Direct matching of TCP or UDP source and destination port numbers. Direct matching of fragments. Direct matching of packets based on their size.

3-20

Queuing Mechanisms

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Priority Queuing Classification
• Priority Queuing also supports classification of other protocols with the following options: – Protocol-specific access list (if available for the specified protocol) – Packet size (greater or smaller than specified) • Some of the supported protocols are: – IPX – CLNS – DECNET – AppleTalk – VINES – DLSw

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Priority Queuing is a multi-protocol QoS mechanism because it supports classification tools for other (non-IP) protocols. The figure lists the match options for some of the supported Layer-3 protocols as well as other higher-layer protocols. Although other protocols are supported, the classification options are not as powerful as with IP. Most protocols can use their corresponding access lists to classify packets. Matching on packet size is also available with all supported protocols.

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Priority Queuing Insertion Policy
• Each queue has a maximum number of packets that it can hold (queue size). • After a packet is classified to one of the following queues the router will enqueue the packet if the queue limit has not been reached (tail-drop within each class).

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Priority Queuing is basically a collection of four parallel FIFO queues. Each queue suffers from all FIFO problems isolated to the class (unfair, starvation, delay, jitter). Each queue uses the tail-drop scheme when the queue is full. Each of the four queues can be configured with the maximum number of packets that it can hold.

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Priority Queuing Scheduling

Packet in HIGH queue? Yes

No

Packet in MEDIUM queue? Yes

No

Packet in NORMAL queue? Yes

No

Packet in LOW queue? Yes

No

Dispatch Packet And start checking the HIGH queue again

Hardware Q

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Queuing Mechanisms -28

Priority Queuing uses strict priority scheduling. As long as there are packets in the high queue no other queue will be served. If the high queue is empty the router starts serving the medium queue. Congestion in any of the queues, except the low queue, causes a different type of starvation. A congested higher-priority queue causes all lower-priority queues to starve (class starvation).

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Benefits and Drawbacks of Priority Queuing
+ Benefits
• Provides low-delay propagation to high-priority packets • Supported on most platforms • Supported in all IOS versions (above 10.0)

– Drawbacks
• All drawbacks of FIFO queuing within a single class • Starvation of lower -priority classes when higherpriority classes are congested • Manual configuration of classification on every hop

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As mentioned previously, Priority Queuing suffers from the same drawbacks as FIFO queuing, except it is localized to four classes. Each class can experience starvation, delay and jitter if one or more flows in the class cause congestion. Furthermore, one higher-priority queue can cause all other queues to starve if it is congested. Priority Queuing requires manual configuration of classification. The main benefit of PQ is that it enables the user to create a class that is used for applications that require low delay (high queue).

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Configuring Priority Queuing
• Configure priority lists –Configure classification –Select a queue –Set maximum queue size • Apply the priority list to outbound traffic on an interface

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The configuration of Priority Queuing can be split into the following four steps: 1. Classify data into four classes 2. Assign a queue to each class 3. Set the maximum queue size (if the default is not appropriate) 4. Apply the priority queuing system to one or more interfaces

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Priority Queuing Classification
Router(config)# priority-list list-number protocol protocol-name list-number {high|medium|normal|low} queue-keyword keyword-value

• Selects the queue based on layer-3 protocol • Additional classification (queue-keyword): – fragment (IP packets with non-zero fragment offset) – gt/lt <size>: based on packet size (including L2 frame) – list <acl>: ACL classification – tcp/udp <port>: TCP or UDP port number • System and link-level messages are classified in high by default
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Queuing Mechanisms -31

The first three configuration steps are achieved using the priority-list command. A Priority Queuing system is identified with a common number (list-number). Priority Queuing supports the following direct classification options of IP packets: 1. Match fragments 2. Match packets based on their size 3. Match packets based on their source or destination TCP/UDP port number A far more powerful classification tool is an access list (standard or extended).

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Priority Queuing Classification
Router(config)# priority-list list-number interface intf {high|medium|normal|low} {high|medium|normal|low}

• Classifies the packet based on incoming interface
Router(config)# priority-list list-number default {high|medium|normal|low} default

• Classifies all unclassified packets in a default queue

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Additionally, PQ supports classification based on source interface. By default, all traffic not specifically classified goes into the normal queue. This behavior can be changed by using the priority-list default command.
Note The priority-list commands are evaluated in the order they were entered. This is especially important when overlapping classification is configured for separate queues. For example: Line 1: all IP traffic goes into the high priority queue Line 2: all TCP traffic goes into the medium queue The medium queue in this example would never g et any packets because it appears second in the configuration and it is a subset of the first line.

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Priority Queuing Scheduling and Dropping Parameters
Router(config)# priority-list list-number queue-limit high medium normal low low

• Specifies the maximum queue sizes of individual priority queues
Router(config-if)# priority-group list

• Assigns Priority Queuing definition to an interface

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Priority Queuing uses the following default maximum queue sizes for the four queues:
n n n n

High queue has a default queue limit of 20 Medium queue has a default queue limit of 40 Normal queue has a default queue limit of 60 Low queue has a default queue limit of 80

The last configuration step is to apply a priority-list to an interface. Use the priority-group command with a corresponding priority-list number to enable Priority Queuing on an interface.

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Sample PQ Configuration

E0

WAN core

E1

interface serial0 interface serial0 Branch priority-group 1 priority-group

Core

office
priority-list priority-list priority-list priority-list priority-list priority-list priority-list priority-list 1 1 1 1 protocol ip high list 101 protocol interface ethernet 0 medium interface ethernet 0 medium default normal queue-limit 20 40 60 80

access-list 101 permit tcp any any eq 23 access-list 101 permit tcp any any

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The figure illustrates a simple example where outbound traffic is classified into the following three classes: 1. All outbound telnet sessions (access list 101) are using the high priority queue 2. All traffic coming into the router via interface Ethernet 0 is forwarded through the medium queue 3. All other traffic is using the default normal queue

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Monitoring Priority Queuing
Router# show interface interface interface

• Displays information and statistics about queuing on interface
Router# show queueing [priority|custom|fair|random-detect] interface

• Displays queuing parameters on interfaces
Router# show queue interface queue interface

• Displays queue contents
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Queuing Mechanisms -35

The show interface command can be used to determine the queuing strategy of an interface. If the queuing strategy is PQ some statistics are also displayed. The show queueing priority command can be used to display all non-default parameters of priority lists.
Note To use the show queueing command, you must enter at least the first six characters to differentiate the command (show queuei vs. show queue).

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Show Interface
Router#show interface serial 1/0 Router#show interface serial 1/0 Serial1/0 is up, line protocol is up Serial1/0 is up, line protocol is up Hardware is M4T Hardware is M4T Internet address is 20.0.0.1/8 Internet address is 20.0.0.1/8 MTU 1500 bytes, BW 19 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec, rely 255/255, load 93/255 MTU 1500 bytes, BW 19 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec, rely 255/255, load 93/255 Encapsulation HDLC, crc 16, loopback not set Encapsulation HDLC, crc 16, loopback not set Keepalive set (10 sec) Keepalive set (10 sec) Last input 00:00:00, output 00:00:00, output hang never Last input 00:00:00, output 00:00:00, output hang never Last clearing of "show interface" counters never Last clearing of "show interface" counters never Input queue: 0/75/0 (size/max/drops); Total output drops: 0 Input queue: 0/75/0 (size/max/drops); Total output drops: 0 Queueing strategy: priority-list 1 Queueing strategy: priority-list 1 Output queue (queue priority: size/max/drops): Output queue (queue priority: size/max/drops): high: 0/20/0, medium: 0/40/0, normal: 0/60/0, low: 0/80/0 high: 0/20/0, medium: 0/40/0, normal: 0/60/0, low: 0/80/0 5 minute input rate 18000 bits/sec, 8 packets/sec 5 minute input rate 18000 bits/sec, 8 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 7000 bits/sec, 8 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 7000 bits/sec, 8 packets/sec … rest ignored ... … rest ignored ...

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The show interface command displays the parameters and the statistics of all four priority queues. The first parameter is the current size of the queue, the second is the maximum allowed size of the queue and the third parameter is the number of drops since the last clearing of counters.

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3-31

Show Queuing Priority

Router#show queueing priority Router#show queueing Current priority queue configuration: Current priority queue configuration: List List 1 1 1 1 Queue Args Args high protocol ip list 101 high medium interface Ethernet6/0 medium interface

• The “show queueing priority” command displays only the non-default parameters

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Queuing Mechanisms -37

The show queueing priority command lists all non-default parameters. The figure shows the two parameters:
n n

All packets permitted by access list 101 go into the high queue All packets coming from interface Ethernet6/0 go into the medium queue

The commands that set default parameters are not displayed, either in the running configuration or by using this command.

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Summary
Priority Queuing uses four FIFO queues. Strict priority queuing is used. Starvation within a single class or starvation of lower-priority classes is possible when one flow congests a higher-priority queue. Priority queuing can be used to guarantee all the bandwidth and low-delay propagation.

Review Questions
Answer the following questions:
n n n n

When would you use priority queuing? What are the benefits and drawbacks of priority queuing? How many classes does priority queuing support? How does priority queuing schedule packets?

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Custom Queuing
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n

Describe Custom Queuing Describe the benefits and drawbacks of Custom Queuing Configure Custom Queuing on Cisco routers Monitor and troubleshoot Custom Queuing

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Custom Queuing
Forwarded Packets
Custom Queuing System

Class 1?

Tail-drop

Queue 1

Class 2?

Tail-drop

Queue 2 Round Robin Scheduler

Hardware Queuing System Hardware Q Interface

Class 16?

Tail-drop

Queue 16

• Custom Queuing (CQ) uses 16 FIFO queues for user defined traffic classes
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Queuing Mechanisms -42

Custom Queuing (CQ) is similar to Priority Queuing in the way it is configured and in the supported classification options. The scheduling, however, is completely different. CQ uses up to 16 queues that can be used for user-defined classes. The classification options are identical to those of Priority Queuing. The scheduling mechanism uses the round-robin service where each queue is allowed to forward a certain number of bytes (not packets). Tail-drop is still used within each individual queue.

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Custom Queuing Classification
• Custom Queuing classification for IP supports the following options: – Source interface – IP access list (standard and extended) – Packet size (greater or smaller than specified) – Fragments – TCP source or destination port numbers – UDP source or destination port numbers • Custom Queuing classification is identical to that of Priority Queuing

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Custom Queuing (similar to Priority Queuing) can classify IP packets with the following tools:
n n

Direct matching on the source interface. Standard or extended IP Access list. Extended IP access lists support matching on the following parameters:
– – – – – – – – –

Source IP address Destination IP address Source TCP or UDP port number or port range Destination TCP or UDP port number or port range IP precedence (high-order three bits of the ToS field) DSCP (high-order six bits of the ToS field) ToS value (bits one through four of the ToS field) Fragments TCP flags (ACK, SYN, RST, URG, PSH)

n n n

Direct matching of TCP or UDP source and destination port numbers. Direct matching of fragments. Direct matching of packets based on their size.

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Custom Queuing Insertion Policy
• Each queue has a maximum number of packets that it can hold (queue size). • After a packet is classified to one of the following queues the router will enqueue the packet if the queue limit has not been reached (tail-drop within each class).

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Once the packet is classified a router has to determine if the packet can be enqueued. The packet is dropped if the queue is full. Each queue, unless configured otherwise, can buffer up to 20 packets before the first packet is dropped.

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Custom Queuing Scheduling
No Packet in Queue N? Yes No Next Queue (increase N) Yes Is Queue N over the threshold?

Dispatch Packet

Hardware Q

• Custom Queuing uses round-robin service policy • Each queue is allowed to forward a configurable amount of bytes (threshold) in one round
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Queuing Mechanisms -45

Custom Queuing uses round-robin scheduling, where each queue gets some service (bandwidth). Each queue is configured with the number of bytes (byte-count) it can send in one round. The last packet is always sent, even if the total amount of bytes sent in one round is above the limit (byte-count). The router then starts processing the next queue.

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Custom Queuing Scheduling Parameters
1500 1499 1500

Threshold (byte-count) = 3000 Up to 4499 bytes can be forwarded in one round in the worst case

• The threshold (byte count) parameter specifies the lower boundary on how many bytes the system allows to be delivered from a given queue during a particular cycle • The router is allowed to send the entire packet even if the sum of all bytes is more than the threshold
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Queuing Mechanisms -46

The figure illustrates the worst case scenario where the following parameters were used to implement Custom Queuing on an interface:
n n

MTU of the interface is 1500 bytes Byte-count is 3000 (twice the MTU)

The example shows how the router first sent two packets with a total size of 2999 bytes. Since this is still within the limit (3000) the router can send the next packet (MTU-sized). The result was that the queue received almost 50% more bandwidth in this round than it should. This is one of the drawbacks of Custom Queuing – it does not allocate bandwidth accurately.

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CQ Design Guideline
• Configure the amount to remove from a queue in each round to configure the proportional “weight” of the queue • Amounts to remove should approximate a small multiple of the interface’s MTU • Ratio between largest and smallest queue should be a small positive integer, not more than 10:1

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Queuing Mechanisms -47

The limit or weight of the queue is configured in bytes. The accuracy of Custom Queuing depends on the weight (byte-count) and the MTU. If the ratio between the byte-count and the MTU is too small CQ will not allocate bandwidth accurately. If the ratio between the byte-count and the MTU is too large CQ will cause long delays. This problem is discussed in detail on the next two pages.

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Delay vs. Bandwidth Allocation
Queue 1 5999 4500 Queue 2 4499 3000 Queue 3 2999 1500 Round Robin Scheduler 64 kbps MTU=1500

BW (Queue 1) = bc1/(bc1+bc2+bc3) = 4500/9000 = 50% BW = bc1/(bc1+bc2+bc3) = = Delay (Queue 1) = (bc2+bc3)/Bandwidth = 562ms Delay (Queue 1)

Worst-case Delay (Queue 1) = ((bc2+1499) +(bc3+1499))/Bandwidth = 937ms Worst-case Delay (Queue +(bc3+1499))/Bandwidth =

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The figure illustrates sample calculations of bandwidth guarantees and the maximum delay. The time it takes to complete a round depends on the bandwidth of the interface, the MTU size and the sum of all queue byte-counts. The case study parameters are:
n

The first queue uses a byte-count of 4500 (three times the MTU)—5999 bytes can be sent in the worst case The second queue uses a byte-count of 3000 (two times the MTU)—4499 bytes can be sent in the worst case The third queue uses byte-count 1500 (MTU)—2999 bytes can be sent in the worst case

n

n

The first calculation shows that the first queue should receive approximately 50% of the bandwidth. The second calculation shows the round-robin delay of 562ms for Queue 1 when all classes are congested. The third calculation shows the round-robin delay of 937ms for Queue 1 when all classes are congested and manage to send the maximum number of bytes (byte-count + MTU - 1) in one round. Although this worst case is very unlikely it is also unlikely that classes will use the exact configured maximum.

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Worst-case Delay
• MTU=1500, byte-count (4500, 3000, 1500) Max(delay)=(5999+4499)*8/64000=1312 ms • MTU=1000, byte-count (4500, 3000, 1500) Max(delay)=(5499+3999)*8/64000=1187 ms • MTU=250, byte-count (450, 300, 150) Max(delay)=(699+549)*8/64000=156 ms Expected delay=(500+500)*8/64000=125 ms Custom queuing is not appropriate for lowdelay environment. Changing MTU and bytecounts might be a workaround.

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Queuing Mechanisms -49

The figure shows several calculations where the worst-case maximum delay was reduced by reducing both the MTU and the byte-counts.
Note The calculation merely shows the impact the MTU and the byte-count have on the delay. Lowering the MTU is not a recommended solution because it potentially increases the CPU utilization of the router due to fragmentation of packets.

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Benefits and Drawbacks of Custom Queuing
+ Benefits
• Guarantees throughput to traffic classes (prevents starvation between traffic classes) • Supported on most platforms • Supported in all IOS versions (above 10.0)

– Drawbacks
• • • • All drawbacks of FIFO queuing within a single class Manual configuration of classification on every hop Not accurate bandwidth allocation High jitter due to implementation of scheduling

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In addition to all the benefits and drawbacks of Priority Queuing, Custom Queuing can also guarantee bandwidth to up to 16 classes. Custom Queuing can cause all queues to experience delay due to the implementation of scheduling (one round can take a long time).

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Custom Queuing Classification
Router(config)# queue-list list-number protocol protocol-name protocol-name queue-number queue-keyword keyword-value queue-number

• Classifies the packet into a custom queue based on protocol and other protocol-specific criteria • Selection criteria identical to priority queuing
Router(config)# queue-list list-number interface incoming-intf queue-number queue-number

• Classifies the packet into a custom queue based on incoming interface

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Custom queuing uses the same classification options as Priority Queuing. Instead of using names queues are numbered (1 to 16).

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Custom Queuing Classification
Router(config)# queue-list list-number default queue-number default

• Classifies all unclassified packets into a default queue
Router(config-if)# custom-queue list-number

• Starts custom queuing on an interface and assigns specified CQ definition to the interface

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All traffic that is not specifically classified is put into Queue 1.
n n

Use the queue -list default command to change the default queue. Use the custom-queue interface command to apply a queue-list to an interface.

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Custom Queuing Scheduling Parameters
Router(config)# queue-list list queue queue-number byte-count bc queue

• Specifies the lower boundary on how many bytes the system allows to be delivered from a given queue during one round-robin cycle
Default: 1500 bytes
Router(config)# queue-list list queue queue-number limit limit queue

• Specifies the maximum number of packets in a queue • Incoming packets are tail-dropped if the limit is exceeded
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Queuing Mechanisms -53

n

Use the byte-count option to change the default weight of a queue (default equals MTU size) Use the limit option to change the number of packets that a queue can hold (default is 20)

n

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Custom Queuing with Preemptive Queues
Forwarded Packets
Custom Queuing System Class 0? Tail-drop Queue 0 Custom Queuing has queue 0 for system and link-level messages which use pre-emptive scheduling

Class 1?

Tail-drop

Queue 1
Pre -emptive Scheduler

Hardware Queuing System Hardware Q Intf

Class 2?

Tail-drop

Queue 2 Round Robin Scheduler

Class 16?

Tail-drop

Queue 16

Queue 1 is the lowest custom queue that is serviced by the round robin scheduler

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Custom queuing has another queue—Queue 0. This queue is used for system packets (routing protocols, link-level messages). This queue is not served by the round-robin scheduler. Instead, a strict priority scheduler is used to prioritize packets from this queue.

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Custom Queuing with Preemptive Queues
Forwarded Packets
Custom Queuing System Class 0? Tail-drop Queue 0 Custom queues can be configured to use the pre -emptive scheduler

Class 1?

Tail-drop

Queue 1
Pre -emptive Scheduler

Hardware Queuing System Hardware Q Intf

Class 2?

Tail-drop

Queue 2 Queue 2 is now the lowest custom queue that is serviced by the round robin scheduler

Round Robin Scheduler

Class 16?

Tail-drop

Queue 16

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Queuing Mechanisms -55

The strict priority scheduler can be extended to other queues that are normally served by the round-robin scheduler. The figure illustrates how Queue 1 was moved into the priority-scheduled part of the Custom Queuing system. The delimiter can be set to any queue by specifying the lowest custom queue (Queue 2 in this example). In fact, Custom Queuing can be turned into Priority Queuing with 17 queues if Queue 16 is selected as the lowest custom queue.

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Custom Queuing Scheduling Parameters
Router(config)# queue-list list-number lowest-custom queue-number queue-number

• Set the lowest queue to be treated as custom queue • Queues below the specified queue are pre-emptive priority queues (Q1 having highest priority) • Queue 0 is always treated as pre-emptive – System and link-level messages are classified in Q0 by default

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Use the lowest-custom option to achieve the following:
n

All queues from Queue 0 to the queue before the one specified in the command use priority queuing (Queue 0 has the highest priority) All queues from the one specified in the command to Queue 16 use the round-robin scheduler

n

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Custom Queuing Example

E0

WAN core interface serial 1/0 interface 1/0 Core custom-queue-list 5 ! ! queue-list 5 protocol ip 1 list 101 queue-list 5 protocol ip 1 list 101 queue-list 5 queue 1 limit 40 queue-list queue-list 5 lowest-custom 2 queue-list lowest-custom 2 queue-list 5 interface ethernet 0/0 2 queue-list interface ethernet 0/0 2 queue-list 5 queue 2 byte-count 3000 queue-list 5 queue 2 byte-count queue-list 5 protocol ip 3 queue-list queue-list 5 queue 3 byte-count 5000 queue-list 5 queue 3 byte-count queue-list 5 default 4 queue-list default ! ! access-list 101 permit ip any any precedence 5 access-list permit precedence
Queuing Mechanisms -57

E1

Branch office

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

The figure shows a sample configuration where four queues are used:
n

Queue 1 is used for delay-sensitive applications (marked with IP precedence 5). It uses the strict priority scheduler. Queue 2 is used for all packets coming from interface Ethernet0/0. Queue 3 is used for all IP packets that do not end in one of the first two queues. Queue 4 is used for all other traffic.

n n

n

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Custom Queuing - Show Interface
Router#show interface serial 1/0 Router#show interface serial 1/0 Serial1/0 is up, line protocol is up Serial1/0 is up, line protocol is up Hardware is M4T Hardware is M4T Internet address is 20.0.0.1/8 Internet address is 20.0.0.1/8 MTU 1500 bytes, BW 19 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec, rely 255/255, load 107/255 MTU 1500 bytes, BW 19 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec, rely 255/255, load 107/255 Encapsulation HDLC, crc 16, loopback not set Encapsulation HDLC, crc 16, loopback not set Keepalive set (10 sec) Keepalive set (10 sec) Last input 00:00:00, output 00:00:00, output hang never Last input 00:00:00, output 00:00:00, output hang never Last clearing of "show interface" counters never Last clearing of "show interface" counters never Input queue: 0/75/0 (size/max/drops); Total output drops: 0 Input queue: 0/75/0 (size/max/drops); Total output drops: 0 Queueing strategy: custom-list 5 Queueing strategy: custom-list 5 Output queues: (queue #: size/max/drops) Output queues: (queue #: size/max/drops) 0: 0/20/0 1: 0/40/0 2: 0/20/0 3: 0/20/0 4: 0/20/0 0: 0/20/0 1: 0/40/0 2: 0/20/0 3: 0/20/0 4: 0/20/0 5: 0/20/0 6: 0/20/0 7: 0/20/0 8: 0/20/0 9: 0/20/0 5: 0/20/0 6: 0/20/0 7: 0/20/0 8: 0/20/0 9: 0/20/0 10: 0/20/0 11: 0/20/0 12: 0/20/0 13: 0/20/0 14: 0/20/0 10: 0/20/0 11: 0/20/0 12: 0/20/0 13: 0/20/0 14: 0/20/0 15: 0/20/0 16: 0/20/0 15: 0/20/0 16: 0/20/0 … rest ignored ... … rest ignored ...

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The show interface command is used to determine the queuing strategy of an interface. If custom queuing is used on an interface the following information is also displayed:
n n

The number of the queue-list Statistics for each of the 17 queues:
– – –

Current size Maximum size Total number of drops since the last clearing of counters

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Show Queueing Custom
Router#show queueing custom Router#show queueing Current custom queue configuration: Current custom queue List List 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Queue 3 3 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 Args Args default default protocol ip list 101 protocol ip interface Ethernet0/0 interface byte-count 3000 limit 40 byte-count byte-count 5000 byte-count

• The “show queueing custom” command displays only the non-default parameters
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Queuing Mechanisms -59

The show queueing custom command can be used to display all non-default parameters of Custom Queuing.

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Summary
Custom Queuing introduces a scheduler that can guarantee bandwidth to 16 classes. In addition to the round-robin scheduling between 16 classes, a number of classes can be switched to priority scheduling.

Review Questions
Answer the following questions:
n n n n

When would you use custom queuing? What are the benefits and drawbacks of custom queuing? How many classes does custom queuing support? How does custom queuing schedule packets?

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Weighted Fair Queuing
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n

Describe WFQ Describe the benefits and drawbacks of WFQ Configure WFQ on Cisco routers Monitor and troubleshoot WFQ

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Weighted Fair Queuing
• Queuing algorithm should fairly share the bandwidth among flows by: – reducing response time for interactive flows by scheduling them to the front of the queue – preventing high volume conversations from monopolizing an interface • Implementation: Messages are sorted into conversations (flows) and transmitted by the order of the last bit crossing its channel • Unfairness is reinstated by introducing “weight” (IP precedence) to give proportionately more bandwidth to flows with higher weight

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) was introduced as a solution to the problems of the following queuing mechanisms:
n n

FIFO queuing causes starvation, delay and jitter PQ causes starvation of other lower-priority classes and suffers from all FIFO problems within each of the four queues CQ causes long delays and also suffers from all FIFO problems within each of the 16 queues

n

The idea of WFQ is to:
n

Have a dedicated queue for each flow (no starvation, delay or jitter within the queue) Fairly and accurately allocate bandwidth among all flows (minimum scheduling delay, guaranteed service) Use IP precedence as weight when allocating bandwidth

n

n

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Weighted Fair Queuing
Forwarded Packets
Weighted Fair Queuing System

Flow 1?

WFQ-drop

Queue 1

Flow 2?

WFQ-drop

Queue 2 WFQ Scheduler

Hardware Queuing System Hardware Q Interface

Flow N?

WFQ-drop

Queue N

• WFQ uses per-flow FIFO queues
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Queuing Mechanisms -65

n n

WFQ uses automatic classification. Manually defined classes are not supported. WFQ dropping is not a simple tail-drop. WFQ drops packets of the most aggressive flows. WFQ scheduler is a simulation of a TDM system (time-division multiplexer). The bandwidth is equally distributed to all active flows.

n

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Weighted Fair Queuing Implementations
• Implementation parameters –Queuing platform: central CPU or VIP –Classification mechanism –Weighted fairness • Modified Tail-Drop within each queue

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WFQ is supported on most Cisco routers as well as Versatile Interface Processors (VIP). The implementation on the VIP slightly differs from the one discussed in this lesson.
n n

Classification identifies a flow and assigns a queue to the flow Weight is used for scheduling to give proportionately more bandwidth to flows with a higher IP precedence Tail-dropping scheme is improved to drop packets of the most aggressive flows

n

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WFQ Classification
IP TCP Payload

Src. Dst. Proto. Addr. Addr.

ToS

Src. Port

Dst. Port

WFQ Classification uses the following parameters: • source IP address • destination IP address • source TCP or UDP port • destination TCP or UDP port • transport protocol • type of service (ToS) field A hash algorithm is used to produce the index of the queue where the packet is enqueued

Hash Algorithm

#queue (Index of the queue)

• Packets of the same flow end up in the same queue • ToS field is the only parameter that might change causing packets of the same flow to end up in different queues
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WFQ classification has to identify individual flows (the term conversation is also used to signify flows). A flow is identified based on the following information taken from the IP header and the TCP or UDP headers:
n n n n n n

Source IP address Destination IP address Protocol number (identifying TCP or UDP) Type of Service Field Source TCP/UDP port number Destination TCP/UDP port number

All these parameters are usually fixed for a single flow, although there are some exceptions:
n

A QoS design could mark packets with different IP precedence values even if they belong to the same flow. This kind of behavior should be avoided when using WFQ. Some applications change port numbers (for example, TFTP).

n

If packets of the same flow do not have the same parameters (for example, a different ToS field) the packets can end up in different queues and reordering can occur. The parameters are used as input for a hash algorithm that produces a fixed-length number that is used as the index of the queue.

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WFQ Classification Details
• Fixed number of per-flow queues is configured • A hash function is used to translate flow parameters into queue number • System packets (8 queues) and RSVP flows (if configured) are mapped into separate queues • Two or more flows could map into the same queue, resulting in lower per-flow bandwidth • Important: the number of queues configured has to be larger than the expected number of flows

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WFQ uses a fixed number of queues. The hash function is used to assign a queue to a flow. There are eight additional queues for system packets and optionally up to 1000 queues for RSVP flows. WFQ uses 256 queues by default. The number of queues can be configured in the range between 16 and 4096 (the number must be a power of 2). If there are a large number of concurrent flows it is very likely that two flows could end up in the same queue. It is recommended to have several times as many queues as there are flows (on the average). This may not be possible in larger environments where the number of concurrent flows is in thousands. The probability of two flows ending up in the same flow could be calculated using the following formula:

P =1−

Queues

Flows

Queues! ⋅ ( Queues − Flows)!

The following table lists the probability values for 3 sizes of the WFQ system (64, 128 and 256 queues), with the number of concurrent flows from 5 to 40. Flows 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 64 queues 15% 52% 83% 96% 100% 100% 100% 100% 128 queues 8% 30% 57% 79% 92% 98% 99% 100% 256 queues 4% 16% 34% 53% 70% 83% 91% 96%

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WFQ Insertion and Drop Policy
• WFQ has two modes of dropping: –Early dropping when the congestion discard threshold (CDT) is reached –Aggressive dropping when the hold-queue limit (HQO) is reached • WFQ always drops packets of the most aggressive flow

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WFQ uses two parameters that affect the dropping of packets.
n

The congestive discard threshold (CDT) is used to start dropping packets of the most aggressive flow, even before the hold-queue limit is reached. The hold-queue limit defines the total maximum number of packets that can be in the WFQ system at any time.

n

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WFQ Insertion and Drop Policy
N-th packet N>HQO? Yes Worst Finish Time? No Drop the packet with the worst finish time (old) and enqueue the N-th packet (new) New Old No N>CDT? Yes Worst Finish Time? Yes No Enqueue packet

Yes

No

• HQO (hold-queue out limit) is the max . number of packets that the WFQ system can hold • CDT (congestive discard threshold) is the threshold when WFQ starts dropping packets of the most aggressive flow • N is the number of packets in the WFQ system when the N -th packet arrives

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The figure illustrates the dropping scheme of WFQ. The process can be split into the following steps:
Step 1

Drop the new packet if the WFQ system is full (hold-queue limit reached) and the new packet has the worst finish time (the last in the entire system). Drop the packet with the worst finish time in the WFQ system if the system is full. Enqueue the new packet. Drop the new packet if the queue, where the packet should be enqueued, is the longest (not in packets but in the finish time of the new packet) and there are more packets in the WFQ system than the CDT. Otherwise enqueue the new packet.

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

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Case Study
• WFQ system can hold a maximum of ten packets (hold-queue limit) • Early dropping (of aggressive flows) should start when there are eight packets (congestive discard threshold) in the WFQ system

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The following case study is used to describe how packets are dropped in different situations. The WFQ system was reduced to a modest hold-queue limit of ten and a congestive discard threshold of eight.

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Case Study Interface Congestion

• Absolute maximum (HQO=10) exceeded, new packet is the last in the TDM system and is dropped

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There are already ten packets in the WFQ system. The new packet would be the eleventh and also the last in the entire WFQ system. The packet is dropped.

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Case Study Interface Congestion

• Absolute maximum exceeded (HQO=10), new packet is not the last in the TDM system, last packet is dropped

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In this example there are also ten packets in the system when the eleventh packet arrives. The new packet, if enqueued, would not be the last in the system. The packet is therefore allowed to be enqueued and the last packet in the system is deleted.

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Case Study Flow Congestion

• CDT exceeded (CDT=8), new packet would be the last in the TDM system and is dropped

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This example illustrates how WFQ can drop packets even if the WFQ system is still within the hold-queue limit. The system, however, is above the CDT limit. In this case a packet can be dropped if it is the last in the system.

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Case Study Flow Congestion

• CDT exceeded (CDT=8), new packet would not be the last. Packet is enqueued

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This example is different from the previous one in that the new packet would not be the last in the WFQ system. The packet can be enqueued and no other packet is dropped.

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Drop Mechanism within WFQ Exceptions
• Packet classified into an empty sub-queue is never dropped • The packet precedence has no effect on the dropping scheme

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There is an exception to the CDT rule —if the WFQ system is above the CDT limit, and the new packet would be the last in the system, the packet is still enqueued if the flow queue is empty. The dropping strategy is not directly influenced by IP precedence.

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WFQ Scheduling
• Each packet is tagged with its Finish time in a virtual TDM system • The scheduler selects the packets with the earliest finish time tag (thus the packet that leaves the virtual TDM the earliest) • Reference: “On the Efficient Implementation of Fair Queuing", Keshav, Berkeley, 1994

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The length of queues (for scheduling purposes) is not in packets but in the time it would take to transmit all the packets in the queue. The following pages discuss the WFQ scheduling issue in detail. The end result is that WFQ adapts to the number of active flows (queues) and allocates equal amounts of bandwidth to each flow (queue). The side effect is that flows with small packets (usually interactive flows) get a much better servic e because they do not need a lot of bandwidth. They, however, need low-delay, which they get because small packets have a low finish time.

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Fair Queuing Finish Time Calculation
If Flow F Active, Flow F Active, Then FT(Pk+1) = FT(Pk ) + Size(Pk+1) k+1 k k+1 Otherwise FT(P0) = Now + Size(P0)
FT(A1)=0+100 FT(B1)=50+300 B1[300] FT(A2)=100+20 FT(B2)=350+300 FT(A3)=120+10 B2[300] A2[20] A3[10] A1[100]

t

100

70 60 50

0

Hence the resulting scheduling is:

B2
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B1

A3 A2

A1
Queuing Mechanisms -78

The figure illustrates how two queues (Queue A and Queue B) are contesting for link bandwidth. For this example, assume the time units are in milliseconds and time T (value 0 is used in the figure) is the starting point. Queue A is receiving packets in the following order and the following times:
n n

Packet A1 arrives at time T + 0ms and would require 100ms to be transmitted Packet A2 arrives at time T + 60ms (the input interface is obviously faster than the output interface because the arrival time of packet A2 is before the finish time of packet A1) and would require 20 ms to be transmitted Packet A3 arrives at time T + 60ms (the input interface is obviously much faster than the output interface) and would require 10 ms to be transmitted

n

Queue B is receiving packets in the following order and the following times:
n n

Packet B1 arrives at time T + 50ms and would require 300ms to be transmitted Packet B2 arrives at time T + 100ms and would also require 300ms to be transmitted

The finish time of packets in Queue A are:
n

Packet A1 has a finish time which is the sum of the current time (because the queue was empty at the time of arrival) and the time it takes to transmit this packet (100ms): FTA1 = 0ms + 100ms = 100ms Packet A2 has a finish time which is the sum of the finish time of the last packet in Queue A (Packet A1) and the time it would take to transmit this packet (20ms): FTA2 = 100ms + 20ms = 120ms

n

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n

Packet A3 has a finish time which is the sum of the finish time of the last packet in Queue A (Packet A2) and the time it would take to transmit this packet (20ms): FTA3 = 120ms + 10ms = 130ms

The finish time of packets in queue B are:
n

Packet B1 has a finish time which is the sum of the current time (because the queue was empty at the time of arrival) and the time it takes to transmit this packet (300ms): FTB1 = 50ms + 300ms = 350ms Packet B2 has a finish time which is the sum of the finish time of the last packet in Queue B (Packet B1) and the time it would take to transmit this packet (300ms): FTB2 = 350ms + 300ms = 650ms

n

The packets are scheduled into the hardware queue (TxQ) in the ascending order of finish times: 1. A1 (100ms) 2. A2 (120ms) 3. A3 (130ms) 4. B1 (350ms) 5. B2 (650ms) The following remarks should be noted in conclusion of the case study:
n n

WFQ prevents reordering of packets within a single flow (conversation) Small packets are automatically preferred over large packets

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Weight in WFQ Scheduling
WFQ system (real size packets)
Flow with P=001 Flow with P=000

2 3 2

1 1
Precedence-1 packets appear half the real size

Virtual Packet Size = Real Packet Size / (IP precedence + 1)

WFQ system (virtual size packets)
Flow with P=001 Flow with P=000

4 3

3 2

2 1

1
Precedence -1 flow gets twice as much bandwidth as precedence -0 flow

Hardware FIFO Queue
3
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

3

2

2

1

1
Queuing Mechanisms -79

This figure introduces the weight into the finish time calculation. The time it takes to transmit the packet is divided by IP precedence increased by one (to prevent division by zero). The WFQ implementation in Cisco routers was optimized in the following way:
n

The real time it takes to transmit the packet is not relevant. The packet size can be used instead because it is proportional to the transmit time. The packet size is not divided by IP precedence (division is a CPU-intensive operation). Instead, the size is multiplied by a fixed value (one multiplication value for each IP precedence value).

n

Packets with IP precedence one appear half the size they really are. The result is that these packets receive twice as much bandwidth as packets with IP precedence zero.

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Weighted Fair Queuing Finish Time Calculation
Finish Time is adjusted based on IP precedence of the packet

If Flow F Active, Then FT(Pk+1) = FT(Pk) + Size(Pk+1)/(IPPrec+1) Size(P k+1 Otherwise FT(P0) = Now + Size(P0)/(IPPrec+1) 0
IOS implementation scales the finish time to allow integer arithmetic

If Flow F Active, Then FT(Pk+1) = FT(Pk) + Size(Pk+1)*4096/(IPPrec+1) Size(P k+1 Otherwise FT(P0) = Now + Size(P0)*4096/(IPPrec+1) 0
RSVP packets and high-priority internal packets (PAK-Priority) have special weights (4 and 128)
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Queuing Mechanisms -80

The first formula in the figure is the first optimisation where the finish time is really the sum of packet sizes divided by an increased IP precedence value. The second formula shows further optimisation where, instead of dividing, the packet size is multiplied by 4096/(IP precedence + 1). A value for each IP precedence is stored in a table and it does not have to be calculated for each packet. Packets belonging to RSVP flows and system packets have special low weights that guarantee them more bandwidth.
Note Cisco IOS versions after 12.0(5)T use a new formula where the weight is calculated on the following formula: Weight = 32384 / (IP precedence +1)

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IP Precedence to Weight Mapping
IP Precednece 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 32 (virtual IP precedence) 1024 (virtual IP precedence) Weight 4096 2048 1365 1024 819 682 585 512 128 (PAC-Priority) 4 (RSVP)

• RSVP packets and high-priority internal packets (PAK-Priority) have special weights (4 and 128) • Lower weight makes packets appear smaller (preffered)
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Queuing Mechanisms -81

The table above shows the mapping between IP precedence values and WFQ weights.
Note According to the new formula for weight in Cisco IOS versions after 12.0(5)T the following values are used: IP precedence 0 IP precedence 1 IP precedence 2 IP precedence 3 IP precedence 4 IP precedence 5 IP precedence 6 IP precedence 7 weight 32384 weight 16192 weight 10794 weight 8096 weight 6476 weight 5397 weight 4626 weight 4048

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Weighted Fair Queuing Voice and Data integration
• WAN link speed • Voice requirements 128 kbps 30 kbps

• VoIP is precedence 5 (counts as 6 data sessions) • 1 VoIP session, 5 data sessions
– voice gets up to 6/(6+5)*128 = 69 kbps (enough)

• 1 VoIP session, 20 data sessions
– voice gets up to 6/(6+20)*128 = 29 kbps (problem)

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Queuing Mechanisms -82

The case study above is concerned with the propagation of voice packets across a 128 kbps link without using RSVP. Assume that VoIP is using G.729 codec that uses approximately 30 kbps of bandwidth (including RTP, UDP, IP and frame headers). All voice packets are marked with IP precedence 5.
n

The first calculation is where a voice session is contesting for available bandwidth with 5 precedence-0 data sessions. WFQ would guarantee 69 kbps to the voice session. The second calculation is where the same voice session is contesting for available bandwidth with 20 precedence-0 data sessions. WFQ would now guarantee only 29 kbps to the voice session.

n

The conclusion is that, although WFQ can give a much better service to flows with small packets or high IP precedence value, it is not an exact tool that can guarantee a fixed amount of bandwidth.

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Benefits and Drawbacks of Weighted Fair Queuing
+ Benefits
• Simple configuration (classification does not have to be configured) • Guarantees throughput to all flows • Drops packets of most aggressive flows • Supported on most platforms • Supported in all IOS versions (above 11.0)

– Drawbacks
• • • • • All drawbacks of FIFO queuing within a single queue Multiple flows can end up in one queue Does not support the configuration of classification Can not provide fixed bandwidth guarantees Performance limitations due to complex classification and scheduling mechanisms
Queuing Mechanisms -83

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

The main benefits of WFQ are:
n n

Simple configuration (no manual classification is necessary) Drops packets of the most aggressive flows

The main drawbacks are:
n n n

It is not always possible to have one flow per queue Does not allow manual classification It cannot provide fixed guarantees

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Weighted Fair Queuing Configuration
Router(config-intf)# fair-queue [cdt [dynamic-queues [reservable-queues]]]

• congestive-discard-threshold (CDT) –Number of messages allowed in the WFQ system before the router starts dropping new packets for the longest queue. –The value can be in the range from 1 to 4096 (default is 64)

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WFQ is automatically enabled on all interfaces that have a default bandwidth of less than 2 Mbps. Use the fair-queue command to enable WFQ on interfaces where it is not enabled by default or was previously disabled. The CDT value can be changed from the default 64.

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Weighted Fair Queuing Configuration
Router(config-intf)# fair-queue [cdt [dynamic-queues [reservable-queues]]]

• dynamic-queues – Number of dynamic queues used for best-effort conversations (values are: 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 2048, and 4096 - the default is 256) • reservable-queues – Number of reservable queues used for reserved conversations in the range 0 to 1000 (used for interfaces configured for features such as RSVP the default is 0)

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The number of dynamic queues can also be changed from the default number of 256 queues. The maximum number of reservable queues should be set when RSVP requires guarantees for the reserved bandwidth.

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Weighted Fair Queuing Additional Parameters
Router(config-if)# hold-queue max-limit out

• Specifies the maximum number of packets that can be in all output queues on the interface at any time • The default value for WFQ is 1000 • Under special circumstances WFQ can consume a lot of buffers which may require lowering this limit

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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The same hold-queue command that can be used with FIFO queuing can also be used with WFQ. The default hold-queue limit with WFQ is 1,000 packets. The WFQ system will generally never reach the hold-queue limit because the CDT limit starts dropping packets of aggressive flows. Under special circumstances it would be possible to fill the WFQ system. For example, a denial-of-service attack that floods the interface with a large number of packets (each different) could fill all queues at the same rate.

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Fair Queuing Defaults
• Fair Queuing is enabled by default on
– physical interfaces whose bandwidth is less than or equal to 2.048 Mbps – interfaces configured for Multilink PPP

• Fair Queuing is disabled
– if you enable the autonomous or silicon switching engine mechanisms – for any sequenced encapsulation: X.25, SDLC, LAPB, reliable PPP

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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The figure explains the default behavior of WFQ. As mentioned previously, WFQ is automatically enable d on all interfaces slower than 2Mbps. WFQ is also required on interfaces using Multilink PPP. WFQ cannot be used if reordering of frames is not allowed due to sequence numbering of Layer-2 frames or if the switching path does not support WFQ.

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Monitoring and Troubleshooting WFQ
Router# show interface interface interface interface

• Displays interface delays including the activated queuing mechanism with the summary information
Router# show queue interface

• Displays detailed information about the WFQ system of the selected interface

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The same show commands can be used as with other queuing mechanisms:
n n n

show interface show queue show queueing

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Show Interface
Router#show interface serial 1/0 Router#show interface serial 1/0 Hardware is M4T Hardware is M4T Internet address is 20.0.0.1/8 Internet address is 20.0.0.1/8 MTU 1500 bytes, BW 19 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec, rely 255/255, load 147/255 MTU 1500 bytes, BW 19 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec, rely 255/255, load 147/255 Encapsulation HDLC, crc 16, loopback not set Encapsulation HDLC, crc 16, loopback not set Keepalive set (10 sec) Keepalive set (10 sec) Last input 00:00:00, output 00:00:00, output hang never Last input 00:00:00, output 00:00:00, output hang never Last clearing of "show interface" counters never Last clearing of "show interface" counters never Input queue: 0/75/0 (size/max/drops); Total output drops: 0 Input queue: 0/75/0 (size/max/drops); Total output drops: 0 Queueing strategy: weighted fair Queueing strategy: weighted fair Output queue: 0/1000/64/0 (size/max total/threshold/drops) Output queue: 0/1000/64/0 (size/max total/threshold/drops) Conversations 0/4/256 (active/max active/max total) Conversations 0/4/256 (active/max active/max total) Reserved Conversations 0/0 (allocated/max allocated) Reserved Conversations 0/0 (allocated/max allocated) 5 minute input rate 18000 bits/sec, 8 packets/sec 5 minute input rate 18000 bits/sec, 8 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 11000 bits/sec, 9 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 11000 bits/sec, 9 packets/sec … rest deleted ... … rest deleted ...

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The show interface command can be used to determine the queuing strategy. The summary statistics are also displayed. The sample output in the figure shows that there are currently no packets in the WFQ system that allows up to 1,000 packets (hold-queue limit) with CDT 64. WFQ is using 256 queues. The maximum number of concurrent conversations (active queues) was 4.

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Show Queue

Router#show queue serial 1/0 Router#show queue serial 1/0 Input queue: 0/75/0 (size/max/drops); Total output drops: 0 Input queue: 0/75/0 (size/max/drops); Total output drops: 0 Queueing strategy: weighted fair Queueing strategy: weighted fair Output queue: 2/1000/64/0 (size/max total/threshold/drops) Output queue: 2/1000/64/0 (size/max total/threshold/drops) Conversations 2/4/256 (active/max active/max total) Conversations 2/4/256 (active/max active/max total) Reserved Conversations 0/0 (allocated/max allocated) Reserved Conversations 0/0 (allocated/max allocated) (depth/weight/discards/tail drops/interleaves) 1/4096/0/0/0 (depth/weight/discards/tail drops/interleaves) 1/4096/0/0/0 Conversation 124, linktype: ip, length: 580 Conversation 124, linktype: ip, length: 580 source: 193.77.3.244, destination: 20.0.0.2, id: 0x0166, ttl: 254, source: 193.77.3.244, destination: 20.0.0.2, id: 0x0166, ttl: 254, TOS: 0 prot: 6, source port 23, destination port 11033 TOS: 0 prot: 6, source port 23, destination port 11033 (depth/weight/discards/tail drops/interleaves) 1/4096/0/0/0 (depth/weight/discards/tail drops/interleaves) 1/4096/0/0/0 Conversation 127, linktype: ip, length: 585 Conversation 127, linktype: ip, length: 585 source: 193.77.4.111 destination: 40.0.0.2, id: 0x020D, ttl: 252, source: 193.77.4.111 destination: 40.0.0.2, id: 0x020D, ttl: 252, TOS: 0 prot: 6, source port 23, destination port 11013 TOS: 0 prot: 6, source port 23, destination port 11013

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The show queue command also displays the flow (conversation) statistics:
n n

Queue depth is the number of packets in the queue Weight is 4096/(IP precedence + 1) or 32384/(IP precedence + 1), depending on the Cisco IOS version Discards is the number of drops due to the CDT limit Tail drops is the number of drops due to the hold-queue limit

n n

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Queuing comparison

Weighted Fair Queuing No queue lists Low volume traffic given priority Conversation dispatching Interactive traffic gets priority Works well on speeds up to 2 Mbps Enabled by default

Priority Queuing 4 queues High priority queue serviced first Packet-by-packet dispatching Critical traffic gets through Designed for low-bandwidth links Must configure

Custom Queuing 16 queues Round-robin service Threshold dispatching Proportional allocation of bandwidth Designed for medium-speed links Must configure

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The table shows the main differences between WFQ, PQ and CQ.

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Summary
The goal of WFQ is to:
n n n n n

Perform queuing on a per-flow basis Guarantee service to all flows Share bandwidth fairly Prioritize traffic by giving higher-priority flows proportionately more bandwidth Prioritize low-volume (interactive) traffic

Review Questions
Answer the following questions:
n n n

How does WFQ classify packets? When does WFQ drop packets? How does WFQ schedule packets?

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Distributed Weighted Fair Queuing
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n

Describe and configure dWFQ Describe and configure ToS-based dWFQ Describe and configure QoS-group-based dWFQ Monitor and troubleshoot WFQ

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Distributed WFQ
• The term “distributed” is primarily used for features available on Versatile Interface Processors (VIP) on Cisco 7x00 routers • Cisco IOS supports the following four versions of dWFQ: – Flow-based dWFQ – ToS-based dWFQ – QoS-group-based dWFQ – Distributed Class-based WFQ • This lesson focuses on the first three versions of dWFQ

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The distributed versions of Weighted Fair Queuing are implemented on Cisco 7x00 series routers with Versatile Interface Processors (VIPs). There are four different versions of distributed WFQ, three of which are discussed in this module:
n n n

Flow-based dWFQ or simply dWFQ ToS-based dWFQ QoS-group-based dWFQ or QoS-based dWFQ

VIP is basically a router within a router. It has its own processor and its own (different) version of the IOS. Most features implemented on VIPs have different functionality than those available on the Route Switch Processor (RSP).

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Flow-based dWFQ
Forwarded Packets
Flow-based dWFQ System

Flow 1?

WFQ-drop

Queue 1

Flow 2?

WFQ-drop

Queue 2 WFQ Scheduler

Hardware Queuing System Hardware Q Interface

Flow N?

WFQ-drop

Queue N

• Flow-based dWFQ looks the same as RSP/LE WFQ, but ...
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The structure of Distributed Flow-based WFQ (dWFQ) is similar to that discussed in the previous lesson. There are, however, some differences.

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Flow-based dWFQ Classification
IP TCP Payload

Src. Dst. Proto. Addr. Addr.

Src. Port

Dst. Port

WFQ Classification uses the following parameters: • source IP address • destination IP address • source TCP or UDP port • destination TCP or UDP port • transport protocol

Hash Algorithm

A hash algorithm is used to produce the index of the queue where the packet is enqueued

#queue (9-bit index of the queue)

• The number of queues is 512 (not tunable) • ToS is not used for classification (except in IOS version 11.1CC)
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Classification identifies flows but it does not use the ToS field. It uses all the other parameters that identify a flow (conversation):
n n n n n

Source IP address Destination IP address Protocol number (identifying TCP or UDP) Source TCP/UDP port number Destination TCP/UDP port number

The number of queues is 512 and cannot be changed.

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dWFQ Insertion and Drop Policy
• dWFQ drops packets when both the individual queue limit (IQL) and aggregate queue limit (AQL) are reached • dWFQ is not as strict with aggressive flows as non-distributed WFQ • This insertion and drop policy is the same for all three versions of dWFQ (flow-based, ToSbased and QoS-group-based)

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The dropping scheme of dWFQ is similar to that of non-distributed WFQ, except that it is not as strict with aggressive flows. The same dropping policy is used for all three versions of dWFQ (Flow-based dWFQ, ToS-based dWFQ and QoS-group-based dWFQ).

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dWFQ Insertion and Drop Policy
N-th packet M>QL? Yes No N>AQL? Yes No Enqueue packet

M>IQL? Yes

No

• QL (queue limit) is the maximum number of packets the selected que ue can hold • AQL (aggregate queue limit) is the max. number of packets that the dWFQ system can hold • IQL (individual queue limit) is the max. number of packets that an individual queue a congested dWFQ system can hold • N is the number of packets in the dWFQ system when the N -th packet arrives • M is the number of packets in the queue to which the packet is cl assified
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When a new packet is to be inserted into one of the queues the router follows these rules: 1. Enqueue the packet if the WFQ system is within the aggregate queue limit 2. Enqueue the packet if the queue is within the individual queue limit 3. Otherwise, drop the packet

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Flow-based dWFQ Scheduling
Flow-based dWFQ System Queue 1 Packets are scheduled (ordered) in advance for faster transfer to the hardware queue Hardware Queuing System Calendar Queue Hardware Q Interface

Queue 2

dWFQ Scheduler (Calendar Queuing)

Queue N

• Uses Calendar Queuing (optimized version of scheduling based on finish time, more jitter) • Weight (IP precedence) is NOT used for scheduling purposes (pure Fair Queuing)
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The scheduler uses the same finish time calculation except it does not include the weight. It is a pure Fair Queuing mechanism. The scheduler was also optimized for performance (Calendar Queuing).

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Configuring Flow-based dWFQ
Router(config-if)# fair-queue fair-queue

• The command enables dWFQ on an interface connected to a VIP2-40 or newer interface processor • For all other interfaces, this command enables RSPbased WFQ • Can be configured on interfaces but not on subinterfaces • dWFQ is not supported on Fast EtherChannel, tunnel, or other logical or virtual interfaces (MPPP)

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Using the fair-queue interface command enables dWFQ if the following requirements are met:
n n

Interface is on a VIP2-40 or newer Distributed CEF is enabled

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Configuring Flow-based dWFQ
Router(config)# fair-queue aggregate-limit aggregate-packets aggregate-limit

• The total number of packets in all output queues before some packets may be dropped
Router(config)# fair-queue individual-limit individual-packets

• The maximum individual per-flow queue size during periods of congestion • Defaults: aggregate-limit depends on the transmission rate and the available buffer space on the VIP; individual-limit is half of the aggregate-limit • Don’t change the defaults unless necessary
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Use these two commands to change the default limits that govern the dropping of packets when individual queues and the WFQ system are congested.

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Flow-based dWFQ Example
interface FastEthernet 1/1/0 interface FastEthernet ip address 80.0.2.70 255.255.255.0 ip address 80.0.2.70 255.255.255.0 fair-queue fair-queue fair-queue aggregate-limit 200 fair-queue aggregate-limit 200 fair-queue individual-limit 30 fair-queue individual-limit 30 ! !

• dWFQ on a FastEthernet interface • dWFQ system should not contain more than 200 packets • No queue should accept new packets when the dWFQ system is congested and the queue is longer than 30 packets
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The example illustrates how dWFQ was implemented on a FastEthernet interface.

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Show Interface
Router#show interfaces FastEthernet1/1/0 Router#show interfaces FastEthernet1/1/0 FastEthernet1/1/0 is up, line protocol is up FastEthernet1/1/0 is up, line protocol is up Hardware is cyBus FastEthernet Interface, address is 0007.f618.4448 Hardware is cyBus FastEthernet Interface, address is 0007.f618.4448 Description: pkt input i/f for WRL tests (to pagent) Description: pkt input i/f for WRL tests (to pagent) Internet address is 80.0.2.70/24 Internet address is 80.0.2.70/24 MTU 1500 bytes, BW 100000 Kbit, DLY 100 usec, rely 255/255, load 1/255 MTU 1500 bytes, BW 100000 Kbit, DLY 100 usec, rely 255/255, load 1/255 Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set, keepalive not set, 100BaseTX/FX Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set, keepalive not set, 100BaseTX/FX ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00 ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00 Last input never, output 01:11:01, output hang never Last input never, output 01:11:01, output hang never Last clearing of "show interface" counters 01:12:31 Last clearing of "show interface" counters 01:12:31 Queueing strategy: VIP-based fair queuing Queueing strategy: VIP-based fair queuing Output queue 0/40, 0 drops; input queue 0/75, 0 drops Output queue 0/40, 0 drops; input queue 0/75, 0 drops 30 second input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec 30 second input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec 30 second output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec 30 second output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec … rest deleted ... … rest deleted ...

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The usual show interface command reveals that VIP-based fair queuing is enabled (dWFQ). Some other show commands used with other queuing mechanisms do not display any valuable information (RSP regards this interface as FIFO).

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Show Interface Fair-queue

Router#show interface fastethernet 1/1/0 fair Router#show interface fastethernet fair FastEthernet 1/1/0 queue size 0 FastEthernet 1/1/0 pkts output 0, wfq drops 0, nobuffer drops 0 pkts output 0, nobuffer drops WFQ: aggregate queue limit 200 individual queue limit 30 WFQ: aggregate queue limit individual queue limit max available buffers 0

• Displays dWFQ statistics

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This command can be used to display some statistics about dWFQ.

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Benefits and Drawbacks of Flowbased dWFQ
+ Benefits
• Automatic classification • High performance

– Drawbacks
• Does not support the configuration of classification • Does not use IP precedence as weight • Only supported on Cisco 7x00 series routers with VIP 2-40 or newer

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The distributed version of WFQ has one advantage over normal WFQ: better performance. The main drawbacks include:
n n n

Lack of tuning capability Not weighted Only supported on VIPs

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ToS-based dWFQ
Forwarded Packets
ToS -based dWFQ System

Class 1?

WFQ-drop

Queue 1

Class 2?

WFQ-drop

Queue 2 dWFQ Scheduler

Hardware Queuing System Hardware Q Interface

Class 3?

WFQ-drop

Queue 3

Class 4?

WFQ-drop

Queue 4

• ToS-based dWFQ has four classes
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The ToS-based dWFQ differs from Flow-based dWFQ in the following ways:
n n n

Classification is done based on the two low-order IP precedence bits Scheduling is configurable by setting weights manually Four queues are used

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ToS-based dWFQ Classification
IP
IP Prec. XXX 00000

Payload
ToS -based dWFQ Classification uses the two low -order IP precedence bits to classify packets

#queue (2-bit index of the queue)

Queue 1 Queue 2 Queue 3 Queue 4

IP precedence 0 and 4 1 and 5 2 and 6 3 and 7

• The number of queues is 4 (fixed) • Classification is based on the two low-order IP precedence bits
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The classification uses the two low-order IP precedence bits. The result of classification is that:
n n n n

Packets with IP precedence values 0 and 4 are classified into Queue 0 Packets with IP precedence values 1 and 5 are classified into Queue 1 Packets with IP precedence values 2 and 6 are classified into Queue 2 Packets with IP precedence values 3 and 7 are classified into Queue 3

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ToS-based dWFQ Scheduling
• One weight per class configured as a % –Sum of all weights must be =< 99 –Some bandwidth needed for Class 0 • Tail-Drop within each queue • First release: 11.1cc, 12.0

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Weights that determine how much bandwidth is guaranteed to each class are configured in percentage points. Weights can be assigned to Queues 1¸ 2 and 3. Queue 0 gets the rest of the bandwidth.

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Configuring ToS-based dWFQ
Router(config-intf)# fair-queue tos

• Enables ToS-based distributed WFQ
Router(config-intf)# fair-queue tos num weight weight num weight

tos number - 2 low order precedence bits (only classes 1, 2 and 3 can be configured with weight; class 0 takes the remaining bandwidth) weight - percentage of the output link bandwidth allocated to this class (the sum for all classes cannot exceed 99) Defaults:
unclassified traffic is assigned to class 0; class 1 - 20, class 2 - 30, class 3 - 40 class 0 has the remaining weight (100%-W1-W2-W3); default 10
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ToS-based dWFQ is enabled using the fair-queue tos interface command.
Note Distributed CEF has to be enabled prior to using this command.

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Configuring ToS-based dWFQ
Router(config-if)# fair-queue tos num limit class-packets tos

• Configures maximum number of packets allowed in the selected queue • If not configured, the default is individual-limit • If queue limit is not configured it is set to the number of available buffers multiplited by weight
Router(config-if)# fair-queue individual-limit individual-packet fair-queue individual-limit individual-packet

• If individual limit is not configured it is set to one quarter of the number of available buffers
Router(config-if)# fair-queue aggregate-limit aggregate-packets

• If aggregate limit is not configured is set to the number of availble buffers

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These three optional commands can be used to control individual queue sizes. The default behavior is:
n n n

Aggregate queue limit equals maximum available buffers Individual queue limit equals one quarter of maximum available buffers Per-queue limit equals maximum available buffers multiplied by weight

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ToS-based WFQ Configuration Example
interface Hssi0/0/0 interface Hssi0/0/0 ip address 188.1.3.70 255.255.255.0 fair-queue tos tos fair-queue tos 1 weight 20 tos weight fair-queue tos 1 limit 27 tos fair-queue tos 2 weight 30 tos weight fair-queue tos 2 limit 27 tos fair-queue tos 3 weight 40 tos weight fair-queue tos 3 limit 27 tos ! !

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The example shows how ToS-based dWFQ is configured on VIP-based interfaces.

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Show Interface Fair-queue

Router#show interfaces fair-queue fair-queue Hssi0/0/0 queue size 0 Hssi0/0/0 queue size 0 pkts output 947, wfq drops 0, nobuffer drops 0 pkts output 947, wfq drops WFQ: aggregate queue limit 386 individual queue limit 96 WFQ: aggregate queue limit 386 individual queue limit 96 max available buffers 386 available buffers 386 Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class 0: 0: 1: 1: 2: 2: 3: 3: weight weight weight weight weight weight weight weight 10 10 20 20 30 30 40 40 limit limit limit limit limit limit limit limit 20 27 27 27 qsize qsize qsize qsize qsize qsize qsize qsize 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 pkts pkts pkts pkts pkts pkts pkts pkts output output output output output output output output 947 drops 0 947 drops 0 0 drops 0 0 drops 0 0 drops 0 0 drops 0 0 drops 0 0 drops 0

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The show interface fair-queue command can be issued to display parameters and statistics for VIP-based interfaces.

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Benefits and Drawbacks of ToSbased dWFQ
+ Benefits
• Automatic classification • Guarantees throughput to all classes • High performance

– Drawbacks
• All drawbacks of FIFO queuing within a single class • Does not support the configuration of classification • Only four classes are supported • Unusual interpretation of IP precedence (high-priority packets with IP precedence 6 and 7 share queues with lower-priority packets with IP precedence 2 and 3) • Only supported on Cisco 7x00 series routers with VIP 2-40 or newer
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The ToS-based dWFQ represents the first class-oriented queuing mechanism available on VIPs. The main drawbacks of this queuing mechanism are that it:
n n

Supports only four classes Mixes packets of different IP precedence values

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QoS-group-based dWFQ
Forwarded Packets
QoS-group-based dWFQ System

Class 1?

WFQ-drop

Queue 1

Class 2?

WFQ-drop

Queue 2 dWFQ Scheduler

Hardware Queuing System Hardware Q Interface

Class 100?

WFQ-drop

Queue 100

• QoS-group-based dWFQ supports 100 classes
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QoS-group-based dWFQ was introduced to provide a solution to ToS-based dWFQ drawbacks:
n n

4 classes are upgraded to 100 classes Classification is more flexible (any other parameter can be translated into the QoS group number)

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QoS-group-based dWFQ Classification
Packet Buffer
Buffer Header Frame Header IP Header Payload

QoS group

• The number of queues is 100 • Classification is based on the QoS group parameter • The parameter is local to the router and it has to be set by some other QoS mechanism:
– Policy-based Routing (PBR) – Committed Access Rate (CAR) – QoS Policy Propagation through BGP (QPPB) – Class-based Marking – Class-based Policing
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Classification is performed using the QoS group parameter to select one of the 100 queues. The QoS group parameter is local to the router so it has to be set on every hop using one of the QoS mechanisms that supports marking:
n n n n n

Policy-based Routing (PBR) QoS Policy Propagation through BGP(QPPB) Committed Access Rate (CAR) Class-based Policing Class-based Marking

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QoS-group-based dWFQ Scheduling
• Scheduling is identical to that of ToS-based dWFQ • One weight per class configured as a % –Sum of all weights must be =< 99 –Some bandwidth needed for Class 0 • Tail-Drop within each queue

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Scheduling and configuration of scheduling and dropping is identical to that of ToSbased dWFQ. The only difference is that there are up to 100 queues to configure.

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Configuring QoS-group-based dWFQ
Router(config-intf)# fair-queue qos-group qos-group

• Enables ToS-based distributed WFQ
Router(config-intf)# fair-queue qos-group num weight weight qos-group

qos-group number - classes 1 through 99 can be configured with weight; class 0 takes the remaining bandwidth weight - percentage of the output link bandwidth allocated to this class (the sum for all classes cannot exceed 99) Defaults:
unclassified traffic is assigned to class 0; class 1 - 20, class 2 - 30, class 3 - 40 class 0 has the remaining weight (100%-W1-W2-W3); default 10
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Replacing ToS-based dWFQ involves using only the fair-queue qos-group interface command. All existing fair-queue tos commands are replaced with fair-queue qos-group commands.
Note Replacing ToS-based dWFQ with QoS-group-based dWFQ causes all packets to go into Queue 0 because classification is no longer perform ed based on IP precedence value. Some additional configuration steps are necessary.

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Configuring QoS-group-based dWFQ
Router(config-intf)# fair-queue qos-group num limit class-packets qos-group

• Configures individual queue depth
– class-packets - maximum number of packets allowed in the queue for the class during periods of congestion

• If not configured, the default is individual-limit, which is half of the aggregate queue limit
Router(config-intf)# fair-queue aggregate-limit aggregate-packets fair-queue aggregate-packets fair-queue individual-limit individual-packet fair-queue

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These commands have the same meaning as with ToS-based dWFQ.

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QoS-group-based dWFQ Example
• QoS-group-based dWFQ can be used to implement mapping of different parameters into QoS group:
– Assume another mechanism has been configured to translate QoS class information into QoS group (e.g. QPPB) – Use QoS-group-based dWFQ output queuing

• Example:
– allocate 10% to class 1 traffic allocate 30% to class 2 traffic allocate 60% to other traffic

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The case study involves using three queues. Classification and marking is performed using QPPB where the QoS group is set based on some BGP information (for example, BGP community attribute).

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QoS-group based WFQ Configuration Example
interface FastEthernet1/0/0 interface FastEthernet1/0/0 bgp-policy destination ip-qos-map bgp-policy destination ip-qos-map ! ! ... ... ! ! interface Hssi0/0/0 interface Hssi0/0/0 ip address 188.1.3.70 255.255.255.0 ip address 188.1.3.70 255.255.255.0 bgp-policy destination ip-prec-map bgp-policy destination ip-prec-map fair-queue qos-group fair-queue qos-group fair-queue aggregate-limit 60 fair-queue aggregate-limit fair-queue qos-group 1 weight 10 fair-queue qos-group weight fair-queue qos-group 2 weight 30 fair-queue qos-group weight fair-queue qos-group 2 limit 27 fair-queue qos-group limit 27 ! !

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Monitoring QoS-group-based dWFQ
Router#show interfaces fair-queue Router#show interfaces fair-queue Hssi0/0/0 queue size 0 Hssi0/0/0 queue size 0 pkts output 4, wfq drops 0, nobuffer drops 0 pkts output 4, wfq drops 0, nobuffer drops 0 WFQ: aggregate queue limit 60 individual queue limit 96 WFQ: aggregate queue limit 60 individual queue limit 96 max available buffers 386 max available buffers 386 Class 0: weight 60 limit 231 qsize 0 pkts output 4 drops 0 Class 0: weight 60 limit 231 qsize 0 pkts output 4 drops 0 Class 1: weight 10 limit 38 qsize 0 pkts output 0 drops 0 Class 1: weight 10 limit 38 qsize 0 pkts output 0 drops 0 Class 2: weight 30 limit 27 qsize 0 pkts output 0 drops 0 Class 2: weight 30 limit 27 qsize 0 pkts output 0 drops 0

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The show interface fair-queue command only displays information for queues with a weight higher than zero.

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Benefits and Drawbacks of QoSgroup-based dWFQ
+ Benefits
• Guarantees throughput to all classes • A large number of classes (100) • High performance

– Drawbacks
• All drawbacks of FIFO queuing within a single class • Requires other QoS mechanisms to set QoS group • Only supported on Cisco 7x00 series routers with VIP 2-40 or newer

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QoS-group-based dWFQ is the first high-performance class-oriented queuing mechanism. Its main drawback is that it is only available on Cisco 7x00 series routers with VIPs.

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dWFQ Summary
Classification Classes Weighted Fairnes Implementation

WFQ dWFQ ToS dWFQ QoS dWFQ CB-WFQ*

Per-flow Per-flow IP precedence QoS group Manual

16 to 4096 512 4 100 64

Yes (IP precedence) No Manual Manual Manual

RSP/LE VIP VIP VIP RSP/LE/VIP

* Class-based WFQ is covered in the “Modular QoS CLI” module
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Queuing Mechanisms -125

The figure illustrates the comparison of all versions of Weighted Fair Queuing.
n

Traditional WFQ is only available on low-end (LE) routers and the Route Switch Processor (RSP) of Cisco 7x00 series routers All three distributed versions are only available on VIP-based interfaces of Cisco 7x00 series routers

n

Class-based WFQ is now available on low-end routers, the RSP and on the VIP (distributed)

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Summary
There are five versions of WFQ:
n n n n n

Flow-based WFQ (non-distributed, per-flow queuing) Flow-based dWFQ (not weighted, per-flow queuing, fixed number of queues) ToS-based dWFQ (four queues, limited classification options) QoS-group-based dWFQ (up to 100 queues, requires marking on every hop) CB-WFQ

Review Questions
Answer the following questions:
n n n

Which distributed Weighted Fair Queuing mechanisms do you know? What are the main differences between dWFQ versions? What platforms support dWFQ?

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Modified Deficit Round-robin
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n

Describe MDRR queuing Describe the benefits and drawbacks of MDRR queuing Configure MDRR queuing on Cisco GSR routers Monitor and troubleshoot MDRR

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Modified Deficit Round Robin
• Deficit Round Robin (DRR) is a class-based queuing mechanism available on Cisco GSR routers • MDRR supports 8 classes • Low-latency queuing is introduced in the Modified Deficit Round Robin (MDRR)

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Modified Deficit Round-robin (MDRR) is a class-oriented queuing mechanism available on Cisco 12000 series routers (GSR). It supports eight classes, one of which can be used for low-delay propagation.

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MDRR Architecture
Forwarded Packets
Modified Deficit Round Robin Tail -drop WRED

Class 1?

VOQ 1

Class 2?

Tail -drop WRED

VOQ 2 MDRR Scheduler

Hardware Queuing System or Crossbar Switching Fabric

Interface

Class 8?

Tail -drop WRED

VOQ 8

• MDRR supports 8 classes (8 RR queues, one can be high-priority) • MDRR is implemented on the receive side (in front of the Crossbar Switching Matrix) and on the transmit side (in front of an interface)
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MDRR classifies packets based on IP precedence value. Each queue can be configured to support WRED. MDRR can be implemented on output to interfaces (as in all other queuing mechanisms) or in front of the GSR’s Crossbar Switching Matrix.

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MDRR Features
• Deficit Round Robin (DRR) is using eight Virtual Output Queues (VOQ) to prevent head-of-line blocking • DRR can use Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) within each class to prevent congestion within the class • Modified DRR (MDRR) can have one high priority queue for delay-sensitive traffic being serviced in either of the two supported modes: – Strict priority – Alternate priority

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DRR was the first implementation that was later improved by allowing one queue to be high priority.

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MDRR Classification
IP precedence 0 VOQ 0 IP precedence 1

VOQ 1

VOQ 2

IP precedence 7

VOQ 7

• MDRR supports classification of any IP precedence into any of the 8 virtual output queues • One of the 8 queues can be used as low-latency queue
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Classification is done using IP precedence to put packets into one of the eight Virtual Output Queues (VOQ). One of these queues can be configured as high priority.

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MDRR Insertion and Drop Policy

Tail-drop or WRED

Virtual Output Queue

• MDRR uses a traditional tail-drop scheme if a queue is congested • MDRR can also use Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) to prevent congestion

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Each queue uses the tail-drop scheme unless it is configured with WRED.

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DRR Scheduling
Each queue can transmit a configured amount of bytes in one round: MTU + (weight-1)*512 VOQ 0 VOQ 1 Round Robin Scheduler VOQ 7

• Service policy for one queue in one round:
1. Add MTU+(Weight-1)*512 tokens to the token bucket. 2. Transmit packets until tokens are used up or the queue is empty. 3. Reset the token bucket to 0 if the queue is empty. Otherwise remember the deficit (how much more tokens were used than available). 4. Start serving the next queue.
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The scheduling of DRR is similar to that of Custom Queuing, except it is more accurate. DRR remembers the number of bytes it sent above the threshold in the previous round (deficit).

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MDRR Scheduling with Strict Priority Queue
LL Queue VOQ 0 VOQ 1
Str ict Qu Priori t eui ng y

The Strict Priority Low-latency Queue is not limitted by the Token Bucket mechanism

Round Robin Scheduler

VOQ 7

• Service policy for MDRR with Strict Priority:
1. Transmit packets from the Strict Priority Low-latency Queue until the queue is empty. 2. Serve the next-in-line round robin queue. 3. Start serving the Low-latency queue again.

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MDRR can schedule one queue ahead of all the others if it is configured as a Strict Priority queue. This queue can be used for delay-sensitive applications (for example, voice). The problem of this solution is that it can cause other queues to starve if the high priority queue is congested.

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MDRR Scheduling with Alternate Priority Queue
LL Queue VOQ 0 VOQ 1
Alt er Pr nate Qu iority eui ng

The Alternate Priority Queue is using the Token Bucket to limit the amount of bytes it can transmit in one round

Round Robin Scheduler

VOQ 7

• Service policy for MDRR with Alternate Priority:
1. Transmit packets from the Alternate Priority Low-latency Queue until the tokens are used up or the queue is empty. 2. Serve the next-in-line round robin queue 3. Start serving the Low-latency queue again.

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The high priority queue can be set to Alternate Priority mode where all other queues still get service, even if the high-priority queue is congested. The high priority queue, however, experiences slightly more delay because it has to wait for the currently served queue to reach its threshold or be emptied.

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Benefits and Drawbacks of MDRR
+ Benefits
• Accurate bandwidth allocation (takes into account the deficit from the previous round as opposed to Custom Queuing) • Prevents head-of-line blocking in front of the crossbar switching fabric • Supports low-latency queuing (strict priority and alternate priority) • High performance

– Drawbacks
• Limited classification tools (only IP precedence) • Limited number of classes (only 8) • Only supported on Cisco 12000 series routers (GSR)

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MDRR is a high performance queuing mechanism that supports eight classes and allocates bandwidth according to configured weights. It also supports one queue for low-delay propagation of packets.

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Configuring Interface MDRR
Router(config)# cos-queue-group cos-queue-group-name cos-queue-group-name

• Create a queue group template and enter COS queue group configuration mode
Router(config-cos-que)# precedence precedence queue {queue-number|low-latency} {queue-number|low-latency}

• Map IP precedence to a queue
Router(config-cos-que)# queue queue-number weight

• Set weight of a queue

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Configuration of MDRR requires a cos-queue -group to be configured first. All MDRR configuration is performed in the cos-queue -group configuration mode. The first step is to map an IP precedence value to one of the eight queues. Each queue can be configured with a weight that determines the number of bytes that can be transmitted in one round.

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Configuring Interface MDRR
Router(config-cos-que)# queue low-latency {alternate-priority weight|strict-priority}

• Specify the type of low-latency queue
Router(config-if)#

tx-cos cos-queue-group-name

• Associate a COS queue group name with the transmit queues on an interface

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One of the queues can be turned into a high priority queue. The type of queue is determined by the alternate-priority or strict-priority keywords. The last step is to apply the cos-queue-group to an output interface.

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Configuring Receive MDRR
Router(config)# slot-table-cos slot-table-name

• Define a slot table name and enter slot table configuration mode
Router(config-slot-cos)# destination slot {slot-number|all} cos-queue-group-name slot {slot-number|all}

• Define destination slot parameters for this slot table name
Router(config)# rx-cos-slot line-card-number cos-queue-group-name

• Link a slot-table-cos template to a line card

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MDRR can also be applied to traffic leaving the line card through the Crossbar Switching Matrix. A slot-table -cos has to be configured where the destination line cards are specified using the destination slot command. The slot table is then applied to one or more line cards using the rx-cos-slot command.

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MDRR Example
interface POS3/0 interface POS3/0 ip address 1.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 tx-cos C4template tx-cos C4template ! ! cos-queue-group C4template cos-queue-group precedence 0 queue 0 precedence 1 queue 1 precedence 2 queue 1 precedence 3 queue 2 precedence 4 queue 2 precedence 5 queue low-latency precedence 6 queue 3 precedence 7 queue 3 queue 0 10 10 queue 1 20 20 queue 2 40 40 queue low-latency alternate-priority 80 queue low-latency alternate-priority 80 exit exit ! !
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Queuing Mechanisms -142

The example illustrates a sample configuration of MDRR applied to traffic leaving the POS interface.

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Monitoring and Troubleshooting MDRR
Router#

show cos statistics • Display MDRR statistics
Router#show cos statistics Router#show Slot 3 Slot 3 ----------------------------Dest slot 5 Dest slot 5 cos-queue-group: C7template cos-queue-group: C7template ... ... Queue Lengths Queue Lengths To Fabric Queues (DRR configured) C7template To Fabric Queues (DRR configured) Queue Average High Water Mark Queue Average High Water Mark 0 712.000 5562.000 0 712.000 5562.000 1 702.000 7716.000 1 702.000 7716.000 2 702.000 11540.000 2 702.000 11540.000 3 753.000 14368.000 3 753.000 14368.000 4 0.000 0.000 4 0.000 0.000 5 0.000 0.000 5 0.000 0.000 6 0.000 0.000 6 0.000 0.000 Low latency 0.000 0.000 Low latency 0.000 0.000 ... ...
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Weight Weight 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

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The show cos statistics can be used to display results of MDRR.

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Summary
MDRR is a class-oriented queuing mechanism available on the Cisco 1200 series routers. It allows bandwidth guarantees to eight classes and low-delay propagation to one class. MDRR can be applied to outbound traffic or traffic leaving a line card through the Crossbar Switching Matrix.

Review Questions
Answer the following questions:
n n n n

Describe the scheduling mechanism of MDRR. Which two types of low-latency queuing does MDRR support? What are the benefits and drawbacks of MDRR? Where can MDRR be applied?

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IP RTP Prioritization
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n

Describe IP RTP prioritization Describe the benefits and drawbacks of IP RTP prioritization Configure IP RTP prioritization on Cisco routers Monitor and troubleshoot IP RTP Prioritization

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IP RTP Prioritization
• IP RTP Prioritization provides low-latency queuing when used in combination with WFQ or CB-WFQ • It can only be used with UDP traffic with predictable port numbers • It is usually used for VoIP traffic • IP RTP Prioritization is limited to prevent starvation of other traffic

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IP RTP Prioritization is an add-on to WFQ to support low-delay propagation of packets. It can be used for UDP traffic only. IP RTP Prioritization also polices the high priority traffic to prevent starvation of other queues.

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IP RTP Prioritization
Forwarded Packets
High Priority?

Weighted Fair Queuing System Flow 1? WFQ-drop Queue 1

Hardware Queuing System RTP Scheduler Hardware Q Interface

Flow 2?

WFQ-drop

Queue 2 WFQ Scheduler

Flow N?

WFQ-drop

Queue N

• IP RTP prioritization adds one high-priority queue to WFQ
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IP RTP Prioritization supports one high priority queue. Packets from this queue are scheduled ahead of other packets as long as they are within the configured rate. Excess packets are dropped.

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IP RTP Priority Classification
Forwarded Packets
IP UDP Payload UDP Destination port

UDP port In range? No

Yes

RTP Queue

WFQ Queuing System

• IP RTP Prioritization classifies packets based on the UDP port number • Classification is specified by a range of UDP port numbers
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IP RTP Prioritization classifies packets based on UDP port numbers. If the destination UDP port is within the configured range it is enqueued into the high priority queue.

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IP RTP Priority Insertion and Drop Policy
Classified Packets

Token Bucket

Packet within Contract? No

Yes

RTP Queue

• IP RTP Prioritization limits the amount of high-priority traffic • Excess traffic is dropped
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Packets that exceed the policy are dropped. A token Bucket model is used to measure the arrival rate of packets into this queue.

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Benefits and Drawbacks of IP RTP Prioritization
+ Benefits
• Adds low-latency queuing to WFQ and CBWFQ • Prevents starvation of other traffic

– Drawbacks
• Poor classification options • Obsoleted by Class-based Low-latency Queuing

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The main benefit of IP RTP Prioritization is that it allows low-latency propagation when using WFQ. The main drawback is that it has limited classification capabilities (UDP port range only). IP RTP Prioritization was made obsolete by the introduction of Class-based Low Latency Queuing (discussed in the “IP QoS - Modular QoS CLI” module).

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Configuring IP RTP Prioritization
Router(config-if)# ip rtp priority starting-port port-range bandwidth priority port-range bandwidth

• Creates a separate priority queue for VoIP packets and specifies maximum bandwidth available to voice traffic • Maximum bandwidth shall always be slightly larger than actually required bandwidth due to jitter in the network and the Layer-2 overhead • Only UDP packets with a destination port number in the configured range are classified into this queue
Router(config-if)# max-reserved-bandwidth percent

• Specifies the maximum bandwidth percentage that can be allocated to class-based WFQ and priority RTP traffic • The remaining bandwidth is available to flow-classified best-effort traffic and control packets • Default: 75% of the interface bandwidth can be reserved
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Configuration of IP RTP Prioritization requires using the ip rtp priority command where the following parameters have to be specified:
n n n

Starting UDP port number UDP port range (added to the starting port number) Maximum and guaranteed bandwidth

If the requested bandwidth is less than 75% of the bandwidth configured on the interface, the command will fail. Reservable bandwidth can be increased by using the max-reserved-bandwidth interface command.

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IP RTP Prioritization Example
interface Serial0/0 interface Serial0/0 bandwidth 128 bandwidth ip address 10.0.0.1 255.255.255.252 ip address 10.0.0.1 encapsulation ppp ppp fair-queue fair-queue ip rtp priority 16384 16383 50 ip 50 ! !

Up to 75% of configured bandwidth is reservable.

BWavail = BW * 0.75 - BWRTP

Router#show queue serial0/0 Router#show queue serial0/0 Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output dr ops: 0 Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output dr ops: 0 Queueing strategy: weighted fair Queueing strategy: weighted fair Output queue: 0/1000/64/0 (size/max total/threshold/drops) Output Conversations 0/1/256 (active/max active/max total) Conversations 0/1/256 (active/max active/max total) Reserved Conversations 0/0 (allocated/max allocated) Reserved Conversations 0/0 (allocated/max allocated) Available Bandwidth 46 kilobits/sec Available Bandwidth 46 kilobits/sec Router# Router#

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The sample configuration shows how 50 kbps of bandwidth is guaranteed for RTP traffic. The show queue command shows there is only 46 kbps of bandwidth (128 kbps • 75% -50 kbps = 46 kbps) remaining for WFQ.

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Summary
IP RTP Prioritization adds low-latency queuing capability to WFQ. It can only classify packets into one queue based on the UDP port range.

Review Questions
Answer the following questions:
n n n

When would you use IP RTP prioritization? What are the drawbacks of IP RTP prioritization? How many high-priority queues does IP RTP prioritization support?

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Summary
After completing this module, you should be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n

Describe and configure FIFO Queuing (FQ) Describe and configure Priority Queuing (PQ) Describe and configure Custom Queuing (CQ) Describe and configure basic Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ), distributed WFQ, ToS-based distributed WFQ and QoS-group-based distributed WFQ Describe and configure Modified Weighted Round-robin (MDRR) queuing Describe and configure IP RTP Prioritization

n n

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Review Questions and Answers
Queuing Overview Question: Which queuing mechanisms do Cisco routers support? Answer: First In First Out (FIFO), Priority Queuing (PQ), Custom Queuing (CQ), Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) with the different distributed versions, Modified Deficit Round Robin (MDRR), IP RTP Prioritization, Class-based WFQ and Class-based Low-latency Queuing. Question: When is a software queuing mechanisms not used? Answer: Routers bypass the software queue (hold queue) if it is empty and there is room in the hardware queue (TxQ). Question: How does TxQ length affect the software queuing system? Answer: A long TxQ can cause FIFO drawbacks; a short TxQ can cause high CPU utilization and low link utilization.

FIFO Queuing Question: Why is FIFO the fastest queuing mechanism? Answer: It has no classification and the simplest scheduling mechanism. Question: Describe the classification and scheduling of FIFO queuing. Answer: FIFO has only one queue and all packets are enqueued into this queue. Scheduling takes packets out of the queue in the order they arrived (first come first serve). Question: List the drawbacks of FIFO queuing. Answer: FIFO queuing can cause starvation and jitter.

Priority Queuing Question: When would you use priority queuing? Answer: To provide minimum-delay forwarding for delay-sensitive packets. Question: What are the benefits and drawbacks of priority queuing? Answer: PQ has all the drawbacks of FIFO queuing within each class and in addition it can cause starvation of lower-priority classes. Question: How many classes does priority queuing support? Answer: PQ supports four classes. Question: How does priority queuing schedule packets?
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Answer: PQ schedules packets in the priority order. Lower-priority packets are scheduled only when all higher-priority queues are empty.

Custom Queuing Question: When would you use custom queuing? Answer: CQ is used to guarantee bandwidth to traffic classes. Question: What are the benefits and drawbacks of custom queuing? Answer: CQ has all the drawbacks of FIFO queuing within each class. In addition CQ can cause jitter due to the implementation of scheduling. Question: How many classes does custom queuing support? Answer: CQ supports up to 16 classes. Question: How does custom queuing schedule packets? Answer: CQ uses weighted round robin scheduling to ensure that each class is serviced.

Weighted Fair Queuing Question: How does WFQ classify packets? Answer: WFQ classifies packets based on the flow information (source and destination IP addresses and TCP/UDP port numbers, protocol identifier and ToS field). Question: When does WFQ drop packets? Answer: WFQ drops packets of the longest queue when the number of packets in the queuing system reaches the CDT (congestive discard threshold). Question: How does WFQ schedule packets? Answer: WFQ schedules packets with the shortest finish time.

Distributed Weighted Fair Queuing Question: Which distributed Weighted Fair Queuing mechanisms do you know? Answer: Distributed WFQ versions: flow-based, ToS-based and QoS-groupbased. Question: What are the main differences between dWFQ versions? Answer: Distributed versions of WFQ differ primarily in the classification. Question: What platforms support dWFQ? Answer: Cisco 7x00 series routers with VIP-based interfaces support dWFQ.
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Modified Deficit Round-robin Question: Describe the scheduling mechanism of MDRR. Answer: MDRR uses an improved implementation of round robin scheduling to
provide more accurate allocation of bandwidth.

Question: Which two types of low-latency queuing does MDRR support? Answer: MDRR can use one queue for strict priority or alternate priority queuing. Question: What are the benefits and drawbacks of MDRR? Answer: MDRR is fast accurate and prevents head-of-line blocking in front of the
crossbar switching matrix. MDRR only supports 8 queues and can only classify based on IP precedence.

Question: Where can MDRR be applied? Answer: MDRR can be used on output interfaces or in front of the crossbar
switching matrix.

IP RTP Prioritization Question: When would you use IP RTP prioritization? Answer: To provide low-latency queuing with IOS versions that do not support CB-LLQ. Question: What are the drawbacks of IP RTP prioritization? Answer: Limited classification options (only one UDP port range is supported). Question: How many high-priority queues does IP RTP prioritization support? Answer: One per interface.

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4

Traffic Shaping and Policing

Overview
This module describes for the QoS mechanisms that are used to limit the available bandwidth to traffic classes. It discusses two options—traffic policing and traffic shaping. Committed Access Rate (CAR) is discussed as a mechanism to provide traffic policing. Generic Traffic Shaping (GTS) and Frame Relay Traffic Shaping (FRTS) are discussed as traffic shaping mechanisms. It includes the following topics:
n n n n

Traffic Shaping and Policing Generic Traffic Shaping Frame Relay Traffic Shaping Committed Access Rate

Objectives
Upon completion of this module, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n

Describe and configure Generic Traffic Shaping (GTS) Describe and configure Frame Relay Traffic Shaping (FRTS) Describe and configure Committed Access Rate (CAR) Identify other mechanisms that support traffic shaping and policing (Classbased Policing and Class-based Shaping)

Traffic Shaping and Policing
Overview
The lesson introduces mechanisms for traffic policing and traffic shaping. Committed Access Rate (CAR), Generic Traffic Shaping (GTS) and Frame Relay Traffic Shaping (FRTS) are introduced in this section.

Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n

Describe the need for implementing traffic policing and shaping mechanisms List traffic policing and shaping mechanisms available in Cisco IOS Describe the benefits and drawbacks of traffic shaping and policing mechanisms

4-2

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Traffic Shaping and Policing
Meter

Classifier
Traffic stream

Marker

Dropper

• Traffic Shaping and Policing mechanisms are used to rate-limit traffic classes • They have to be able to classify packets and meter their rate of arrival • Traffic Shaping delays excess packets to stay within the rate limit • Traffic Policing typically drops excess traffic to stay within the limit; alternatively it can remark excess traffic
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing-5

Both shaping and policing mechanisms are used in a network to control the rate at which traffic is admitted into the network. Both mechanisms use classification, so they can differentiate traffic. They also use metering to measure the rate of traffic and compare it to the configured shaping or policing polic y. The difference between shaping and policing can be described in terms of their rate-limiting implementation:
n

Shaping meters the traffic rate and delays excessive traffic so that it stays within the desired rate limit. With shaping, traffic bursts are smoothed out producing a steadier flow of data. Reducing traffic bursts helps reduce congestion in the core of the network. Policing drops excess traffic in order to control traffic flow within specified limits. Policing does not introduce any delay to traffic that conforms to traffic policies. It can however, cause more TCP retransmissions, because traffic in excess of specified limits is dropped.

n

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IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing

4-3

Why Use Rate Limiting
• To handle congestion at ingress to ATM/FR network with asymmetric link bandwidths • To limit access to resources when highspeed access is used but not desired • To limit certain applications or classes • To implement a virtual TDM system

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Rate limiting is typically used to satisfy one of the following requirements:
n

Prevent and manage congestion in ATM and Frame Relay networks, where asymmetric bandwidths are used along the traffic path. This prevents the layer-2 network from dropping large amounts of traffic by differentiately dropping excess traffic at ingress to the ATM or Frame Relay networks based on Layer-3 information (for example: IP precedence, DSCP, access list, protocol type, etc.) Limit the access rate on an interface when high-speed physical infrastructure is used in transport, but sub-rate access is desired. Engineer bandwidth so that traffic rates to certain applications or classes of traffic follow a specified traffic -rate policy. Implement a virtual TDM system, where an IP network is used, but has the bandwidth characteristics of a TDM system (that is, fixed maximum available bandwidth). Inbound and outbound policing can, for example, be used on one router to split a single point-to-point link into two or more virtual point-to-point links by assigning a portion of the bandwidth to each class, thus preventing any class from monopolizing the link in either direction.

n

n

n

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Typical Traffic Shaping or Policing Applications
High-speed link

WAN

Low-speed link

Output interface is not congested queuing and WRED do not work

Congestion in WAN network results in non-intelligent layer2 drops

256 kbps Limiting access to resources

64 kbps

Implementing a virtual TDM or Leased line over a single physical link on one side

FastEthernet

128 kbps Server Farm

Internet

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IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing-7

The figure shows three possible applications of rate-limiting (shaping or policing) mechanisms. The first picture shows a Layer-2 WAN with unequal link bandwidths along a Layer-3 path. The ingress (left side) of the network has a highspeed link available into the Layer-2 backbone, which enables it to send traffic at a high rate. At the egress side, the sent traffic hits a low-speed link, and the Layer-2 network is forced to drop a large amount of traffic. If traffic were rate-limited at the ingress, optimal traffic flow occurs, resulting in minimal dropping by the Layer2 network. The second picture shows a hosting farm, which is accessible from the Internet via a shared link. Depending on the service contract, the hosting provider may offer different bandwidth guarantees to customers, and may want to limit the resources a particular server uses. Rate limiting can be used to divide the shared resource (upstream link) between many servers. The third example shows the option of implementing virtual leased lines over a Layer-3 infrastructure, where rate-limited reserved bandwidth is available over a shared link.

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Shaping vs. Policing
• Benefits of Shaping
– Shaping does not drop packets – Shaping supports interaction with Frame Relay congestion indication

• Benefits of Policing
– Policing supports marking – Less buffer usage (shaping requires an additional queuing system)

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IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing-8

A shaper typically delays excess traffic using a buffer, or mechanism, to hold packets and shape the flow when the data rate of the source is higher than expected. Traffic shaping smoothes traffic by storing traffic above the configured rate in a queue. Therefore, shaping increases buffer utilization on a router, but causes non-deterministic packet delays. Shaping can also interact with a Frame Relay network, adapting to indications of Layer-2 congestion in the WAN. A policer typically:
n n n

Drops non-conforming traffic Supports marking of traffic Is more efficient in terms of memory utilization (no additional buffering of packets in needed) Does not increase buffer usage

n

Both policing and shaping ensure that traffic does not exceed a bandwidth limit, but they have different impacts on the traffic:
n

Policing drops packets more often, generally causing more retransmissions of connection-oriented protocols Shaping adds variable delay to traffic, possibly causing jitter

n

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IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing

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How do Routers Measure Traffic Rate
Bandwidth Link bandwidth Exceeding traffic Rate limit Conforming Traffic Time

• Routers use the Token Bucket mathematical model to keep track of packet arrival rate • The Token Bucket model is used whenever a new packet is processed • The return value is conform or exceed
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing-9

In order to perform rate limiting, routers must meter (or measure) traffic rates through their interfaces. To enforce a rate limit, metered traffic is said to:
n

Conform to the rate limit, if the rate of traffic is below or equal to the configured rate limit Exceed the rate limit, if the rate of traffic is above the configured rate limit

n

The metering is usually performed with an abstract model called a token bucket, which is used when processing each packet. The token bucket can calculate whether the current packet conforms or exceeds the configured rate limit on an interface.

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Token Bucket

200 700

500 bytes

Conform Action

500 bytes

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -10

The token bucket is a mathematical model used in a device that regulates the data flow. The mode has two basic components:
n

Tokens: where each token represents the permission to send a fixed number of bits into the network The bucket: which has the capacity to hold a specified amount of tokens

n

Tokens are put into the bucket at a certain rate by the operating system. Each incoming packet, if forwarded, takes tokens from the bucket, representing the packet’s size. If the bucket fills to capacity, newly arriving tokens are discarded. Discarded tokens are not available to future packets. If there are not enough tokens in the bucket to send the packet, the regulator may:
n n

Wait for enough tokens to accumulate in the bucket (traffic shaping) Discard the packet (policing)

The figure shows a token bucket, with the current capacity of 700 bytes. When a 500-byte packet arrives at the interface, its size is compared to the bucket capacity (in bytes). The packet conforms to the rate limit (500 bytes < 700 bytes), and the packet is forwarded. 500 tokens are taken out of the token bucket leaving 200 tokens for the next packet.

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IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Token Bucket

200

300 bytes

Exceed Action

s byte 300

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IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -11

When the next packet arrives immediately after the first packet, and no new tokens have been added to the bucket (which is done periodically), the packet exceeds the rate limit. The packet size is greater than the current capacity of the bucket, and the exceed action is performed (drop in the case of pure policing, delay in the case of shaping).

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IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing

4-9

Token Bucket
Be

Bc of tokens is added every Tc [ms] Tc = Bc / CIR

Link Utilization Bc Bc Bc Bc Bc Bc

Link BW

Average BW (CIR)

Tc

2*Tc

3*Tc

4*Tc

5*Tc

Time

Bc + B e

• Bc is normal burst size (specifies sustained rate) • Be is excess burst size (specifies length of burst)

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IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -12

Token bucket implementations usually rely on three parameters: CIR, Bc and Be. CIR is the Committed Information Rate (also called the committed rate, or the shaped rate). Bc is known as the burst capacity. Be is known as the excess burst capacity. Tc is an interval constant that represents time. A Bc of tokens are forwarded without constraint in every Tc interval. In the token bucket metaphor, tokens are put into the bucket at a certain rate, which is Bc tokens every Tc seconds. The bucket itself has a specified capacity. If the bucket fills to capacity (Bc + Be), it will overflow and therefore newly arriving tokens are discarded. Each token grants permission for a source to send a certain number of bits into the network. To send a packet, the regulator must remove, from the bucket, the number of tokens equal in representation to the packet size. For example, if 8000 bytes worth of tokens are placed in the bucket every 125 milliseconds, the router can steadily transmit 8000 bytes every 125 milliseconds, if traffic constantly arrives at the router. If there is no traffic at all, 8000 bytes per 125 milliseconds get accumulated in the bucket, up to the maximum size (Bc+Be). One second’s accumulation therefore collects 64000 bytes worth of tokens, which can be transmitted immediately in the case of a burst. The upper limit, Bc+Be, defines the maximum amount of data, which can be transmitted in a single burst, at the line rate.
Note Again, note that the token bucket mechanism used for traffic shaping has both a token bucket and a queue used to delay packets. If the token bucket did not have a data buffer, it would be a policer. For traffic shaping, packets that arrive that cannot be sent immediately (because there are not enough tokens in the bucket) are delayed in the data buffer.
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Although token bucket permits burstiness, traffic bursts are bound. This guarantee is made so that traffic flow will never send faster than the token bucket's capacity. In the long-term, this means that the transmission rate will not exceed the established rate at which tokens are placed in the bucket (the committed rate).

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IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing

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Traffic Shaping and Policing Mechanisms
• Shaping Mechanisms:
– Generic Traffic Shaping (GTS) – Frame Relay Traffic Shaping (FRTS) – Class-based Shaping

• Policing Mechanisms:
– Committed Access Rate (CAR) – Class-based Policing

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -13

There are five token-bucket based rate-limiting methods available in Cisco IOS. Three methods are shaping mechanisms:
n n n

Generic traffic shaping Frame Relay traffic shaping Class-based shaping

Two methods are policing mechanisms:
n n

Committed access rate Class-based policing

All these methods are discussed next in specific sections.

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Summary
After completing this lesson, you should be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n

Describe the need for implementing traffic policing and shaping mechanisms List traffic policing and shaping mechanisms available in Cisco IOS Describe the benefits and drawbacks of traffic shaping and policing mechanisms

Lesson Review
Answer the following questions: 1. How do shaping and policing mechanisms keep track of the traffic rate? 2. Which shaping mechanisms are available with the Cisco IOS software? 3. Which policing mechanisms are available with the Cisco IOS software? 4. What are the main differences between shaping and policing?

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IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing

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Generic Traffic Shaping
Overview
This lesson describes the Generic Traffic Shaping (GTS) mechanism.

Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n

Describe the GTS mechanism Describe the benefits and drawbacks of GTS Configure GTS on Cisco routers Monitor and troubleshoot GTS

4-14

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Generic Traffic Shaping
Meter

Classifier
Traffic stream

Marker

Shaper Dropper

• Can shape multiple classes (classification) • Can measure traffic rate of individual classes (metering) • Delays packets of exceeding classes (shaping)
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -18

Generic Traffic Shaping (GTS) shapes traffic by reducing the outbound traffic flow to avoid congestion. This is achieved by constraining traffic to a particular bit rate using the token bucket mechanism. GTS is applied on a per-interface basis and can use access lists to select the traffic to shape. It works with a variety of Layer-2 technologies, including Frame Relay, ATM, Switched Multi-megabit Data Service (SMDS) and Ethernet. As shown in the block diagram, GTS performs three basic functions:
n

Classification of traffic, so that different traffic classes can have different policies applied to them Metering, using a token-bucket mechanism, to distinguish between conforming and exceeding traffic Shaping, using buffering, to delay exceeding traffic and shape it to the configured rate limit

n

n

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IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing

4-15

GTS Building Blocks

Forwarder

Classifier
No

Yes

No

Shaping WFQ

No

Classifier
No

Yes

Yes

Shaping WFQ

Yes Yes No Yes

Classifier

Shaping WFQ

No

Physical Interface queue(s)
IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -19

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

GTS is implemented as a queuing mechanism, where there are separate WFQ delay queues implemented for each traffic class. Each WFQ-queue delays packets until they conform to the rate-limit, and also schedules them according to the WFQ algorithm. Conforming traffic is then sent to the physical interface. Arriving packets are first classified into one of the shaping classes. Traffic not classified into any class is not shaped. Classification can be performed using access lists. Once a packet is classified into a shaping class, its size is compared to the amount of available token in the token bucket of that class. The packet is forwarded to the main interface queue if there are enough tokens. A number of tokens taken out of the token bucket is equal to the size of the packet (in bytes). If, on the other hand, there are not enough tokens to forward the packet, the packet is buffered in the WFQ system assigned to this shaping class. The router will then periodically replenish the token bucket and check if there are enough tokens to forward one or more packets out of the shaping queue. Packets are scheduled out of the shaping queue according to the WFQ scheduling algorithm.

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

GTS Overview
• GTS is multiprotocol • GTS uses WFQ as the shaping queue • GTS can be implemented in combination with any queuing mechanisms:
– FIFO Queuing – Priority Queuing (PQ) – Custom Queuing (CQ) – Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ)

• GTS works on output only

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -20

The GTS implementation in Cisco IOS supports multiple protocols and works on a variety of interface types. WFQ is used as the shaping delay queue, providing fair scheduling within a traffic class. Other queuing strategies (FIFO, PQ, CQ and WFQ) may be employed after GTS to provide traffic scheduling on the shaped traffic. Also, GTS only works at the output of an interface. GTS can be used to shape all outbound traffic on an interface or it can separately shape multiple classes. Classification is performed using any type of access list including all non-ip access lists.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing

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GTS Implementation
Dispatches packets at configured rate Dispatches packets at line rate Dispatches packets at line rate

Shaping Queue
(WFQ)

Software Queue
(FIFO, PQ, CQ, WFQ, ...)

Hardware Queue
(FIFO)

Bypass the software queue if it is empty and there is room in the hardware queue

• The software queue may have no function if the sum of all shaping rates is less than link bandwidth
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -21

Packet flow through GTS is implemented using three queues. The first, the shaping queue, is WFQ-based and shapes traffic according to the specified rate using a token bucket model. This queue dispatches packets to the software queue, which may be configured with other queuing mechanisms (PQ, CQ, WFQ or FIFO). If the software queue is empty, traffic is forwarded directly to the output hardware queue. GTS supports distributed implementation on VIP adapters. This offloads traffic shaping from the route switch processor (RSP) to the Versatile Interface Processor (VIP), and constructs all of the queues in VIP packet memory. Only IP traffic can be shaped with dWFQ. Another requirement is that dCEF switching must be enabled.

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IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Configuring GTS
Router(config-if)#

traffic-shape rate bit-rate [burst-size [excessburst-size]]

• Enables traffic shaping of all outbound (sub)interface traffic • In IOS versions prior to 11.2(19) and 12.0(4), optimum switching is disabled on all interfaces if traffic shaping is enabled on any interface

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -22

To enable traffic shaping for outbound traffic on an interface, use the trafficshape rate interface configuration command. Of the parameters to be specified, bit-rate is the only mandatory one. The burst-size and excess-burst-size are optional. Generic traffic shaping can be used in all switching paths. Older Cisco IOS versions may use slower switching paths when GTS is in effect.

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Configuring GTS
Router(config-if)#

traffic-shape rate bit-rate [burst-size [excessburst-size]]

• Bit rate – average traffic rate in bps (equivalent to Frame Relay CIR) • Burst size – amount of traffic sent in a measurement interval in bits (equivalent to Frame Relay Bc) Default value: 1/8 of bit rate

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing-23

Bit rate (in bits per second) is configured as the average traffic rate to which the traffic should be shaped on the output of the interface. Burst size (in bits) can be configured to allow for varying levels of allowed burstiness. That is, traffic, which bursts over the average traffic rate, also conforms if it falls within the burst rate in an interval. By default, this is set to one eighth of the average traffic rate, which sets the Tc at one eighth of a second. This parameter is equivalent to the Frame Relay Bc parameter.

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IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Configuring GTS
Router(config-if)#

traffic-shape rate bit-rate [burst-size [excessburst-size]]

• Excess-burst-size - amount of excess traffic that can be sent during the first burst in bps (equivalent to Frame Relay Be) Default value: no excess burst • Measurement interval (Tc) is computed from bit-rate and burst -size Tc smaller than 25 ms is rejected, Tc greater than 125 ms is reduced
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -24

The excess-burst-size parameter (in bits), equivalent to the Frame Relay Be parameter, defines the excess burst of traffic, which can still be sent through the first noticed burst. By default, there is no excess burst allowed. The Tc parameter defines the measurement interval, which is used in the operation of the token bucket. By default, it is directly computed from the bit rate and the burst size as Bc divided by the average bit rate. To ensure proper operation of shaping, those parameters are bounded to values between 25 and 125 ms.

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Configuring GTS
Router(config-if)#

traffic-shape group access-list bit-rate [burst [excess-burst]] • Shapes outbound traffic matched by the specified access list • Several traffic-shape group commands can be configured on the same interface • The “traffic-shape rate“ and “traffic-shape group“ commands cannot be mixed on the same interface • Separate token bucket and shaping queue is maintained for each traffic-shape group command • Traffic not matching any access list is not shaped

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -25

Classification of traffic to be shaped is performed using access lists. To enable traffic shaping based on a specific access list for outbound traffic on an interface, use the traffic-shape group interface configuration command. The traffic-shape group command allows specification of one or more previously defined access lists to shape traffic on the interface. One traffic-shape group command must be specified for each access list on the interface. Cisco IOS uses separate token buckets and shaping queues for each class, as differentiated by the access list specification. Traffic not matching any access list bypasses traffic shaping and is immediately sent to the software or hardware interface queue. Use the traffic-shape rate command if no classification is needed and shaping should be applied to all traffic. Remember that the traffic-shape group command using an IP access list permitting all IP traffic is not equivalent to the traffic-shape rate command if non-IP traffic is present in the network.

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

GTS Example #1
• ISP wants to sell a service in which a customer may use all of a E1 line for 30 seconds in a burst, but on a long term average is limited to 256 kbps • GTS parameters
– bit-rate: 256000 - output rate is 256000 bps – burst-size: 32000 the number of bits sent in 125 msec – excess-burst-size: 61440000 = 2048000 * 30

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing-26

In the first GTS example, an ISP wants to control the amount of traffic injected into the Frame Relay WAN by the customer. The SP service uses an E1 line as the access line, limits the customer to 256 Kbps on the average, but also permits bursts of up to thirty seconds at the E1 line rate. The parameters are calculated based on the service requirements. CIR (the average bit rate) is set at the specified average rate, the burst size is set to one eighth of the CIR (32000 bits), and the excess burst size reflects the allowed thirtysecond burst at full E1 line rate. The excess burst size was calculated using the following formula: 1. Each second of transmission at line-speed requires 2 Mbits 2. Thirty second burst therefore requires 30 x 2 Mbits 3. The excess burst size is 30 x 2048000 = 61440000 It takes thirty seconds to empty the token bucket. How long does it take to fill it up again? The token bucket is emptied at 2Mbps but it is replenished at 256kbps. It takes eight times as long to fill it as it does to empty it. Every thirty second burst would, therefore, require a four-minute silence on the line to accumulate tokens.

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GTS Example #1

WAN Core Customer
interface ethernet 0/0 interface ethernet 0/0 traffic-shape rate 256000 32000 61440000 traffic-shape rate 256000 32000 61440000 ! ! interface serial 1/0 interface serial1/0 traffic-shape rate 256000 32000 61440000 traffic-shape rate 256000 32000 61440000

• Since ISP wants to control the total amount of load the configuration would be done on both the inbound and outbound interfaces
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing-27

The figure shows the router configuration required to implement this service. All the output traffic is shaped, and the shaping needs to be configured on all customer edge sites, which will perform admission control using GTS.

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IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

GTS Example #2

WAN Core Customer
interface ethernet 0/0 interface ethernet 0/0 traffic-shape group 101 64000 traffic-shape group 101 64000 interface serial 1/0 interface serial 1/0 traffic-shape group 101 64000 traffic-shape group 101 64000 ! ! access-list 101 permit tcp any any eq www access -list 101 permit tcp any any eq www

• The customer wants to be sure that Web traffic will never use more than 64 kbps
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing-28

In the second example, a customer wants to limit web usage, so that web traffic never uses more than 64 Kbps on the access link. The router configuration is shown in the figure, using default parameters for traffic bursts. An access list defines web traffic as the only shaped traffic. All other traffic bypasses GTS and can use the full access line bandwidth.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing

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Monitoring GTS
Router(config)#

show traffic-shape

• Displays current traffic shaping configuration
MAX = (Bc + Be)/8 Be Bc = Tc * CIR

Router#show access I/F list Se3/3

traffic-shape Target Byte Sustain Excess Interval Increment Adapt Rate Limit bits/int bits/int (ms) (bytes) Active 100000 2000 8000 8000 80 1000 -

CIR

Bc

Tc=Bc/CIR

do we listen to FECN/BECN?

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing-29

The figure shows the results of the show traffic-shape command issued on a router that shapes traffic to 100kbps with Bc and Be set to 8000. To display the current traffic-shaping configuration, use the show traffic-shape command. To display the current traffic -shaping statistics, use the show trafficshape statistics command. Output of both the commands is detailed in the ensuing figures. Information displayed includes:
n n n n n

The rate that traffic is shaped to The maximum number of bytes transmitted per internal interval Configured sustained bits per interval Configured excess bits in the first interval Interval being used internally (may be smaller than the committed burst divided by the CIR) Number of bytes that will be sustained per internal interval If Frame Relay has FECN/BECN adaptation configured

n n

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IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Monitoring GTS
Router(config)#

show traffic-shape statistic

• Displays traffic shaping statistics
Number of packets/bytes sent on the interface

Router#show traffic-shape statistic traffic-shape statistic Access Queue Packets Bytes Access Queue Packets Bytes I/F List Depth List Depth Se3/3 77 16091 3733112 16091 3733112

Packets Packets Delayed 414 414

Bytes Bytes Delayed 96048 96048

Shaping Shaping Active Active yes yes

Depth of the associated WFQ queue for delayed packets

Subset of the previous number of packets/bytes delayed via the WFQ queue

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing-30

The show traffic-shape statistics command displays the statistics of traffic shaping for all the configured interfaces. Displayed in the output is:
n

The interface where the traffic-shape rate or traffic-shape group command is used (traffic-shape rate command is used on interface serial3/3 in the example) The associated access list if the traffic-shape group command is used The number of packets currently in the shaping queue (queue depth) The total number of packets that have been processed by the traffic-shape command since the last clearing of interface counters (16091 packets in the example) The total number of bytes that have been processed by the traffic-shape command since the last clearing of interface counters (3733112 bytes in the example) The total number of packets that have been delayed by the traffic-shape command since the last clearing of interface counters (414 packets in the example) The total number of bytes that have been delayed by the traffic-shape command since the last clearing of interface counters (96048 bytes in the example) If the queue depth is more than 0 than shaping is active

n n n

n

n

n

n

The expected result of traffic shaping is a high ratio between transmitted packets and delayed packets.
Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing 4-27

If the number of delayed packets is very high (compared to the total number of packets) then there are probably non-responsive aggressive flows being shaped and the queue depth could show high buffer utilization. If the number of delayed packets is zero then it is very likely that the access list does not match any traffic.

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IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Monitoring GTS
Router(config)#

show traffic-shape queue

• Displays the shaping queue contents
router#show traffic-shape queue router#show traffic-shape queue Traffic queued in shaping queue on Serial0 (depth/weight) 1/4096 Conversation 254, linktype: ip, length: 232 linktype: ip, source: 1.1.1.1, destination: 1.1.2.47, id: 0x0001, ttl: 208, source: 1.1.1.1, destination: ttl: 208, TOS: 0 prot: 17, source port 11111, destination port 22222 TOS: 0 prot: source port 11111, destination port 22222

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -31

The show traffic-shape queue command displays the contents of the shaping queue associated with an interface. This command can be used to determine the types of flows that are congesting the shaping queue. The command displays the parameters that are used for classification within WFQ:
n n n n n n n

Source IP address Destination IP address Time to live (TTL) Type of Service (ToS) field Protocol ID Source port number Destination port number

The example shows that there is a non-responsive UDP flow (protocol 17) congesting the shaping queue.

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GTS on Frame Relay Interfaces
• GTS can be implemented on any type of (sub)interface • GTS supports additional features when implemented on Frame Relay interfaces:
– Adaptation to Frame Relay congestion notification – BECT-to-FECN reflection – FECN creation on congestion

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -32

GTS applies on a per-interface basis, can use access lists to select the traffic to shape, and works with a variety of Layer-2 technologies, including:
n n n n

Frame Relay ATM Switched Multi-megabit Data Service (SMDS) Ethernet

On a Frame Relay subinterface, GTS can be set up to shape to a specified rate and to adapt dynamically to available bandwidth by integrating Frame Relay congestion signaling with GTS.

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Frame Relay Refresher
• Frame Relay Explicit Congestion Notification
– FECN (Forward Explicit Congestion Notification) – BECN (Backward Explicit Congestion Notification) – CLLM (Consolidated Link Layer Management)

• Implicit Congestion Notification
– Network discards detected by end user at higher layers – DE (Discard Eligibility) bit

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -33

Frame Relay performs congestion notification to its Layer-2 endpoints by including congestion signaling inside the Layer-2 frame headers.
n

The FECN, BECN and DE bits in the Q.922 header of the frame provide inband congestion signaling. The Forward Explicit Congestion Notification (FECN) is bit set by a Frame Relay network to notify a device (FR DTE, which may be a router) that it should initiate congestion avoidance procedures. The Backward Explicit Congestion Notification (BECN) is bit set by a Frame Relay network to notify a device (DTE) that it should initiate proper congestion avoidance procedures. CLLM is an enhanced signaling method, used by Frame Relay switches, which expands on the FECN/BECN mechanism to improve congestion management. The Discard Eligibility (DE) bit indicates that a frame may be discarded in preference to other frames, if congestion occurs, to maintain the committed quality of service within the network. Frames with the DE bit set are considered Be excess data.

n

n

n

n

Congestion notification may be explicit (honored by Layer-2 devices) or implicit (detected and honored by higher-layer protocols, not by the Layer-2 network). FECN/BECN and CLLM are explicit methods, while BE-setting is an implicit notification method.

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Frame Relay FECN/BECN Congestion Control
Switch monitors all Switch monitors all transmit queues for transmit queues for congestion congestion

S e n d e r

Frame 1

No Congestion this Side
Frame 2 Frame 2

BECN

Frame Frame Relay Relay Switch

Frame 1 1

FECN

Congestion this Side
Frame 2

R e c e i v e r

Same Virtual Circuit (VC)

• FR Switch detects congestion on output queue and informs:
– The receiver by setting the FECN bit on forwarded frames – The source by setting the BECN bit on frames going in the opposite direction
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -34

A Frame Relay switch can explicitly report congestion in two directions: Forward and Backward. When a frame queue inside a switch is congested, the switch will generate congestion signals based on the FECN and BECN bits. If congestion occurs in a queue towards the main receiver of traffic, FECN signals are sent to the receiving Layer-2 endpoint and BECN signals are sent to the sending Layer-2 endpoint. FECN and BECN bits are not sent as separate frames, but are piggybacked inside data frames.

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

GTS Frame Relay Congestion Adaptability
• On a Frame Relay (sub)interface, GTS can adapt dynamically to available Frame Relay bandwidth by integrating BECN signals
– The GTS bit rate is reduced when BECN packets are received to reduce the data flow through congested Frame Relay network – Adaptation is done on per (sub)interface basis – GTS bit rate is gradually increased when the congestion is no longer present (no BECN packets are received any more)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -35

BECN is the flag that the sending DTE (router as a Frame Relay endpoint) is able to integrate to determine the congestion status of the Layer-2 WAN.

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GTS Frame Relay Congestion Adaptability Mechanisms
• Bit-rate adaptation
– Traffic shaping bit-rate is reduced when a packet with BECN bit is received in the Tc – Traffic shaping bit-rate is increased if no BECN bits were received in the Tc

• FECN to BECN propagation
– A test packet with BECN bit set is sent to the sender if a packet with FECN bit set is received

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -36

The first adaptation mechanism is bit-rate adaptation. GTS is able to respond to Layer-2 congestion by reducing its shaping rate to three-quarters of the current rate, until the Layer-2 network recovers from congestion. When BECN flags are no longer received, the rate is slowly ramped up again to the original shaping rate. This is also a lower limit of rate reduction, which bounds the reduction process so that at least some throughput is maintained. The BECN-integrating functionality is performed on a per sub-interface (DLCI) basis. However, if the congestion was caused by simplex traffic (such as a multicast video stream) or by an aggressive TCP connection, it is expected that the reverse traffic (frames flowing from the receiver to the sender, marked with the BECN bit) might come by less frequently than required to feed the integration. So the receiving DTE (the receiving router) can help matters when it receives a message with FECN set by first checking to see if it has any data, and if it does not, originating a message with BECN set. This message might be a Q.922 TEST RESPONSE message, which would by virtue of its message type be understood to be a message to discard and not reply to. This feature is called FECN-to-BECN propagation.

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

An Example of BECN Integration
becn
9000

INC added every Tc in the token Bucket

BECN Integration
8000

becn
7000 6000

5000

Inc

4000

3000

traffic-shape rate 64000 8000 8000 traffic-shape adaptive 32000 BECN received at Tc#1 and Tc#3 Hypothesis: no idle traffic
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

2000

1000

0 1

time represented in units of Tc
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -37

The figure shows the shaped rate of a token bucket-based GTS responding to BECN packets it received. As mentioned, the rate is reduced to three-quarters of the previous rate for every Tc interval, which saw at least one BECN message received at the router. When no BECN messages are received in a Tc period, the shaped rate is brought up slowly, up one-sixteenth of the current rate.

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FECN to BECN Propagation
R e c e i v e r

S e n d e r

FECN

Frame Relay Switch Switch

Congestion

BECN in Q.922Test

If there is no reverse traffic, the switch is not able to set BECN in frames going back to sender

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -38

The other adaptation method, FECN-to-BECN propagation, configures a Frame Relay sub-interface to reflect received FECN bits as BECN in Q.922 TEST RESPONSE messages. This enables the sender to notice congestion in the Layer2 network, even if there is no data traffic flowing from the receiver back to the sender.

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Configuring Bit-rate Adaptation
Router(config-if)#

traffic-shape adaptive [bit-rate]

• Configures Traffic Shaping Frame Relay bit-rate adaptation bit-rate - lowest bit-rate the traffic is shaped to in response to continuous BECN signals Default: 1/2 the specified traffic shaping rate • Traffic shaping has to be enabled

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -39

Frame Relay bit rate adaptation is configured using the traffic-shape adaptive command, which specifies the lower limit to which the shaped rate should be reduced in presence of incoming BECN signals. By default, this is half the configured sustained (committed) rate in GTS. The bit rate is configured in bits per second.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing

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Configuring FECN to BECN propagation
Router(config-if)#

traffic-shape fecn-adapt traffic-shape

• Configures the router to send Frame Relay TEST message with BECN bit set in response to receiving a frame with FECN bit set • Can be used without adaptive traffic shaping
Router(config-if)#

traffic-shape fecn-create traffic-shape fecn-create

• Sets FECN bit in all outgoing packets that have been delayed due to traffic shaping • Use for debugging/simulation only
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -40

The traffic-shape fecn-adapt command enables the FECN-to-BECN propagation. It can be used without adaptive GTS, as configured with the previous command. This feature should be used for testing purposes only. If the feature is combined with the adaptation feature it is very likely that the first delayed packet will cause the shaping to slow down to the minimum shaping rate. For example: 1. Router A (sender) sends a frame with a FECN bit because it had to delay a packet. 2. Router B (receiver) replies with the TEST frame with the BECN bit set 3. Router A (sender) reduces the shaping rate due to the received BECN causing even more delay and more packets with the FECN bit set.

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

GTS Frame Relay Adaptation Design
Conservative scenario
• Set shaping rate to CIR • Set minimum rate to MIR (or 1/2 CIR)

Optimistic scenario
• Set shaping rate to EIR • Set minimum rate to CIR

Realistic scenario
• Set shaping rate to EIR • Set minimum rate to MIR (or 1/2 CIR)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -41

To illustrate different possibilities of adaptation, consider the following three scenarios for using GTS over a Frame Relay circuit
n

In a conservative scenario, where there should be minimal congestion and dropping, the shaping rate is set to the contracted Frame Relay CIR (Committed Information Rate) and the minimum rate of adaptation is set either to MIR (Minimum Information Rate) or half the CIR value. MIR depends on the provider’s over provisioning of the network and can be as low as one-tenth of the CIR. This configuration minimizes dropping, but does not allow excess bandwidth to be fully utilized. In an optimistic scenario, the normal shaping rate may be set to the EIR (Excess Information Rate) and the minimum rate to the CIR. This configuration would probably cause too much dropping in a loaded Frame Relay network. In a realistic scenario, utilizing most excess bandwidth can be achieved by setting the shaping rate to the EIR and the minimum adaptation rate to the MIR (or half the CIR). This would allow full advantage to be made of the Frame Relay network, if possible, and to adapt to a realistic level if congestion is indicated.

n

n

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GTS Frame Relay Adaptation Example

WAN Core Customer interface serial 0/0 interface 0/0 traffic-shape rate 64000 8000 8000 traffic-shape rate traffic-shape adaptive 48000 traffic-shape adaptive 48000

• EIR = 64 kbps • CIR = 48 kbps • Assumption: Frame Relay network is usually not congested
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -42

This GTS shape rate adaptation example shows a configuration of GTS, where traffic is shaped to the EIR of 64 Kbps, with the adaptive floor being equal to CIR, which is contracted at 48 Kbps. No FECN-to-BECN propagation is configured. This example would work optimally only if the Frame Relay network is unlikely to get congested because setting the adaptive floor to the CIR cannot lower the shaping rate below the CIR. Lowering the rate below the contracted CIR may be necessary in most commercial Frame Relay networks.

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Summary
n n n n n n n n n

GTS can be applied only on output interfaces GTS performs traffic shaping or smoothing GTS cannot mark or drop packets GTS supports BECN and FECN in Frame Relay environments GTS does not support cascaded policies GTS does not provide managed discard GTS cannot run in distributed mode GTS supports only extended IP access lists GTS supports RSVP as it uses WFQ

Lesson Review
Answer the following questions: 1. What software queuing mechanisms are supported in combination with GTS? 2. Which queuing structure does GTS use? 3. What features does GTS include when used on Frame Relay interfaces?

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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4-41

Frame Relay Traffic Shaping
Overview
The section describes the Frame Relay Traffic Shaping (FRTS) mechanism.

Objectives
Upon completion of this section, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n n

Describe the FRTS mechanism Describe the benefits and drawbacks of FRTS Compare the GTS and FRTS mechanisms Configure FRTS on Cisco routers Monitor and troubleshoot FRTS

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Frame Relay Traffic Shaping
Meter

Classifier
Traffic stream

Marker

Shaper Dropper

• Can NOT shape multiple classes • Can be implemented on per-vc basis (classification) • Can measure traffic rate of individual virtual circuits (metering) • Delays packets of exceeding VC-s (shaping) • Dynamic Traffic Throttling on a Per-VC Basis (BECN or ForeSight) • Enhanced Queuing Support on a Per-VC Basis (PQ, CQ or WFQ)
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -48

Cisco has long provided support for FECN for DECnet and OSI, and BECN for SNA traffic using LLC2 encapsulation and DE bit support. FRTS builds upon this existing Frame Relay support with additional capabilities that improve the scalability and performance of a Frame Relay network, thereby increasing the density of VCs and improving response time. Frame Relay Traffic Shaping (FRTS) can eliminate bottlenecks in Frame Relay networks that have high-speed connections at the central site and low-speed connections at branch sites. Rate enforcement can be configured to limit the rate at which data is sent on the VC at the central site. Using FRTS, rate enforcement can be configured to either the CIR or some other defined value such as the excess information rate on a per-VC basis. The ability to allow the transmission speed used by the router to be controlled by criteria other than line speed (that is, by the CIR or the excess information rate) provides a mechanism for sharing media by multiple VCs. Bandwidth can be allocated per VC, creating a virtual time-division multiplexing (TDM) network. PQ, CQ and WFQ can also be defined at the VC or subinterface level. Using these queuing methods allows for finer granularity in prioritising and queuing of traffic, thus providing more control over the traffic flow on an individual VC. If CQ is combined with the per-VC queuing and rate enforcement capabilities, Frame Relay VCs are enabled to carry multiple traffic types, such as IP, SNA and IPX, with guaranteed bandwidth for each traffic type. Using information contained in the BECN-tagged packets received from the network, FRTS can also dynamically throttle traffic. With BECN-based throttling, packets are held in the buffers of the router to reduce the data flow from the router into the Frame Relay network. The throttling is done on a per-VC basis and
Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing 4-43

the transmission rate is adjusted based on the number of BECN-tagged packets received. With the Cisco FRTS feature, ATM ForeSight closed loop congestion control can be integrated to actively adapt to downstream congestion conditions.

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FRTS Building Blocks

No classifier, shaping performed on individual VC

Enough Tokens?

No

Shaping Queue

Forwarder + Frame Relay maps

Enough Tokens?

No Yes

Shaping Queue

Yes Enough Tokens? No Yes

Shaping Queue

Traffic for VCs that are not shaped

Physical Interface queue(s)

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IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing-48

In this block diagram, FRTS operation on a physical Frame Relay interface is shown. There is no global pre-classification of traffic, but packets are sent to their individual VCs instead. Shaping is then performed on a per-VC basis, with a separate shaping queue/token bucket for each VC. Packets coming out of their individual per-VC shapers are then sent to the physical interface queue (Tx queue/Tx ring).

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FRTS Overview
• FRTS is multiprotocol • FRTS can use one of the following queuing mechanisms as the shaping queue:
– Priority Queuing (PQ) – Custom Queuing (CQ) – Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ)

• FRTS can only be implemented in combination with WFQ on the interface • FRTS works on output only

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FRTS is a shaping implementation that supports multiple protocols. Unlike GTS, which performs a WFQ-based scheduling on the entry of the shaper with an arbitrary scheduling mechanism on the physical interface, FRTS performs its operations the other way around. FRTS can use priority queuing, custom queuing, or weighed fair queuing as the scheduling method on the entry of the shaper. This allows for finer granularity in the prioritization and queuing of traffic and provides more control over the traffic flow on an individual VC. If CQ is combined with the per-VC queuing and rate enforcement capabilities, Frame Relay VCs are enabled to carry multiple traffic types, with bandwidth guaranteed for each traffic type. For example, if CQ is combined with the per-VC queuing and rate enforcement capabilities, FR VC’s can be enabled to carry IP, SNA and IPX traffic, with bandwidth guaranteed for each. At the physical interface itself (after the packet has been fancy queued and shaped) WFQ needs to be enabled in conjunction with FRTS. WFQ is currently the only supported interface scheduling method. FRTS can only be configured on the output of an interface.

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GTS vs. FRTS
Generic Traffic Shaping • Works on any (sub)interface • Shapes traffic on (sub)interface basis • Any physical interface queuing can be used • Only WFQ can be used for shaping queue Frame Relay Traffic Shaping • Works only on Frame Relay • Shapes traffic of individual virtual circuits • Only WFQ can be used on physical interface • CQ, PQ or WFQ can be used in shaping queue

Generic Traffic Shaping is equivalent to Frame Relay Traffic Shaping when it’s configured on point-to-point Frame Relay subinterfaces

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The figure compares GTS to FRTS, based on their main differences. Generic Traffic Shaping:
n n n n

Works on any (sub) interface type Shapes traffic on that (sub)interface basis Can use any physical interface queuing (FIFO, PQ, CQ or WFQ) Only uses WFQ as the shaping queue (that is, on the input of the shaper)

In contrast, Frame Relay Traffic Shaping:
n n n n

Works only on Frame Relay (sub) interfaces Shapes traffic inside individual FR Virtual Circuits Only permits WFQ as the physical interface queuing method Can use any queuing method as the shaping queue (that is, on the input of the shaper)

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Configuring FRTS
• Define the shaping parameters (map-class)
– Token-bucket parameters – Frame Relay congestion adaptation – Shaping queue type

• Enable Frame Relay traffic shaping on physical interface • Apply the shaping definition
– For all VCs on (sub)interface – For individual PVC/SVC

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Enabling FRTS on an interface enables both traffic shaping and per-VC queuing on all the interface's PVCs and SVCs. Traffic shaping enables the router to control the circuit's output rate and, if configured, to react to congestion notification information. Queuing enables per-VC scheduling of traffic to be shaped. Configuring FRTS involves:
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3

Defining the shaping parameters with the map-class command Enabling FRTS on the physical interface Applying the shaping parameters to all, or selected, VCs on that interface

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Creating a Map Class
Router(config)#

map-class frame-relay name

• Creates a new Frame Relay map class or starts editing existing map-class • Map class names are case sensitive

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The map-class frame -relay command defines the per-VC shaping and queuing parameters. A case-sensitive name must be assigned to each map class.

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Define Map-class Shaping Queue
Router(config-map-class)#

frame-relay priority-group number

• Selects priority queuing as the shaping queue structure
Router(config-map-class)#

frame-relay custom-queue-list number

• Selects custom queuing as the shaping queue structure
Router(config-map-class)#

frame-relay fair cdt max-queue rsvp-queues max-buf rsvp-queues max-buf frame-relay fair

• Selects WFQ as the shaping queue structure • FRF.12 requires weighted fair queuing
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Inside the map class, the frame-relay priority-group, frame-relay customqueue -list, and frame-relay fair keywords enable a queuing discipline of either priority, custom or weighed fair queuing, respectively. This queuing discipline is used for traffic departing on a VC, before shaping is applied to it. If FRF.12 payload compression is used, WFQ needs to be configured as the queuing discipline.

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Define Traffic Shaping Parameters
Router(config-map-class)#

frame-relay [in|out] cir bit-rate [in|out] cir frame-relay [in|out] bc bits [in|out] frame-relay [in|out] be bits

• Specifies the shaping parameters in CIR/Bc/Be values • Tc is computed from CIR and Bc • Only outgoing values can be specified for FRTS
Router(config-map-class)#

frame-relay traffic-rate average-rate peak-rate traffic-rate

• Specifies only the CIR and peak rate • Tc is specified by the router • Bc and Be are computed from Tc, average and peak rate

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Per-VC traffic shaping parameters specify shaping behavior for the configured map class. Two configuration mechanisms are available:
n n

Specification of CIR, Bc and Be parameters of the per-VC token bucket Specification of per-VC average rate and peak rate, where Bc and Be are computed from the default Tc, average rate and peak rate

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Define Congestion Adaptation Mechanism
Router(config-map-class)#

frame-relay adaptive-shaping becn|foresight adaptive-shaping becn|foresight

• Enables adaptive shaping for the Frame Relay map class • Congestion indication mechanism could be BECN or Foresight (CLLM)
Router(config-map-class)#

frame-relay mincir rate

• Specifies the minimum bit rate for congestion adaptation algorithm

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IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -56

As part of the map class definition, either BECN or ForeSight are used as the congestion backward notification mechanism to which traffic shaping will adapt. The BECN adaptation feature is the same as with GTS, thus the router reacts to received BECN signals by reducing its shaping rate. The ForeSight adaptation feature uses the network traffic control software used in Cisco Frame Relay switches. When the ForeSight feature is enabled on the switch, the switch will periodically send out a ForeSight message based on the time value configured. The time interval can range from 40 to 5000 milliseconds. The ForeSight feature allows Cisco Frame Relay routers to process and react to ForeSight messages and adjust VC-level traffic shaping in a timely manner.
Note The ForeSight feature is only available in combination with Cisco WAN switches.

The difference between the BECN and ForeSight congestion notification methods is that BECN requires a user packet to be sent in the direction of the congested DLCI to convey the signal. The sending of user packets is not predictable and, therefore, is not reliable as a notification mechanism. Rather than wait for user packets to provide the congestion notification, timed periodic ForeSight messages guarantee that the router receives notification before congestion becomes a problem. Traffic can be slowed down in the direction of the congested DLCI.

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Define Dedicated Queue for VoFR Packets
Router(config-map-class)#

frame-relay voice bandwidth bps queue depth

• Creates dedicated queue for VoFR packets • VoFR queue has priority over regular queues configured on the same VC • Specified bandwidth has to include L2 and VoFR overhead • Voice calls over Frame Relay will not be placed unless the voice queue is configured • Voice over FR call will be rejected if there is not enough bandwidth available in the voice queue

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -57

The frame-relay voice-bandwidth map-class command is used to configure how much bandwidth is reserved for voice over Frame Relay (VoFR) traffic, if used in the network. The router then creates a dedicated priority queue, used only for VoFR traffic. If not enough reserved voice bandwidth remains on the PVC, any new calls that are attempted will be rejected. When the amount of bandwidth to allocate to voice is calculated, the overall bandwidth calculation must include the voice packetization overhead and not just the raw compressed speech codec bandwidth.

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Enable FRTS on an Interface
Router(config-if)#

frame-relay traffic-shaping

• Enables Frame Relay traffic shaping on a physical interface • No special queuing can be configured on the interface • Weighted Fair Queuing is used as the physical interface queuing mechanism regardless of interface bandwidth

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After the map class is configured, traffic shaping must be applied to the physical interface. As mentioned, WFQ is the only supported mechanism on the physical interface running FRTS.

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Apply FRTS to a VC
Router(config-if)#

frame-relay class map-class-name

• Applies the specified Frame Relay map class to all VCs configured on the specified (sub)interface
Router(config-if)#

frame-relay interface-dlci DLCI interface-dlci DLCI class map-class-name

• Applies the specified Frame Relay map class only to the specified DLCI • Traffic for DLCIs that have no map class defined (on DLCI or on (sub)interface) is not shaped
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Map class settings are then applied to all or specific VCs on an interface or subinterface. All VCs without shaping information are not shaped and only use the physical interface queuing discipline (WFQ).

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Frame Relay Traffic Shaping Example
interface Serial1/1 frame-relay traffic-shaping frame -relay ! interface Serial1/1.1 point-to-point point-to-point frame-relay interface-dlci 101 frame -relay 101 WAN class slow_vcs class slow_vcs ! interface Serial1/1.2 point-to-point Core point-to-point frame-relay interface-dlci 102 frame -relay 102 class fast_vcs class fast_vcs ! map-class frame-relay fast_vcs map-class frame -relay fast_vcs frame-relay custom-queue-list 1 frame -relay custom-queue-list 1 frame-relay traffic-rate 32000 64000 frame -relay ! map-class frame-relay slow_vcs map-class frame -relay slow_vcs frame-relay priority-group 1 frame -relay frame-relay traffic-rate 9600 16000 frame -relay 9600 16000

Customer

• Customer uses different policies and queuing mechanisms for each DLCI
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The figure shows an FRTS configuration example, where two VCs are individually shaped with two map class parameter sets. In this example, two generic map classes are defined, one for generic fast VCs and the other for slow VCs. The fast VC map class uses custom queuing to allocate bandwidth within the shaped rate. The slow VC map class uses priority queuing to always forward mission-critical traffic, and then shape it to the required rate.

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Frame Relay QoS Autosense
• Frame Relay QoS parameters are usually defined manually on the router • The same parameters are also carried in ELMI (CLLM) messages • QoS Autosense allows the router to learn the DLCI QoS parameters from the switch
– ELMI must be configured on the router and the switch – Only Cisco Frame Relay switches are supported

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When used in conjunction with traffic shaping, the router can respond to changes in the network dynamically. This optional feature allows the router to learn QoS parameters from the Cisco switch and use them for traffic shaping, configuration, or management purposes. Enhanced Local Management Interface (ELMI) also simplifies traffic shaping configuration on the router. Previously, users needed to configure traffic shaping rate enforcement values, possibly for every VC. Enabling ELMI reduces the chance of specifying inconsistent or incorrect values when configuring the router. It is not necessary to configure traffic shaping on the interface to enable ELMI. One option is to enable it to learn what values being used by the switch. If the router is required to respond to the QoS information received from the switch by adjusting the output rate, traffic shaping must be configured on the interface using the frame-relay traffic-shaping command in interface configuration mode.

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Configuring QoS Autosense
Router(config-if)#

frame-relay qos-autosense

• Enable the Enhanced Local Management Interface feature • Allows QoS parameters (CIR, Bc, Be) to be passed by the switch to the router automatically in ELMI messages

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The frame-relay qos-autosense command enables:
n n

ELMI on the router The router to learn QoS parameters from the switch over the ELMI protocol

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Monitoring Frame Relay Traffic Shaping
• Show frame-relay PVC
– Displays VC QoS and shaping parameters

• Show traffic-shape statistics
– Displays GTS and FRTS statistics

• Show traffic-shape queue
– Displays GTS and FRTS shaping queue contents

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The listed show commands enable monitoring of per-VC QoS and general GTS parameters.

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Display PVC Information
Router#

show frame-relay pvc

• Displays VC QoS and shaping parameters
Router#show frame-relay pvc 20 Router#show frame-relay pvc 20 PVC Statistics for interface Serial4/0 (Frame Relay DCE) PVC Statistics for interface Serial4/0 (Frame Relay DCE) DLCI = 20, DLCI USAGE = LOCAL, PVC STATUS = ACTIVE, INTERFACE = Serial4/0.1 DLCI = 20, Serial4/0.1 input pkts 16963 output pkts 33632 in bytes 4669839 input pkts 16963 output pkts 33632 in bytes 4669839 out bytes 12442428 dropped pkts 0 in FECN pkts 0 out bytes 12442428 pkts 0 in FECN pkts 0 in BECN pkts 0 out FECN pkts 0 out BECN pkts 0 in BECN pkts 0 out FECN pkts 0 out BECN pkts 0 in DE pkts 0 out DE pkts 0 in DE pkts 0 out DE pkts 0 out bcast pkts 31361 out bcast bytes 9095644 out bcast pkts 31361 out bcast bytes 9095644 Shaping adapts to BECN Shaping adapts to BECN pvc create time 1w3d, last time pvc status changed 1w3d pvc create time 1w3d, last time pvc status changed 1w3d cir 64000 bc 64000 be 0 limit 1000 interval 125 cir 64000 bc 64000 be 0 limit 1000 interval 125 mincir 32000 byte increment 1000 BECN response yes mincir 32000 byte increment 1000 BECN response yes pkts 1103 bytes 1632516 pkts delayed 1091 bytes delayed 16287 pkts 1103 bytes 1632516 pkts delayed 1091 bytes delayed 16287 shaping active shaping active traffic shaping drops 1136 traffic shaping Current fair queue configuration: Current fair queue configuration: Discard Dynamic Reserved Discard Dynamic Reserved threshold queue count queue count threshold queue count queue count 64 16 0 64 16 0 Output queue size 46/max total 50/drops 1136 Output queue size 46/max
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The show frame -relay pvc command displays information about individual FR PVC status and provides information about:
n n n n

Configured CIR Shaping Queuing Congestion adaptation

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Display Shaping Statistics
Router#

show traffic-shape statistics

• Displays GTS and FRTS statistics
Router#show traffic-shape statistics Router#show traffic-shape statistics Access Queue Packets Access Queue Packets I/F List Depth I/F List Depth Se4/0.1 50 1283 Se4/0.1 50 1283 Se4/0.2 0 14 Se4/0.2 0 14 Bytes Bytes 1903236 1903236 4060 Packets Packets Delayed Delayed 1271 1271 0 Bytes Bytes Delayed Delayed 1899472 1899472 0 Shaping Shaping Active Active yes yes no

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The show traffic-shape statistics command displays the statistics of traffic shaping for all configured interfaces. In the output, the amount of delayed traffic, the shaping queue sizes and the amount of transmitted traffic is displayed. Displayed in the output is:
n n n

The interface where the frame-relay taffic-shaping command is used The number of packets currently in the shaping queue (queue depth) The total number of packets that have been processed by the frame-relay taffic-shaping command since the last clearing of interface counters (16091 packets in the example) The total number of bytes that have been processed by the frame-relay tafficshaping command since the last clearing of interface counters (3733112 bytes in the example) The total number of packets that have been delayed by the frame-relay tafficshaping command since the last clearing of interface counters (414 packets in the example) The total number of bytes that have been delayed by the frame-relay tafficshaping command since the last clearing of interface counters (96048 bytes in the example) If the queue depth is more than 0 than shaping is active

n

n

n

n

The expected result of traffic shaping is a high ratio between transmitted packets and delayed packets.

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If the number of delayed packets is very high (compared to the total number of packets) then there are probably non-responsive aggressive flows being shaped and the queue depth could show high buffer utilization. If the number of delayed packets is zero then it is very likely that the access list does not match any traffic.

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Display Shaping Queue Information
Router#

show traffic-shape queue

• Displays GTS and FRTS shaping queue contents
Router#show traffic-shape queue Router#show traffic-shape queue Traffic queued in shaping queue on Serial4/0.1 dlci 20 Traffic queued in shaping queue on Serial4/0.1 dlci 20 Queueing strategy: weighted fair Queueing strategy: weighted fair Queueing Stats: 46/50/64/1377 (size/max total/threshold/drops) Queueing Stats: 46/50/64/1377 (size/max Conversations 1/2/16 (active/max active/max total) Conversations 1/2/16 (active/max active/max total) Reserved Conversations 0/0 (allocated/max allocated) Reserved Conversations 0/0 (allocated/max allocated) (depth/weight/discards/tail drops/interleaves) 46/32384/1377/0/0 (depth/weight/discards/tail drops/interleaves) 46/32384/1377/0 /0 Conversation 5, linktype: ip, length: 1504 Conversation 5, linktype: ip, length: 1504 source: 193.77.3.1, destination: 193.77.3.1, id: 0x00F4, ttl: 255, prot: 1 source: 193.77.3.1, destination: 193.77.3.1, id: 0x00F4, ttl: 255, prot:

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The show traffic-shape queue command displays the queuing configuration of individual interfaces.

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Display Shaping Queue Information
PE_2#show traffic-shape queue PE_2#show traffic-shape queue Traffic queued in shaping queue on Serial4/0.1 dlci 20 Traffic queued in shaping queue on Serial4/0.1 dlci 20 Queueing strategy: priority-group 1 Queueing strategy: priority-group 1 Queueing Stats: high 16/20/19 (queue/size/max total/drops) Queueing Stats: Packet 1, linktype: ip, length: 1504, flags: 0x10000048 Packet 1, linktype: ip, length: 1504, flags: source: 193.77.3.1, destination: 193.77.3.1, id: 0x0141, ttl: 255, prot: 1 source: 193.77.3.1, destination: 193.77.3.1, id: 0x0141, ttl: 255, prot: 1 data: 0x0800 0x9105 0x2659 0x1F89 0x0000 0x0000 0x3819 data: 0x0800 0x9105 0x2659 0x1F89 0x0000 0x0000 0x3819 0x223C 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0x223C 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD Packet 2, linktype: ip, length: 1504, flags: 0x10000048 Packet 2, linktype: ip, length: 1504, flags: source: 193.77.3.1, destination: 193.77.3.1, id: 0x0141, ttl: 255, prot: 1 source: 193.77.3.1, destination: 193.77.3.1, id: 0x0141, ttl: prot: 1 data: 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD data: 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD

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The show traffic-shape queue command also displays the contents of the shaping queue associated with an interface. The example shows the contents of the high queue in the Priority Queuing system used as the shaping queue.

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Summary
n n n n n

FRTS enables granular, per-VC queuing and shaping definition FRTS can be applied only on output interfaces FRTS enables per-VC queuing, which is performed before shaping FRTS performs traffic shaping or smoothing within a VC FRTS supports the same congestion adaptation mechanisms as GTS

Lesson Review
Answer the following questions: 1. What are the main differences between GTS and FRTS? 2. Where can FRTS be used? 3. What classification options does FRTS have?

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Committed Access Rate
Overview
The lesson describes the Committed Access Rate (CAR) mechanism.

Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n n

Describe the CAR mechanism Describe the benefits and drawbacks of CAR Describe the differences between CAR, GTS and FRTS Configure CAR on Cisco routers Monitor and troubleshoot CAR

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Committed Access Rate
Meter
Inbound or Outbound

Classifier

Marker

Dropper

• Primarily intended for rate limiting • Can be used on inbound and outbound traffic • Does not queue (delay) packets • Can also mark packets • Can be implemented for differentiated marking
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Committed Access Rate (CAR) provides the capability to allow the service provider to rate-limit traffic in and out of router interfaces, thereby enabling various forms of ingress and egress rate-limiting in a network. CAR is a policing mechanism, not a queuing mechanism. Therefore it does not buffer or delay packets, which do or do not conform to the policy, but simply rate-limits them according to a simple “forward or drop” policy, according to the configuration. CAR also uses a token-bucket metering mechanism, similar to GTS, but without a delay queue. The CAR rate-limiting feature manages a network's access bandwidth policy by ensuring that traffic falling within specified rate parameters is sent, while dropping packets that exceed the acceptable amount of traffic or sending them with a different priority. CAR is often configured on interfaces at the edge of a network to limit traffic into or out of the network. CAR can also be used for packet marking. The operator can specify a policy that determines which packets should be assigned to which traffic class, and use CAR to implement the marking. The IP header already provides a mechanism to do this, namely the three precedence bits in the ‘type of service’ field in the IP header. CAR allows the setting of policies, based on information in the IP or TCP header such as IP address, application port, physical port or sub-interface, IP protocol, etc., to decide how the precedence bits should be marked or “colored.” Once marked, appropriate treatment can be given in the backbone to ensure that premium packets receive premium service in terms of bandwidth allocation, delay control, etc.

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Note

CAR can also be used to police (or “recolor”) precedence bits set externally to the network either by the customer or by a downstream service provider. Thus the network can decide to either accept or override external decisions.

CAR is implemented using the following abstract mechanisms:
n

The classifier, which differentiates traffic into multiple classes, which may be treated in a discriminate manner The meter, which uses a token-bucket scheme to measure the rate of classified traffic The marker, which can be used to mark or re-mark classified traffic (for example, with precedence or DSCP values) The dropper, which may drop packets (in the rate-limiting scenario) according to the configured policy

n

n

n

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CAR on Input and Output
Meter

Inbound

Classifier

Marker

Dropper

Forwarding
Outbound

Meter

Classifier

Marker

Dropper

Queuing

• CAR on input is processed just before forwarding (most other QoS mechanisms are processed before CAR) • CAR on output is processed immediately after forwarding (most other QoS mechanisms are processed after CAR)
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CAR can be configured on router input or output interfaces. When configured on the input side, CAR is usually processed last in a series of QoS mechanisms. Therefore, CAR rate-limiting and marking occurs just before the forwarding decision. On the output side, CAR is processed just after the forwarding decision. Therefore all output QoS mechanisms (queuing, WRED, etc.) are generally processed after CAR. VIP-based distributed CAR (dCAR) is a version of CAR that runs on the Versatile Interface Processor (VIP). It is supported on the Cisco 7500 routers with a VIP2-40 or later versatile interface processor. Distributed Cisco Express Forwarding (dCEF) switching must be enabled on any interface that uses dCAR, even when only output-based CAR is configured.

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CAR Implementation
Dispatches packets at configured rate Dispatches packets at line rate Dispatches packets at line rate

CAR

Software Queue
(FIFO, PQ, CQ, WFQ, ...)

Hardware Queue
(FIFO)

Bypass the software queue if it is empty and there is room in the hardware queue

• The software queue may have no function if the sum of all CAR rates is less than link bandwidth
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -74

Whether configured on input or output, CAR has the option of managing throughput on a certain interface’s output. With the Cisco IOS queuing design, there are two output queues:
n

A software queue, which may be configured for different queuing types (for example: FIFO, Priority Queuing, Custom Queuing, Weighted Fair Queuing) A hardware interface queue, which is always FIFO and immediately used, if the software queue is empty

n

One possible implementation caveat arises when CAR is configured so that the aggregate policed bandwidth of output flows does not exceed the link bandwidth. In that case, the software queue is always empty and there is no queuing impact on traffic.

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Interface-wide CAR Diagram
drop

Class 1? Class 1?

CAR CAR
continue drop

transmit

Class 2? Class 2?

CAR CAR
continue

transmit

Output Queue or Forward

drop

Class n?

CAR CAR

transmit

• CAR has three different actions:
– Transmit – Continue – Drop
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -75

The basic rate-limiting function of CAR does the following:
n

Allows control of the maximum rate of traffic transmitted or received on an interface. Provides the ability to define Layer-3 aggregate or granular rate limits and to specify traffic -handling policies when the traffic either conforms to or exceeds the specified rate limits. Uses granular bandwidth rate limits to match a particular type of traffic based on precedence, MAC address, or other parameters.

n

n

When CAR is in effect, traffic is first classified and then undergoes CAR processing. CAR then meters the traffic and, based on the result of CAR metering, traffic either conforms or exceeds the configured policy. There are three possible basic actions on each packet, depending on it conforming or exceeding the policy:
n n n

Transmit—the packet is sent. Drop—the packet is discarded. Continue—the packet is evaluated using the next rate policy in a chain of rate limits. If there is not another rate policy, the packet is sent.

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CAR Diagram
Meter Meter Forward or Enqueue

Conforms? Conforms?

Yes / No

Transmit? Transmit? No

Yes

Mark? Mark? Set IP prec? Set IP prec? Set DSCP? Set DSCP? Set MPLS exp? Set MPLS exp? Set QoS grp? Set QoS grp? Yes Set IP Precedence Set IP Precedence Set DSCP Set DSCP Set MPLS Experimental Set MPLS Set QoS Group Set QoS Group

Continue? Continue? No Drop? Drop?

Yes

Go to Next CAR command

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

• Marking depends on whether the packet conforms to or exceeds the policy
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -76

As mentioned previously, CAR can also be used to mark or remark traffic as well as performing rate limiting. Depending on traffic conformance, the following marking/remarking actions can be performed within CAR processing:
n

Set precedence (or DSCP value) and transmit—the IP Precedence (ToS) or DSCP bits in the packet header are rewritten. The packet is then sent. This action can be used to either color (set precedence) or recolor (modify existing packet precedence) the packet. Set MPLS experimental bits and transmit – the MPLS experimental bits can be set. These are usually used to signal QoS parameters in a MPLS cloud. Set QoS group and transmit—the QoS group can be set. It is only used locally within the router. The QoS group can be used in later QoS mechanisms and performed in the same router, such as CB-WFQ.

n

n

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Configuring CAR
Router(config-if)# rate-limit {input | output} [access-group [rate-limit] #acl | qos-group number | dscp dscp] dscp mean-rate B c Be c e conform-action { drop | transmit | continue | | transmit | continue | set-prec-transmit value | set-prec-continue value | set-prec-continue value set-qos-transmit value | set-qos-continue value set-dscp-transmit value | set-dscp-continue value | set-dscp-continue value set-mpls-transmit value | set-mpls-continue value } value exceed-action { drop | transmit | continue | { set-prec-transmit value | set-prec-continue value | set-prec-continue value set-qos-transmit value | set-qos-continue value set-dscp-transmit value | set-dscp-continue value | set-dscp-continue value set-mpls-transmit value | set-mpls-continue value } value

• Specifies all four conditioner elements for a particular traffic class • Repeat this command for different classes of traffic • If a match is not found, the default action is to transmit
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -77

To configure CAR and Distributed CAR (dCAR) policies, use the rate-limit interface configuration command. The figure illustrates all the command options which are discussed in detail on the following pages. A single CAR rate policy includes information about the rate limit, conform actions and exceed actions. Each interface can have multiple CAR rate policies corresponding to different types of traffic. For example, low priority traffic may be limited to a lower rate than high priority traffic. When there are multiple rate policies, the router examines each policy in the order entered until the packet matches. If no match is found, the default action is to transmit. Rate policies can be independent: each rate policy deals with a different type of traffic. Alternatively, rate policies can be cascading: a packet may be compared to multiple different rate policies in succession. Cascading of rate policies allows a series of rate limits to be applied to packets to specify more granular policies. For example, the total traffic on an access link can be rate limited to a specified subrate bandwidth, and then the World Wide Web traffic on the same link can be limited to a given proportion of the subrate limit. CAR can be configured to match packets against an ordered sequence of policies until an applicable rate limit is encountered—that is, rate limiting several MAC addresses with different bandwidth allocations at an exchange point. Up to a 100 rate polic ies can be configured on a subinterface. The CAR action may be one of the following:
n n

Continue: evaluate the next rate-limit command Drop: drop the packet

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n

Set-prec-continue new-prec: set the IP Precedence and evaluate the next rate-limit command Set-prec-transmit new-prec: set the IP Precedence and send the packet Set-dscp-continue new-prec: set the DSCP value and evaluate the next ratelimit command Set-dscp-transmit new-prec: set the DSCP value and send the packet Set-mpls-continue new-prec: set the MPLS experimental bits and evaluate the next rate-limit command Set-mpls-transmit new-prec: set the MPLS experimental bits and send the packet Transmit: send the packet

n n

n n

n

n

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CAR Classification
Router(config-if)#

rate-limit {input | output} [access-group [rate-limit] [access-group [rate-limit] #acl | qos-group number | number dscp dscp] ...

• IP packets are classified:
– based on their direction (input or output)

• Optional classification based on:
– numbered IP access list (standard or extended) – IP precedence rate-limit access list – MAC address rate-limit access list – QoS-group set by a previous conditioner in the same node – DSCP
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing-77

CAR classifies traffic using many IOS-based classification mechanisms. The most basic classification is to first specify whether inbound or outbound traffic on the interface is being policed. Then, additional more granular specification can further classify traffic that needs to be policed separately.

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Null CAR Classifier
Router(config-if)#

rate-limit {input | output} ...

• Selects packets in ingress or egress direction that have not been classified with any previous rate-limit commands on this interface • Usually used as the last rate-limit command on an interface

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -78

The null CAR classifier is in effect when no additional classifiers are present, apart from the input or output application of the rate-limiting rule. This can be used either as a default rate-limiting class (used as the last rate-limit command on the interface to classify packets, not classified by any previous rules), or, if only global policy is applied to an interface, classifying all traffic into one group (that is, policing to a specified aggregate input rate).

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CAR Classifier Based on IP Access List
Router(config-if)#

rate-limit {input | output} access-group number ...

• Classifies packets received over an interface with the IP access list • Classification based on IP precedence can be done with IP access list
Router(config)# access-list acl-index {deny | permit} source [source-wildcard] access-list acl-index {deny permit} access-list acl-index {deny | permit} protocol source sourceaccess-list acl-index {deny permit} wildcard destination destination-wildcard [precedence precedence] [tos tos] [dscp dscp] [log]

• Configures an IP access list to be used as packet classifier
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -80

The basic classification of traffic is based on extended IP access lists, which describe traffic based on Layer-3 and Layer-4 parameters, such as source and destination IP addresses, protocols and port numbers. Normal IOS access control lists are used and then applied to the interface rate-limit command. As IOS access lists can filter on IP precedence, access-list based classification can also classify traffic solely on IP precedence. Such an approach is not recommended if only precedence-based classification is desired, as there is a more efficient mechanism present.

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CAR Classifier Based on IP Precedence
Router(config-if)#

rate-limit {input | output} access-group rate-limit number ...

• The IP precedence classifier uses rate-limit access lists from 1 to 99 to match on IP precedence values

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -81

To classify incoming or outgoing traffic based solely on IP precedence, rate-limit access lists can be used. Rate-limit access lists match only on the precedence bits in the IP header, and can perform precedence matching with a wildcard specification.

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IP Precedence-based Rate-limit Access List
Router(config)#

access-list rate-limit acl-index precedence rate-limit precedence

• ACL index is between 1 and 99 • Matches packets with specified IP precedence • Only one line is allowed in the access list
Router(config)#

access-list rate-limit acl-index mask precedence-mask rate-limit

• ACL index is between 1 and 99 • Matches packets that match any precedence value specified in the mask • Precedence mask has one bit for each precedence value (bit 0 = precedence 0)
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -82

To configure classification rules on the IP precedence value, use the access-list rate-limit global configuration command. The CAR process then treats packets with different IP precedence differently. Use the mask keyword to assign multiple IP precedence values to the same rate-limit list. The ACL indices for precedencebased classification range from 1 to 99.

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CAR Classifier Based on Upstream MAC Address
Router(config-if)#

rate-limit {input | output} access-group rate-limit number ...

• The upstream MAC address classifier uses rate-limit access lists from 100 to 199 to match on the MAC address of upstream router or host

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -83

Rate-limit access lists are also used to classify traffic based on the upstream MAC address. That is, for output-based CAR, traffic is classified on the destination MAC address, and for input-based CAR, traffic is classified using the source MAC address. MAC-based classification is particularly useful at ISP peering points, where a multi-access LAN network connects ISP border routers. MAC-based classification can classify traffic based on their upstream neighbor (another ISP border router) and on their QoS peering policy with other providers.

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MAC Address Rate-limit Access List
Router(config)#

access-list rate-limit acl-index mac-address

• ACL index is between 100 and 199 • Matches packets received from upstream neighbor with specified MAC address • Only MAC address is allowed in the access list (each upstream neighbor requires a different ratelimit statement)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -84

To configure classification rules on the upstream MAC value, use the access-list rate-limit global configuration command. The CAR process then treats packets with different upstream (source or destination) MAC addresses differently. The ACL indices for precedence-based classification range from 100 to 199.

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QoS-group CAR classifier
Router(config-if)#

rate-limit {input | output} qos-group number ...

• Selects IP packets already marked in this node with specified QoS group • QoS group marking could be done through:
– Policy-based routing – CEF marking based on QPPB – Inbound rate-limit on another interface – Inbound Class-based Marking on another interface

• Available only on high-end platforms

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -85

The operator may also classify traffic based on their QoS group value. The QoS group is a tag, which may be assigned to each packet during the forwarding process, and is local to the router. The QoS group may be set:
n

By some marking mechanism in the same router, such as policy routing, inbound rate-limiting on another interface, or inbound class-based marking on another interface. By QPPB (QoS Policy Propagation through BGP), which distributes centrally administered QoS group values to routers over BGP sessions. The routers automatically mark traffic based on the QPPB-learned policy during the CEF forwarding process.

n

The QoS-group-based classification and marking is generally available only on high-end router platforms.

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DSCP-based CAR Classifier
Router(config-if)#

rate-limit {input | output} dscp dscp ...

• Selects IP packets marked with the specified DiffServ Code Point • DSCP marking could be done through:
– Rate-limit on another interface or router – Class-based Marking on another interface or router

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -86

In a DiffServ-based model, the whole DSCP value can be used as the packet classifier. The marking of the DSCP value is accomplished through class-based marking or rate limiting on another interface or router.

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IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing

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CAR Meter
Router(config-if)#

rate-limit {input | output} [access-group [rate-limit] number | qos-group number | [access-group [rate-limit] dscp dscp] mean-rate Bc Be e ...

• The rate-limit meter measure the contract compliance of traffic class selected with classifier • Modified token-bucket algorithm is used
– mean-rate specifies average traffic rate – B c specifies the normal burst size – B e specifies the excess burst size

• Token-bucket size is defined by Be alone
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -87

The CAR metering mechanism uses a modified token bucket scheme, which decides whether a packet conforms or exceeds the contracted rate. CAR is configured with three parameters:
n

Mean rate specifies the average traffic rate which traffic should be policed to (analogous to committed rate with GTS). This is the long-term sustained throughput through the CAR policing mechanism. Bc specifies the normal burst size, which is the amount of tokens added periodically to the token bucket. Be specifies the excess burst size, which equals the size of the bucket in the CAR implementation. This is the maximum burst size that can be sent by the token bucket at one time, at the access line rate.

n

n

If CAR is used as a pure policer, packets exceeding the contracted rate are dropped.

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CAR Actions
• CAR actions can be split into two sub-actions:
– Marking action – Processing action

• Marking actions support the setting of:
– – – – IP precedence DSCP MPLS experimental bits QoS group

• Processing actions:
– Transmit – packet is transmitted – Continue – packet is also processed by the next “rate-limit” command – Drop – packet is dropped
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -88

CAR actions can be divided into marking and processing actions. The marking actions support the setting of QoS signaling values inside the packet header (precedence, DSCP, MPLS experimental) or locally to the router (QoS group). The processing actions define the basic action of a single CAR rule. Those actions may be to transmit (forward) the packet immediately, drop the packet, or continue with the evaluation of the next CAR rule. Each CAR rate limit statement is checked sequentially for a match. When a match is found, the CAR meter (the token bucket), if there is one, is evaluated. If the action is a “continue” action, the policer will go to the next rate-limit on the list to find a subsequent match. If a match is found the traffic is subjected to the next applicable rate-limit. If an end of rate-limit list is encountered without finding a match or “continue” action, the default behavior is to transmit.

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CAR Actions
• Processing actions “transmit”, “continue” and “drop” can be used as stand-alone actions • Processing actions “transmit” and “continue” can be combined with marking actions (set-mark_actionproc_action):
– – – – – – – – set-prec-transmit set-qos-transmit set-mpls-transmit set-dscp-transmit set-prec-continue set-qos-continue set-mpls-continue set-dscp-continue
IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -89

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

The three processing actions can be used stand-alone to enforce a pure ratelimiting functionality. Alternatively, the “transmit” and “continue” actions can be, and often are, combined with marking actions, whic h enable further differentiation of the traffic.

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CAR Actions
• Conforming and exceeding packets can be configured with different actions • There are three typicall usages of CAR:
– Pure rate limiting
• Transmit conforming packets • Drop exceecing packets

– Differentiated marking
• Transmit conforming packets with marker value x (e.g IP precedence 3) • Transmit exceeding packets with marker value y (e.g IP precedence 2)

– Pure marking
• Transmit confirming and exceeding packets with the same marker value

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -90

Based on the “conform” or “exceed” results of the CAR meter, three CAR configuration philosophies are usually used:
n

Use only the “transmit” and “drop” actions—effectively enabling only local rate limiting on an interface. Use all processing actions, and additionally mark traffic based on its conformance of exceeding the configured rate limit. For example, conforming traffic may be colored with one marker value (precedence, DSCP, QoS, etc.), and exceeding traffic with another value. This differentiation may be used locally or elsewhere in the network to differentiate between in-contract (conforming) traffic and out-of-contract (exceeding) traffic. Transmit all traffic and use only the marking actions to color traffic with a marker value.

n

n

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Displaying CAR Parameters and Statistics
Router#

show interfaces intf rate-limit

• Displays CAR parameters and statistics
Router#show interfaces serial 0/0 rate-limit Router#show interfaces serial 0/0 rate-limit Serial0 Serial0 Input Input matches: qos-group 4 matches: qos-group params: 128000 bps, 64000 limit, 128000 extended limit params: 128000 bps, 64000 limit, 128000 extended limit conformed 0 packets, 0 bytes; action: transmit conformed 0 packets, 0 bytes; action: transmit exceeded 0 packets, 0 bytes; action: set-prec-transmit 0 exceeded 0 packets, 0 bytes; action: set-prec-transmit 0 last packet: 421250660ms ago, current burst: 0 bytes last packet: 421250660ms current burst: 0 bytes last cleared 00:00:59 ago, conformed 0 bps, exceeded 0 bps last cleared 00:00:59 ago, conformed 0 bps, exceeded 0 bps Output Output matches: access-group 181 matches: access -group 181 params: 8000 bps, 8000 limit, 16000 extended limit params: 8000 bps, 8000 limit, 16000 extended limit conformed 19 packets, 21576 bytes; action: set -prec-transmit 3 conformed 19 packets, 21576 bytes; action: set-prec-transmit 3 exceeded 5 packets, 7520 bytes; action: drop exceeded packets, last packet: 145344ms ago, current burst: 11552 bytes last packet: 145344ms ago, current burst: 11552 bytes last cleared 00:03:01 ago, conformed 0 bps, exceeded 0 bps last cleared 00:03:01 ago, conformed 0 bps, exceeded 0 bps
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -91

To display information about the Committed Access Rate (CAR) for an interface, use the show interfaces rate-limit EXEC command. Information retrieved by the show interface rate limit command includes:
n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n

Packets that match this rate limit Parameters for this rate limit (as configured by the rate-limit command) Average rate Normal burst size Excess burst size Number of packets that have conformed to the rate limit Conform action Number of packets that have exceeded the rate limit Exceed action Time since the last packet Instantaneous burst size at the current time Time since the burst counter was reset Rate of conforming traffic Rate of exceeding traffic Rate limits applicable to packets sent out by the interface

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Display Rate-limit Access Lists
Router(config)#

show access-lists rate-limit

• List rate-limit access lists
Router#show access-lists rate-limit Router#show access-lists rate-limit Rate-limit access list 10 Rate-limit access list 10 1 Rate-limit access list 11 Rate-limit access list 11 mask 81 Rate-limit access list 120 Rate-limit access list 120 4000.1234.ABCD

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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To display information about rate-limit access lists, use the show access-lists rate-limit EXEC command. Information displayed includes:
n n

Whether the access list is precedence-based or MAC address-based What the IP precedence and IP precedence mask for packets in this rate-limit access list are or what the MAC address for packets in this rate-limit access list are

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CAR – Limiting Example #1
• A service provider connects all its customers via 2 Mbps physical leased lines (or ADSL links) and uses CAR to limit the actual amount of traffic the user can send or receive • In addition several differentiated services could be provided based on customers needs

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -92

The first CAR case study shows a service provider, which uses a unified infrastructure to connect all customers to an IP backbone. 2 Mbps leased lines or ADSL links are used to connect customers to a POP. CAR is used to limit the actual traffic rate to a lower value, as specified by the customer contract. CAR can be used to offer differentiated, easy to upgrade services in this scenario, as throughput is not limited by physical infrastructure, but rather by the traffic policing by the ISP.

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CAR – Limiting Example #1
interface serial 0/0 rate-limit input 256000 4000 96000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop rate-limit output 256000 4000 96000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop

Customer

2M bps

2 Mbps
NAP

Internet

Customer
bps 2M

ISP

Customer

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IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing-93

In the configuration example, CAR is applied on the input and output of a customer interface on the provider edge router. Traffic is policed to 256 Kbps on input and output, with some bursting allowed. All exceeding traffic is dropped at the provider edge. The result of the configuration is that traffic to and from the customer is limited to the average rate of approximately 256kbps (256000 in the configuration) with sustained bursts of approximately 32kbps (4kBps or 4000 in the configuration). Initial bursts at line speed can last up to 3 seconds because the token bucket can hold up to 96000 tokens (bytes) which equals 768000 bits (3 x 256000 bits).

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CAR – Limiting and Marking Example #2
• Web traffic is limited to 512 Kbps and transmitted with higher precedence
– Excess Web traffic is classified as regular traffic

• All other traffic is limited to 256 Kbps and transmitted with precedence 0
– Excess traffic is dropped – Burst size is 16000 bytes – Excess burst size is 24000 bytes

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -94

The second case study provides a differentiated service for a customer, where web traffic needs to be given more bandwidth compared to other traffic types. Web traffic is limited to 512 Kbps, and a higher precedence is set. Web traffic exceeding the configured rate limit is reclassified as regular traffic. Regular traffic is limited to 256 Kbps, and colored with a precedence value of 0. The same burst values are configured for web and all other traffic.

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CAR – Limiting and Marking Example #2
2 Mbps Internet

Customer

NAP

ISP

interface serial 0/0 rate-limit input access-group 101 512000 64000 128000 conform-action set-prec-transmit 1 exceed -action continue rate-limit input 256000 16000 24000 conform-action set-prec-transmit 0 exceed-action drop rate-limit output access -group 101 512000 64000 128000 conform-action set-prec-transmit 1 exceed -action continue rate-limit output 256000 16000 24000 conform-action set-prec-transmit 0 exceed-action drop ! access-list 101 permit tcp any any eq www access-list 101 permit tcp any eq www any
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -95

The configuration implements the policy outlined in the previous case study. Traffic is classified with extended access lists (to differentiate web traffic from other traffic), and CAR uses the access list to apply the correct policing to the traffic. Precedence values of 0 and 1 are set to signal preferential treatment of the webtraffic to other QoS mechanisms, such as queuing and WRED. The access list 101 identifies HTTP traffic using the default well-known port number 80 (“www” in the configuration) either as the source or destination port number in TCP segments. The conforming part of the class (up to 512 kbps) is marked with IP precedence 1. The exceeding part of the class is further evaluated by the next rate-limit command where it is limited together with the rest of the traffic (non-HTTP) to 256 kbps. The total throughput, therefore, will never exceed 768 kbps (512 kbps of conforming HTTP traffic + 256 kbps of exceeding HTTP traffic and all other traffic). WRED can be used in combination with CAR to provide differentiated congestion avoidance anywhere in the network.

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CAR – Limiting Example #3
• The customer can send or receive up to 128 Kbps of premium traffic
– Premium traffic is marked with precedence 1 Excess premium traffic is dropped

• Non-premium (best-effort) traffic is not rate limited

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -96

In the third case study, an ISP’s customer can exchange up to 128 Kbps of premium traffic with the world. Premium traffic is marked with precedence 1 by the customer, and the ISP polices the traffic to 128 Kbps using CAR. Other traffic is not rate-limited.

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CAR – Limiting Example #3
interface serial 0/0 rate-limit input access -group rate-limit 13 128000 16000 48000 conform-action transmit exceed -action drop rate-limit output access-group rate -limit 13 128000 16000 48000 conform-action transmit exceed -action drop ! access-list rate-limit 13 1
2M bps

Customer

2 Mbps
NAP

Internet

Customer
bps 2M

ISP

Customer
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -97

The configuration shows traffic classification based on the packet precedence, classified by the rate-limit access list. CAR only polices premium traffic, and all other traffic has policing applied to it. The premium traffic, previously marked with IP precedence 1, is classified using the rate-limit access list 13. The premium traffic is strictly policed to 128kbps where all excess traffic is dropped. All other traffic is not policed.

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CAR – Precedence Spoofing Example #4
2M bps

Customer

2 Mbps
NAP

interface serial 0/0 rate-limit input access-group rate-limit 1 64000 8000 8000 conform-action drop exceed-action drop ! access-list rate-limit 1 mask FE Internet

Customer
bps 2M

ISP

Customer

• If a customer is trying to spoof a service provider with high-precedence traffic, the traffic is dropped
– Drop all non-precedence-0 traffic received from a customer
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -98

This case study shows a possible solution for preventing precedence spoofing for best-effort customers. The customer may only send traffic with the precedence value of 0. The CAR policing rule matches all non-zero-precedence traffic and drops it unconditionally. The CAR metering parameters can be arbitrarily set to any value. The rate-limit access list in this example is using the mask option to match multiple IP precedence values. Each bit in the mask corresponds to one IP precedence value. The mask FE (11111110 binary) in the example matches all packets with IP precedence values between 1 and 7. The rate-limit command drops all packets that do not have IP precedence 0.

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CAR – Limiting Example #5
• Application: Web server collocation
– The customer can locate his server at service provider premises (switched LAN) – CAR is used to limit the amount of traffic the web server can generate – Unknown traffic is rate-limited to 64 kbps to allow remote configuration of new servers

• Alternate application: central site in an enterprise network

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing -99

The fifth case study application uses web hosting as the example of QoS application. The SP hosts a web-farm and wants to police traffic going to and from specific servers. CAR is used, with MAC-based classification, to differentiate traffic to or from different servers. A default policing statement allows some traffic through to allow management protocols to run to yet unprovisioned servers. This application can also be used to manage traffic flows to centralized servers in enterprise networks.

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CAR – Limiting Example #5

Server

Core network
LAN switch Server Distribution Router

Server

interface FastEthernet 0/0 rate-limit input access-group rate -limit 100 10000000 100000 100000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop rate-limit output access-group rate-limit 100 10000000 100000 100000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop rate-limit input 64000 8000 24000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop rate-limit output 64000 8000 24000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop ! access-list rate-limit 100 00ae.0123.abcd ! Server MAC address

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing-100

The figure shows the configuration used to police traffic going to a specific server. MAC-based rate-limit ACLs are used, which filter based on the upstream server MAC address. The special rate-limit access list is used to identify traffic from a web server which may have multiple IP addresses. The traffic is limited to Ethernet speed even if the underlying interface is using another type of media (for example: FastEthernet). In the event that a customer changes the interface card (MAC address changes) on the server, he can still get limited access to the server (64kbps) for administrative purposes. The MAC-based rate-limit access list has to be modified to reflect the new MAC address being used by the server.

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IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

CAR – Marking Example #6

WAN Core Customer
interface ethernet 0/0 rate-limit input 10000000 8000 8000 conform-action set-prec-transmit 2 exceed-action drop ! interface ethernet 0/1 rate-limit input 10000000 8000 8000 conform-action set-prec-transmit 0 exceed-action drop !

• CAR can be used purely for marking purposes
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing-101

In this example, CAR is used purely for marking purposes. All traffic from one customer (attached to the ethernet0/0 interface) is rate-limited to the line rate and CAR marks all incoming packets with a configured precedence. Another customer is connected to the same router, also rate-limited to the line rate, and marked with a lower precedence. The bit rate in the rate-limit command should be higher or equal to the physical bandwidth of the interface to implement marking without any rate limiting. Another option is to use the same action for both conforming and exceeding traffic.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing

4-99

CAR – Marking Example #7
Customer WAN Core
interface ethernet 0/0 rate-limit input access-group 101 10000000 8000 8000 conform-action set -prec-transmit 2 exceed-action drop rate-limit input access-group 102 10000000 8000 8000 conform-action set -prec-transmit 1 exceed-action drop rate-limit input 10000000 8000 8000 conform-action set -prec-transmit 0 exceed-action drop ! access-list 101 permit tcp any any eq telnet access-list 102 permit tcp any any eq www
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing-102

This configuration extends the possibilities of the previous example, using application-specific marking. CAR is used to mark telnet traffic with a higher precedence and web-traffic with a lower precedence. All other traffic is marked with precedence zero.
Note There is no true policed rate limiting in this example, as traffic is rate -limited to the line rate.

The first rate-limit command identifies inbound telnet sessions (access list 101) and marks them with IP precedence 2 without limiting it. The second rate-limit command identifies inbound HTTP sessions (access list 102) and marks them with IP precedence 1 without limiting it. The third rate-limit command marks all other packets (no access list is used) with IP precedence 0 without limiting it.

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IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Summary
n n n n n n

CAR can be applied on input and output interfaces CAR performs no buffering or shaping CAR can mark packets In Frame Relay, CAR has no support for BECN or FECN Cascaded policies can be applied CAR provides managed discard between the normal burst and extended burst parameters CAR can run in distributed mode (on 7500 VIP) CAR can apply access lists based on ToS bits/MAC address and IP extended access lists CAR is not RSVP aware

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Lesson Review
Answer the following questions: 1. What classification options does CAR support? 2. What are the main differences between CAR and traffic shaping? 3. Where can CAR be implemented?

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing

4-101

Summary
n n n n n n n n n n n

GTS/FRTS perform traffic shaping or smoothing GTS/FRTS cannot mark or drop packets GTS/FRTS can intelligently adapt to Layer-2 congestion GTS/FRTS do not support cascaded policies GTS/FRTS do not provide managed discard CAR performs no buffering or shaping CAR can mark packets In Frame Relay, CAR has no support for BECN or FECN Cascaded policies can be applied in CAR Both GTS and CAR can run in distributed mode CAR is not RSVP aware, while GTS is

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IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Review Questions and Answers
Traffic Shaping and Policing Question: How do shaping and policing mechanisms keep track of the traffic rate? Answer: Both mechanisms use a token bucket as a rate measurement method. Question: Which shaping mechanisms are available with the Cisco IOS software? Answer: Cisco IOS supports Generic Traffic Shaping, Frame Relay Traffic Shaping, and Class-based Shaping. Question: Which policing mechanisms are available with the Cisco IOS software? Answer: Cisco IOS supports Committed Access Rate (CAR) and Class-based Policing. Question: What are the main differences between shaping and policing? Answer: To stay within the configured rate, shaping delays excessive traffic while policing drops excessive traffic.

Generic Traffic Shaping Question: What software queuing mechanisms are supported in combination with GTS? Answer: Any software queuing method (FIFO, priority queuing, custom queuing, WFQ, CB-WFQ) is supported on an interface in combination with GTS. Question: Which queuing structure does GTS use? Answer: GTS uses WFQ as the shaping queue. Question: What features does GTS include when used on Frame Relay interfaces? Answer: GTS can adapt its rate to Frame Relay congestion signaling, and propagate FECN signals to BECN signals, sent towards the sender on the Frame Relay network.

Frame Relay Traffic Shaping Question: What are the main differences between GTS and FRTS? Answer: FRTS shapes traffic of individual Frame Relay VCs. Also, the shaping queue of FRTS is configurable and can be any of the software queuing mechanisms.
Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing

4-103

Question: Where can FRTS be used? Answer: FRTS can only be used on Frame Relay interfaces. Question: What classification options does FRTS have? Answer: None, FRTS shapes all traffic on a Frame Relay VC.

Committed Access Rate Question: What classification options does CAR support? Answer: CAR supports Access Control Lists (ACLs), rate-limit ACLs, DSCP value, and QoS-group as its classifiers. Question: What are the main differences between CAR and traffic shaping? Answer: CAR never delays excess traffic, but can drop or transmit it. CAR also supports marking of conforming and exceeding traffic, and supports nested classification and policing. CAR can also be used both on input and output of interfaces, while traffic shaping can only be used on output. Question: Where can CAR be implemented? Answer: CAR can be implemented on input or output of interfaces.

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IP QoS Traffic Shaping and Policing

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

5

Congestion Avoidance

Overview
This module describes the problems of congested networks. It introduces Random Early Detection (RED), WRED, and Flow-based WRED as mechanisms to prevent congestion on router interfaces.

Objectives
Upon completion of this module, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n

Describe Random Early Detection (RED) Describe and configure Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) Describe and configure Flow-based WRED

Random Early Detection
Overview
The section describes the need for congestion avoidance in nearly-congested networks and explains the benefits of using RED on congested links.

Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n

Explain the need for congestion avoidance mechanisms. Explain how RED works and how it can prevent congestion. Describe the benefits and drawbacks of RED.

5-2

Congestion Avoidance

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Router Interface Congestion
• Router interfaces congest when the output queue is full –Additional incoming packets are dropped –Dropped packets may cause significant application performance degradation –By default, routers perform tail-drop –Tail-drop has significant drawbacks –WFQ, if configured, has a more intelligent dropping scheme

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance-5

When an interface on a router cannot transmit a packet immediately, the packet is queued, either in an interface Tx ring, or the interface output hold queue, depending on the switching path used. Packets are then taken out of the queue and eventually transmitted on the interface. If the arrival rate of packets to the output interface exceeds the router’s capability to buffer and forward traffic, the queues increase to their maximum length and the interface becomes congested. Tail drop is the router’s default queuing response to congestion. When the output queue is full and tail drop is in effect, all packets trying to enter (at the tail of) the queue are dropped until the congestion is eliminated and the queue is no longer full. Congestion avoidance techniques monitor network traffic loads in an effort to anticipate and avoid congestion at common network bottleneck points. Congestion avoidance is achieved through packet dropping using more complex techniques than simple tail-drop. As mentioned, tail drop is the default queuing response to congestion. Tail drop treats all traffic equally and does not differentiate between classes of service. Weighted fair queuing, if configured on an interface, has a more elaborate scheme for dropping traffic, as it is able to punish the most aggressive flows via its Congestion Discard Threshold (CDT)-based dropping algorithm. Unfortunately, WFQ does not scale to backbone speeds. WFQ dropping is discussed in detail in its associated module. This module introduces Random Early Detection (RED) and its scalable dropping method, which is suitable for low and high-speed networks.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance

5-3

Tail-drop Flaws
• Simple tail-drop has significant flaws –TCP synchronization –TCP starvation –High delay and jitter –No differentiated drop –Poor feedback to TCP

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance-6

The simple tail-dropping scheme unfortunately does not work very well in environments with a large number of TCP flows or in environments in which selective dropping is deserved. Understanding of the interaction between TCP stack intelligence and dropping in the network is required to implement a more efficient and fair dropping scheme, especially in SP environments. Tail drop has the following shortcomings:
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When congestion occurs, dropping affects most of the TCP sessions, which simultaneously back-off and then restart again. This causes inefficient link utilization at the congestion point (TCP global synchronization) TCP starvation, where all buffers are temporarily seized by aggressive flows, and normal TCP flows experience buffer starvation. Buffering at the point of congestion can introduce delay and jitter, as packets are stuck waiting in queues. There is no differentiated drop mechanism, and therefore premium traffic is dropped in the same way as best-effort traffic. Even in the event of a single TCP stream across an interface, the presence of other non-TCP traffic can congest the interface and TCP traffic will also be dropped. In this scenario, the feedback to the TCP protocol is very poor and therefore it cannot adapt properly to a congested network.

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5-4

Congestion Avoidance

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

TCP Synchronization

Average link utilization

Flow A Flow B Flow C

• Multiple TCP sessions start at different times • TCP window sizes are increased • Tail-drops cause many packets of many sessions to be dropped at the same time • TCP sessions restart at the same time (synchronized)
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Congestion Avoidance-7

A router can handle multiple concurrent TCP sessions. There is a high probability that when traffic exceeds the queue limit at all, it vastly exceeds the limit due to the bursty nature of packet networks. However, there is also a high probability that excessive traffic depth caused by packet bursts is temporary and that traffic does not stay excessively deep except at points where traffic flows merge, or at edge routers. If the receiving router drops all traffic that exceeds the queue limit, as is done by default (with tail drop), many TCP sessions then simultaneously go into slow start. Consequently, traffic temporarily slows down to the extreme and then all flows slow-start again. This activity creates a condition called global synchronization. Global synchronization occurs as waves of congestion crest only to be followed by troughs during which the transmission link is not fully utilized. Global synchronization of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) hosts, for example, can occur because packets are dropped all at once. Global synchronization manifests when multiple TCP hosts reduce their transmission rates in response to packet dropping, then increase their transmission rates once again when the congestion is reduced. The most important point is that the waves of transmission known as global synchronization result in significant link under-utilization.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance

5-5

TCP Starvation, Delay and Jitter
Packets of starving flows
Prec. 3 Prec. 3 Prec. 3 Prec. 0 Prec. 3 Prec. 0 Prec. 0

Packets of aggressive flows
Prec. 0

Queue

TCP does not react well if multiple packets are dropped

Delay
Tail-drop does not look at IP precedence Packets experience long delay if interface is constantly congested

• Constant high buffer usage (long queue) causes delay • More aggressive flows can cause other flows to starve • Variable buffer usage causes jitter • No differentiated dropping
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Congestion Avoidance-8

Another TCP-related phenomenon, which reduces optimal throughput of network applications is TCP starvation. When multiple flows are established over a router, some of these flows may be much more aggressive as compared to others. For instance, when a file transfer application’s TCP transmit window increases, it can send a number of large packets to its destination. The packets immediately fill the queue on the router, and other, less aggressive flows can be starved, because they are tail-dropped at the output interface. During periods of congestion, packets are queued up to the full queue length, which also causes increased delay for packets already in the queue. In addition, queuing, being a probabilistic mechanism, introduces unequal delays for packets of the same flow, producing jitter.

5-6

Congestion Avoidance

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Conclusion
• Tail-drop should be avoided • Tail-drop can be avoided if congestion is prevented • Congestion can be prevented if TCP sessions (that still make up more than 80 percent of average Internet traffic) can be slowed down • TCP sessions can be slowed down if some packets are occasionally dropped • Therefore: packets should be dropped when interface is nearing congestion
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Congestion Avoidance-9

Based on the knowledge of TCP behavior during periods of congestion, it can be concluded that tail-drop is not the optimal mechanism for congestion avoidance and therefore should not be used. Instead, more intelligent congestion avoidance mechanisms should be used, which would slow down traffic before actual congestion occurs. IP traffic can be “slowed down” only for traffic using an adaptive transmission protocol, such as TCP. Dropping packets of a TCP session indicates to the sender that it should lower its transmission rate to adapt to changing network conditions. UDP, on the other hand, has no built-in adaptive mechanisms – it sends packets out at a rate specified by the application. About 80% of Internet traffic today is carried over the TCP protocol. If TCP packets of aggressive flows are intelligently dropped, those sessions will slow down and congestion will be avoided. Therefore, to prevent congestion, the output queues should not be allowed to get full, and TCP can be controlled via packet dropping. The new dropping mechanisms should drop packets before congestion occurs, and drop them in such a way that primarily influences aggressive traffic flows.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance

5-7

Random Early Detection
• Random Early Detection (RED) is a mechanism that randomly drops packets even before a queue is full • RED drops packets with an increasing probability • RED result:
– TCP sessions slow down to the approximate rate of outputlink bandwidth – Average queue size is small (much less than the maximum queue size)

• IP precedence can be used to drop lower precedence packets more aggressively than higherprecedence packets

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance -10

Random Early Detection is a dropping mechanism that randomly drops packets before a queue is full. The dropping strategy is based primarily on the average queue length - that is, when the average queue gets longer (fuller), RED will be more likely to drop an incoming packet than when the queue is shorter. Because RED drops packets randomly, it has no per-flow intelligence. The rationale behind this is that an aggressive flow will represent most of the arriving traffic, therefore it is more probable that RED will drop a packet of an aggressive session. RED therefore punishes more aggressive sessions with higher statistical probability, and is therefore able to somewhat selectively slow down the most significant cause of congestion. Directing one TCP session at a time to slow down allows for full utilization of the bandwidth, rather than utilization that manifests itself as crests and troughs of traffic. As a result, the TCP global synchronization is much less likely to occur, and TCP can utilize the bandwidth more efficiently. The average queue size also decreases significantly, as the possibility of the queue filling up is very small. This is due to very aggressive dropping in the event of traffic bursts, when the queue is already quite full. RED distributes losses over time and maintains normally low queue depth while absorbing spikes. RED can also utilize precedence/DSCP bits in packets to establish different drop profiles for different classes of traffic.

5-8

Congestion Avoidance

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

RED Profile
Drop Probability 100% No drop Random drop Full drop

Maximum Drop Probability

10% 20 40

Average Queue Size

Minimum Threshold

Maximum Threshold

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance -11

The probability of a packet being dropped is based on three configurable parameters:
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Minimum threshold - When the average queue depth is above the minimum threshold, RED starts dropping packets. The rate of packet drop increases linearly as the average queue size increases, until the average queue size reaches the maximum threshold. Maximum threshold - When the average queue size is above the maximum threshold, all packets are dropped. If the difference between the maximum threshold and the minimum threshold is too small, many packets might be dropped at once, resulting in global synchronization. Mark probability denominator - This is the fraction of packets dropped when the average queue depth is at the maximum threshold. For example, if the denominator is 512, one out of every 512 packets is dropped when the average queue is at the maximum threshold.

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These parameters define the RED profile, which implements the packet dropping strategy, based on the average queue length.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance

5-9

RED Modes
• RED has three modes:
– No drop – when the average queue size is between 0 and the minimum threshold – Random drop - when the average queue size is between the minimum and the maximum threshold – Full drop (tail-drop) – when the average queue size is at maximum threshold or above

• Random drop should prevent congestion (prevent tail-drops)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance -12

As seen in the previous figure, RED has three dropping modes, based on the average queue size:
n

When the average queue size is between 0 and the configured minimum threshold, no drops occur and all packets are queued. When the average queue size is between the configured minimum threshold, and the configured maximum threshold, random drop occurs, which is linearly proportional to the average queue length. The maximum probability of drop (when the queue is almost completely full) is 15% in Cisco IOS software. When the average queue size is at or higher than the maximum threshold, RED performs full (tail) drop in the queue. This event is unlikely, as RED should slow down TCP traffic ahead of congestion. If a lot of non-TCP traffic is present, RED cannot effectively drop traffic to reduce congestion, and taildrops are likely to occur.

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5-10

Congestion Avoidance

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Before RED

Average link utilization

Flow A Flow B Flow C

• TCP synchronization prevents average link utilization close to the link bandwidth • Tail-drops cause TCP sessions to go into slow-start
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Congestion Avoidance -13

The figure shows TCP throughput behavior compared to link bandwidth in a scenario of congestion, and simple tail-dropping on a router. The global synchronization phenomenon causes all sessions to slow down when congestion occurs, as all sessions are penalized when tail-drop is used because it drops packets with no discrimination between individual flows. When all sessions slow down, the interface becomes uncongested, and all TCP sessions restart their transmission at roughly the same time. The interface quickly becomes congested again, causing tail-dropping, and all TCP sessions back off again. This behavior cycles constantly, resulting in a link that is always underutilized on the average.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance

5-11

After RED

Average link utilization

Flow A Flow B Flow C

• Average link utilization is much closer to link bandwidth • Random drops cause TCP sessions to reduce window sizes
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Congestion Avoidance -14

The figure shows TCP throughput behavior compared to link bandwidth in a scenario of congestion, and RED configured on a router. RED randomly drops packets, influencing a small number of sessions at a time, before the interface reaches congestion. Overall throughput of sessions is increased, as well as average link utilization. Global synchronization is very unlikely to occur, as there is selective, but random dropping of adaptive traffic.

5-12

Congestion Avoidance

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Summary
n

Tail-drop does not perform adequate congestion avoidance on router interfaces. RED randomly drops packets before an interface is congested, punishing aggressive flows. RED prevents interface congestion and prevents TCP global synchronization, but works well only in predominantly TCP-based environments.

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Lesson Review
1. What are the main drawbacks of using tail-drop as a means of congestion control? 2. What does RED do to prevent TCP synchronization? 3. What are the three modes of RED?

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance

5-13

Weighted Random Early Detection
Overview
The section describes the WRED mechanism available in Cisco IOS.

Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n

Describe the Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) mechanism Configure WRED on Cisco routers Monitor and troubleshoot WRED on Cisco routers

5-14

Congestion Avoidance

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Weighted Random Early Detection
• WRED uses a different RED profile for each weight • Each profile is identified by: – minimum threshold – maximum threshold – maximum drop probability • Weight can be – IP precedence (8 profiles) – DSCP (64 profiles) • WRED drops less important packets more aggressively than more important packets

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance -19

Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) combines RED with IP Precedence or DSCPs and does packet drops based on IP Precedence or DSCP markings. As with RED, WRED monitors the average queue depth in the router and determines when to begin packet drops based on the queue depth. When the average queue depth crosses the user-specified “minimum threshold,” WRED begins to drop packets (both TCP and UDP) with a certain probability. If the average queue depth ever crosses the user-specified ”maximum threshold,” then WRED reverts to ”tail drop,” where all incoming packets might be dropped. The idea behind using WRED is to maintain the queue depth at a level somewhere between the minimum and maximum thresholds, and to implement different drop policies for different classes of traffic. WRED can selectively discard lower priority traffic when the interface becomes congested and provide differentiated performance characteristics for different classes of service. WRED can also be configured so that non-weighted RED behavior is achieved. For interfaces configured to use the Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP), WRED chooses packets from other flows to drop rather than the RSVP flows. Also, IP Precedence or DSCPs govern which packets are dropped − traffic that is at a lower priority has a higher drop rate and therefore is more likely to be throttled back. WRED reduces the chances of tail drop by selectively dropping packets when the output interface begins to show signs of congestion. By dropping some packets early rather than waiting until the queue is full, WRED avoids dropping large numbers of packets at once and minimizes the chances of global synchronization. Thus, WRED maximizes the utilization of transmission lines.
Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Congestion Avoidance 5-15

In addition, WRED statistically drops more packets from large users than small ones. Therefore, traffic sources that generate the most traffic are more likely to be slowed down than traffic sources that generate little traffic. WRED avoids the global synchronization problems that occur when tail drop is used as the congestion avoidance mechanism. Global synchronization manifests when multiple TCP hosts simultaneously reduce their transmission rates in response to packet dropping, then increase their transmission rates again once the congestion is reduced. WRED is only useful when the bulk of the traffic is TCP traffic. With TCP, dropped packets indicate congestion, so the packet source reduces its transmission rate. With other protocols, packet sources might not respond or might re-send dropped packets at the same rate, and so dropping packets does not decrease congestion. WRED treats non-IP traffic as precedence 0, the lowest precedence. Therefore, non-IP traffic, in general, is more likely to be dropped than IP traffic. WRED should be used wherever there is a potential bottleneck (congested link), which could very well be an access/edge link. However, WRED is normally used in the core routers of a network rather than at the network’s edge. Edge routers assign IP Precedences to packets as they enter the network. WRED uses these precedences to determine how to treat different types of traffic. Note that WRED is not recommended for any voice queue, although it may be enabled on an interface carrying voice traffic. RED will not throttle back voice traffic, because it is UDP-based, and the network itself should not be designed to lose voice packets since lost voice packets result in reduced voice quality. WRED controls congestion by impacting other prioritized traffic, and avoiding congestion helps to ensure voice quality.

5-16

Congestion Avoidance

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

WRED Profiles
Drop Probability 100%

10% 10 20 40

• WRED profiles can be manually set • WRED has 8 default value sets for IP precedence based WRED • WRED has 64 default value sets for DSCP based WRED

Average Queue Size

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance -20

The figure shows two WRED profiles, used for traffic of different QoS classes. The RED class has a much lower minimum and maximum threshold. Traffic of that class will be dropped much earlier and more aggressively. When heavy congestion occurs, the RED class will ultimately be tail dropped. The BLUE class has a higher minimum and maximum thresholds, therefore dropping occurs later and is less likely, compared to the RED class. This maintains differentiated levels of service in the event of congestion. To avoid the need of setting all WRED parameters in a router, 8 default values are already defined for precedence-based WRED, and 64 DiffServ-aligned values are defined for DSCP-based WRED. Therefore, the default settings should suffice in the vast majority of deployments.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance

5-17

IP Precedence and Class Selector Profiles
Drop Probability

100%

10%
IP precedence

0

20

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 RSVP 22 24 26 28 31 33 35 37 40

Average Queue Size

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance -21

A Per-Hop Behavior (PHB) is the externally observable forwarding behavior applied at a DiffServ-compliant node to a DiffServ Behavior Aggregate (BA). With the ability of the system to mark packets according to DSCP setting, collections of packets − each with the same DSCP setting and sent in a particular direction − can be grouped into a DiffServ BA. Packets from multiple sources or applications can belong to the same DiffServ BA. In the Assured Forwarding PHB (as defined in RFC 2474,) WRED uses the Drop Preference (second digit of the AF number) to determine drop probability. This enables differentiated dropping of AF traffic classes, which have different drop preference.

5-18

Congestion Avoidance

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

DSCP-based WRED (Expedited Forwarding)
Drop Probability

100%

10%

EF Average Queue Size

20

36 40

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance -22

The Expedited Forwarding PHB is identified based on the following parameters:
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Ensures a minimum departure rate to provide the lowest possible delay to delay-sensitive applications Guarantees bandwidth to prevent starvation of the application if there are multiple applications using Expedited Forwarding PHB Polices bandwidth to prevent starvation of other applications or classes that are not using this PHB Packets requiring Expedited Forwarding should be marked with DSCP binary value “101110” (46 or 0x2E)

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For the Expedited Forwarding DiffServ traffic class, WRED configures itself by default so that the minimum threshold is very high, increasing the probability of no drops being applied to that traffic class. EF-traffic is therefore expected to be dropped very late, compared to other traffic classes, in the event of congestion.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance

5-19

DSCP-based WRED (Assured Forwarding)
Drop Probability

100%

AF Low Drop AF Medium Drop AF High Drop

10%
Average Queue Size

20 24

28 32

40

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance -23

The Assured Forwarding PHB is identified based on the following parameters:
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Guarantees a certain amount of bandwidth to an AF class Allows access to extra bandwidth, if available Packets requiring AF PHB should be marked with DSCP value “aaadd0” where “aaa” is the number of the class and “dd” is the drop probability or drop preference of the traffic class.

There are four standard-defined AF classes. Each class should be treated independently and have bandwidth allocated based on the QoS policy. For the Assured Forwarding DiffServ traffic class, WRED configures itself by default for three different profiles, depending on the Drop Preference DSCP marking bits. AF-traffic should therefore be classified into the three possible classes based on the application sensitivity to dropping. WRED implements a congestion avoidance PHB in agreement with the initial classification.

5-20

Congestion Avoidance

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

WRED Building Blocks
Calculate Average Queue Size

Current Queue Size FIFO Queue

IP packet IP precedence or DSCP

WRED

Queue Full? Yes

No

Select WRED Profile

Min. threshold Max. threshold Max prob. denom.

Random Drop

Tail Drop

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance -24

The figure shows how WRED is implemented, and the parameters that influence WRED dropping decisions. The WRED algorithm is constantly updated with the calculated average queue size, which is based on the recent history of queue sizes. The configured WRED profiles define the dropping thresholds (and therefore the WRED probability slopes). When a packet arrives at the output queue, the IP precedence of DSCP-value is used to select the correct WRED profile for the packet. The packet is then passed to WRED to perform a drop/enqueue decision. Based on the profile and the average queue size, WRED calculates the probability for dropping the current packet and either drops it or passes it to the output queue. If the queue is already full, the packet is tail-dropped. Otherwise, it is eventually transmitted out onto the interface.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance

5-21

Configuring WRED and dWRED
Router(config-if)# random-detect random-detect

• Enables IP precedence based WRED • Default service profile is used • Non-distributed WRED cannot be combined with fancy queuing - FIFO queuing has to be used • WRED can run distributed on VIP-based interfaces (dWRED) • dWRED can be combined with dWFQ
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Congestion Avoidance -25

The random-detect command is used to enable WRED on an interface. By default, WRED is precedence-based, using eight default WRED profiles. Used on VIP-based interfaces, this command enables distributed WRED (dWRED), where the VIP CPU performs WRED dropping. This can significantly increase router performance, when used in the context of distributed CEF switching, which is a prerequisite for dWRED functionality. Also, dWRED can be combined with dWFQ, enabling truly distributed queuing and congestion avoidance techniques, running independently from the central CPU. With centralized platforms, WRED, if configured, cannot be combined with other queuing methods (priority, custom, and weighted-fair queuing). Those methods use either tail-dropping or their own dropping methods. Therefore, WRED can only be configured with FIFO queuing on an interface. This is not a major issue, because WRED is usually applied in the network core, where there should be no queuing configured. WRED is suited for the network core as it has a relatively low performance impact on routers.

5-22

Congestion Avoidance

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Changing WRED profile
Router(config-if)# random-detect precedence precedence min-threshold max-threshold precedence precedence mark-prob-denominator mark-prob-denominator

• Changes RED profile for specified IP precedence value • Packet drop probability at maximum threshold is 1 / mark-prob-denominator • Non-weighted RED is achieved by using the same RED profile for all precedence values
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Congestion Avoidance -26

In this example, WRED is enabled with default values, and then the values are changed for each IP Precedence level. The configured values, which are described above under Random Early Detection, are repeated here for convenience:
n

Minimum threshold - When the average queue depth is above the minimum threshold, RED starts dropping packets. The rate of packet drop increases linearly as the average queue size increases, until the average queue size reaches the maximum threshold. Maximum threshold - When the average queue size is above the maximum threshold, all packets are dropped. If the difference between the maximum threshold and the minimum threshold is too small, many packets might be dropped at once, resulting in global synchronization. Mark probability denominator - This is the fraction of packets dropped when the average queue depth is at the maximum threshold. For example, if the denominator is 512, one out of every 512 packets is dropped when the average queue is at the maximum threshold.

n

n

It is interesting to note, that the maximum probability of drop at the maximum threshold can be expressed as 1/mark-prob-denominator. The maximum drop probability is 10%, if default settings are used. If required, RED can be configured as a special case of WRED, by assigning the same profile to all eight precedence values.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Changing WRED Sensitivity to Bursts
Router(config-if)# random-detect exponential-weighting-constant n

Qavg ( t + 1) = Qavg (t ) ⋅ (1 − 2 − n ) + Qt ⋅ 2 − n
New average queue size Previous average queue size Current queue size

• WRED takes the average queue size to determine the current WRED mode (no drop, random drop, full drop) • High values of N allow short bursts • Low values of N make WRED more burst-sensitive • Default value (9) should be used in most scenarios • Average output queue size with N=9 is
average t+1 = average t * 0.998 + queue_sizet * 0.002
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Congestion Avoidance -27

As mentioned previously, WRED does not calculate the drop probability using the current queue length, but rather uses the average queue length. The average queue length is constantly recalculated, using two terms: the previously calculated average queue size and the current queue size. An exponential weighting constant N influences the calculation by weighing the two terms, therefore influencing how the average queue size follows the current queue size, in the following way:
n

A low value of N makes the current queue size more significant in the new average size calculation, therefore allowing larger bursts A high value of N makes the previous average queue size more significant in the new average seize calculation, so that bursts influence the new value to a smaller degree.

n

The default value is 9 and should suffice for most scenarios, except perhaps those involving extremely high-speed interfaces (like OC12), where it can be increased slightly (to about 12) to allow more bursts.

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Congestion Avoidance

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Configuring DSCP-based WRED
Router(config-if)# random-detect {prec-based | dscp-based} random-detect {prec-based | dscp-based}

• Selects WRED mode • Precedence-based WRED is the default mode • DSCP-based uses 64 profiles

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance -28

The random-detect dscp-based command is used to enable DSCP-based WRED on an interface, using the 64 default DSCP-based WRED profiles.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance

5-25

Changing WRED Profile
Router(config-if)# random-detect dscp dscp min-threshold max-threshold mark-probdscp dscp denominator denominator

• Changes RED profile for specified DSCP value • Packet drop probability at maximum threshold is 1 / mark-prob-denominator

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance -29

The DSCP-weighted WRED profiles can be changed, again using the known three WRED parameters. The mask-prob-denominator defines the packet drop probability at the WRED maximum threshold. The maximum drop probability is 10%, if default settings are used. Normally, the DSCP-weighed profiles should be left at their default settings, as those settings are appropriate for most situations, if traffic is classified according to the DiffServ service specification.

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Congestion Avoidance

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

WRED Case Study
• WRED is applied to a core link in a network with the following IP precedence definitions
IP prec. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Meaning High-drop best effort traffic HighLow-drop best -effort traffic Low best Premium traffic outside of the contract Premium traffic outside Premium traffic in the contract Premium traffic in the contract Unused Voice-over-IP Voice- over Routing protocol traffic Routing protocol traffic protocol traffic
Congestion Avoidance -30

This WRED case study presents a network carrying traffic with eight different service levels, each assigned a precedence value, with which packets are marked. The figure shows the precedence to traffic -type mapping, where higher precedence values are assigned to more important traffic. Voice traffic, for example, is ranked just below essential routing protocol traffic, whereas other IP traffic is divided into premium and best-effort levels, also depending on dropsensitivity. Traffic is classified at the edge of the network, and WRED provides differentiated handling of traffic in the core, if core interfaces are nearing congestion. This information is used to build a custom WRED profile, based on the above policy. When congestion is about to occur, WRED will drop packets, preferring lower-precedence traffic, which is either drop-resistant or part of a best-effort service. Premium traffic should experience few drops, and voice and routing protocol traffic are unlikely to get dropped, because they are assigned a very high minimum dropping threshold. While it is not recommended to use WRED with voice traffic, this example aggregates many types of traffic, including voice, on a single access line. WRED is configured so that voice is unlikely to be dropped, and other aggressive flows are dropped first. Ideally, there would also be a separate voice queue configured, and voice traffic priority scheduled against other traffic.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance

5-27

WRED Case Study Guidelines
• Best-effort traffic should be dropped before premium traffic • Out-of-contract or high-drop best -effort traffic should be dropped very aggressively • Voice traffic should be dropped only under extreme congestion • Routing protocol traffic should be less dropresistant than VoIP (depends on the routing protocol and control over amount of VoIP traffic) • Configure WRED with default values on an interface first and tune the per -precedence parameters based on default values

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance -31

The WRED dropping strategy for different traffic classes can be outlined as
n n

Best-effort traffic should be dropped before premium traffic. Out-of-contract or high-drop best-effort traffic should be dropped very aggressively. Voice traffic should be dropped only under extreme congestion. Routing protocol traffic should be less drop-resistant than VoIP (depends on the routing protocol and control over amount of VoIP traffic).

n n

To implement this dropping policy, WRED is configured with default parameters and then tuned to comply with the above policy.

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Congestion Avoidance

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Sample WRED Profile

Packet Discard Probability

Precedence 3 Precedence 1 Precedence 2 Precedence 0
10 15 20 25 30

VoIP Routing

0.1

Average Queue Size
35 37

RSVP

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance -32

The figure presents the values chosen to tune WRED dropping according to the case study policy. Different precedence traffic will be assigned different minimum and maximum threshold values to reflect the relative dropping strategies outlined in the requirements. Note that the maximum drop probability is 10% (default) and the same for all precedence levels. This setting should not be changed in most implementations.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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WRED Configuration

interface Serial 0/1/0 interface Serial 0/1/0 ip address 200.200.14.250 255.255.255.252 address 200.200.14.250 255.255.255.252 random-detect random-detect precedence 0 10 25 10 10 25 10 random-detect precedence 1 20 35 10 20 35 10 random-detect precedence 2 15 25 10 15 25 10 random-detect precedence 3 25 35 10 25 35 10 random-detect precedence 4 1 2 1 precedence 4 1 1 random-detect precedence 5 35 40 10 35 40 10 random-detect precedence 6 30 40 10 30 40 10 random-detect precedence 7 30 40 10 30 40 10

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance -33

This configuration excerpt shows the implementation of the dropping policy, illustrated by the case study. The threshold values reflect the values chosen in the previous figure. Note that precedence 4 is not used to mark traffic in the case study network, so the drop probability of precedence 4 traffic is 100% (1 divided by 1 times 100%).

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Congestion Avoidance

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Monitoring WRED
• Show interface
– displays the queuing/dropping mechanism in use displays WRED parameters (VIP only)

• Show queueing
– displays the RED profile for each interface

• Show queue
– displays the interface output queue

• Show interface random-detect
– displays RED statistics (VIP only)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance -34

The listed commands provide means to monitor WRED configuration and operation.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance

5-31

Interface Parameters
Router# show interface intf

• Displays interface parameters
Router#show interface serial 1/0 Router#show interface serial 1/0 Serial1/0 is up, line protocol is up Serial1/0 up, line protocol Hardware is CD2430 in sync mode Hardware is CD2430 in sync mode Internet address is 192.168.1.2/30 Internet address is 192.168.1.2/30 MTU 1500 bytes, BW 128 Kbit, DLY 200 usec, rely 255/255 ... MTU 1500 bytes, BW 128 Kbit, DLY 200 usec, rely 255/255 ... Encapsulation HDLC, loopback not set, keepalive set (10 sec) Encapsulation HDLC, loopback not set, keepalive set Last input 00:00:07, output 00:00:07, output hang never Last Last clearing of "show interface" counters never Last clearing "show interface" Input queue: 2/75/0 (size/max/drops); Total output drops: 0 Input queue: 2/75/0 (size/max/drops); Total output drops: 0 Queueing strategy: random early detection (WRED) Queueing strategy: random early detection (WRED) 5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec 5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec bits/sec, packets/sec 5 337102 packets input, 27357987 bytes, 0 no buffer 337102 packets input, 27357987 bytes, 0 no buffer Received 265169 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles Received 265169 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants, throttles 0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abo rt 0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abo rt ... rest deleted ... ... rest deleted ...

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance -35

The show interface command will display whether or not WRED is the preferred congestion avoidance mechanism on the interface.

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Congestion Avoidance

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

WRED Parameters and Statistics
Router# show queueing random-detect

• Displays per-interface parameters WRED statistics
Router#show queueing random-detect Router#show queueing random-detect Current random-detect configuration: Current random -detect configuration: Serial1/0 Serial1/0 Queueing strategy: random early detection (WRED) Queueing strategy: random early detection (WRED) Exp-weight-constant: 9 (1/512) Exp-weight-constant: 9 (1/512) Mean queue depth: 38 Mean queue depth: 38 Class Class 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 rsvp rsvp
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Random drop drop 174 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0

Tail drop drop 34 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0

Minimum threshold threshold 20 22 22 24 24 26 28 31 33 35 35 37 37

Maximum threshold threshold 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40

Mark probability probability 1/10 1/10 1/10 1/10 1/10 1/10 1/10 1/10 1/10 1/10 1/10 1/10 1/10
Congestion Avoidance -36

The show queuing command shows the configuration and statistics for configured WRED profiles.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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dWRED Parameters and Statistics
Router#show interfaces random-detect Router#show interfaces random-detect FastEthernet1/0/0 queue size 0 FastEthernet1/0/0 queue size 0 packets output 29692, drops 0 packets output 29692, drops 0 WRED: queue average 0 WRED: queue average 0 weight 1/512 weight Precedence 0: 109 min threshold, 218 max threshold, 1/10 Precedence 0: 109 min threshold, 218 max threshold, 1/10 1 packets output, drops: 0 random, 0 threshold 1 packets output, drops: 0 random, 0 threshold Precedence 1: 122 min threshold, 218 max threshold, 1/10 Precedence 1: 122 min threshold, 218 max threshold, 1/10 (no traffic) (no traffic) Precedence 2: 135 min threshold, 218 max threshold, 1/10 Precedence 2: 135 min threshold, 218 max threshold, 1/10 14845 packets output, drops: 0 random, 0 threshold 14845 packets output, drops: random, threshold Precedence 3: 148 min threshold, 218 max threshold, 1/10 Precedence 3: 148 min threshold, 218 max threshold, 1/10 (no traffic) (no traffic) Precedence 4: 161 min threshold, 218 max threshold, 1/10 Precedence 4: 161 min threshold, 218 max threshold, 1/10 (no traffic) (no traffic) Precedence 5: 174 min threshold, 218 max threshold, 1/10 Precedence 5: 174 min threshold, 218 max threshold, 1/10 (no traffic) (no traffic) Precedence 6: 187 min threshold, 218 max threshold, 1/10 Precedence 6: 187 min threshold, 218 max threshold, 1/10 14846 packets output, drops: 0 random, 0 threshold 14846 packets output, drops: random, threshold Precedence 7: 200 min threshold, 218 max threshold, 1/10 Precedence 7: 200 min threshold, 218 max threshold, 1/10 (no traffic) (no traffic)
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

ma rk weight ma rk weight ma rk weight ma rk weight ma rk weight ma rk weight ma rk weight ma rk weight ma rk weight ma rk weight ma rk weight ma rk weight ma rk weight ma rk weight ma rk weight ma rk weight

Congestion Avoidance -37

The show interfaces random-detect command shows the dWRED profile configuration for the specified interface. Use this command to display dWRED statistics on interfaces performing distributed services.

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Congestion Avoidance

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Queue Details
Router# show queue intf queue

• Displays queue contents
Router#show queue serial 1/0 Router#show queue serial 1/0 Output queue for Serial1/0 is 65/0 Output queue for Serial1/0 is 65/0 Packet 1, Packet 1, source: source: data: data: linktype: ip, length: 1504, flags: 0x48 linktype: ip, length: 1504, flags: 0x48 192.168.1.2, destination: 192.168.1.2, id: 0x001A, ttl: 255, prot: 1 192.168.1.2, destination: 192.168.1.2, id: 0x001A, ttl: 255, prot: 1 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD

Packet 2, linktype: ip, length: 1504, flags: 0x48 Packet 2, linktype: ip, length: 1504, flags: 0x48 source: 192.168.1.2, destination: 192.168.1.2, id: 0x001A, ttl: 255, prot: 1 source: 192.168.1.2, destination: 192.168.1.2, id: 0x001A, ttl: 255, prot: 1 data: 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD data: 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD Packet 3, linktype: ip, length: 1504, flags: 0x48 Packet 3, linktype: ip, length: 1504, flags: 0x48 source: 192.168.1.2, destination: 192.168.1.2, id: 0x001A, ttl: 255, prot: 1 source: 192.168.1.2, destination: 192.168.1.2, id: 0x001A, ttl: 255, prot: 1 data: 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD data: 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD 0xABCD ... rest deleted ... ... rest deleted ...
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Congestion Avoidance -38

The show queue command will display the output queue contents.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance

5-35

WRED caveats and restrictions
• Since the same policy is applied to all flows, a single non-adaptive flow can monopolize the buffer resources at an interface
– RED is suitable when TCP represents at least 80% of the traffic – Non-TCP traffic should be rate-limited

• Non-distributed RED implementation is mutually exclusive with PQ, CQ and WFQ

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance -39

WRED is very effective in achieving congestion avoidance, but only when at least 80% of traffic is based on the TCP protocol, which can quickly react to selective random drops in some of the sessions. If non-adaptive flows, using for example the UDP protocols, arrive at the interface, those flows do not react to WRED dropping, but can instead monopolize the interface (and its buffers). Such traffic should be rate-limited to enforce a steady traffic mix. Also, WRED cannot be used together with fancy queuing with centralized switching. dWRED and dWFQ can coexist, however, on most distributed applications, sometimes even implemented in interface (line card) hardware.

5-36

Congestion Avoidance

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Summary
n

WRED uses precedence or DSCP-dependent dropping slopes to differentiate RED dropping for different classes of traffic. WRED is configured on router interfaces and can run distributed on VIPbased interfaces.

n

Lesson Review
1. What are the key differences between RED and WRED? 2. What can be used as weight in WRED? 3. Which dropping modes does WRED have?

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance

5-37

Flow-based Weighted Random Early Detection
Overview
The section describes the Flow-based WRED mechanism available in Cisco IOS.

Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n

Describe the Flow-based WRED mechanism. Describe the benefits of Flow-based RED over normal WRED. Configure Flow-based WRED on Cisco routers. Monitor and troubleshoot Flow-based WRED on Cisco routers.

5-38

Congestion Avoidance

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Flow-based WRED
• WRED differentiates between packets of different priority • WRED does not differentiate between packets of different flows • Aggressive flows can monopolize the queue and cause other flows to starve • Flow-based WRED is used to keep track of flows • Flow-based WRED drops packets of aggressive flows ahead of other packets
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Congestion Avoidance -44

WRED relies on a measurement called the average queue length to determine when to drop packets. When the packet count of the average queue length is in the upper range, WRED begins dropping packets. At this point, WRED applies a nonzero drop probability to all packets that arrive on an interface, indiscriminate of the kinds of flows to which the packets belong. Therefore, normal WRED applies the same loss rate to all kinds of flows, adaptive and non-adaptive. Flow-based Weighted Random Early Detection (FRED) is a feature of WRED that forces WRED to afford greater fairness to all flows on an interface with regard to how packets are dropped. Flow-based WRED relies on these two main approaches to remedy the problem of unfair packet drop:
n

It classifies incoming traffic into flows based on parameters such as destination and source addresses and ports. It maintains state information about active flows, which are flows that have packets in the output queues.

n

Flow-based WRED uses this classification and state information to ensure that each flow does not consume more than its permitted share of the output buffer resources. Flow-based WRED determines which flows monopolize resources, and more heavily penalizes these flows. Here is how flow-based WRED ensures fairness among flows: it maintains a count of the number of active flows that exist through an output interface. Given the number of active flows and the output queue size, flow-based WRED determines the number of buffers available per flow. To allow for some burstiness, flow-based WRED scales the number of buffers available per flow by a configured factor and
Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Congestion Avoidance 5-39

allows each active flow to have a certain number of packets in the output queue. This scaling factor is common to all flows. The outcome of the scaled number of buffers becomes the per-flow limit. When a flow exceeds the per-flow limit, the probability that a packet from that flow will be dropped increases.

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Congestion Avoidance

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Types of Flows
• There are three types of flows –Robust flows - adapt to packet loss by slowing down (WRED is effective); consistent buffer usage –Fragile flows - cannot adapt to drops (WRED should not be used); low buffer usage –Non-adaptive flows - do not adapt to packet loss (WRED is not effective); high and constant buffer usage

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance -45

Before you consider the advantages that flow-based WRED offers, it helps to think about how WRED (without flow-based WRED configured) affects different kinds of packet flows. Even before flow-based WRED classifies packet flows, flows can be thought of as belonging to one of these categories:
n n

Nonadaptive flows, which are flows that do not respond to congestion. Robust flows, which on average have a uniform data rate and slow down in response to congestion. Fragile flows, which, though congestion-aware, have fewer packets buffered at a gateway than do robust flows.

n

Because of its packet-drop behavior − that is, that all flows, even those with relatively fewer packets in the output queue, are susceptible to packet drop during periods of congestion − WRED tends toward a bias against fragile flows. Though fragile flows have fewer buffered packets, they are dropped at the same rate as packets of other flows.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance

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Flow-based WRED Objective
• Per-active-flow loss rate that increases with the flow’s buffer usage –Robust: normal loss rate –Fragile: very light loss rate –Non-adaptive: very high loss rate

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance -46

As FRED takes a flow’s buffer usage in consideration, it bases its dropping strategy on the amount of buffers used by active flows. The router therefore classifies flows based on their amount of buffer usage, and is able to penalize aggressive flows. All flows are characterized as robust flows, which can adapt to a normal loss rate; fragile flows, which need a very light loss rate; and non-adaptive flows, which can survive a very high loss rate. Therefore, FRED tries to identify non-adaptive flows and impose a higher drop rate onto them, compared to other, better-behaved flows.

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Congestion Avoidance

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Flow-based WRED Building Blocks
WFQ Classifier (hash) Calculate Average Per-flow Queue Size Scaling Factor Calculate Maximum Per-flow Queue Size Current Number of Queue + Active Size Flows FIFO Queue

IP src&dst addr, PID TCP/UDP src&dst port IP packet IP precedence or DSCP WRED

Queue Full? Yes

No

Select WRED Profile

Min. threshold Max. Threshold Max prob. Denom.

Random Drop

Tail Drop

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance -47

This block diagram shows how FRED performs its dropping calculations based on the flow classification and queue sizes. An incoming packet is first classified into an active flow. A default WRED profile is chosen for the packet based on the precedence/DSCP value. FRED then determines the characteristics of the flow, by calculating the average per-flow buffer usage (average per-flow queue size) in the system, and based on it, the maximum per-flow queue size, using a scaling factor. By default, FRED computes the maximum per-flow queue size directly from the average queue per-flow queue size (the average size of queue used by flows in the router, calculated as the number of used buffers divided by the number of active flows), using a multiplicative factor of 4. If a flow uses more buffers than the maximum per-flow queue size, Cisco IOS deems the flow non-adaptive, and chooses a more aggressive RED profile for that flow, lowering the maximum threshold by half the difference between the current maximum and minimum threshold difference. In short, a flow is considered non-adaptive when its flow-depth is larger than the expected maximum due to burstiness, which depends on the scaling factor: average-flow-depth * (scaling factor) < flow-depth

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance

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Configuring Flow-based WRED
Router(config-if)# random-detect flow random-detect flow

IOS 12.0(3)T IOS

• Configures Flow-based Weighted Random Early Detection on the specified interface • Disables distributed WRED on VIP-based interfaces • Disables all queuing and reverts to FIFO queuing

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance -48

To enable flow-based WRED, use the random-detect flow interface configuration command. You must use this command to enable flow-based WRED before you can use the random-detect flow average-depth-factor and random-detect flow count commands to further configure the parameters of flow-based WRED.

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Congestion Avoidance

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Tuning Flow-based WRED
Router(config-if)# random-detect flow average-depth-factor scaling-factor scaling-factor

• Specifies the scaling factor used to compute maximum per-flow queue size from average perflow queue size • Default value is 4
Router(config-if)# random-detect flow count number flow count

• Specifies the maximum number of flows tracked by the flow-based WRED • Default value is 256
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. Congestion Avoidance -49

Two FRED tuning parameters, the random-detect flow average-depth-factor, and the random-detect flow count, are available to change the default behavior of FRED. The first parameter changes the multiplicative scaling factor used in calculating the maximum per-flow queue size, used to differentiate non-adaptive flows from adaptive and fragile flows. If there is a large number of low-bandwidth flows over an interface (resulting in a very low average per-flow queue size), the scaling factor could be increased to detect truly aggressive flows. The second parameter specifies the maximum amount of flows, tracked by FRED at any given instant (snapshot of the queue). This parameter may be increased to support an interface, carrying a large number of concurrent flows.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance

5-45

Monitoring Flow-based WRED
• All standard WRED commands
– show interface – show queueing – show queue – show interface random-detect

• Displays flow parameters
– show queueing random-detect

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance -50

To monitor FRED, use the standard (W)RED monitoring commands.

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Congestion Avoidance

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Displays Flow Parameters
Router# show queueing random-detect
CPE_1# show queueing random-detect CPE_1#show queueing random -detect Current random-detect configuration: Current random -detect configuration: Serial0 Serial0 Queueing strategy: random early detection (WRED) Queueing strategy: random early detection (WRED) Exp-weight-constant: 9 (1/512) Exp-weight -constant: 9 (1/512) Mean queue depth: 0 Mean queue depth: 0 Max flow count: 256 Average depth factor: 4 Max flow count: 256 Average depth factor: 4 Flows (active/max active/max): 0/0/256 Flows (active/max active/max): 0/0/256 Class Class 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 rsvp rsvp Random Random drop drop 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Tail Minimum Maximum Mark Tail Minimum Maximum Mark drop threshold threshold probability drop threshold threshold probability 0 20 40 1/10 0 20 40 1/10 0 22 40 1/10 0 22 40 1/10 0 24 40 1/10 0 24 40 1/10 0 26 40 1/10 0 26 40 1/10 0 28 40 1/10 0 28 40 1/10 0 31 40 1/10 0 31 40 1/10 0 33 40 1/10 0 33 40 1/10 0 35 40 1/10 0 35 40 1/10 0 37 40 1/10 0 37 40 1/10

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance -51

The show queuing command shows the configuration and statistics for configured WRED profiles, together with FRED parameters, such as the number of active flows in the queue, and the depth scaling factor.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance

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Benefits of Flow-based WRED
• Ensures that flows that respond to WRED packet drops by backing off packet transmission are protected from flows that do not respond to WRED packet drops • Prohibits a single flow from monopolizing the buffer resources at an interface
– Flow-based WRED punishes aggressive UDP flows

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance -52

FRED therefore has substantial benefits compared to WRED, as it can also be used in environments that do not exhibit a predominantly TCP-based traffic mix. FRED enables differentiated dropping between fragile and non-adaptive flows, in which the loss rate is higher with non-adaptive flows. This is something that WRED is unable to do, because it drops packets without regard to flow buffer usage. Therefore, FRED protects fragile and adaptive flows from non-adaptive flows, which may, in the case of RED, monopolize router queues in their path.

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Congestion Avoidance

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Drawbacks of Flow-based WRED
• Flow-based WRED is not distributed • Works only in combination with FIFO queuing • Not predictable • Depends on host behavior for effectiveness

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance -53

Since FRED does not yet run in a distributed mode, and only works in combination with FIFO queuing, its applications are limited. FRED is also not predictable in its operation, and somewhat depends on the behavior of endpoints, which must properly adapt their sending rate based on loss signals from the network.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance

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Summary
n

Flow-based WRED differentiates flows and keeps state information about current flows in the output queue. Flow-based WRED can penalize non-adaptive flows by dropping their packets more aggressively. Flow-based WRED is configured on router interfaces

n

n

Lesson Review
1. What is the difference between WRED and Flow-based WRED? 2. How many queues does Flow-based WRED have? 3. What are the benefits and drawbacks of Flow-based WRED?

5-50

Congestion Avoidance

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Summary
n

RED randomly drops packets before an interface is congested, punishing aggressive flows. WRED uses precedence or DSCP-dependent dropping slopes to differentiate RED dropping for different classes of traffic. WRED is configured on router interfaces and can run distributed on VIPbased interfaces. Flow-based WRED differentiates flows and keeps state information about current flows in the output queue.

n

n

n

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance

5-51

Review

Questions and Answers Random Early Detection Question: What are the main drawbacks of using tail-drop as a means of congestion control? Answer: Tail drop causes global synchronization of TCP session, TCP starvations, and jitter. Question: What does RED do to prevent TCP synchronization? Answer: RED performs random dropping of packets, as the average queue length indicates a possible trend towards congestion. As aggressive flows usually have more packets in the queue compared to non-aggressive flows, random dropping punishes aggressive flows with higher probability by dropping their packets. Packet drops signal the aggressive TCP sender to slow down and adapt its sending rate. Question: What are the three modes of RED? Answer: RED has three queue management modes: no drop, when the average queue length is below the minimum threshold, random drop, when the average queue length is between the minimum and maximum thresholds and full drop, when the average queue length is above the maximum threshold.

Weighted Random Early Detection Question: What are the key differences between RED and WRED?
Answer: WRED can perform differentiated dropping, taking IP precedence or

DSCP value into account. RED drops are based only on the average queue length and all packets share the same drop profile. Question: What can be used as weight in WRED?
Answer: IP precedence or DSCP value can be used as the weight in WRED.

Question: Which dropping modes does WRED have?
Answer: As is the case with RED, WRED has three queue management modes:

no drop, when the average queue length is below the minimum threshold, random drop, when the average queue length is between the minimum and maximum thresholds and full drop, when the average queue length is above the maximum threshold. With WRED different threshold values are used for each weight (IP precedence or DSCP) value, establishing differentiated dropping profiles.

Flow-based Weighted Random Early Detection
5-52 Congestion Avoidance Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Question: What is the difference between WRED and Flow-based WRED? Answer: Flow-based WRED is able to differentiate between different flows based on their buffer usage. Therefore, it is more precise than WRED when differentiating between different senders, and can more appropriately punish aggressive sessions. Question: How many queues does Flow-based WRED have? Answer: By default, Flow-based WRED maintains 256 flow queues. Question: What are the benefits and drawbacks of Flow-based WRED? Answer: Flow-based WRED has the potential to punish aggressive UDP sessions by freeing the queue resources early. It can not, however, lower their sending rate. Also, Flow-based WRED currently does not run distributed on the VIP.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Congestion Avoidance

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6

Link Efficiency Mechanisms

Overview
The module describes one approach to handling congested links; compression. It discusses link efficiency mechanisms that either compress the payload of packets (Stacker and Predictor) or reduce packet overhead by compressing their headers (TCP and RTP header compression). It also discusses two different layer-2 link fragmentation mechanisms (PPP Multilink and Frame Relay Fragmentation).

Objectives
Upon completion of this module, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n n n

Describe and configure Stacker payload compression Describe and configure Predictor payload compression Describe and configure TCP header compression Describe and configure RTP header compression Describe and configure PPP Multilink with interleaving Describe and configure Frame Relay Fragmentation

Payload Compression
Overview
This lesson describes two payload compression mechanisms. It describes the Stacker and Predictor mechanisms that can be used to reduce the size of data in packets or frames.

Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n

Describe and configure Stacker compression Describe and configure Predictor compression Monitor and troubleshoot compression

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IP QoS Link Efficiency Mechanisms

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Payload Compression
QoS does not create bandwidth. Payload compression does. Payload compression uses a compression algorithm to squeeze the payload of layer-2 frames Payload compression increases perceived throughput and decreases perceived latency

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Link Efficiency Mechanisms -5

While many mechanisms exist for optimizing throughput and reducing delay in network traffic within the QoS portfolio, QoS does not create bandwidth. QoS optimizes the use of existing resources, and enables the differentiation of traffic according to the operator policy. Payload compression does create additional bandwidth, because it squeezes packet payloads, and therefore increases the amount of data that can be sent through a transmission resource in a given time period. Payload compression is mostly performed on layer-2 frames and therefore compresses the entire layer-3 packet. Note that IP PCP (Payload Compression Protocol) is a fairly new technique for compressing payloads on layer 3, and can handle out-of-order data. The IP PCP compression method is not discusses in this lesson. As compression squeezes payloads, it both increases the perceived throughput, and decreases perceived latency in transmission, because smaller, packets (with compressed payloads) take less time to transmit (than the larger, uncompressed packets).

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Compression Building Blocks
Forwarder
FH IP Compression is a CPU-intensive task It adds to the overall delay experienced by IP packets.

Compression Algorithm
FH cIP

Output Queue

Packets reduced in size take less time to transmit. More packets can be transmitted.

Compression reduces the size of the frame payload Entire IP packet is compressed Compression adds delay due to its complexity Serialization delay is reduced, overall latency might be reduced
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Link Efficiency Mechanisms -6

The figure shows a basic block diagram of a compression method. When a router forwards a packet, it is subjected to the layer-2 compression method after it has been encapsulated at the output. The compression method squeezes the payload of the layer-2 frame (the entire layer-3 packet), and transmits the packet on the interface. Layer-2 compression requires serialization of packet delivery, which means that packets must be received by the remote layer-2 station in the same order as they were sent. Compression is a CPU-intensive task and can add per-packet delay due to the application of the compression method to each frame. The transmission (serialization) delay, however, is reduced, because the resulting frame is smaller. Depending on the complexity of the payload compression algorithm, overall latency might be reduced, especially on low-speed links.

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Compression Results
NO COMPRESSION

Link bandwidth 256 kbps
Delay=1 ms Delay=8 ms Total Delay=9 ms

Throughput 256 kbps

COMPRESSION COMPRESSION

Link bandwidth 256 kbps
Delay=10 ms Delay=4 ms Total Delay=14 ms

Throughput 500 kbps

HARDWARE COMPRESSION HARDWARE COMPRESSION

Link bandwidth 256 kbps
Delay=4 ms Total Delay=6 ms

Throughput 500 kbps

Delay=2 ms

Compression increases throughput Compressions may increase delay
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Link Efficiency Mechanisms -7

The figure compares three throughput/latency scenarios on a point-to-point link. If no compression is used, the perceived throughput is limited by the link bandwidth, and the average delay is influenced only by the forwarding/buffering delay and the serialization (transmission) delay. If compression is enabled, the packet latency between the two hops is a function of forwarding delay, compression delay, and transmission delay. Even if the transmission delay is now shorter, the compression/decompression delay may increase the overall latency between the two hops. Throughput is generally increased and is limited by the effectiveness of the compression algorithm. If hardware-assisted compression is used, the compression/decompression delays may become insignificant compared to transmission and forwarding delays, and overall latency may decrease. Throughput is again limited by the effectiveness of the compression method and may be significantly higher than the link bandwidth limit.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Link Efficiency Mechanisms

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Compression Algorithms
Cisco routers support the following compression algorithms:
• STAC or Stacker (STAC Electronics or Hi/fn, Inc.) • MPPC (Microsoft Point-to-point Compression) • Predictor (public domain algorithm)

These algorithms differ in compression capabilities, CPU and memory utilization
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Link Efficiency Mechanisms -8

Cisco IOS supports three different compression algorithms used in layer-2 compression: STAC (or Stacker), Microsoft Point-to-Point Compression (MPPC), and predictor. These algorithms differ vastly in their compression efficiency, and in utilization of router resources.

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Stacker and MPPC Compression
Stacker or STAC is a compression algorithm developed by STAC Electronics Stacker uses the LZ (Lempel-Ziv) algorithm that searches for redundant strings and replaces them with short tokens It builds a dictionary where token values are mapped to these strings MPPC is developed by Microsoft and also uses the LZ algorithm

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Link Efficiency Mechanisms -9

The STAC (or Stacker) algorithm is based on the well-known LZ (Lempel-Ziv) compression algorithm. The LZ (sometimes also called LZW) algorithm searches the byte stream for redundant strings, and replaces them with shorter dictionary tokens. The dictionary is built in real time, and there is no need to exchange the dictionary between the compression peers, because the dictionary is reconstructed from the data received by the remote peer. The MPPC method also uses the same LZ algorithm. The STAC and MPPC algorithms yield very good compression results, but are CPU-intensive.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Predictor Compression
Predictor is a public domain compression algorithm Predictor uses a hashed sequence of characters as an index into the compression dictionary The entry in the dictionary is compared to the next sequence of characters

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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The predictor is a simple, very fast, and CPU-friendly algorithm, but this algorithm yields a lower compression ratio. It is based on predicting the next byte-sequence in the stream based on a simple dictionary, which is rebuilt from the source or the compressed data without the need to exchange a dictionary between the peers.

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Stacker/MPPC vs. Predictor
Stacker and MPPC are very CPU-intensive
• • • • • • • • • Good average compression ratio Slower Produces more delay Should be used on slower links Stacker has more tuning capabilities Less efficient than Stacker or MPPC Faster, uses less CPU time Produces less delay Can be used on faster links
IP QoS Link Efficiency Mechanisms -11

Predictor requires more memory

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

The STAC, MPPC, and predictor algorithms are usually used to perform layer-2 payload compression on point-to-point links between Cisco IOS routers. The STAC and MPPC methods are CPU-intensive. However these methods yield very good compression rates on the average, produce more compression/decompression delay in the router, and should be used on slower links if software compression is used. Predictor is a leaner and simpler algorithm, which can be deployed on faster links with software compression, and which introduces less delay in the packet path. However, predictor yields considerably lower compression ratios compared to the STAC algorithm.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Compression and Layer-2 Encapsulation
STAC PPP Frame Relay HDLC LAPB X.25 ü* ü* ü ü ü Predictor ü O O ü O MPPC ü O O O O

* PPP and Frame Relay Stacker is also supported by hardware compression modules
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Link Efficiency Mechanisms -12

The figure shows a comparison of different compression methods used by Cisco IOS to perform layer-2 payload compression. The STAC method is the most versatile, because it runs on any supported point-to-point layer-2 encapsulation. Predictor only supports PPP and LAPB, while MPPC only runs within PPP. Hardware-accelerated compression substantially increases compression throughput for CPU-intensive compression methods (such as STAC and MPPC, both based on the LZ algorithm) and is recommended when used on high-bandwidth links.

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Performance
Compression performance depends on the following factors:
• Router platform (CPU power) • Compression algorithm (Stacker, MPPC or Predictor) • Hardware compression support

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Real-life compression performance depends on many factors, the most important being:
n

Router CPU performance, if compression is performed in software. The router runs the compression algorithm for each packet on an interface, configured for compression. The compression algorithm because there are large differences in the performance of the algorithm itself. Generally, CPU-intensive algorithms produce better compression ratios. Hardware compression support offloads the task of compression from the CPU, which decreases forwarding latency and frees the CPU to perform other tasks. Data compressibility, which influences both the compression ratio and sometimes the performance of the algorithm itself.

n

n

n

On average, Stacker and MPPC can yield up to 50% reduction in data size (a compression ratio of 2), when used on real network traffic. Predictor can theoretically achieve such a rate, if network traffic includes mostly predictive text data. In most networks, predictor compression ratio is much lower than Stacker’s, and usually in the 30-40% range of data size reduction (that is, compression ratios less than 1.8).

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Link Efficiency Mechanisms

6-11

Configuring Stacker
Interface configuration steps:
• Select one of the supported layer-2 encapsulations (PPP, F/R, HDLC, LAPB or X.25) • Enable Stacker compression • Optionally select the ratio, force software based compression or enable distributed compression

Monitor compression
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Link Efficiency Mechanisms -14

Stacker (STAC) compression is configured on interfaces with the appropriate supported encapsulation. The STAC method can be tuned, and software or hardware compression can be selected. After STAC has been enabled on an interface, Cisco IOS provides a means to monitor the compression ratios in real time.

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Configuring Stacker with PPP Encapsulation
Router(config-if)# compress stac stac

• Enables STAC with default parameters
Router(config-if)# compress stac distributed stac distributed

• Offloads compression to a VIP • Supported on VIP2-40 or newer
Router(config-if)# compress stac ratio {high | low | medium} stac ratio {high | low | medium}

• Balance throughput with delay • Low compression ratio is the default

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Link Efficiency Mechanisms -15

The compress stac command enables STAC compression on an interface with supported encapsulation. STAC can also run distributed on the VIP processor. The compress stac ratio command tunes STAC so that the compression ratio is traded for delay. For example, selecting a low compression ratio produces less CPU usage, while the high compression ratio performs better compression, but increases the CPU load and adds delay, which may decrease throughput. The recommended ratio depends on the type of network traffic and its sensitivity to delay. The rule of thumb is to start with the default low ratio, and try to increase the ratio and measure throughput. If observed compression ratios increase (as shown by the show compression command), but throughput actually decreases, the configured ratio should be lowered again.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Configuring Stacker with Frame Relay Encapsulation
Router(config-if)# frame-relay payload-compression FRF9 stac payload-compression FRF9 stac

• Enables STAC with default parameters
Router(config-if)# frame-relay payload-compression FRF9 stac distributed payload-compression FRF9 stac distributed

• Offloads compression to a VIP • Supported on VIP2-40 or newer
Router(config-if)# frame-relay payload-compression FRF9 stac ratio {high | low} payload-compression FRF9 stac ratio {high | low}

• Balance throughput with delay • Low compression ratio is the default

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Link Efficiency Mechanisms -16

Cisco IOS supports the native Frame Relay compression protocol according to the FRF.9 standard. The compression method used is equivalent to STAC compression. Also, the commands required to configure Frame Relay STAC compression are analogous to the command used to configure STAC with other supported encapsulations. This command should be used when using the default Frame Relay encapsulation over Frame Relay networks.

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Configuring Predictor or MPPC
Router(config-if)# compress predictor predictor

• Enables Predictor compression
Router(config-if)# compress mppc [ignore-pfc] mppc [ignore-pfc]

• Enables MPPC compression • Use the ignore-pfc option to ignore the protocol number negotiation

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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The compress predictor command configures predictor compression. No tuning parameters are available for this command. The compress mppc command configures MPPC compression, and is used mainly with Windows clients and when running a layer-2 tunneling session (for example, the Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP). The ignore -pfc keyword instructs the router to ignore the protocol field compression flag negotiated by LCP. For example, the uncompressed standard protocol field value for IP is 0x0021 and 0x21 when compression is enabled. When the ignore -pfc option is enabled, the router will continue to use the uncompressed value (0x0021). Using the ignore -pfc option is helpful for some asynchronous driver devices that use an uncompressed protocol field (0x0021), even though the pfc is negotiated between peers. If protocol rejects are displayed when the debug ppp negotiation command is enabled, setting the ignore -pfc option may remedy the problem.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Hardware Compression
Hardware compression is available using the following modules:
• Compression Advanced Interface Module (CAIM) is a daughter-board module for Cisco 2600 series routers • Compression Service Adapter (CSA) module for Cisco 7x00 series routers • Compression Network Module (NM-COMPR2) for Cisco 3620 and Cisco 3640 series routers • AIM-COMPR4 is a daughter-board compression module for Cisco 3660 series routers
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Link Efficiency Mechanisms -18

There are a number of hardware compression modules and daughter boards available for use in Cisco routers.
n

The Compression Advanced Interface Module (CAIM) is a daughter board that is placed in the AIM motherboard slot on Cisco 2600-series routers. It does not occupy any network interface slots, and accelerates the STAC and MPPC compression methods. The Compression Service Adapter (CSA) is a port adapter for the Cisco 7x00 series routers. The CSA offloads the compression task from the main CPU or the VIP2 (using distributed compression). When used in the Cisco 7200-series router, the CSA can offload compression at any interface. If used on the VIP2, it offloads compression at the adjacent port adapter on the same VIP only. The Compression Network Module is a network module for the Cisco 3600series routers. The Compression Network Module occupies a network module slot in the router, and can offload compression at any router interface. The AIM-COMPR4 is a hardware-compression daughter board used in the Cisco 3660 router. The AIM-COMPR4 integrates with the router motherboard and does not occupy any network module slots in the chassis.

n

n

n

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Configuration Example
interface Serial1/0 interface Serial1/0 encapsulation ppp encapsulation ppp compress stac compress ! ! interface Serial1/1 interface Serial1/1 encapsulation ppp encapsulation ppp compress stac caim 0 compress stac caim 0 ! ! interface Serial1/2 interface Serial1/2 encapsulation ppp encapsulation ppp compress predictor compress predictor ! ! interface Serial1/2 interface Serial1/2 encapsulation frame -relay encapsulation frame-relay frame-relay map ip 1.1.1.1 102 broadcast ietf frame-relay map ip 1.1.1.1 102 broadcast ietf ! ! interface Serial1/2.1 point-to-point interface Serial1/2.1 point-to-point frame-relay interface-dlci 101 ietf frame-relay interface-dlci frame-relay payload-comp FRF9 stac frame-relay payload-comp FRF9 stac ! ! Software compression using the STAC algorithm Hardware compression using the STAC algorithm on the CAIM module (Cisco 2600 routers) Software compression using the Predictor algorithm

payload-compress frf9 stac payload-compress stac Software compression using the STAC algorithm

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Link Efficiency Mechanisms -19

The figure shows configuration examples that specify different compression configurations. In the example, the Serial1/0 interface uses software compression (this setting may automatically use hardware compression on high-end series). The Serial1/1 interface performs compression with the assistance of the CAIM (in a Cisco 2600-series router). Interfaces Serial1/2 and its Serial 1/2.1 sub-interface both use software STAC compression on the frame-relay level.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Monitoring Compression
Router#

show compression compression

• Displays compression statistics
Router#show compression Router#show compression Serial5/1/0 Serial5/1/0 Software compression enabled Software compression enabled uncompressed bytes xmt/rcv 21339/21339 uncompressed bytes xmt/rcv 21339/21339 compressed bytes xmt/rcv 0/0 compressed bytes xmt/rcv 0/0 1 min avg ratio xmt/rcv 2.110/2.110 1 min 5 min avg ratio xmt/rcv 2.143/2.143 5 min avg ratio xmt/rcv 2.143/2.143 10 min avg ratio xmt/rcv 2.143/2.143 10 min avg ratio xmt/rcv 2.143/2.143 no bufs xmt 0 no bufs rcv 0 no bufs resyncs 0 resyncs 0 Additional Stacker Stats: Additional Stacker Stats: Transmit bytes: Uncompressed = 0 Compressed = Transmit bytes: Uncompressed = 0 Compressed = Received bytes: Compressed = 9953 Uncompressed = Received bytes: Compressed = 9953 Uncompressed =

9109 9109 0 0

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Link Efficiency Mechanisms -20

The show compression command displays per-interface compression statistics. The ratio shown in the output indicates the compression ratio (the ratio of uncompressed over the actual compressed byte stream size) on the input and the output of an interface.

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Summary
n

Stacker and MPPC payload compression methods yield better compression ratios, is more CPU-intensive, and may introduce additional delay The predictor payload compression method is faster, can be used in higherbandwidth scenarios, but generally yields lower average compression ratios

n

Lesson Review
1. What is the purpose of using payload compression? 2. List the payload compression algorithms than can be used. 3. What are some of the benefits and drawbacks of Stacker? 4. What are some of the benefits and drawbacks of Predictor?

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Link Efficiency Mechanisms

6-19

Header Compression
Overview
This lesson describes the mechanisms that are used to reduce overhead on slow links by compressing IP and TCP headers in TCP header compression, or IP, UDP and RTP headers in RTP header compression.

Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n

Describe and configure TCP header compression Monitor and troubleshoot TCP header compression Describe and configure RTP header compression Monitor and troubleshoot RTP header compression

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Header Compression
Header compression reduces the overhead by compressing packet and segment headers TCP Header compression compresses the IP and TCP headers RTP header compression compresses the IP, UDP and RTP headers Header compression is especially effective on slow links with interactive traffic or delay sensitive traffic (many short packets)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Link Efficiency Mechanisms -26

All compression methods are based on eliminating redundancy when sending the same or similar data over a transmission medium. One piece of data, which is often repeated, is the protocol header. In a flow, the header information of packets in the same flow does not change much over the lifetime of that flow. Therefore, most of header information could be sent only at the beginning of the session, stored in a dictionary, and then referenced in later packets by a short dictionary index. Two methods were standardized by the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) for use with IP protocols:
n

TCP header compression (also known as the Van Jacobson or VJ header compression) is used to compress the packet TCP headers over slow links, thus considerably improving the interactive application performance. RTP header compression is used to compress UDP and RTP headers, thus lowering the delay for transporting real-time data, such as voice and video over slower links.

n

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Header Compression Basics
Compression is performed by eliminating static or predicable header information Session indices are used instead Only changing parameters in headers are still sent Header compression is enabled on a linkby-link basis

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Link Efficiency Mechanisms -26

Header compression methods work by not transmitting repeated information in packet headers throughout a session. For a TCP session, such parameters are the IP header and the TCP port numbers. The two peers on a point-to-point layer-2 connection (such as a dial-up link) agree on session indices, which index a dictionary of packet headers. The dictionary is built at the start of every session, and is used for all subsequent (non-initial) packets. Only changing (non-constant) parameters in the headers are actually sent with the session index. It is important to note that header compression is performed on a link-by-link basis. Header compression cannot be performed across multiple routers, because routers need full Layer-3 header information to be able to route packets to the next hop.

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Header Compression Building Blocks
Forwarder
FH IP L4 (L5) payload The header compression algorithm keeps track of flows and static parameters in headers

Header Compression Algorithm
FH cH payload

Output Queue

IP and higher-layer headers are compressed

Compression reduces the size of packet headers The payload is not changed
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Link Efficiency Mechanisms -28

The figure shows a block diagram of a header compression method. The header compression algorithm tracks active transport-layer connections over an interface. After the packet has been forwarded, the header compression algorithm compresses the layer-3 and layer-4 headers within the frame, and replaces them with a session index from the session dictionary (table). The packet is then sent to the output queue, and transmitted to the remote peer. When the remote peer receives the packet, the header is decompressed using the local session table, and passed to the forwarding process.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Header Compression Results
NO COMPRESSION Link bandwidth 64 kbps
Delay=1 ms Delay=8 ms

Throughput 64 kbps

COMPRESSION COMPRESSION

Link bandwidth 64 kbps
Delay=4 ms Delay=2 ms

Throughput 100 kbps

Header compression increases throughput Header compressions reduces delay
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Link Efficiency Mechanisms -29

By compressing the header, the layer-2 frame gets smaller and therefore more data is sent through a channel in a given time period. Also, the packet transmission time is smaller; therefore header compression both increases the throughput and reduces the overall delay of a transmission line.

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Header Compression Algorithms
TCP Header Compression (RFC 1144)
• Used to reduce the overhead of TCP segments • Most effective on slow links with a lot of TCP sessions with small payloads (for example, Telnet)

RTP Header Compression (RFC 1889)
• Used to reduce delay and increase throughput for Real Time Protocol (RTP) • Improves voice quality • Most effective on slow links
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Link Efficiency Mechanisms -30

The two header compression methods available in Cisco IOS are the TCP header compression (standardized by RFC 1144), and the RTP header compression (standardized by RFC 1889). TCP header compression is usually used to improve the interactive session response over low-speed links, where layer-3 and layer-4 headers represent a significant portion of the layer-2 frame. RTP header compression is used mostly on slow links, to reduce delay and increase throughput of an RTP-based application (usually voice traffic).

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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TCP Header Compression
Most Internet Applications use TCP as the transport protocol Most of the information in the headers (IP and TCP) is static or predictable throughout the session IP (20 bytes) and TCP (20 bytes) use 40 bytes TCP Header Compression can squeeze these two headers into 3 to 5 bytes
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Link Efficiency Mechanisms -31

With TCP header compression, the IP and TCP headers, which normally use 20 bytes each, is reduced to a session index, and the changing part of the header. With all optimizations, the combined header length of 40 bytes can be reduced to a 3 to 5-byte compressed header.

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

TCP Header Compression Case Study
Link bandwidth is 64 kbps The link is used for a number of interactive TCP sessions PPP encapsulation is used Average packet size is 5 bytes Each segment has 46 bytes of overhead (PPP, IP and TCP headers)
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Link Efficiency Mechanisms -32

This case study illustrates the benefits of TCP header compression on slow links. A 64 kbps link is used to transport a TCP-based application using PPP as the layer-2 framing protocol. For the case study application (telnet), the average packet payload size is 5 bytes. Since PPP has 6 bytes of frame header, the total header overhead is 6+20+20=46 bytes, counting the PPP, IP, and TCP headers.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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TCP Header Compression Case Study
6
PPP

20
IP

20
TCP

5
Telnet

6
PPP

4
cT

5
Telnet

46 5 Overhead = 46/(46+5) Overhead = 90% Delay = (46+5) / 64 kbps Delay = 6 ms IP packet Overhead Delay on size No comp. 64 kbps 10 82% 7 ms 50 48% 12 ms 100 32% 18 ms 500 8% 67 ms 1500 3% 189 ms
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

10 5 Overhead = 10/(10+5) Overhead = 67% Delay = (10+5) / 64kbps Delay = 2 ms Overhead Comp. 50% 17% 9% 2% 1% Delay on 64 kbps 2 ms 7 ms 13 ms 62 ms 184 ms
IP QoS Link Efficiency Mechanisms -33

The figure shows the packet size before and after header compression. The IP and TCP headers are reduced to 4 bytes, resulting in 10 bytes of overall headers. The overhead is reduced from 90% to 67%, when small packets are used. Because of size reduction, the transmission delay decreases from 6 ms to 2 ms on the same link. The table in the figure shows how header compression impacts performance when different packet sizes are used. Header compression is most effective on small packets, used on slow links.

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Configuring TCP Header Compression
Router(config-if)#

ip tcp header-compression [passive]

• Enables TCP Header Compression on an interface using PPP or HDLC encapsulation • Use the passive option to enable TCP Header Compression only if initiated by the peer
Router(config-if)#

frame-relay ip tcp header-compression [passive]

• Enables TCP Header Compression on an interface using Frame Relay encapsulation • Use the passive option to enable TCP Header Compression only if initiated by the peer
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Link Efficiency Mechanisms -34

TCP header compression is configured with the ip tcp header-compression command. The passive option instructs the peer to use header compression only if the remote peer initiates header compression. This is often used in a dialup environment, where this option is enabled on the access server. On frame relay, the frame-relay ip tcp header-compression configures header compression with interfaces using pure frame relay encapsulation. In Cisco IOS, TCP header compression is now fast and CEF-switched. Up to 256 connections, which is also the default value, can be compressed over a point-topoint link.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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TCP Header Compression Example
interface Serial0/0 ip address 10.2.1.2 255.255.255.252 encapsulation frame-relay frame-relay ip tcp header -compress ! interface Dialer1 ip address negotiated ip tcp header-compression !

Frame Relay RouterA RouterB

POTS / ISDN RouterC

interface Serial0 ip address 10.2.1.1 255.255.255.252 encapsulation frame-relay frame-relay ip tcp header -compression ! interface Virtual-template1 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.0.0 ip tcp header-compression passive !
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The figure shows an example configuration of three peers using TCP header compression. RouterC uses header compression on a dialer interface, connecting to the central access server (RouterB). The access server (RouterB) is configured to perform header compression only if the remote peer (RouterC) initiates it, and therefore supports peers using headercompression, and peers using plain layer-2 transmission. The access server (RouterB) connects to a remote site (RouterA) over framerelay. Both frame-relay endpoints (RouterA and RouterB) are configured to perform TCP header compression over the frame-relay link.

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Monitoring TCP Header Compression
Router# show ip tcp header-compression [interface] ip tcp header-compression

• Displays TCP Header Compression statistics
Router#show ip tcp header-compression serial0/0 Router#show ip tcp header-compression serial0/0 TCP/IP header compression statistics: TCP/IP header compression statistics: Interface Serial0/0: Interface Serial0/0: Rcvd: 24 total, 20 compressed, 0 errors Rcvd: compressed, errors 0 dropped, 0 buffer copies, 0 buffer failures 0 dropped, 0 buffer copies, 0 buffer failures Sent: 24 total, 20 compressed, Sent: 24 total, 20 compressed, 679 bytes saved, 249 bytes sent 679 bytes saved, 249 bytes sent 3.72 efficiency improvement factor 3.72 efficiency improvement factor Connect: 255 rx slots, 255 tx slots, Connect: 255 tx slots, 12 long searches, 4 misses 0 collisions 12 long searches, 4 misses 0 collisions 83% hit ratio, five minute miss rate 0 misses/sec, 0 max 83% hit ratio, five minute miss rate 0 misses/sec, 0

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The show ip tcp header-compression command displays the statistics of TCP header compression on an interface.

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Monitoring TCP Header Compression
Router# show frame-relay ip tcp header-compression [interface] ip tcp header-compression

• Displays TCP Header Compression statistics on frame-relay (sub)interfaces
Router#show frame-relay ip tcp header-compression Router#show frame-relay ip tcp header-compression DLCI 100 Link/Destination info: point-to-point dlci DLCI 100 Link/Destination info: point -to-point dlci Interface Serial0/0: Interface Serial0/0: Rcvd: 24 total, 23 compressed, 0 errors Rcvd: compressed, errors 0 dropped, 0 buffer copies, 0 buffer failures 0 dropped, 0 buffer copies, 0 buffer failures Sent: 27 total, 26 compressed, Sent: 27 total, 26 compressed, 864 bytes saved, 225 bytes sent 864 bytes saved, 225 bytes sent 4.84 efficiency improvement factor 4.84 efficiency improvement factor Connect: 256 rx slots, 256 tx slots, Connect: 256 tx slots, 1 long searches, 1 misses 0 collisions 1 searches, collisions 96% hit ratio, five minute miss rate 0 misses/sec, 0 max 96% hit ratio, five minute miss rate 0 misses/sec, 0

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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The show frame -relay ip tcp header-compression command displays the statistics of TCP header compression on a Frame Relay interface.

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RTP Header Compression
Voice sessions use Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) RTP uses UDP for transport Most of the information in the headers (IP, UDP and RTP) is static throughout the session IP (20 bytes), UDP (8 bytes) and RTP (12 bytes) use 40 bytes RTP header compression can squeeze these three headers into 3 to 5 bytes
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Real-Time Protocol (RTP) is the Internet Standard (RFC 1889) protocol for the transport of real-time data. It is intended to provide end-to-end network transport functions for applications that support audio, video, or simulation data over multicast or unicast network services. RTP is used in most Voice over IP applications to transport packetized voice. RTP includes a data portion and a header portion. The data portion of RTP is a thin protocol that provides support for the real-time properties of applications, such as continuous media, and includes timing reconstruction, loss detection, and content identification. RTP contains a relatively large sized header. The 12 bytes of the RTP header, combined with 20 bytes of IP header (IPH) and 8 bytes of the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) header, create a 40-byte IP/UDP/RTP header. For compressed-payload audio applications, the RTP packet typically has a 20-byte to 160-byte payload. Given the size of the IP/UDP/RTP header combinations, it is inefficient to send the IP/UDP/RTP header without compressing it. To avoid the unnecessary consumption of available bandwidth, the RTP header compression feature (CRTP) is used on a link-by-link basis. CRTP can reduce the header from 40 bytes to a 3 to 5-byte header, which significantly reduces delay on slow links.

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RTP Header Compression Case Study
Link bandwidth is 64 kbps The link is used for Voice over IP PPP encapsulation is used G.729 codec is used (8 kbps of voice data, 50 samples per second, 20 bytes per sample) Each segment has 46 bytes of overhead (PPP, IP, UDP and RTP headers)

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This case study illustrates the benefits of RTP header compression on slow links. A 64 kbps link is used to transport Voice over IP using PPP as the layer-2 framing protocol. For the case study application (voice using the G.729 audio compression codec), the average payload size is 20 bytes. Since PPP has 6 bytes of frame header, the total header overhead is 6+20+20=46 bytes, counting the PPP, IP, UDP, and RTP headers.

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RTP Header Compression Case Study
6
PPP

20
IP

8 12
UDP RTP

20
Voice

6
PPP

4
cR

20
Voice

46

20

10

20

Overhead = 46 / (46 + 20) = 70% Delay = (46 + 20) / 64 kbps = 8 ms BW = (46 + 20) * 50 * 8 = 26 kbps 2 voice sessions / 64 kbps

Overhead = 10 / (10 + 20) = 33% Delay = (10 + 20) / 64kbps = 4 ms BW = (10 + 20) * 50 * 8 = 12 kbps 5 voice sessions / 64 kbps

Codec

Voice Bandwidth G.711 64 kbps G.729 8 kbps

RTP Bandwidth 82 kbps 26 kbps

RTP Overhead 22% 61%

CRTP Bandwidth 68 kbps 12 kbps

CRTP Overhead 3% 33%

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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The figure shows the packet size before and after header compression. The IP, UDP, and RTP headers are reduced to 4 bytes, resulting in 10 bytes of overall headers. The overhead is reduced from 70% to 33%, when small packets are used. Because of size reduction, the transmission delay decreases from 8 ms to 4 ms, and the bandwidth used to transport a single voice call (using the G.729 codec) is reduced from 26 to 12 kbps. The table in the figure shows how header compression impacts performance when a different audio codec is used. For the traditional G.711 voice codec, CRTP still optimizes its transmission over slow links. However, the difference is more obvious when using advanced, low-bandwidth codecs are used.

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Configuring RTP Header Compression
Router(config-if)#

ip rtp header-compression [passive]

• Enables RTP Header Compression on an interface using PPP or HDLC encapsulation • Use the passive option to enable RTP Header Compression only if initiated by the peer
Router(config-if)#

frame-relay ip rtp header-compression [passive]

• Enables RTP Header Compression on an interface using Frame Relay encapsulation • Use the passive option to enable RTP Header Compression only if initiated by the peer
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RTP header compression is configured with the ip rtp header-compression command. The passive option instructs the peer to use RTP header compression only if the remote peer initiates RTP header compression. On frame relay, the frame-relay ip rtp header-compression configures header compression with interfaces using pure frame relay encapsulation. In Cisco IOS, RTP header compression is now fast and CEF-switched. If distributed CEF (dCEF) is configured, CRTP also runs in distributed mode. Up to 256 connections, which is also the default value, can be compressed over a pointto-point link.

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RTP Header Compression Example
interface Serial0/0 ip address 10.2.1.2 255.255.255.252 encapsulation frame-relay frame-relay ip rtp header-compression ! interface Serial0/0 ip address 10.1.1.2 255.255.255.252 encapsulation ppp ip rtp header-compression !

RouterB Frame Relay RouterA TDM (leased line)

RouterC

ip cef distributed ! interface Serial5/1/0 ip address 10.2.1.1 255.255.255.252 encapsulation frame-relay frame-relay ip rtp header-compression ! interface Serial5/1/1 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.0.0 encapsulation ppp ip rtp header-compression !
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The figure shows an example implementation of CRTP on a two-tiered scenario, where two sites (using routers Router A and RouterC) are interconnected over a TDM and Frame Relay network. Over the TDM network, a leased line carries all (including packetized voice) traffic. RTP header compression is used within the PPP session between RouterA and RouterB. Over the frame-relay network, the point-to-point Frame Relay channel between RouterB and RouterC uses CRTP over the native Frame Relay encapsulation.

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Monitoring RTP Header Compression
Router# show ip rtp header-compression [interface] ip rtp header-compression

• Displays RTP Header Compression statistics
Router#show ip rtp header-compression serial0/0 Router#show ip rtp header-compression serial0/0 RTP/UDP/IP header compression statistics: RTP/UDP/IP header compression statistics: Interface Serial1: Interface Rcvd: 0 total, 0 compressed, 0 errors Rcvd: 0 total, 0 compressed, 0 errors 0 dropped, 0 buffer copies, 0 buffer failures 0 dropped, 0 buffer Sent: 430 total 429 compressed, Sent: 15122 bytes saved, 139318 bytes sent 15122 bytes saved, 139318 bytes sent 1.10 efficiency improvement factor 1.10 efficiency improvement factor Connect: 16 rx slots, 16 tx slots, 1 long searches, 1 misses Connect: slots, tx slots, 99% hit ratio, five minute miss rate 0 misses/sec, 0 max. 99% hit ratio, five minute miss

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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The show ip rtp header-compression command displays the statistics of CRTP on an interface.

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Monitoring RTP Header Compression
Router# show frame-relay ip tcp header-compression [interface] ip tcp header-compression

• Displays RTP Header Compression statistics on frame-relay (sub)interfaces
Router#show frame-relay ip tcp header-compression Router#show frame-relay ip tcp header-compression DLCI 17 DLCI 17 Link/Destination info: ip 165.3.3.2 Link/Destination info: ip 165.3.3.2 Interface Serial0: Interface Serial0: Rcvd: 0 total, 0 compressed, 0 errors Rcvd: 0 total, 0 compressed, 0 errors 0 dropped, 0 buffer copies, 0 buffer failures 0 dropped, 0 buffer copies, 0 buffer failures Sent: 6000 total, 5998 compressed, Sent: 6000 total, 5998 compressed, 227922 bytes saved, 251918 bytes sent 227922 bytes saved, 251918 bytes sent 1.90 efficiency improvement factor 1.90 efficiency improvement factor Connect: 16 rx slots, 16 tx slots, 2 long searches, 2 misses Connect: 16 rx slots, 16 tx slots, 2 long searches, 2 misses 99% hit ratio, five minute miss rate 0 misses/sec, 0 max 99% hit ratio, five minute miss rate 0 misses/sec, 0

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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The show frame -relay ip rtp header-compression command displays the statistics of CRTP on a frame-relay interface.

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Summary
n

TCP header compression optimizes performance of interactive TCP-based applications on slow links, by shrinking IP and TCP headers to 3-5 byte indices RTP header compression optimizes performance of delay-sensitive RTP-based applications, such as voice, on slow links, by shrinking IP, UDP, and RTP headers to 3-5 byte indices TCP and RTP header compression methods can be implemented with Cisco IOS software

n

n

Lesson Review
1. List the different header compression methods than can be used. 2. Where are header compression mechanisms most effective? 3. What type of traffic benefits most by using TCP Header Compression? 4. What type of traffic benefits most by using RTP Header Compression?

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IP QoS Link Efficiency Mechanisms

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Link Fragmentation and Interleaving
Objectives
This lesson describes the mechanism used to reduce the maximum size of PPP or Frame Relay frames. It also explains the interleaving of multiple frames of large packets with frames of small packets.

Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n n

Describe Link Fragmentation and Interleaving (LFI) Describe and configure Multilink PPP Monitor and troubleshoot Multilink PPP Describe and configure Frame Relay Fragmentation Monitor and troubleshoot Frame Relay Fragmentation

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Queuing and Serialization Delay
Empty Network
Delay Variation Queuing Delay 8ms 8ms

64 kbps

Congested Network

8ms

184 ms

8ms

64 kbps

Problems:
• Large delay due to slow link and MTU-sized packets • Jitter (variable delay) due to variable link utilization
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When considering delay between two hops in a network, queuing delay in a router must be considered, because it may be comparable to, or even exceed the transmission delay on a line. In an empty network, an interactive or voice session experiences low or no queuing delay, because it does not compete with other applications on an interface output queue. Also, the small delay does not vary enough to produce considerable jitter on the receiving side. In a congested network, interactive data and voice applications compete in the router queue with other applications. Queuing mechanisms may prioritize voice traffic in the software queue, but the hardware queue (Tx ring) always uses a FIFO scheduling mechanism. Therefore, after packets of different applic ations leave the software queue, they will mix with other packets in the hardware queue, even if their software queue processing was expedited. Thus, a voice packet may be immediately sent to the hardware queue, where two large FTP packets may still be waiting for transmission. The voice packet must wait until the FTP packets are transmitted, thus producing a delay in the voice path. Because links are variably utilized, this delay varies with time and may produce unacceptable jitter in jitter-sensitive applications such as voice.

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Voice Reassembly
Probability of arrival Less delay More loss

More delay Less loss

Usable packets

Jitter

Unusable packets

Min. Delay

Avg. Delay

Delay

Playback Point (max. Acceptable Delay)

Jitter can be offset by more buffering More buffering causes even more delay which is not acceptable for two-way communication
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Jitter can always be offset by more buffering on the receive side. However, more buffering produces more overall delay. This delay must not cross certain thresholds in delay-sensitive applications, such as packetized voice. The voice delay threshold (usually around 150 ms of one-way delay) represents the limit at which the quality of packetized voice telephony is still regarded as acceptable by end users.

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Voice Reassembly
Probability of arrival Less delay More loss

More delay Less loss

Usable packets

Jitter

Unusable packets

Min. Delay

Avg. Delay

Delay

Playback Point (max. Acceptable Delay)

The right solution is to reduce average delay
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A better solution than adding additional buffering is to reduce the average delay along the packet path. This allows for more jitter before packets are deemed unusable by the voice reassembly on the receiving endpoint (IP telephone). Reduced average delay can be provided through link fragmentation and interleaving, by reducing delays on critical links in the packet path.

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Link Fragmentation and Interleaving
Delay to large B2 A3 B1 A2 A1 TxQ

Fragmentation

Interleaving

A3

A3 A3 A3 A2 B3 A2 A2 A2 B2 A1 A1 A1 B1 A1

TxQ

Reduce delay and jitter by fragmenting large frames and prioritizing small frames
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Acceptable Delay

IP QoS Link Efficiency Mechanisms -52

Link fragmentation and interleaving (LFI) is a layer-2 technique, where all layer-2 frames are broken into small, equal-size fragments, and transmitted over the link in an interleaved fashion. The figure shows the interface hardware output queue, populated by frames of differing sizes; large and small. When fragmentation and interleaving is in effect, all frames waiting in the queuing system are fragmented, smaller frames are prioritized, and a mixture of fragments is sent over the link. Small frames may be scheduled behind larger frames in the WFQ system. LFI fragments all frames, and this reduces the queuing delay of small frames, as they are sent almost immediately. Link fragmentation therefore reduces delay and jitter by expediting transfer of smaller frames through the hardware queue.

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LFI with WFQ
MTU=1500 WFQ
TxQ is sized in the number of packets

TxQ

WFQ MTU=1500, LFI MTU=160

TxQ

Maximum delay caused by the TxQ is the number of packets multiplied by the time it takes to transmit the longest frame (usually MTU-sized)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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The longest delay, used with the WFQ scheduling algorithm, is the product of the number of packets in the queue and the size of the maximum packet (to calculate the worst-case delay at any instant). Before LFI, the maximum possible size of a packet was limited by the interface MTU, which might be set to a value up to 1500 bytes on a serial line. LFI MTU is considerably smaller, because it reflects the maximum size of a fragment in a LFI implementation. For example, an LFI MTU of 160 bytes (which is commonly used) reduces the worst-case maximum delay to one tenth of the delay of a normal nonLFI-enabled link, because the next scheduled fragment now has to wait only until the previous fragment has been transmitted. Before using LFI, any packet had to wait until the whole previous frame has been transmitted, which might be up to the full MTU in size.

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Fragmentation Options
Three types of LFI mechanisms are available:
• Multilink PPP with Interleaving • FRF.11 Annex C specification for VoFR PVCs • FRF.12 specification for data PVCs

Using separate PVCs for voice and data can be used to interleave packets in ATM networks

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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There are three LFI mechanisms implemented in Cisco IOS:
n

Multilink PPP with Interleaving is by far the most common and widely used form of LFI. FRF.11 Annex C LFI is used with Voice over Frame Relay (VoFR). FRF.12 Frame Relay LFI is used with Frame Relay data connections. In an ATM network, using separate PVCs carrying voice and data can be used to interleave packets when they are output on an interface.

n n n

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Configuring MLP with Interleaving
Configuration steps:
• Enable Multilink PPP on an interface (using a Multilink Group interface) • Enable PPP Multilink interleaving on the Multilink interface • Specify maximum fragment size by setting the maximum delay on the Multilink interface

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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To configure Multilink PPP (MLP) with interleaving, the following configuration steps must be performed:
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3

First, enable multilink on an interface (using a multilink group interface). Second, in the multilink interface, enable interleaving within Multilink PPP. Third, in the multilink interface configuration, specify the maximum fragment size of MLP by specifying the maximum desired delay on the point-to-point link.

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Configuring MLP with Interleaving
Router(config-if)#

ppp multilink

• Enables Multilink PPP • Also requires WFQ or CB-WFQ to be enabled on the interface
Router(config-if)#

ppp multilink interleave

• Enables interleaving of frames with fragments
Router(config-if)#

ppp multilink fragment-delay delay multilink fragment-delay delay

• Configure maximum fragment delay in milliseconds • The router calculates the maximum fragment size from the bandwidth and the maximum fragment delay • Default is 30 ms
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The ppp multilink command enables PPP multilink on an interface. This requires either Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) or CB-WFQ (Class-Based Weighted Fair Queuing) to be enabled on the same interface. The ppp multilink interleave command enables interleaving of fragments within the multilink connection. The ppp multilink fragment delay command specifies the maximum desired fragment delay for the interleaved multilink connection. The maximum fragment size is calculated from the interface bandwidth and the specified maximum delay. The default is set at 30 milliseconds. If dCEF is configured on a VIP interface, MLP with interleaving runs distributed on the VIP.

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MLP with Interleaving Example
interface Multilink1 interface Multilink1 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.252 ip 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.252 fair-queue fair-queue ppp multilink ppp multilink multilink-group 1 multilink-group ppp multilink fragment-delay 20 ppp multilink ppp multilink interleave ppp multilink interleave ! ! interface Serial0/0 interface Serial0/0 no ip address no address encapsulation ppp encapsulation ppp multilink ppp multilink multilink-group 1 multilink-group ! !

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The figure shows an example configuration of MLP with interleaving on a multilink group interface. A non-default maximum desired delay of 20 ms is configured.

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Monitoring and Troubleshooting MLP Interleaving
Router# show interface [intf] interface [intf]

• Displays statistics including the number of interleaved frames
Router #show interfaces multilink 1 Router#show interfaces multilink 1 Multilink1 is up, line protocol is up Multilink1 is up, line protocol is up Hardware is multilink group interface Hardware is multilink group interface Internet address is 172.22.130.1/30 Internet address is 172.22.130.1/30 MTU 1500 bytes, BW 64 Kbit, DLY 100000 usec, MTU 1500 bytes, BW 64 Kbit, DLY 100000 usec, reliability 255/255, txload 27/255, rxload 1/255 reliability 255/255, txload 27/255, rxload 1/255 Encapsulation PPP, loopback not set Encapsulation loopback not set Keepalive set (10 sec) Keepalive set (10 sec) DTR is pulsed for 2 seconds on reset DTR is pulsed LCP Open, multilink Open LCP Open, multilink Open Open: IPCP Open: IPCP Last input 00:00:03, output never, output hang never Last input 00:00:03, output never, output hang never Last clearing of "show interface" counters 6d00h Last clearing Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0 Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0 Queueing strategy: weighted fair Queueing strategy: weighted fair Output queue: 0/1000/64/0/2441 (size/max total/threshold/drops/interleaves) Output queue: 0/1000/64/0/2441 (size/max total/threshold/drops/interleaves) Conversations 0/7/16 (active/max active/max total) Conversations 0/7/16 (active/max active/max total) Reserved Conversations 0/0 (allocated/max allocated) Reserved Conversations 0/0 (allocated/max allocated) 5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec 5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 7000 bits/sec, 6 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 7000 bits/sec, 6 packets/sec
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The show interface command output includes MLP statistics information and indicates whether MLP Interleaving is enabled on the interface.

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Monitoring and Troubleshooting MLP Interleaving
Router# debug ppp multilink fragments multilink

• Displays information about individual multilink fragments and interleaving events
Router#debug ppp multilink fragments Router#debug ppp multilink fragments Multilink fragments debugging is on Multilink fragments debugging is on Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 20:03:08.995: Se0/0 MLP -FS: I 20:03:08.995: Se0/0 MLP-FS: I 20:03:09.015: Se0/0 MLP -FS: I 20:03:09.015: Se0/0 MLP-FS: I 20:03:09.035: Se0/0 MLP -FS: I 20:03:09.035: Se0/0 MLP-FS: I 20:03:09.075: Se0/0 MLP -FS: I 20:03:09.075: Se0/0 MLP-FS: I 20:03:09.079: Se0/0 MLP -FS: I 20:03:09.079: Se0/0 MLP-FS: I 20:03:09.091: Se0/0 MLP -FS: I 20:03:09.091: Se0/0 MLP-FS: I 20:03:09.099: Se0/0 MLP -FS: I 20:03:09.099: Se0/0 MLP-FS: I 20:03:09.103: Mu1 MLP: Packet 20:03:09.103: Mu1 MLP: Packet 20:03:09.107: Se0/0 MLP -FS: I 20:03:09.107: Se0/0 MLP-FS: I 20:03:09.119: Se0/0 MLP -FS: I 20:03:09.119: Se0/0 MLP-FS: I 20:03:09.123: Mu1 MLP: Packet 20:03:09.123: Mu1 MLP: Packet 20:03:09.131: Mu1 MLP: Packet 20:03:09.131: Mu1 MLP: Packet 20:03:09.135: Se0/0 MLP -FS: I 20:03:09.135: Se0/0 MLP-FS: I 20:03:09.155: Se0/0 MLP -FS: I 20:03:09.155: Se0/0 MLP-FS: I seq C0004264 size 70 seq C0004264 size 70 seq 80004265 size 160 seq 80004265 size 160 seq 4266 size 160 seq 4266 size 160 seq 4267 size 160 seq 4267 size 160 seq 40004268 size 54 seq 40004268 size 54 seq C0004269 size 70 seq C0004269 size 70 seq C000426A size 70 seq C000426A size 70 interleaved from queue 24 interleaved seq C000426B size 70 seq C000426B size 70 seq C000426C size 70 seq C000426C size 70 interleaved from queue 24 interleaved interleaved from queue 24 interleaved from queue 24 seq C000426D size 70 seq C000426D size 70 seq C000426E size 70 seq C000426E size 70

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The debug ppp multilink fragments command is a valuable troubleshooting tool when monitoring MLP operations. The command outputs the result of every fragmentation operation, indicating whether the interleave operation fragments packets into correct-sized fragments. This command should be used with extreme caution in a production environment, because of the amount of output created.

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Frame Relay Fragmentation
FRF.11 Annex C specifies fragmentation of voice frames (VoFR):
• Only frames with data payload type are fragmented • Voice bypasses the fragmentation engine regardless of frame size

FRF.12 specifies fragmentation of data frames:
• Data frames that exceed the specified fragmentation size are fragmented • Smaller time -sensitive packets can be interleaved • VoIP packets do not get a special treatment

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In Frame Relay networks, two fragmentation standards are available on layer-2 (within the Frame Relay encapsulation):
n

When Voice over Frame Relay (FRF.11) and fragmentation are both configured on a PVC, Frame Relay fragments are transmitted in the FRF.11 Annex C format. This fragmentation method is used when FRF.11 voice traffic is transmitted on the PVC and uses the FRF.11 Annex C fragmentation standard. With FRF.11, all data packets contain fragmentation headers regardless of size. This form of fragmentation is not recommended for use with Voice over IP. FRF.12 fragmentation is defined by the FRF.12 Implementation Agreement. The FRF.12 Implementation Agreement was developed to allow long data frames to be fragmented into smaller pieces and interleaved with real-time frames. In this way, real-time voice and non-real-time data frames are carried together on lower-speed links without causing excessive delay to the real-time traffic. As a result, FRF.12 is the recommended fragmentation to be used with VoIP.

n

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FRF.12 versus FRF.11 Annex-C Fragmentation
FRF.11 Annex-C Fragmentation Used on DLCIs configured for VoFR Does not fragment voice packets regardless of what fragmentation size is configured Must be supported by platforms that support VoFR FRF.12 Fragmentation Used on DLCIs carrying data traffic only (including VoIP) Fragments voice packets if the fragmentation size parameter is set to a value smaller than the voice packet size Predominantly used for VoIP – Must be supported only by Cisco IOS platforms that transport VoIP over slow speed WAN links

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If a PVC is not configured for VoFR, it uses normal Frame Relay (FRF.3.1) data encapsulation. If fragmentation is turned on for this DLCI, it uses FRF.12 for the fragmentation headers. PVCs carrying VoIP use FRF.12 fragmentation because VoIP is a layer 3 technology that is transparent to layer 2 Frame Relay. VoIP and VoFR can be supported on different PVCs on the same interface, but not on the same PVC. FRF.12 fragments voice packets if the fragmentation size parameter is set to a value smaller than the voice packet size. FRF.11 Annex-C (VoFR) does not fragment voice packets regardless of what fragmentation size is configured. FRF.11 Annex-C needs only to be supported by platforms that support VoFR. Because FRF.12 is predominantly used for VoIP, it is important to use FRF.12 as a general feature on Cisco IOS platforms that transport VoIP over slow speed WAN links.

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Implementation Notes
When Frame Relay fragmentation is configured, the following conditions and restrictions apply:
• WFQ at the PVC level is the only queuing strategy that can be used. • FRTS must be configured to enable FR fragmentation • VoFR frames are never fragmented, regardless of size. • When using FRF.12 fragmentation, the VoIP packets will not include the FRF.12 header, provided the size of the VoIP packet is smaller than the fragment size configured. However, when using FRF.11 Annex C or Cisco proprietary fragmentations, VoIP packets will include the fragmentation header. • If fragments arrive out of sequence, packets are dropped
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When deploying a solution using Fragmentation and Interleaving on a Frame Relay backbone, it is a good idea to be aware of the following key issues:
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At the PVC level, WFQ is the only permitted queuing strategy when used together with Frame Relay fragmentation Frame Relay Traffic Shaping must be enable d together with Frame Relay Fragmentation If native voice over Frame Relay (VoFR) is used, its frames are never fragmented In VoIP applications, FRF.11 Annex C adds an additional fragmentation header to packets, while FRF.12 does not If the Frame Relay network delivers fragments out of sequence, fragments are dropped and a lost frame results.

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Configuring Frame Relay Fragmentation (FRF.11 C)
Router(config)#

map-class frame-relay name

• Enter Map Class configuration mode
Router(config-map-class)#

frame-relay fragment size

• Set the maximum fragment size
Router(config-map-class)#

frame-relay voice bandwidth bps voice bandwidth

• Set aside an amount of bandwidth for FRF.11 voice traffic (VoFR)
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Link Efficiency Mechanisms -64

FRF.11 Annex C fragmentation is configured within the Frame Relay map class. The frame-relay fragment command sets the maximum fragment size. The frame-relay voice bandwidth command reserves an amount of bandwidth used only for FRF.11-encapsulated VoFR traffic.

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Configuring Frame Relay Fragmentation (FRF.11 C)
Router(config-if)# | (config-subif)# | (config-fr-dlci)#

frame-relay class name name

• Apply the Frame Relay Map Class to an interface, subinterface or DLCI
Router(config-fr-dlci)#

vofr

• Enable FRF.11 encapsulation
Router(config-map-class)#

service-policy output name

• Use distributed Class-based Low Latency Queuing on Cisco 7500 routers to prioritize VoFR frames • Traditional WFQ can be used on all other platforms
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Link Efficiency Mechanisms -65

On an interface, the frame-relay class command applies the map class to the interface, subinterface, or a DLCI. The vofr interface command changes the encapsulation on a DLCI to support only FRF.11 VoFR traffic. The service-policy output command, used within a map class, applies a QoS policy to the frame relay traffic class. Low Latency Queuing (configured within CB-WFQ) is recommended on a VoFR circuit.

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Configuring Frame Relay Fragmentation (FRF.12)
Router(config)#

map-class frame-relay name

• Enter Map Class configuration mode
Router(config-map-class)#

frame-relay fragment size

• Set the maximum fragment size
Router(config-if)# | (config-subif)# | (config-fr-dlci)#

frame-relay class name name

• Apply the Frame Relay Map Class to an interface or subinterface
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Link Efficiency Mechanisms -66

FRF.11 Annex C fragmentation is also configured within the Frame Relay map class. The frame-relay fragment command sets the maximum fragment size. On an interface, the frame-relay class command applies the map class to the interface, sub-interface, or a DLCI.

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Frame Relay Fragmentation FRF.11 C Example
interface serial 0/0 interface serial 0/0 encapsulation frame-relay frame-relay traffic shaping frame-relay ! ! interface serial 0/0.1 point-to-point interface serial 0/0.1 point-to-point frame-relay interface-dlci 100 frame-relay interface-dlci 100 vofr class FRF11 class FRF11 ! ! map-class frame-relay FRF11 map-class frame-relay FRF11 frame-relay fragment 160 frame-relay fragment 160 frame-relay cir 65536 frame-relay cir 65536 frame-relay bc 2600 frame-relay bc 2600 frame-relay fair-queue frame-relay fair-queue ! !

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The figure shows a configuration example where FRF.11 Annex C fragmentation is applied to a VoFR circuit configured on the Serial0/0.1 interface. The maximum fragment size is set to 160 bytes.

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Frame Relay Fragmentation FRF.12 Example
interface serial 0/0 interface serial 0/0 encapsulation frame-relay frame-relay traffic shaping frame-relay ! ! interface serial 0/0.1 point-to-point interface serial 0/0.1 point-to-point frame-relay interface-dlci 100 frame-relay interface-dlci 100 class FRF12 class FRF12 ! ! map-class frame-relay FRF12 map-class frame-relay fragment 160 frame-relay fragment 160 frame-relay cir 65536 frame-relay cir 65536 frame-relay bc 2600 frame-relay bc 2600 frame-relay fair-queue frame-relay fair-queue ! !

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The figure shows a configuration example where FRF.12 fragmentation is applied to a data Frame Relay circuit configured on the Serial0/0.1 interface. The maximum fragment size is also set to 160 bytes. This would be used in a VoIP over Frame Relay environment.

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Monitoring and Troubleshooting Frame Relay Fragmentation
Router# show frame-relay pvc [interface intf] [dlci] pvc

• Displayst PVC parameters and statistics
Router# show frame -relay pvc interface serial 1 45 Router# show frame-relay pvc interface serial PVC Statistics for interface Serial1 (Frame PVC Statistics for interface Serial1 (Frame DLCI = 45, DLCI USAGE = LOCAL, PVC STATUS = DLCI = 45, DLCI USAGE = LOCAL, PVC STATUS =

input pkts 85 output pkts 289 input pkts 85 output pkts 289 out bytes 6580 dropped pkts 11 out bytes 6580 dropped pkts 11 in BECN pkts 0 out FECN pkts 0 in BECN pkts 0 out FECN pkts 0 in DE pkts 0 out DE pkts 0 in DE pkts 0 out DE pkts 0 out bcast pkts 0 out bcast bytes 0 out bcast pkts 0 out bcast bytes 0 pvc create time 00:02:09, last time pvc status changed 00:02:09 pvc create time 00:02:09, last time pvc status changed 00:02:09 Service type VoFR Service type VoFR configured voice bandwidth 25000, used voice bandwidth 22000 configured voice bandwidth 25000, used voice bandwidth 22000 fragment type VoFR fragment size 100 fragment type VoFR fragment size 100 cir 20000 bc 1000 be 0 limit 125 interval 50 cir 20000 bc 1000 be 0 interval 50 mincir 20000 byte increment 125 BECN response no mincir 20000 byte increment 125 BECN response no fragments 290 bytes 6613 fragments delayed 1 bytes delayed fragments 290 bytes 6613 fragments delayed 1 bytes delayed 33 33 shaping inactive shaping inactive ... ...
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

The following values are possible: • VoFR – FRF.11 Annex C Relay DTE) • VoFR-cisco – Cisco Relay DTE) proprietary fragmentation STATIC, INTERFACE • = Serial1 – FRF.12 STATIC, INTERFACE end-to-end = Serial1 fragmentation in bytes 1730 in bytes 1730 in FECN pkts 0 in FECN pkts 0 out BECN pkts 0 out BECN pkts 0

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The show frame -relay pvc command output includes settings related to either FRF.11 Annex C or FRF.12 fragmentation. The output shows the fragment size used on the Frame Relay PVC.

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Monitoring and Troubleshooting Frame Relay Fragmentation
Router# show frame-relay fragment [interface intf] [dlci] fragment

• Displayst PVC parameters and statistics
Router#show frame-relay fragment Router#show frame-relay fragment interface dlci frag-type interface dlci frag-type Serial0 108 VoFR-cisco Serial0 108 VoFR-cisco Serial0 109 VoFR Serial0 109 VoFR Serial0 110 end-to-end Serial0 110 end-to-end frag-size frag-size 100 100 100 100 100 100 in-frag in-frag 1261 0 0 0 out-frag out-frag 1298 243 0 0 dropped-frag dropped-frag 0 0 0 0

Router#show frame-relay fragment interface Serial1/0 Router#show frame-relay fragment interface Serial1/0 fragment-size 45 fragment type end-to-end fragment-size 45 fragment type end-to-end in fragmented pkts 0 out fragmented pkts 0 in fragmented pkts 0 out fragmented pkts 0 in fragmented bytes 0 out fragmented bytes 0 in fragmented bytes 0 out fragmented bytes 0 in un-fragmented pkts 0 out un -fragmented pkts 0 in un-fragmented pkts 0 out un-fragmented pkts 0 in un-fragmented bytes 0 out un -fragmented bytes 0 in un-fragmented bytes 0 out un-fragmented bytes 0 in assembled pkts 0 out pre-fragmented pkts 0 in assembled pkts 0 out pre-fragmented pkts 0 in assembled bytes 0 out pre-fragmented bytes in assembled out pre-fragmented bytes in dropped reassembling pkts 0 out dropped fragmenting pkts 0 in pkts 0 out dropped fragmenting pkts 0 in timeouts 0 in timeouts in out-of-sequence fragments 0 in out -of-sequence fragments 0 in fragments with unexpected B bit set 0 in fragments with unexpected B bit set 0 out interleaved packets 0 out interleaved packets 0

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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The show frame -relay fragment command displays statistics of Frame Relay fragmentation methods. This output shows whether Frame Relay fragmentation is in effect and working as configured. The output also shows possible fragmentation timeouts, indicating that some fragments were lost in the Frame Relay network and could not be reassembled. If the number of timeouts is significant, this may indicate significant frame loss in the Frame Relay network.

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Summary
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Link fragmentation and interleaving methods reduce the average delay on a transmission line by fragmenting frames into small fragments and scheduling their transfer in an interleaved fashion Multilink PPP with Interleaving is the preferred LFI method, used with the PPP protocol FRF.11 C and FRF.12 are the preferred LFI methods, used in a Frame Relay environment Multilink PPP with Interleaving, FRF.11 C, and FRF.12 methods are available in Cisco IOS

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Lesson Review
1. List the different link fragmentation methods that can be used. 2. What mechanism is needed to implement link fragmentation with PPP encapsulation? 3. What are the differences between different Frame Relay link fragmentation mechanisms?

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Summary
n

Stacker and MPPC payload compression methods yield better compression ratios, is more CPU-intensive, and may introduce additional delay The Predictor payload compression is faster, can be used in higher-bandwidth scenarios, but generally yields lower average compression ratios TCP header compression optimizes performance of interactive TCP-based applications on slow links, by shrinking IP and TCP headers to 3-5 byte indices RTP header compression optimizes performance of delay-sensitive RTP-based applications, such as voice, on slow links, by shrinking IP, UDP, and RTP headers to 3-5 byte indices Multilink PPP with Interleaving is the preferred LFI method, used with the PPP protocol FRF.11 C and FRF.12 are the preferred LFI methods, used in a Frame Relay environment

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Review Questions and Answers
Payload Compression Question: What is the purpose of using payload compression? Answer: The purpose of payload compression is primarily to increase throughput of a link, and secondarily, to decrease propagation delay on a link. Question: List the payload compression algorithms than can be used. Answer: Cisco IOS supports Stacker, predictor, and MPPC algorithms to compress Layer-2 link data. Question: What are some of the benefits and drawbacks of Stacker? Answer: Stacker provides good compression ratios with most types of traffic and works on most Layer-2 encapsulations. On the downside, Stacker is very CPU intensive and may have throughput limitations and increase processing delay. Question: What are some of the benefits and drawbacks of Predictor? Answer: Predictor is very fast and works well on text-type traffic. Predictor does not yield very good compression ratios with all types of traffic, and supports only select encapsulations.

Header Compression List the different header compression methods than can be used. Where are header compression mechanisms most effective? What type of traffic benefits most by using TCP Header Compression? What type of traffic benefits most by using RTP Header Compression?

Link Fragmentation and Interleaving Question: List the different link fragmentation methods that can be used. Answer: Cisco IOS supports TCP and RTP header compression. Question: What mechanism is needed to implement link fragmentation with PPP encapsulation? Answer: PPP link fragmentation is implemented with PPP Multilink with Interleaving. Question: What are the differences between different Frame Relay link fragmentation mechanisms?

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Answer: The FRF.11 Annex C method is used only to fragment Voice over Frame Relay (VoFR). The FRF.12 method is used only to fragment data over Frame Relay, including Voice over IP.

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7

Signaling Mechanism

Overview
The module describes RSVP as the signaling mechanism used in QoS enabled networks. The module builds on knowledge about the IntServ model with the addition of Common Open Policy Service (COPS) discussed in the introductory module.

Objectives
Upon completion of this module, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n

Describe Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP). Configure RSVP. Describe and configure RSVP on shared media using Subnet Bandwidth Management (SBM). Monitor and troubleshoot RSVP.

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Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP)
Overview
The section introduces Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) as the signaling mechanism in QoS-enabled networks using the Integrated Services model.

Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n

Describe Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP). Configure RSVP. Monitor and troubleshoot RSVP.

7-2

IP QoS Signaling Mechanism

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Resource Reservation Protocol
• RSVP is a protocol used to reserve resources in a path between a source and a destination • RSVP signals all network devices that a certain application needs certain QoS guarantees • RSVP requires applications to initiate the request • RSVP by itself does not provide any guarantees • An RSVP-interoperable QoS mechanism (WFQ, CBWFQ) must be used to implement guarantees according to RSVP reservations

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Signaling Mechanism-5

RSVP is an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) signaling protocol, used to reserve bandwidth in a path between a source and a destination. In RSVP, the end-node (the application node) station reserves bandwidth for a flow along its path to a destination in a network. The user can supply the information about how much capacity to reserve. RSVP mechanisms enable real-time traffic to reserve bandwidth necessary for consistent latency. A video conferencing application can use settings in the router to propagate a request for a path with the required bandwidth and delay for video conferencing destinations. RSVP then signals all network devices along the path, and confirms or rejects the reservation. RSVP will check and repeat reservations at regular intervals. When RSVP is used, the routers sort and prioritize packets much as a statistical time-division multiplexer would sort and prioritize several signal sources that share a single channel. RSVP requires RSVP-aware applications, as signaling is performed by the endnode. In addition, RSVP does not provide any guarantees by itself. RSVP is the protocol used to communicate QoS requirements between the end-node and the layer-3 network, assessing the ability or inability of the network to support the requested level of service. RSVP is the signaling protocol underlying the IntServ QoS reference model. Together with appropriate QoS-enforcing mechanisms in the network, such as WFQ, it forms a foundation for implementation of IntServ-based services.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Signaling Mechanism

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End-to-end RSVP
Local Admission Control request request Local Admission Control request Local Admission Control request

reserve

reserve

reserve

reserve

• All network devices have to be enabled for RSVP • Each network device determines whether it has enough resources

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Signaling Mechanism-6

If end-to-end RSVP is desired in a network, all devices in the reservation path must be RSVP-enabled. When a device receives an RSVP message, it determines whether it has enough resources to satisfy the reservation request at the local level. There are two main RSVP messages used for signaling. When a reservation is needed, the sending client sends an RSVP PATH message into the network requesting a specific bandwidth to a specific destination (or multicast address, in the case of IP multicast application). The purpose of the PATH message is to discover all RSVP-enabled routers along the path from the sender to the receiver, and to create initial reservations. The PATH message is forwarded along the flow path and every intermediate RSVP-capable router adds its identification to the PATH message. When the receiving end-node receives the PATH message, it confirms the reservation by replying with an RSVP RESV message. The RESV message is forwarded back upstream towards the initial sender using the list of RSVP-enabled routers generated by the PATH message. If the RESV message successfully arrives at the initial sender, each hop in the end-to-end connection has reserved the appropriate resources and an end-to-end reservation is established. If the appropriate resources are not available, the reservation is refused and the application must default to traditional, best effort communications. RSVP keeps track of the soft state of reservations in routers. This soft state provides dynamic membership information, adapts to routing changes, and, as the number of flows increases, enables dynamic changes in reservations to meet those changing needs. RSVP reservations time out unless periodically refreshed by the communication endpoint, usually at 30-second intervals. The benefits of soft state behavior are:

7-4

IP QoS Signaling Mechanism

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

n n n

Connectionless behavior − routers automatically adapt to route changes. Timeliness − state changes propagate immediately, but only as far as needed. Robustness − the method is self-correcting, because incorrect reservations will always time-out even in the most unexpected situations. Flexibility − provides easy dynamic reservation changes.

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The cost of this approach is that it requires ongoing refresh processing for established states by the endpoints.

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7-5

Pass-through RSVP
Local Admission Control request request Local Admission Control request RSVP not enabled reserve request request Local Admission Control

reserve

reserve

reserve

reserve

Best-effort forwarding

• Part of the network may not support RSVP • Best-effort delivery is used in those parts

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Signaling Mechanism-7

When a part of the network does not support RSVP, that is, when the RSVP messages are not processed by every intermediate hop between the two application endpoints, some other mechanism may be employed to try to meet the application requirements in the non-RSVP-enabled part of the network. One such possibility may be to perform only best-effort delivery between RSVP-enabled networks using an undersubscribed network in between. The PATH messages discover all RSVP-aware routers, and are forwarded as plain IP packets on nonRSVP-enabled hops. The RESV messages are then interpreted only by the RSVPaware hops, discovered via the PATH message.

7-6

IP QoS Signaling Mechanism

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Pass-through RSVP with Class of Service
Local Admission Control request request Local Admission Control request RSVP not enabled reserve request request Local Admission Control

reserve

reserve

reserve

reserve

Mark RSVP flow with DSCP

Class-based guarantee

• Part of the network may not support RSVP • Mark RSVP flows with a Class-of-service marker (e.g. IP precedence or DSCP) • Make sure the core provides guarantees to the RSVP class
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Signaling Mechanism-8

Another option may be to apply class-of-service based delivery on a non-RSVPenabled part of the network. In that case, RSVP-based application traffic is marked with appropriate class markers (IP precedence or DSCP bits) at the entry to the non-RSVP-enabled part. The core network can then be engineered to provide special service to the RSVP class, using, for example, WFQ and WRED. IP precedence and DSCP are packet markers, located in the ToS byte of the IP header, which identify traffic classes on each hop in the network. IP precedence or DSCP bits are usually set at the network edge, where traffic is classified and marked, and the markers used to identify traffic classes in downstream network devices. Each device along the path may apply appropriate QoS mechanisms based on the packet marker, resulting in differentiated per-hop behaviour (PHB) for each class of traffic. The DiffServ model defines several standard PHBs, based on marking traffic with the DSCP header bits.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Signaling Mechanism

7-7

RSVP Applications
• RSVP is used for applications where bandwidth and delay related guarantees are necessary • Typical applications are:
– Voice over IP (Cisco phones, Microsoft NetMeeting, ...) – MPLS Traffic Engineering

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Signaling Mechanism-9

RSVP allows end systems to request QoS guarantees from the network. The need for network resource reservations differs for data traffic versus real-time traffic, as described in the following paragraphs:
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Data traffic seldom needs reserved bandwidth because internetworks provide datagram services for data traffic. This asynchronous packet switching may not need guarantees of service quality. End-to-end controls between data traffic senders and receivers help ensure adequate transmission of bursts of information. Real-time traffic (that is, voice or video information) experiences problems when using datagram services. Because real-time traffic sends an almost constant flow of information, the network “pipes” must be consistent. Some guarantee must be provided that service between real-time hosts will not vary. Routers operating on a first-in, first-out (FIFO) basis risk unrecoverable disruption of the real-time information that is being sent.

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Many network-aware applications today use RSVP for signaling. Some wellknown examples include Cisco IP telephones, Microsoft NetMeeting, and MPLS Traffic Engineering.

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IP QoS Signaling Mechanism

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Configuring Simple RSVP
Router(config-if)#

ip rsvp bandwidth [total-BW [per-flow-BW]] rsvp bandwidth

• Set the amount of reservable bandwidth (total-BW) and the maximum per-flow reservable bandwidth (per-flow-BW) in kbps • Both default to 75% of the configured bandwidth • Total reservable bandwidth cannot exceed 75% of the configured bandwidth
Router(config-if)#

bandwidth bandwidth

• Set the interface bandwidth in kbps • This value should reflect the real bandwidth of the link

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Signaling Mechanism -10

Basic RSVP is configured by two interface commands. The ip rsvp bandwidth command sets the maximum total amount of reservable bandwidth on an interface. By default, it is configured to 75% of the configured bandwidth, which is also its maximum allowed value. A per-flow reservable bandwidth can also be configured, setting the maximum bandwidth a single flow can reserve over this interface. By default, it is also set to 75% of the configured bandwidth.
Note RSVP cannot be configured with VIP-distributed Cisco Express Forwarding (dCEF).

The bandwidth interface command sets the interface bandwidth and is used by routing protocols (to calculate costs) and by a variety of QoS mechanisms. With RSVP, this is used as the configured bandwidth parameter, referenced by the limits in the ip rsvp bandwidth command.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Signaling Mechanism

7-9

Configuring Proxy RSVP
Router(config)# ip rsvp sender session-IP sender-IP protocol dport sport src-hopip rsvp sender sender-IP protocol dport sport src-hopIP src-intf bandwidth burst IP

• Simulates a host sending a PATH message • Generates a PATH message on behalf of a host or an application
Router(config)# ip rsvp reservation session-IP sender-IP protocol dport sport ip reservation next-hop-IP next-hop-intf {ff | se | wf} {rate | load} bw burst {ff

• Simulates a host sending a RESV message • Generates a RESV message on behalf of a host or an application
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Signaling Mechanism -11

RSVP typically requires both host and network implementations, although Cisco IOS software provides an RSVP command line interface that allows you to statically set up RSVP reservations without host involvement. Use the ip rsvp sender command to make the router simulate that it is receiving RSVP PATH messages from an upstream host. The command can be used to proxy RSVP PATH messages for non-RSVP-capable senders. By including a local (loopback) previous hop address and previous hop interface, you can also use this command to proxy RSVP for the router you are configuring. To enable a router to simulate receiving and forwarding Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) RESV messages, use the ip rsvp reservation global configuration command. To disable this feature, use the no form of this command. Use this command to make the router simulate receiving RSVP RESV messages from a downstream host. This command can be used to proxy RSVP RESV messages for non-RSVP-capable receivers. By giving a local (loopback) next hop address and next hop interface, you can also use this command to proxy RSVP for the router you are configuring. Several different reservation types can be specified. For detailed reservation settings, consult the Cisco IOS documentation.

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

RSVP Admission Control
• RSVP has two tasks:
– Determine if there are enough available resources – Determine if the application in question is allowed access to these resources

• RSVP-enabled devices keep track of existing reservations locally • RSVP-enabled devices can offload the authorization part of admission control to central servers (COPS)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Signaling Mechanism -12

A RSVP-enabled router therefore needs to perform two tasks:
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The router needs to determine whether there are currently available resources, which can be used to satisfy the reservation request. The router needs to be able to authorize an application to make the reservation request (admission control).

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The first task can be performed by keeping track of existing reservations, and of total reservable capacity locally on each device. If a reservation request exceeds the locally available reservable resources, the reservation request is denied. Authorization of reservations could be performed locally, but such an approach would not scale to more than a few devices. Fortunately, there is a standardized, centralized framework for policy networking, which includes authorization within admission control. This framework is based on a set of services and protocols called the Common Open Policy Service (COPS).

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Signaling Mechanism

7-11

Common Open Policy Service
Local Admission Control request Remote Admission Control Policy Enforcement Point (PEP) request Local Admission Control request

request

reserve

reserve

reserve reply Policy Decision Point (PDP)

reserve

• COPS allows a more centralized approach to building RSVP enabled networks (more scalable) • COPS provides additional control over who can reserve what
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Signaling Mechanism -13

Common Open Policy Service (COPS) is an open framework designed for management in policy networking. COPS provides a service to network devices and implements management protocols, which enable scalable provisioning of Quality of Service policies in a network. COPS is designed so that it provides a centrally managed, but distributed system for configuring network devices according to centralized policy decisions. In the case of RSVP, COPS provides centralized databases, which network devices query for reservation/admission control information. RSVP-enabled devices therefore need no locally stored configuration, but receive this information in realtime from the appropriate COPS server. COPS, therefore, scales QoS provisioning, and enables a device-independent QoS policy throughout the network. COPS defines the following types of policy services:
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The Policy Enforcement Point (PEP) is the device that enforces network policy (a router performing RSVP admission control, a firewall filtering traffic). The Policy Decision Point (PDP) is the device that stores policy information and makes it available to the PEP devices.

request

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7-12

IP QoS Signaling Mechanism

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Configuring RSVP for COPS
ip rsvp policy local acl Process Locally? No Yes Reject? Yes Reject Message Send an error message to the source

ip rsvp policy local

No ip rsvp policy local local-override

Default Local Policy? No

Yes

Local Override? No

Yes

Process Remotely? No

Ask PDP

Reject?

Yes

No Process Message Default Reject? No
IP QoS Signaling Mechanism -14

Default Remote Policy? No
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Yes

Yes

The figure shows the flowchart used to consult either the local policy settings, or the COPS service. Both the local policy and the COPS service can be used simultaneously on the same router. Individual COPS commands are also presented in the flowchart, next to the functions they enable. The admission process in policy networking proceeds as follows for locally processed messages:
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The router receives a PATH or RESV message and first tries to adjudicate it locally (that is, without referring to the policy server). If the router has been configured to adjudicate specific access control lists (ACLs) locally and the message matches one of those lists, the policy module of the router applies the operators with which it had been configured. Otherwise, policy processing continues. For each message rejected by the operators, the router sends an error message to the sender and removes the PATH or RESV message from the database. If the message is not rejected, policy processing continues. If the local override flag is set for this entry, the message is immediately accepted with the specified policy operators. Otherwise, policy processing continues.

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IP QoS Signaling Mechanism

7-13

Configuring RSVP for COPS (cont.)
Process Locally? No Yes Reject? Yes Reject Message Send an error message to the source

No

Default Local Policy? No ip rsvp policy cops acl servers Process Remotely? No ip rsvp policy cops servers Default Remote Policy? No
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Yes

Local Override? No

Yes

Ask PDP

Reject?

Yes

No Process Message Default Reject? No Yes ip rsvp policy default-reject

Yes

IP QoS Signaling Mechanism -15

If policy decisions are offloaded to a policy server, policy processing continues as follows:
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If the message does not match any ACL configured for local policy, the router applies the default local policy. However, if no default local policy has been configured, the message is directed toward remote policy processing. If the router has been configured with specific ACLs against specific policy servers (more specifically, PDPs), and the message matches one of these ACLs, the router sends that message to the specific PDP for adjudication. Otherwise, policy processing continues. If the PDP specifies a “reject” decision, the message is discarded and an error message is sent back to the sender, indicating this condition. If the PDP specifies an “accept” decision, the message is accepted and processed using normal RSVP processing rules. If the message does not match any ACL configured for specific PDPs, the router applies the default PDP configuration. If a default COPS configuration has been entered, policy processing continues. Otherwise, the message is considered to be unmatched. If the default policy decision for unmatched messages is to reject, the message is immediately discarded and an ERROR message is sent to the sender indicating this condition. Otherwise, the message is accepted and processed using normal RSVP processing rules.

n

n

n

n

Whenever a request for adjudication (of any sort) is sent to a PDP, a 30-second timer associated with the PATH or RESV message is started. If the timer runs out

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IP QoS Signaling Mechanism

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

before the PDP replies to the request, the PDP is assumed to be down and the request is given to the default policy.

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RSVP Example
interface Serial0/0 bandwidth 128 ip address 10.10.3.33 255.255.255.252 encapsulation ppp fair-queue 64 256 10 ip rtp header-compression ip rsvp bandwidth 80

interface Serial0/0 bandwidth 256 ip address 10.5.8.65 255.255.255.252 encapsulation ppp fair-queue 64 256 20 ip rtp header-compression ip rsvp bandwidth 160

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Signaling Mechanism -15

The figure shows a basic example of RSVP configuration in Cisco IOS routers. The two routers in the figure are both configured for RSVP, and both utilize WFQ to guarantee bandwidth to RSVP flows in RSVP-reserved queues. Different maximum reservable bandwidths are allocated, based on the real bandwidth of the link.

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IP QoS Signaling Mechanism

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

RSVP with COPS Example
COPS (PEP) COPS (PDP)

interface Serial0/0 bandwidth 2048 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.252 encapsulation ppp fair-queue 64 256 100 ip rsvp bandwidth 512 ! ip rsvp policy cops 100 servers 10.100.1.1 10.101.1.1 ip rsvp policy default-reject ip rsvp policy cops minimal ip rsvp policy cops timeout 600 ip rsvp policy cops report-all ! access-list 100 permit udp any any

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Signaling Mechanism -16

This figure shows a COPS-enabled RSVP configuration. The RSVP interface configuration does not change, and COPS parameters are defined with the ip rsvp policy commands. In this example, the COPS PDP adjudicates all UDP traffic reservations.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Signaling Mechanism

7-17

Monitoring and Troubleshooting RSVP
Router#

show ip rsvp installed [detail]

• Lists installed reservations per interface
Router#show ip rsvp installed Router#show ip rsvp installed RSVP:Ethernet2/1 RSVP:Ethernet2/1 BPS To From Protoc BPS To From Protoc Conversation Conversation 44K 145.20.0.202 145.10.0.201 UDP 44K 145.20.0.202 145.10.0.201 44K 145.20.0.202 145.10.0.201 UDP 44K 145.20.0.202 145.10.0.201 98K 145.20.0.202 145.10.0.201 UDP 98K 145.20.0.202 145.10.0.201 UDP 1K 145.20.0.202 145.10.0.201 UDP 1K 145.20.0.202 145.10.0.201 UDP RSVP:Serial3/0 has no installed reservations RSVP:Serial3/0 has no installed reservations DPort Sport DPort Sport 1000 1001 1001 1002 1002 10 10 1000 1001 1001 1002 1002 10 10 Weight 0 13 13 6 6 0 0 264 264 266 266 265 265 264 264

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Signaling Mechanism -17

The show ip rsvp installed command shows all active conversations over an RSVP-enabled path, which has resource reservations installed. The actual reserved bandwidth is shown, along with the session parameters (endpoints and applications).

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IP QoS Signaling Mechanism

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Monitoring and Troubleshooting RSVP
Router#

show ip rsvp installed [detail] [interface]
Router#show ip rsvp installed detail Router#show ip rsvp installed detail RSVP:Ethernet2/1 has the following installed reservations RSVP:Ethernet2/1 has the following installed reservations RSVP Reservation. Destination is 145.20.0.202, Source is 145.10.0.201, RSVP Reservation. Destination is 145.20.0.202, Source is 145.10.0.201, Protocol is UDP, Destination port is 1000, Source port is 1000 Protocol is UDP, Destination port is 1000, Source port is 1000 Reserved bandwidth:44K bits/sec, Maximum burst:1K bytes, Peak rate: 44K bits/sec Reserved bandwidth:44K bits/sec, Maximum burst:1K bytes, Peak rate: 44K bits/sec QoS provider for this flow:WFQ. Conversation number:264. Weight: 0 (PQ) QoS provider for this flow:WFQ. Conversation number:264. Weight:0 (PQ) Conversation supports 1 reservations Conversation supports 1 reservations Data given reserved service:316 packets (15800 bytes) Data given reserved service:316 packets (15800 bytes) Data given best-effort service:0 packets (0 bytes) Data given best-effort service:0 packets (0 bytes) Reserved traffic classified for 104 seconds Reserved traffic classified for 104 seconds Long-term average bitrate (bits/sec):1212 reserved, 0M best-effort Long-term average bitrate (bits/sec):1212 reserved, 0M best-effort RSVP Reservation. Destination is 145.20.0.202, Source is 145.10.0.201, RSVP Reservation. Destination is 145.20.0.202, Source is 145.10.0.201, Protocol is UDP, Destination port is 1001, Source port is 1001 Protocol is UDP, Destination port is 1001, Source port is 1001 Reserved bandwidth:44K bits/sec, Maximum burst:3K bytes, Peak rate: 44K bits/sec Reserved bandwidth:44K bits/sec, Maximum burst:3K bytes, Peak rate: 44K bits/sec QoS provider for this flow:WFQ. Conversation number:266. Weight: 13 QoS provider for this flow:WFQ. Conversation number:266. Weight:13 Conversation supports 1 reservations Conversation Data given reserved service:9 packets (450 bytes) Data given reserved service:9 packets (450 bytes) Data given best-effort service:0 packets (0 bytes) Data given best-effort service:0 packets (0 bytes) Reserved traffic classified for 107 seconds Reserved traffic classified for 107 seconds Long-term average bitrate (bits/sec):33 reserved, 0M best-effort Long-term average bitrate (bits/sec):33 reserved, 0M best-effort ... ...
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Signaling Mechanism -18

The show ip rsvp installed detail command shows detailed information about active conversations currently installe d in the RSVP reservation table. Detailed timing and accounting for every conversation is displayed, together with the QoS mechanism used to provide service guarantees.

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Monitoring and Troubleshooting RSVP
Router(config)#

show ip rsvp reservation [detail]

• List RSVP reservations

Router(config)#

show ip rsvp request [detail]

• List pending RSVP requests

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Signaling Mechanism -19

The show ip rsvp reservation command lists all existing RSVP reservations over an interface. The show ip rsvp request command shows all pending RSVP requests that have no fixed reservation in place.

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IP QoS Signaling Mechanism

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Monitoring and Troubleshooting RSVP with COPS
Router#

show ip rsvp policy [{cops | local} [acl]]

• Lists all policies
Router#show ip rsvp policy cops Router#show ip rsvp policy cops COPS/RSVP settings: COPS/RSVP settings: Generate reports for all decisions Generate Do not query PDP for error messages Do not query PDP for error messages COPS/RSVP entry. ACLs: 100 COPS/RSVP entry. ACLs: 100 PDPs: 10.100.1.1 10.101.1.1 PDPs: 10.100.1.1 10.101.1.1 Current state: Connected Current state: Connected Currently connected to PDP 10.100.1.1, port 0 Currently connected to PDP 10.100.1.1, port 0 COPS/RSVP entry. ACLs: 101 COPS/RSVP entry. ACLs: 101 PDPs: 10.102.1.1 PDPs: 10.102.1.1 Current state: In reconnect loop wait Current state: In reconnect loop wait Reconnect timer is 960 seconds Reconnect timer is 960 seconds

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Signaling Mechanism -20

The show ip rsvp policy command shows the policy settings, whether the policy is locally defined or policy decisions are offloaded to the COPS server. The output shows associations between flow specifications and associated COPS servers, which perform admission control for those flows. This command is used to verify connectivity to COPS services and the associations between the local device and a COPS server.

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IP QoS Signaling Mechanism

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Monitoring and Troubleshooting RSVP with COPS
Router#

show cops servers

• Lists all COPS servers
Router#show cops servers Router#show cops servers COPS SERVER: Address: 10.100.1.1. Port: 3288. State: 0. Keepalive: 120 sec COPS SERVER: Address: 10.100.1.1 . Port: 3288. Number of clients: 1. Number of sessions: 1. Number of clients: 1. Number of sessions: 1. COPS CLIENT: Client type: 1. COPS CLIENT: Client type: 1. State: 0. State: 0.

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Signaling Mechanism -21

The show cops servers command displays the state of all configured COPS servers.

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IP QoS Signaling Mechanism

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Summary
n n n n

RSVP enables end-stations to signal QoS requirements to the network. RSVP does not provide any guarantees; router QoS mechanisms do. RSVP does not necessarily require an end-to-end RSVP-aware path. COPS provides scalable QoS provisioning.

Lesson Review
1. What is RSVP used for? 2. Does RSVP provide QoS guarantees? 3. What QoS mechanism should be used to provide QoS guarantees to RSVP reservations? 4. What are the benefits of using COPS with RSVP?

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Signaling Mechanism

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Subnet Bandwidth Management
Overview
This section describes a mechanism that is used on shared media where more complex reservation is required. SBM protocol is used between RSVP devices reachable over the same subnet.

Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n

Describe Subnet Bandwidth Management (SBM). Configure SBM. Monitor and troubleshoot RSVP with SBM.

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IP QoS Signaling Mechanism

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Subnet Bandwidth Management
• RSVP manages unidirectional reservation of resources • RSVP on shared media can result in oversubscription • SBM is an add-on to RSVP on shared media to prevent oversubscription

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Signaling Mechanism -26

RSVP is used to manage reservation of resources unidirectionally, between Layer3 hops. On a shared medium, many Layer-3 hops can be active between many routers on the shared segment. The shared medium is shared between all routers, therefore the routers need to keep track about all routers’ usage of the shared medium, in order to maintain a consistent picture of available bandwidth on that medium. If routers were independently reserving bandwidth over a shared medium, oversubscription would occur if each router had full access to the medium bandwidth. Subnet Bandwidth Management (SBM) is an add-on to the RSVP protocol, which provides arbitration of bandwidth allocation on a shared medium to prevent RSVPcaused oversubscription. SBM specifies a signaling method and protocol for LANbased admission control for RSVP flows. SBM allows RSVP-enabled routers and Layer 2 and Layer 3 devices to support reservation of LAN resources for RSVPenabled data flows. The SBM signaling method is similar to that of RSVP itself.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Signaling Mechanism

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Without SBM
Ethernet bandwidth 10Mbps 7.5 Mbps is reservable

bps e6M eserv R
6 0 Mbps booked 1.5 7.5 Mbps free

Reserve 6 Mbps

Ethernet Reserv e 7 Mb ps
7 0 Mbps booked 512 kbps 7.5 Mbps free

Reserve 7 Mbps

• Both routers are within the 75% reservable limit • Total reserved bandwidth is 13 Mbps (above Ethernet bandwidth) • Ethernet should be treated carefully because it is impossible to achieve 100% utilization (collisions; depending on implementation)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Signaling Mechanism -27

The figure shows a possible scenario of RSVP oversubscription on a shared segment. Both right-hand routers think of the Ethernet segment as a link with a bandwidth of 10 Mbps. Based on the 75% rule, by default 7.5 Mbps of that bandwidth is reservable. The upper router reserves 6 Mbps of the reservable bandwidth, and the bottom router reserves 7 Mbps of the reservable bandwidth. Obviously, the combined reserved bandwidth exceeds the Ethernet media bandwidth and results in an unwanted oversubscription.

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IP QoS Signaling Mechanism

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

With SBM

Reserve 6 Mbps
Reserve 6 Mbps
e erv Res bps 6M

6 0 Mbps booked 1.5 7.5 Mbps free 6 0 Mbps booked 1.5 7.5 Mbps free One of the routers on the segment is elected to be the Designated Subnet Bandwidth Manager (DSBM) The shared media is effectively transformed into a star of point-to-point links
Re ser ve 6

Erro r

Mb ps

Reserve 7 Mbps
7 0 Mbps booked 512 kbps 7.5 Mbps free

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Signaling Mechanism -28

SBM’s solution to the problem is to introduce a Designated Subnet Bandwidth Manager (DSBM) router, which tracks all reservations over a shared segment. The DSBM is one of the existing subnet routers, designated to be the DSBM via an election process on the subnet. When a DSBM is used, the shared medium is effectively transformed into a virtual mesh of point-to-point links. When a DSBM client sends or forwards an RSVP PATH message over an interface attached to a managed segment, it sends the PATH message to the segment’s DSBM instead of to the RSVP session destination address, as is done in conventional RSVP processing. As part of its message processing procedure, the DSBM builds and maintains a PATH state for the session and notes the previous Layer 2/Layer 3 hop from which it received the PATH message. After processing the PATH message, the DSBM forwards it toward its destination address.
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The DSBM receives the RSVP reservation request (RSVP RESV) message and processes it in a manner similar to the way RSVP itself handles reservation request processing, basing the outcome on available bandwidth. The procedure is as follows: If it cannot grant the request because of lack of resources, the DSBM returns a RESVERR message to the requester. If sufficient resources are available and the DSBM can grant the reservation request, it forwards the RESV message toward the PHOP(s) using the local PATH state for the session.

n

n

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DSBM Election
• DSBM is elected based on the DSBM priority • Each DSBM candidate advertises its priority in the range from 64 to 128 • The candidate with the highest priority is elected to be the DSBM • RSVP enabled devices can participate in Subnet Bandwidth Management without being DSBM candidates

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Signaling Mechanism -29

On a LAN segment configured for SBM, a DSBM is elected based on each router’s DSBM-candidate priority. All RSVP messages of participating routers are sent to the DSBM to adjudicate the reservation requests. Such a LAN segment is called a managed segment in SBM terms. Of all SBM-enabled routers on a segment, some or all routers are DSBM candidates; that is, not all routers need to be configured as DSBM candidates to perform SBM-assisted RSVP. A DSBM is chosen among the candidates based on the configured DSBM priority, which ranges from 64 to 128, the latter being the highest priority.

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IP QoS Signaling Mechanism

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Configuring DSBM
Router(config-if)#

ip rsvp dsbm candidate priority

• Configures the router to bid in the election of the DSBM • Default priority is 64

Router(config)#

ip rsvp dsbm non-resv-send-limit {burst | max-unit | minrsvp dsbm unit | peak | rate} value

• The NonResvSendLimit object specifies how much traffic can be sent onto a managed segment without a valid RSVP reservation • All values are unlimited by default

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Signaling Mechanism -30

The ip rsvp dsbm candidate interface command specifies this router as a DSBM candidate on the attached LAN network. A priority used in the DSBM election process is assigned, the default being the lowest priority of 64. The ip rsvp dsbm non-resv-send-limit command limits the amount of traffic, which can be sent to a managed segment without an RSVP reservation. By default, any amount of traffic can be sent to the segment. This command should be used in a network, where RSVP is predominantly used for signaling to allow some non-RSVP traffic to transit shared LAN segments.

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IP QoS Signaling Mechanism

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SBM Example
interface Ethernet0/0 interface Ethernet0/0 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 ip rsvp bandwidth 7500 7500 ip rsvp bandwidth 7500 7500 ip rsvp dsbm candidate 100 ip rsvp dsbm ip rsvp dsbm non-resv-send-limit rate 100 ip rsvp dsbm ip rsvp dsbm non-resv-send-limit burst 1000 ip rsvp dsbm non-resv-send-limit burst 1000 ip rsvp dsbm non-resv-send-limit peak 100 ip rsvp dsbm ! !

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Signaling Mechanism -31

The figure shows an interface configuration example, where SBM is used to signal RSVP across a shared LAN segment. The local router is configured as a DSBM candidate, and RSVP with SBM is enabled using the ip rsvp bandwidth command. In this example, non-reserved traffic is limited to a mere 100 Kbps, with one-megabyte bursts allowed. Such an example configuration could be used in a fully RSVP-enabled network, where some bandwidth needs to be provisioned for network control (routing protocols, time management, and so forth).

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IP QoS Signaling Mechanism

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Monitoring and Troubleshooting SBM
Router#

show ip sbm [detail]
• Lists interfaces where SBM is active • The detailed option displays detailed information about local configuration and the DSBM configuration
Router#show ip rsvp sbm Router#show ip rsvp sbm Interface DSBM Addr DSBM Priority DSBM Candidate Interface DSBM Addr DSBM Priority DSBM Candidate Et0/0 10.1.1.1 100 yes Et0/0 10.1.1.1 100 yes Et0/1 10.1.2.1 100 yes Et0/1 10.1.2.1 100 yes Router#show ip rsvp sbm detail Router#show ip rsvp sbm detail Interface:Ethernet 0/0 Interface:Ethernet0/0 Local Configuration Current DSBM Local Configuration Current DSBM IP Address:10.1.1.1 IP Address:10.1.1.1 IP Address:10.1.1.1 IP Address:10.1.1.1 DSBM candidate:yes I Am DSBM:yes DSBM candidate:yes I Am DSBM:yes Priority:100 Priority: 100 Priority:100 Priority:100 Non Resv Send Limit Non Resv Send Limit Non Resv Send Limit Non Resv Send Limit Rate:100 Kbytes/sec Rate:100 Kbytes/sec Rate:100 Kbytes/sec Rate:100 Kbytes/sec Burst:1000 Kbytes Burst:1000 Kbytes Burst:1000 Burst:1000 Kbytes Peak:100 Kbytes/sec Peak:100 Kbytes/sec Peak:100 Kbytes/sec Peak:100 Kbytes/sec Min Unit:unlimited Min Unit:unlimited Min Unit:unlimited Min Unit:unlimited Max Unit:unlimited Max Unit:unlimited Max Unit:unlimited Max Unit:unlimited
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

My Priority My Priority 100 100 100 100

IP QoS Signaling Mechanism -32

The show ip sbm command shows per-interface SBM parameters, displaying other SBM-enabled routers on the attached segment. The show ip sbm detail command also shows the non-reserved sending limits of discovered neighbors. In this output, all routers on the segment have the same DSBM priority. In that case, the tiebreaker is a router’s IP address on that segment, and the router with the highest IP address will win the election.

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Summary
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SBM enables RSVP to run over shared LAN segments. DSBM routers provide shared LAN adjudication of RSVP-reservations. SBM can limit the amount of non-RSVP traffic sent into a network.

Lesson Review
1. What is the purpose of Subnet Bandwidth Management? 2. How do routers on a common subnet communicate reservation requests? 3. What is a DSBM? 4. How do routers elect a DSBM?

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IP QoS Signaling Mechanism

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Summary
n n n

RSVP enables end-stations to signal QoS requirements to the network RSVP does not provide any guarantees; router QoS mechanisms do. SBM enables RSVP to run over shared LAN segments.

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IP QoS Signaling Mechanism

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Review Questions and Answers
Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) Question: What is RSVP used for? Answer: RSVP is used by applications to signal their QoS requirements to the network and to set up reservations along the application path. Question: Does RSVP provide QoS guarantees? Answer: No, RSVP is only used for signaling. Per-hop mechanisms, such as WFQ, are used to guarantee a service level to a RSVP-enabled application. Question: What QoS mechanism should be used to provide QoS guarantees to RSVP reservations? Answer: Usually, WFQ and CB-WFQ are used to provide per-hop guarantees. Question: What are the benefits of using COPS with RSVP? Answer: Using COPS-compliant policy management software enables scaling of RSVP-enabled networks by offloading part of the admission control functions to a centralized database.

Subnet Bandwidth Management

Question: What is the purpose of Subnet Bandwidth Management?
Answer: The purpose of SBM is to prevent oversubscription of a shared segment by introducing an arbiter, which keeps tracks of all reservations over a shared segment.

Question: How do routers on a common subnet communicate reservation
requests? Answer: Routers communicate reservation requests by forwarding all RSVP messages to the arbiter (the DSBM).

Question: What is a DSBM?
Answer: The DSBM (Designated Subnet Bandwidth Manager) is an elected layer3 device on a shared segment, which keeps tracks of all reservations.

Question: How do routers elect a DSBM?
Answer: Routers elect a DSBM with a priority-based election system. Router IP address is the final tiebreaker.

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IP QoS Signaling Mechanism

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

8

Modular QoS CLI Classification

Overview
This chapter focuses on the classification element of the modular QoS commandline interface. It includes the following topics:
n n n

Introduction to Modular QoS CLI Classification Options Network Based Application Recognition (NBAR)

Objectives
Upon completion of this module, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n

Describe the classification element of the Modular QoS CLI Describe and configure all currently supported classification options within the MQC Understand Network-based Application Recognition (NBAR) Monitor and troubleshoot class maps

n n

Introduction to Modular QoS CLI
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n

Describe the MQC concepts and structure Configure class maps Monitor and troubleshoot class maps

8-2

IP QoS—Modular QoS CLI Classification

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Modular QoS CLI
• The Modular QoS CLI (MQC) provides a modular approach to configuration of QoS mechanisms • Classification is configured separately from the QoS service policy • MQC also provides modularity to implementation of QoS mechanisms in the Cisco IOS:
– New QoS mechanisms can reuse old classification options – New QoS classification options can also be used by older QoS mechanisms
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS - Modular QoS CLI Classification -5

The Quality of Service mechanisms that have been added to the Cisco IOS all had their own set of classification options. For example:
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Committed Access Rate (CAR) can classify packets by using:
– – – –

Access lists QoS group DSCP Rate limit access list

n n

Traffic Shaping (GTS) can classify packets by using access lists Priority Queuing (PQ) and Custom Queuing (CQ) can classify packets by using:
– – – –

Access lists Packets size Fragment TCP or UDP port number

The Modular Quality of Service Command Line Interface (MQC) was introduced to allow any supported classification to be used with any QoS mechanism. The separation of classification from the QoS mechanism allows new IOS versions to introduce new QoS mechanisms and reuse all available classification options. On the other hand, old QoS mechanisms can benefit from new classification options. Another important benefit of the MQC is the reusability of configuration. MQC allows the same QoS policy to be applied to multiple interfaces. CAR, for example,

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS—Modular QoS CLI Classification

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required entire configurations to be copy-pasted between interfaces and modifying configurations was tiresome. The Modular QoS CLI, therefore, is a consolidation of all the QoS mechanisms that have so far only been available as standalone mechanisms. This module focuses on the classification element of the Modular QoS CLI.

8-4

IP QoS—Modular QoS CLI Classification

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Separation of Classification
Classification
packet

Traffic Policy
CB-WFQ

Class 1?

Class 2?

CB-LLQ

Interface or Forwarding

Class N?

CB-Policing

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS - Modular QoS CLI Classification -6

Implementing QoS by using the MQC consists of three steps:
Step 1 Step 2

Configuring classification by using the class-map command Configuring traffic policy by associa ting the traffic class with one or more QOS features using the policy-map command Attaching the traffic policy to inbound or outbound traffic on interfaces, subinterfaces or virtual circuits by using the service-policy command Class maps are used to create classification templates that are later used in policy maps where QoS mechanisms are bound to classes. Routers can be configured with a large number of class maps (currently limited to 256). Each traffic policy, however, may support a limited number of classes (for example: Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing and Class-based Low-latency Queuing are limited to 64 classes). The figure illustrates an implementation where traffic is classified into N classes. Each class is handled by one or more QoS mechanisms (for example, Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing, Class-based Low-latency Queuing, Class-based Policing).

Step 3

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS—Modular QoS CLI Classification

8-5

Class Maps
• Each class is identified using a Class Map • Each Class Map is identified by a casesensitive name • Class maps can operate in two modes
– Match All – all conditions have to succeed – Match Any – at least one condition must succeed

• The default mode is Match all

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS - Modular QoS CLI Classification -7

A class map is created using the class-map global configuration command. Class maps are identified by case-sensitive names. Each class map contains one or more conditions that determine if the packet belongs to the class. There are two ways of processing conditions when there is more than one condition in a class map:
n n

Match all—all conditions have to be met to bind a packet to the class Match any—at least one condition has to be met to bind the packet to the class

The default match strategy of class maps is “Match all”.

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IP QoS—Modular QoS CLI Classification

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Classification using Class Maps

Match all conditions? No

Yes

Match

Match all

Class Map name

Match Mode? Match any Yes Match at least one condition? No

No Match

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS - Modular QoS CLI Classification -8

The figure illustrates the full process of determining if a packet belongs to a class (match) or not (no match). The process goes through the list of conditions and:
n

Returns a “match” result if one of the conditions is met and the match-any strategy is used Returns a “match” result if all conditions are met and the match-all strategy is used Otherwise it returns “no match”

n

n

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8-7

Classification Using Match All Strategy
Class Map name
Yes No More Conditions?

Match

Match Yes Condition? No

No Match

• Match-all requires all conditions to return a positive answer • If one condition is not met the class map will return a “no match” result

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS - Modular QoS CLI Classification-9

The figure illustrates a simplified flowchart for the match-all strategy. The processing of a match-all class map can be divided into the following steps:
Step 1 Step 2

Evaluate a condition Return a “no match” result and stop processing the class map if the condition is not met Go to Step 1 if there are more conditions Returns a “match” result

Step 3 Step 4

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IP QoS—Modular QoS CLI Classification

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Classification Using Match Any Strategy
Class Map name
Match Yes Condition? No More Conditions? Yes No

Match

No Match

• Match-any requires at least one condition to return a positive answer • If no condition is met the class map will return a “no match” result
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS - Modular QoS CLI Classification-10

The figure illustrates a simplified flowchart for the match-any strategy. The processing of a match-all class map can be divided into the following steps:
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4

Evaluate a condition Return a “match” result and stop processing the class map if the condition is met Go to Step 1 if there are more conditions Return a “no match” result

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS—Modular QoS CLI Classification

8-9

Classification Options
The main classification options include the following:
• Access list (all access lists are available) • IP Precedence value • IP DSCP value • QoS group number • MPLS experimental bits • Protocol (including NBAR)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS - Modular QoS CLI Classification-11

Class maps can classify packets by using the following classification tools:
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Access lists for any protocol can be used within the class-map configuration mode. The Modular QoS CLI can be used for other protocols, not only IP. IP packets can be classified directly by specifying IP precedence values. IP packets can also be classified directly by specifying IP DSCP (differentiated services code point) values. DiffServ enabled networks can have up to 64 classes if DSCP is used to mark packets. A QoS group parameter can be used to classify packets in situations where up to 100 classes are needed or the QoS group parameter is used as an intermediary marker (for example, MPLS to QoS group translation on input and QoS group to class translation on output). Packets can also be matched based on the value in the experimental bits of the MPLS header of labeled packets. Classification can be performed by identifying a Layer-3 or Layer-4 protocol. Advanced classification is also available by using the Network-based Application Recognition (NBAR) tool where dynamic protocols are identified by inspecting higher-layer information.

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Other Classification Options
The other classification options include the following:
• • • • • • • • Using another Class Map Frame Relay DE bit IEEE 802.1Q/ISL CoS/Priority values Input interface Source MAC address Destination MAC address RTP (UDP) port range Any packet
IP QoS - Modular QoS CLI Classification-12

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

There are many other classification options:
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Another class map can used to implement template-based configurations Packets can be matched based on the underlying Frame Relay DE bit Packets can be matched based on the information contained in the three Class of Service bits (when using IEEE 802.1Q encapsulation) or Priority bits (when using the ISL encapsulation) Packets can be classified according to the input interface Packets can be matched based on their source or destination MAC addresses RTP (real-time protocol) packets can be matched based on a range of UDP port numbers MQC can also be used to implement a QoS mechanism for all traffic in which case classification will put all packets into one class

n n n

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Configuring Class Maps
router(config)#

class-map [{match-all | match-any}] name name

• Enter the class-map configuration mode • Specify the matching strategy • Match-all is the default matching strategy
router(config-cmap)#

match condition

• Use at least one condition to match packets
router(config-cmap)#

description description

• It is recommended to use descriptions in large and complex configuration • The description has no operational meaning
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS - Modular QoS CLI Classification-13

Use the class-map global configuration command to create a class map and enter the class map configuration mode. A class map is identified by a case-sensitive name; therefore, all subsequent references to the class map must use exactly the same name. At least one match command should be used within the class-map configuration mode (match none is the default). The description command is used for documenting a comment about the class-map.

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Configuring Class Maps
router(config-cmap)#

rename new-name

• Complex class-maps can easily be renamed by using the rename class-map command • All references to the class map are also renamed

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS - Modular QoS CLI Classification-14

Large implementations may use a number of class maps and there are many references to the class maps. Renaming a class map would normally require a change to all references to the class map as well. The rename command can be used to rename class maps and all references to it.

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Class Map Example

class-map match-any class-map match-any match access-group match access-group match access-group match access-group class-map match-all class-map match-all match access-group match access-group match access-group match access-group

Test1 Test1 101 102 Test2 Test2 101 102

• This example simply illustrates how classmaps are configured • Class-maps on their own have no function
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS - Modular QoS CLI Classification-15

The example shows two class maps with two conditions:
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Class map Test1 matches all packets that are permitted by at least one of the access lists Class map Test2 matches only those packets that are permitted by both access lists

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Monitoring and Troubleshooting Class Maps
router#

show class-map [class-map]

• Lists all class-maps or the selected class-map
Router#show class-map Router#show class-map Class Map match-all Test2 (id 0) Class Map match-all Test2 (id 0) Match access-group 101 access-group 101 Match access-group 102 access-group 102 Class Map match-any Test1 (id 1) Class Map match-any Match access-group 101 access-group 101 Match access-group 102 access-group 102 Router# Router#

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS - Modular QoS CLI Classification-16

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The show class-map command lists all class maps with their match statements The show class-map command with a name of a class map displays the configuration of the selected class map

n

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Summary
The Modular QoS CLI (MQC) is used to separate the classification from the QoS service policy. A unified classification tool can be used by multiple different QoS mechanisms. The classification is configured using class maps, which are used within policy maps to apply QoS mechanisms to classes.

Review Questions
Answer the following questions:
n n n

What are the benefits of the Modular QoS CLI? Which two matching strategies do class maps support? Which classification options do class maps support?

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Classification Options
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n n n n n n n

Describe and configure classification using access lists Describe and configure classification using the IP precedence Describe and configure classification using the DSCP Describe and configure classification using the QoS group Describe and configure classification using the MPLS experimental bits Describe and configure classification based on the input interface Describe and configure classification based on the source MAC address Describe and configure classification based on the destination MAC address Describe and configure classification based on IEEE 802.1Q/ISL CoS Describe and configure classification using another class map, negation or any keyword Describe and configure classification based on the Frame Relay DE bit Describe and configure classification based on RTP port

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Classification Using Access Lists
• Access lists are the oldest classification tool that has been used with QoS mechanisms • Class Maps support all types of access lists • Class Maps are multi protocol • Class Maps can use named access lists and numbered access lists (in the range from 1 to 2699) for all protocols

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS - Modular QoS CLI Classification-21

Access lists were originally used for filtering of inbound or outbound packets on interfaces. They were later reused for filtering of routing updates and also for classification with early QoS tools (for example, Priority Queuing, Custom Queuing and Traffic Shaping). Access lists are still one of the most powerful classification tools. Class maps can use any type of access list (not only IP access lists). Access lists, on the other hand, also have a drawback. Compared to other classification tools they are one of the most CPU-intensive. For this reason it is not recommended that access lists for classification be used on high-speed links where they could severely impact performance of routers. Access lists are typically used on low-speed links at network edges where packets are classified and marked (for example, with IP precedence). Classification in the core is done based on the IP precedence value.

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Configuring Classification Using Access Lists
Router(config-cmap)#

match access-group {number | name name} name

• Select an access list to be used for classification
class-map Telnet class-map Telnet match access-group 100 match access-group ! ! class-map IPX_Printers class-map IPX_Printers match access-group IPX match access-group ! ! access-list 100 permit tcp any any eq 23 access-list 100 permit tcp any any access-list 100 permit tcp any eq 23 any access-list 100 permit tcp any eq 23 any ! ! ipx access-list extended IPX ipx permit netbios any permit any ! !
Keep All Graphics Inside This Box
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

www.cisco.com

Course acronym 2.0 —Chapter#-22

Use the match access-group command to attach an access list to a class-map. The example in the figure shows how numbered or named access list can be used for classification.

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Configuring Classification Using IP Precedence
router(config-cmap)#

match ip precedence precedence [prec [prec [prec]]]

• Select up to four IP precedence values or names • All packets marked with one of the selected IP precedence values are matched by this class map
IP Precedence Value 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP Precedence Name routine priority immediate flash flash-override critical internet network

class-map class-map match ip match ip ! ! class-map class-map match ip match ip ! ! class-map class-map match ip match ip ! ! class-map class-map match ip match ip ! !

VoIP precedence 5 precedence 5 Gold precedence 3 4 precedence 3 4 Silver precedence 1 2 precedence 1 2 Bronze precedence routine precedence routine

IP QoS - Modular QoS CLI Classification-23

A much faster method of classification is by matching the IP precedence. Up to four IP precedence values or names can be used to classify packets based on the IP precedence field in the IP header. The figure contains a mapping between IP precedence values and names. The running configuration, however, only shows IP precedence values (not names).

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Configuring Classification Using DSCP
router(config-cmap)#

match ip dscp dscp [dscp ...]

• Select up to eight DSCP values or names • All packets marked with one of the selected DSCP values are matched by this class map
DSCP Value 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 46 (000000) (001000) (010000) (011000) (100000) (101000) (110000) (111000) (101110) DSCP Class Name default cs1 cs2 cs3 cs4 cs5 cs6 cs7 ef DSCP Value 10 12 14 18 20 22 26 28 30 34 36 38 (001010) (001100) (001110) (010010) (010100) (010110) (011010) (011100) (011110) (100010) (100100) (100110) DSCP Class Name af11 af12 af13 af21 af22 af23 af31 af32 af33 af41 af42 af43

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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IP packets can also be classified based on the IP DSCP field. A QoS design can be based on IP precedence marking or DSCP marking. DSCP marking can include backward compatibility with IP precedence by using the Class Selector (CS) values (most significant three bits of the DSCP value). A sample design that includes backward compatibility would use the following values to mark packets belonging to class Gold, which is guaranteed Assured Forwarding (AF) Per-hop Behavior (PHB):
n n n n

af11 marks low-drop packets af12 marks medium-drop packets af13 marks high-drop packets cs4 marks low-drop packets (for backward compatibility with IP precedence 4) cs3 marks high-drop packets (for backward compatibility with IP precedence 5)

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A sample configuration on the next page shows implementation of a similar design.

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Configuring Classification Using DSCP
class-map class-map match ip ! ! class-map class-map match ip match ip ! ! class-map class-map match ip match ip ! ! class-map class-map match ip ! ! class-map class-map match ip ip ! ! Voice Voice dscp ef Gold Gold dscp af11 af12 af13 cs3 cs4 dscp af11 af12 af13 cs3 cs4 Silver Silver dscp af21 af22 af23 cs1 cs2 dscp af21 af22 af23 cs1 cs2 Bronze Bronze dscp af31 af32 af33 Best-effort Best-effort dscp default dscp default

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The figure illustrates implementation of a design with five classes:
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Voice, which is identified by DSCP value ef, which looks like IP precedence value 5 in non-DSCP compliant devices. Gold, which is identified by DSCP values af11, af12 and af13. The class is also identified by IP precedence values 3 and 4. Silver, which is identified by DSCP values af21, af22 and af23. The class is also identified by IP precedence values 1 and 2. Bronze , which is identified by DSCP values af31, af32 and af33. Best Effort, which is identified by the default DSCP value that is equal to the default IP precedence value (0).

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From a non-DSCP compliant device the design looks slightly different:
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Voice—IP precedence 5 Gold—IP precedence 3 and 4 Silver—IP precedence 1 and 2 Best Effort—IP precedence 0

A DSCP-compliant device treats packets marked by a non-DSCP compliant device according to the design. A non-DSCP compliant device does not treat packets marked by a DSCP-compliant device correctly:
n

AF1 (001xx0) looks like IP precedence 1. Therefore, class Gold appears as class Silver in a non-DSCP compliant device.

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n

AF2 (010xx0) looks like IP precedence 2. Therefore, class Silver correctly appears as class Silver in a non-DSCP compliant device. AF3 (011xx0) looks like IP precedence 3. Therefore, class Bronze appears as class Gold in a non-DSCP compliant device. EF (101110) looks like IP precedence 5, which is also used for voice in a nonDSCP compliant device.

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As can be seen from the example it is very important to understand the impact of DSCP on non-DSCP compliant devices. A DiffServ-based QoS design should include the impact of DSCP on parts of the networks where all routers are not DSCP compliant. The example shows that a network core, if upgraded to support DSCP, can correctly handle packets classified by edge devices that have not yet been upgraded.

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Configuring Classification Using QoS Group
router(config-cmap)#

match ip qos-group qos-group qos-group qos-group

• Select the QoS group identifying the class • Allowed values are from 0 to 99 • All packets marked with the QoS group value are matched by this class map • The QoS group is a prameter local to the router; it has to be set by some other QoS mechanism (CAR, PBR, CB-Marking, CBPolicing, QPPB)
class-map QoS1 class-map QoS1 match qos-group 1 match qos-group ! ! class-map QoS2 class-map QoS2 match qos-group 2 match qos-group ! !
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS - Modular QoS CLI Classification-26

A QoS group is another marker with support for a large number of classes. Up to 100 classes can be configured by using the QoS group parameter. The main drawback of QoS-group marking is that it has to be performed on every hop since this parameter is not part of any header. The QoS group is an internal parameter in the router and it is lost the moment a packet is sent. The QoS group parameter can be used in situations where one parameter can be seen on input, but not on output where another parameter has to be set. For example:
n n

Match MPLS experimental bits on input and set QoS group based on the value Match QoS group on output and set IP DSCP based on the value

Matching on QoS group can also be used in combination with QoS Policy Propagation through BGP (QPPB) where up to 100 classes are propagated by BGP and marked by QoS group values on all BGP-enabled routers. Class maps are then used to match on QoS group values.

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Configuring Classification Using MPLS experimental bits
router(config-cmap)#

match mpls experimental exp [exp ...]

• Select up to eight MPLS experimental values • Allowed values are from 0 to 7 • All MPLS labeled packets marked with the selected MPLS experimental bits are matched by this class map
class-map MPLS1 class-map MPLS1 match mpls experimental 3 4 match mpls experimental 3 ! class-map MPLS2 class-map MPLS2 match mpls experimental 1 2 match mpls experimental 1 !

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS - Modular QoS CLI Classification-27

Class maps can also be used in MPLS-enabled networks where all packets are labeled. There are three experimental bits in the label header that are currently being used for IP precedence. When an IP packet is labeled, the IP precedence value is copied into MPLS experimental bits. A transparent design can be created where class maps can match on both the IP precedence value and the MPLS experimental bits: class-map match-any Voice match ip precedence 5 match mpls experimental 5 ! class-map match-any Gold match ip precedence 3 4 match mpls experimental 3 4 ! class-map match-any Silver match ip precedence 1 2 match mpls experimental 1 2 ! class-map Best-effort match ip precedence 0 match mpls experimental 0 !

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Configuring Classification Using Input Interface
router(config-cmap)#

match input-interface intf

• All packets received through the selected input interface are matched by this class map
class-map match -any Ethernets class-map match-any match input-interface Ethernet0/0 match input-interface Ethernet0/0 match input-interface Ethernet0/1 match input-interface Ethernet0/1 ! ! class-map match -any FastEthernets class-map match-any FastEthernets match input-interface FastEthernet1/0 match input-interface FastEthernet1/0 match input-interface FastEthernet1/1 match input-interface FastEthernet1/1 ! ! class-map match -any Serials class-map match-any Serials match input-interface Serial2/0 match input-interface Serial2/0 match input-interface Serial2/1 match input-interface Serial2/1 match input-interface Serial2/2 match input-interface Serial2/2 match input-interface Serial2/3 match input-interface Serial2/3 ! !
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS - Modular QoS CLI Classification-28

A packet can also be classified based on the input interface.

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Configuring Classification Using MAC Addresses
router(config-cmap)#

match source-address mac mac-address • Classifies packets based on the source MAC address • This classification option can only be used on interfaces using MAC addresses (e.g. Ethernet, FastEthernet)
router(config-cmap)#

match destination-address mac mac-address mac • Classifies packets based on the destination MAC address • This classification option can only be used on interfaces using MAC addresses (e.g. Ethernet, FastEthernet)
class-map RTR1_dst class-map RTR1_dst match destination-address mac 00f0.64e2.2860 match destination-address mac 00f0.64e2.2860 ! ! class-map RTR2_src class-map RTR2_src match source-address mac 00f0.64e2.3321 mac 00f0.64e2.3321 ! !
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS - Modular QoS CLI Classification-29

Classification can be done based on source or destination MAC addresses. This type of classification is only possible on interfaces that use MAC addresses (for example, Ethernet or FastEthernet). It is especially useful in situations where packets from a certain device have to be matched but the device does not have a static IP address (for example, DHCPderived IP address) or it has too many IP addresses.

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Configuring Classification Using 802.1q or ISL CoS/Priority bits
router(config-cmap)#

match cos cos [cos [cos [cos ]]] cos

• Select up to four CoS/Priority values • Allowed values are 0 to 7 • This classification option can only be used on interfaces using 802.1Q or ISL encapsulation
class-map Strict-priority class-map Strict-priority match cos 5 match cos ! ! class-map High-priority class-map High-priority match cos 4 6 7 match cos 4 ! ! class-map Low-priority class-map Low-priority match cos 0 1 2 3 match cos 0 1 ! !
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Routers can also match on the three Class of Service bits in 802.1Q header or Priority bits in the ISL header. These bits can be used in a LAN-switched environment to provide differentiated quality of service.

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Configuring Classification Using Special Options
router(config-cmap)#

match not condition

• The “not” keyword inverts the condition
router(config-cmap)#

match class-map class-map

• One class map can use another class map for classification • Nested class maps allow generic template class maps to be used in other class maps
router(config-cmap)#

match any

• The “any” keyword can be used to match all packets

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IP QoS - Modular QoS CLI Classification-31

There are some additional options that give extra power to class maps:
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Any condition can be negated by inserting the keyword not A class map can use another class map to match packets The any keyword can be used to match all packets.

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Configuring Classification Using Special Options
class-map Well-known-services class-map Well-known-services match access-group 100 match access-group ! ! Class-map Unknown-services Class-map Unknown-services match not class-map Well-known-services match not class-map ! ! Class-map All-services Class-map All-services match any match any ! ! access-list 100 permit tcp any any lt 1024 access-list 100 permit tcp any any lt access-list 100 permit tcp any lt 1024 any access-list 100 permit tcp any lt 1024

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS - Modular QoS CLI Classification-32

The example shows three class maps:
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Class map Well-known-services uses an access list to match all the packets with the source or destination port number lower than 1024. Class map Unknown-services uses the first class map but negates the result. The same could be achieved by using the same access list with a negation. Class map All-services actually matches all the packets.

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Configuring Classification Using Frame Relay DE Bit
router(config-cmap)#

match fr-de

• Use this command to match all frames with the Frame Relay DE bit set
class-map FR_Out_of_Contract class-map FR_Out_of_Contract match fr-de match ! ! class-map FR_Within_Contract class-map FR_Within_Contract match not fr-de match not fr-de ! !

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IP QoS - Modular QoS CLI Classification-33

Class maps used on Frame Relay interfaces can classify packets based on the setting of the Discard Eligibility (DE) bit. The example illustrates how to classify packets that have the DE bit se (match fr-de) and those that do not (match not fr-de).

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Configuring Classification Using a UDP Port Range
router(config-cmap)#

match ip rtp starting-port port-range • Use this command to implement classification equal to IP RTP Prioritization • All UDP packets with source or destination port numbers within the specified range are matched • Range is between the starting-port (values from 2000 to 65535) and the sum of the starting-port and the port-range (values from 0 to 16383) • The command should be used in combination with Class-based Lowlatency Queuing to implement RTP Prioritization using the Modular QoS CLI class-map RTP class-map match ip rtp 16384 16383 match ip rtp 16384 !
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS - Modular QoS CLI Classification-34

IP RTP Prioritization was introduced to provide low-latency queuing in combination with Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ). The match ip rtp command can be used to match packets in the same way as with IP RTP prioritization. It should also be combined with Class-based Low-latency Queuing (CB-LLQ) to generate a similar result as IP RTP Prioritization.

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Summary
Class maps are used within service policies to classify packets. Class maps support the following classification options:
n n n n n n n n n n n

Access lists IP precedence DSCP QoS group MPLS experimental bits Input interface Source MAC address Destination MAC address IEEE 802.1Q/ISL CoS or Priority bits Frame Relay DE bit RTP port

Review Questions
Answer the following questions:
n n

Which classification options are available using class maps? What command is used to configure classification?

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Network Based Application Recognition (NBAR)
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n

Describe and configure NBAR Describe and configure classification of FTP and TFTP Describe and configure complex classification of HTTP sessions Monitor and troubleshoot class maps

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Network-based Application Recognition (NBAR)
• The IntServ model uses RSVP to signal QoS requirements including application definition • The DiffServ model relies on the network to recognize applications • Recognizing simple applications is possible by matching on the static source or destination TCP/UDP port numbers • Some applications use multiple sessions and dynamic port numbers
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS - Modular QoS CLI Classification-38

The two IETF standards that describe guidelines and protocols used to implement quality of service in IP networks are:
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Integrated Services model Differentiated Services model

The Integrated Services model uses the Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP), which signals the network with the QoS requirements for a specific flow. Part of the request contains information that helps network devices recognize packets belonging to the flow. The Differentiated Services model, however, relies on the network to be able to recognize packets belonging to traffic classes that require the same quality of service. If there is a need to classify a certain protocol it is usually done by using an access list where packets are matched based on the source or destination TCP or UDP port numbers. A problem arises when trying to classify packets belonging to applications that use multiple sessions and dynamically negotiate TCP or UDP port numbers.

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NBAR Capabilities
• NBAR was introduced to enable recognition of applications using dynamic port numbers (e.g. FTP, Exchange, SQL*net) • NBAR supports a number of applications that use static port numbers (e.g. Telnet) • NBAR also allows recognition of sessions based on higher-layer information (e.g. HTTP by URL, Host or MIME, Citrix by application)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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NBAR can be used to recognize packets belonging to different types of applications:
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Static applications establish sessions to well known TCP or UDP destination port numbers. Such applications used to be classified by using access lists. Dynamic applications use multiple sessions, which use dynamic TCP or UDP port numbers. Typically, there is a control session to a well-know port number and the other sessions are established to destination port numbers negotiated through the control sessions. NBAR inspects the port number exchange through the control session. Some non-IP protocols can also be recognized by NBAR. NBAR also has the capability to inspect some applications for other information and classify based on that information. For example, NBAR can classify HTTP sessions based on the requested URL, included MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) type or hostname.

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The following table lists the non-TCP and non-UDP protocols supported by NBAR:
Protocol EGP GRE ICMP IPINIP IPSec EIGRP Network protocol IP IP IP IP IP IP Protocol ID 8 47 1 4 50, 51 88 Description Exterior Gateway Protocol Generic Routing Encapsulation Internet Control Message Protocol IP in IP IP Encapsulating Security Payload/Authentication Header Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

NBAR Support for Static Protocols
• NBAR supports a number of applications that are recognized based on a well known destination port number • Such applications were previously matched by using extended IP access lists

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Although access lists can also be used for this purpose, NBAR is easier to configure and can provide classification statistics that are not available when using access lists. The following table contains the static IP protocols supported by NBAR:
Protocol BGP CU-SeeMe CU-SeeMe DHCP/ BOOTP DNS Finger Gopher HTTP HTTPS IMAP IRC Kerberos L2TP LDAP MS-PPTP MS- SQLServer NetBIOS NetBIOS NFS NNTP
Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Transport protocol TCP/UDP TCP/UDP UDP UDP TCP/UDP TCP TCP/UDP TCP TCP TCP/UDP TCP/UDP TCP/UDP UDP TCP/UDP TCP TCP TCP UDP TCP/UDP TCP/UDP

TCP or UDP port 179 7648, 7649 24032 67, 68

Description Border Gateway Protocol Desktop videoconferencing

Desktop video conferencing Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol/ Bootstrap Protocol 53 Domain Name System 79 Finger user information protocol 70 Internet Gopher Protocol 80 Hypertext Transfer Protocol 443 Secured HTTP 143, 220 Internet Message Access Protocol 194 Internet Relay Chat 88, 749 Kerberos Network Authentication Service 1701 L2F/L2TP tunnel 389 Lightweight Directory Access Protocol 1723 Microsoft Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol for VPN 1433 Microsoft SQL Server Desktop Videoconferencing 137, 139 NetBIOS over IP (MS Windows) 137, 138 NetBIOS over IP (MS Windows) 2049 Network File System 119 Network News Transfer Protocol
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Protocol Notes Novadigm NTP PCAnywhere PCAnywhere POP3 Printer RIP RSVP SFTP SHTTP SIMAP SIRC SLDAP SNNTP SMTP SNMP SOCKS SPOP3 SSH STELNET Syslog Telnet X Windows

Transport protocol TCP/UDP TCP/UDP TCP/UDP TCP UDP TCP/UDP TCP/UDP UDP UDP TCP TCP TCP/UDP TCP/UDP TCP/UDP TCP/UDP TCP TCP/UDP TCP TCP/UDP TCP TCP UDP TCP TCP

TCP or UDP port 1352 34603465 123 5631, 65301 22, 5632 110 515 520 1698,17 990 443 585, 993 994 636 563 25 161, 162 1080 995 22 992 514 23 60006003

Description Lotus Notes Novadigm Enterprise Desktop Manager (EDM) Network Time Protocol Symantec PCAnywhere Symantec PCAnywhere Post Office Protocol Printer Routing Information Protocol Resource Reservation Protocol Secure FTP Secure HTTP Secure IMAP Secure IRC Secure LDAP Secure NNTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Simple Network Management Protocol Firewall security protocol Secure POP3 Secured Shell Secure Telnet System Logging Utility Telnet Protocol X11, X Windows

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

NBAR Support for Dynamic Protocols
• NBAR is primarily used to recognize applications that use multiple sessions and dynamic port numbers
– Such applications usually start with a control session on a well-known port number – Additional ports are negotiated through the control session

• NBAR inspects the negotiation of additional ports • Most of these applications could previously not be matched by any mechanism
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS - Modular QoS CLI Classification-41

The following table lists the dynamic (or stateful) protocols supported by NBAR:
Stateful protocol Transport protocol FTP TCP Exchange TCP HTTP TCP Netshow TCP/UDP Realaudio TCP/UDP r-commands TCP StreamWorks UDP SQL*NET TCP/UDP SunRPC TCP/UDP TFTP UDP VDOLive TCP/UDP Description File Transfer Protocol MS-RPC for Exchange HTTP with URL, MIME, or Host classification Microsoft Netshow RealAudio Streaming Protocol rsh, rlogin, rexec Xing Technology Stream Works audio and video SQL*NET for Oracle Sun Remote Procedure Call Trivial File Transfer Protocol VDOLive Streaming Video

Use the match protocol ? command to display the list of supported protocols with the Cisco IOS version you are using.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Packet Description Language Module
• An external Packet Description Language Module (PDLM) can be loaded at run time to extend the NBAR list of recognized protocols • PDLMs can also be used to enhance an existing protocol recognition capability • PDLMs allow NBAR to recognize new protocols without requiring a new IOS image or a router reload

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS - Modular QoS CLI Classification-42

New features are usually added to new versions of the Cisco IOS software. NBAR is the first mechanism that supports dynamic upgrades without having to change the IOS version or restart a router. Packet Description Language Modules (PDLMs) contain the rules used by NBAR to recognize an application and can be used to bring new or changed functionality to NBAR.

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Configuring NBAR
router(config-cmap)#

match protocol protocol

• Use the protocol keyword and the name of the protocol to match • Static protocols are recognized based on the wellknown destination port number • Dynamic protocols are recognized by inspecting the session

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IP QoS - Modular QoS CLI Classification-43

When configuring NBAR the administrator does not need to understand the way a certain protocol works. The configuration simply requires the administrator to enter the name of the protocol (static or stateful).

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Configuring NBAR
router(config)#

ip nbar pdlm pdlm-file pdlm-file

• Enter the location of the Packet Description Language Module file to extend the NBAR capabilities of the router • The file name is in the URL format (e.g. flash://citrix.pdlm)
router(config)# ip nbar port-map protocol {tcp | udp} new-port [new-port ...] protocol

• Specify an additional port for a well-known protocol • Up to 16 additional port numbers can be specified

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Use the ip nbar pdlm command to configure the routers with the new functionality brought by the PDLM file. The pdlm-file parameter should be in the URL format and can point to the flash where the IOS is stored (for example, flash://nbar.pdlm). The file can also be located on a TFTP server (for example, tftp://10.1.1.1/nbar.pdlm). Some protocols (static or stateful) can use additional TCP or UDP ports. Use the ip nbar port-map command to extend the NBAR functionality for well-known protocols to new port numbers.

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Configuring NBAR for HTTP
router(config-cmap)#

match protocol http url url • Recognizes the HTTP GET packets containing the URL, and then matches all packets that are part of the HTTP GET request • Include only the portion of the URL following the address or hostname in the match statement
router(config-cmap)#

match protocol http host hostname • Performs a regular expression match on the host field contents inside an HTTP GET packet and classifies all packets from that host
router(config-cmap)#

match protocol http mime mime-type protocol http mime • Select the mime-type to be matched • Matches a packet containing the MIME-type and all subsequent packets until the next HTTP transaction
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS - Modular QoS CLI Classification-45

NBAR has enhanced classification capabilities for HTTP. It can classify packets belonging to HTTP flows based on:
n

URL portion after the hostname which appears in the GET request of the HTTP session Hostname specified in the GET request MIME type specifying the type of object in the HTTP response

n n

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NBAR for FTP Case Study
class-map FTP match protocol ftp class-map FTP match protocol ftp

Open control session to well-known port 21 GET file; use port 1050 Open data session to negotiated port 1050 Sending file

• FTP control sessions can be recognized based on the wellknown port number 21 • FTP data sessions may be recognized by the well-known source port number 20 • Not all implementations of FTP use port 20 • NBAR recognizes FTP data sessions by inspecting the FTP control session
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS - Modular QoS CLI Classification-46

The figure illustrates the process of a file download using FTP. FTP sessions use the well-known TCP port number 21 to open a control session. A new session is opened to transfer a file. The client in the example tells the server to open a data session to TCP port 1050. Although the server should use the well-known source port 20 for the data session, which would simplify classification of FTP, many implementations of FTP use random source port numbers. NBAR inspects the communication between the client and the server to learn about dynamically negotiated port numbers (1050 in the example). NBAR is then able to classify all packets (control and data) as FTP packets.

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NBAR for TFTP Case Study
class-map FTP match protocol tftp class-map FTP match protocol tftp

Send first packet to port 69, source port 1060 GET file Send packet to port 1060, source port 1035 Sending file Send packet to port 1035, source port 1060 Acknowledge Send packet to port 1060, source port 1035 Sending file

• TFTP uses UDP for transport • The first packet uses a well-known destination port number 69 and a random source port (>1023) • The receiver responds to the received source port and uses a new source port for its packets (>1023) • The session from there on uses those port numbers
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS - Modular QoS CLI Classification-47

TFTP is another file transfer protocol (a trivial one), which is not trivial to classify. TFTP uses UDP to transfer files.
Step 1

The first TFPT packet (sent from the client to the server) uses a random source port number and the well-known destination port number 69. This is the only information that can be used to recognize TFTP. A router configured for NBAR recognizes port 69 but remembers the source port (1060 in the example). The server responds by sending a packet to the client where its source port number is also random (1035 in the example). The router can, however, recognize this as part of a TFTP session because it previously recorded the client’s source port number (now the destination port number 1060). All subsequent packets use this pair of port numbers (1060<->1035).

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

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NBAR for HTTP Case Study #1
ip nbar port-map http tcp 80 8080 ! class-map HTTP match protocol http ip nbar port-map http tcp 80 8080 ! class-map HTTP match protocol http

Open HTTP session to port 80 GET page Open HTTP session to port 8080 GET page

• HTTP is a static protocol using a well-known port number 80 • Some web servers are using HTTP on other ports • Use the “ip nbar port-map” command to inform the router that other ports are also used for HTTP
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The example illustrates a simple classification of all HTTP sessions. HTTP sessions using the default well-known port number 80 are simple to classify (it is a static protocol). HTTP is often used on other port numbers. The example shows the usage of the ip nbar port-map command to also enable HTTP recognition on port 8080.

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NBAR for HTTP Case Study #2
ip nbar port-map http tcp 80 8080 ! class-map HTTP match protocol http url *xxx.(jpg|gif)

Open HTTP session to port 80 GET /images/xxx.gif Open HTTP session to port 8080 GET /images/xxx.jpg

• The class map matches all HTTP requests that contain either xxx.gif or xxx.jpg • It does so on both ports: 80 and 8080

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Classification of HTTP by URL, host, or Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (MIME) type, is an example of subport classification.
Step 1

NBAR classifies HTTP traffic by text within the URL or host fields of a GET request using regular expression matching. NBAR uses the UNIX filename specification as the basis for the URL or host specification format. The NBAR engine converts the specified match string into a regular expression. NBAR recognizes HTTP GET packet(s) containing the URL and classifies all packets that are sent to the source of the HTTP GET request. The example shows a class-map that classifies only those HTTP sessions that request files with filenames ending in xxx.gif or xxx.jpg. The allowed regular expressions include the following special characters:
Special character * ? | (|) [] Description Match any zero or more characters in this position. Match any one character in this position. Match one of a choice of characters. Match one of a choice of characters in a range. For example, foo.(gif | jpg) matches either foo.gif or foo.jpg. Match any character in the range specified, or one of the special characters. For example, [0-9] is all of the digits. [*] is the "*" and [[] is the "[" character.

Step 2 Step 3

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NBAR for HTTP Case Study #3
ip nbar port-map http tcp 80 8080 ! class-map HTTP match protocol http mime *jpeg

Open HTTP session to port 80 GET /html/pictures.html Open HTTP session to port 8080 GET /html/pictures.html

• The class map matches all HTTP requests containing MIME type that contains jpeg (e.g. image/jpeg) • It does so on both ports: 80 and 8080

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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This example shows how HTTP sessions can also be filtered based on the MIME type.

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Summary
Network-based Application Recognition (NBAR) is a tool used primarily to classify packets belonging to applications using dynamically assigned TCP or UDP port numbers. Additionally, NBAR can classify packets (or flows) on application layer information (for example, HTTP can be classified based on URL, hostname or MIME contents).

Review Questions
Answer the following questions:
n n n

What is NBAR used for? What types of applications can NBAR recognize? How can support for recognizing new applications be included into existing IOS versions? What additional classification options are available for HTTP? Which special characters are available with regular expressions for matching HTTP flows?

n n

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Summary
After completing this module, you should be able to perform the following tasks:
n n

Describe the classification part of the Modular QoS CLI Describe and configure all currently supported classification options within the MQC Understand Network-based Application Recognition (NBAR) Monitor and troubleshoot class maps

n n

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Review Questions and Answers
Introduction to Modular QoS CLI Question: What are the benefits of the Modular QoS CLI? Answer: Template-based configuration; new classification options can be used with any MQC-based QoS mechanism. Question: Which two matching strategies do class maps support? Answer: When using multiple match commands in one class map a logical “or” is configured using the match-any keyword and a logical “and” is configured using the match-all keyword. Question: Which classification options do class maps support? Answer: Class maps support classification using: access lists, IP Precedence value, IP DSCP value, QoS group number, MPLS experimental bits, protocol (including NBAR) etc.

Classification Options Question: Which classification options are available using class maps? Answer: Class maps support classification using: access lists, IP Precedence value, IP DSCP value, QoS group number, MPLS experimental bits, protocol (including NBAR) etc. Question: What command is used to configure classification? Answer: The match command is used in the class-map configuration mode to specify the classification parameters.

Network Based Application Recognition (NBAR) Question: What is NBAR used for? Answer: NBAR is primarily used to recognize sessions that dynamically negotiate TCP or UDP port numbers. Question: What types of applications can NBAR recognize? Answer: NBAR can recognize static protocols, dynamic protocols and sessions based on higher-layer information. Question: How can support for recognizing new applications be included into existing IOS versions? Answer: By using Packet Language Description Modules (PDLMs) to include new or changed functionality into existing Cisco IOS.
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Question: What additional classification options are available for HTTP? Answer: Classification based on URL, hostname or MIME type. Question: Which special characters are available with regular
expressions for matching HTTP flows?

Answer: The special characters include:
– – –

“*” to match any sequence of characters “?” to match any single character “|” to match the expression on the left or the expression on the right “[]” to match a character from the specified range “()” to group a number of characters

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9

Modular QoS CLI Service Policy

Overview
This module describes the policy part of the Modular QoS CLI (MQC). The module describes all the mechanisms that are currently supported by the MQC. As well, the module describes the class-based approach to the marking, shaping, policing, dropping and/or scheduling of IP packets using the modular QoS CLI.

Objectives
Upon completion of this module, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n n n n

Describe the policy part of the Modular QoS CLI Configure packet marking with modular CLI Configure policing and shaping with modular CLI Configure class-based WFQ with modular CLI Configure congestion avoidance mechanisms (WRED) with modular CLI Configure low-latency queuing Monitor and troubleshoot policy maps

Service Policy
Overview
This lesson introduces the part of the MQC that is used to enable QoS mechanisms for classified traffic.

Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n

Describe and configure policy maps. List all the QoS mechanisms currently available in the MQC. Monitor and troubleshoot policy maps.

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IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Service Policy
• One aspect of modularity of the MQC is the configuration part • MQC is split into two modules:
– Configuration of classification – Configuration of service policies

• Classification is configured by using class maps • Service Policy is configured by using policy maps

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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The Cisco IOS Modular QoS CLI (MQC) is the new, unified method of QoS mechanism configuration in Cisco IOS. MQC separates classification and QoS mechanism configuration by separating the configuration tasks into:
n n

Configuration of class-maps, which define the classification of traffic Configuration of service policies, which define how QoS mechanisms are applied to traffic classes

This creates a flexible environment for the modular configuration of many QoS features, and significantly reduces overhead and the possibility of errors because configuration information is not unnecessarily duplicated.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Modular QoS CLI
Classification
Class 1?

Service Policy
CB-WFQ

Service Policy implements per-hop behaviors (PHBs) for all traffic classes Supported mechanisms:

Class 2?

CB-LLQ

• CB-WFQ • CB-LLQ • CB-Policing

Class N?

CB-Policing

• CB-Shaping • CB-Marking

• Up to 256 classes can be used within one service policy
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy -6

The service policy is used to configure QoS mechanisms, which may be applied to classes. The QoS mechanisms implement local per-hop behaviors (PHBs) for attached traffic classes. The QoS system, which implements PHB configured via the MQC, is the Class-Based Weighted Fair Queuing system, which integrates many QoS features in a single system, configured via a common (MQC) interface. A service policy can have up to 256 classes used within it and attached to an interface. Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing and Class-based Low-latency Queuing are an exception – only 64 classes can be used with one service policy.

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IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

PHB Mechanisms
• MQC Supports the following QoS mechanisms:
– Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing (CB-WFQ) to guarantee bandwidth – Class-based Low-latency Queuing (CB-LLQ) to guarantee bandwidth and low-latency – Class-based Policing (CB-Policing) to limit traffic rate by dropping excess traffic – Class-based Shaping (CB-Shaping) to limit traffic rate by delaying excess traffic – Class-based Marking (CB-Marking) to mark packets
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The MQC configures the CB-WFQ system, which in turn implements the following QoS functions:
n

Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing, which is used to guarantee bandwidth within the CB-WFQ system Class-based Low-latency Queuing, which is used to guarantee bandwidth and provide low latency to time-critical traffic Class-based Policing, which performs rate limiting by traffic policing Class-based Shaping, which performs rate limiting by traffic shaping Class-based Marking, which performs packet and frame marking

n

n n n

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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9-5

Configuring Policy Maps
Router(config)#

policy-map name • Enter policy-map configuration mode • Policy maps are identified by a case-sensitive name
Router(config-pmap)#

class class-map • Enter the per-class policy configuration mode by using the name of a previously configured class-map • Use the name “class-default” to configure the policy for the default class
Router(config-pmap)#

class class-map condition • Optionally you can define a new class-map by entering the condition after the name of the new class map • Class map will use the match-any strategy
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy -8

Service policies are configured using the policy-map command. Up to 256 classes can be used within one policy-map using the class command with the name of a preconfigured class-map. A non-existent class can also be used within the policy-map configuration mode if the match condition is specified after the name of the class. The running configuration will reflect such a configuration by using the match any strategy and inserting a full class-map configuration. The following table shows starting and resulting configuration modes for the classmap, policy-map and class commands: Starting configuration mode
Router(config)# Router(config)# Router(config-pmap)#

Command
class-map policy-map class

Configuration mode
Router(config-cmap)# Router(config-pmap)# Router(config-pmap-c)#

All traffic that is not classified by any of the class-maps used within the policy map is part of the default class class-default. This class has no QoS guarantees by default. The default cla ss, when used on output, can use one FIFO queue of flow-based WFQ. The default class is part of every policy-map even if not configured.

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Configuring Policy Maps
Router(config-pmap)#

description description • It is recommended to use descriptions in large and complex configurations • The description has no operational meaning
Router(config-pmap)#

rename policy-map • Complex policy-maps can be renamed by using the rename policy-map command • All references to the policy map are also renamed
Router(config-pmap-c)#

<PHB mechanism> • Per-class service policies are configured within the per-class policymap configuration mode
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy -9

Policy maps, like class maps, should use descriptions in large QoS implementations where a large number of different policy maps are used. Renaming a policy map would normally require the renaming of all the references to the policy map. Using the rename command simplifies the renaming process by automatically renaming all references. The remainder of this module focuses on the various QoS mechanisms that are configured per-class within the policy-map configuration mode (config-pmap-c).

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy

9-7

Configuring Policy Maps
Router(config-if)#

service-policy {input | output} policy-map

• Attaches the specified service policy map to the input or output interface • The interface should be in the default queuing mode prior to using this command if it is used on output
class-map HTTP class-map HTTP match protocol http match protocol ! ! policy-map PM policy-map PM class HTTP class HTTP bandwidth 2000 bandwidth 2000 class class-default bandwidth 6000 bandwidth 6000 ! !
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

interface Serial0/0 interface Serial0/0 service-policy output PM service-policy output PM ! !

IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy-10

The last configuration step when configuring QoS mechanisms using the Modular QoS CLI, is to attach a policy map to the inbound or outbound packets, using the service-policy command. The router immediately verifies the correctness of parameters used in the policy map. If there is a mistake in the policy-map configuration, the router will display a message explaining what is wrong with the policy map. The sample configuration shows how a policy map is used to separate HTTP from other traffic. HTTP is guaranteed 2Mbps. All other traffic belongs to the default class and is guaranteed 6Mbps.

9-8

IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Attaching Policy Maps to ATM PVCs
Router(config-subif)#

service-policy {input | output} policy-map

• Service policies can be attached to an ATM (sub)interface • Using service policies on the main interface and subinterfaces at the same time is not supported in the distributed (VIP-based) version
Router(config-if-atm-vc)#

service-policy {input | output} policy-map

• Service policies can also be attached to an ATM PVC
interface atm 5/0/0.1 point-to-point interface atm 5/0/0.1 point-to-point service-policy output PM1 service-policy output PM1 ! ! interface atm 5/0/0.2 point-to-point interface atm 5/0/0.2 point-to-point pvc 1/40 pvc 1/40 service-policy output PM2 service-policy output PM2 ! !
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy-11

Service policies can be applied to interfaces, subinterfaces or individual ATM virtual circuits. Refer to the “IP QoS – IP over ATM” module for a more detailed description of MQC usage on ATM interfaces.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy

9-9

Attaching Policy Maps to Frame Relay Interfaces
Router(config-subif)#

service-policy {input | output} policy-map

• Service policy can be attached to an interface and/or to a subinterface • Service policy attached to a subinterface can not include CB-WFQ or CB-LLQ except in the distributed (VIP-based) version • Using service policies on the main interface and subinterfaces at the same time is not supported in the distributed (VIP-based) version

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy-12

Service policies can also be used on Frame Relay interfaces or subinterfaces.

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IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Attaching Policy Maps to Frame Relay PVCs
Router(config-map-class)#

service-policy {input | output} policy-map • Service policy can be attached to a Frame Relay map class
class-map Voice class-map Voice match protocol vofr match protocol vofr ! ! policy-map LLQ policy-map class Voice class Voice priority 100 priority ! ! interface Serial0/0 interface Serial0/0 encapsulation frame -relay encapsulation frame-relay ! ! interface Serial0/0.1 point-to-point interface Serial0/0.1 point-to-point frame-relay class Voice frame-relay class ! ! map-class frame-relay Voice map-class frame-relay Voice service-policy output LLQ service-policy ! !
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A Frame Relay map class is needed when attaching a policy map to an individual virtual circuit. The sample configuration illustrates how per-VC Low-latency queuing can be configured on Frame Relay virtual circuits.

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Policy Map Example
class-map match-all Test1 class-map match-all Test1 match protocol http protocol match access-group 100 match access-group 100 class-map match-any Test2 class-map match-any Test2 match protocol http match protocol match access-group 101 match access-group 101 ! ! policy-map Test policy-map class Test1 bandwidth 100 100 class Test2 bandwidth 200 200 class Test3 access-group 100 bandwidth 300 300 ! ! access-list 100 permit tcp any host 10.1.1.1 access-list permit tcp any host 10.1.1.1 access-list 101 permit tcp any host 10.1.1.2 access-list permit tcp any host 10.1.1.2

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy-14

The example shows the configuration of a policy map using three classes. The first two classes were separately configured using the class-map command. The third class was configured “on the fly” by specifying the match condition after the name of the class. Class Test1 has two match conditions evaluated in the match-all strategy. Classes Test2 and Test3 use the match-any strategy.

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Monitoring and Troubleshooting Policy Maps
Router#

show policy-map [policy-map]
Router#show policy-map Router#show policy-map Policy Map Test Class Test1 Test1 Weighted Fair Queueing Queueing Bandwidth 100 (kbps) Bandwidth 100 (kbps) Class Test2 Test2 Weighted Fair Queueing Queueing Bandwidth 200 (kbps) Bandwidth 200 (kbps) Class Test3 Test3 Weighted Fair Queueing Queueing Bandwidth 300 (kbps) Bandwidth 300 (kbps)

Max Threshold 64 (packets) Max Threshold 64 (packets)

Max Threshold 64 (packets) Max Threshold 64 (packets)

Max Threshold 64 (packets) Max Threshold 64 (packets)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy-15

The show policy-map command can be used to verify the configuration of a policy map.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Monitoring and Troubleshooting Policy Maps
Router#

show policy-map interface [intf] {input | output}
Router #show policy -map interface FastEthernet0/0 output Router#show policy-map interface FastEthernet0/0 output FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/0 Service-policy output: Test (1101) Service-policy output: Test (1101) Class-map: Test1 (match-all) (1103/3) Class-map: Test1 (match-all) (1103/3) 0 packets, 0 bytes 0 packets, 0 bytes 5 minute offered rate 0 bps, drop rate 0 bps 5 minute offered rate bps, Match: access-group 101 (1107) Match: access-group 101 (1107) Match: access-group 102 (1111) Match: access-group 102 (1111) Match: protocol http (1115) Match: protocol http (1115) Weighted Fair Queueing Weighted Fair Queueing Output Queue: Conversation 265 Output Queue: Bandwidth 100 (kbps) Max Threshold 64 (packets) Bandwidth 100 (kbps) Max Threshold 64 (packets) (pkts matched/bytes matched) 0/0 (pkts matched/bytes matched) 0/0 (depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/0/0 (depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/0/0 ... ... Class-map: class-default (match-any) (1143/0) Class-map: class -default (match-any) (1143/0) 25 packets, 19310 bytes 25 packets, 19310 bytes 5 minute offered rate 1000 bps, drop rate 0 bps 5 minute offered rate 1000 bps, drop rate 0 bps Match: any (1147) Match: any (1147)
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy-16

The show policy-map command also displays live information if the interface keyword is used. The sample output shows the parameters and statistics of the policy map attached to outbound traffic on interface FastEthernet0/0.

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IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Summary
All QoS mechanisms using the Modular QoS CLI (MQC) are configured using the following three commands:
n n n

Class-map global configuration command to configure classification Policy-map global configuration command to create a service policy Class command in the policy-map configuration mode to attach QoS mechanisms to a class

The MQC supports the following QoS mechanisms:
n n n n n n

Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing Class-based Low-latency Queuing Class-based Weighted Random Early Detection Class-based Policing Class-based Shaping Class-based Marking

Lesson Review
1. What are the benefits of using MQC? 2. How many classes can be used for one service policy?

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy

9-15

Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing
Overview
This lesson describes the enhanced queuing mechanism in Cisco IOS using the Modular QoS CLI.

Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n

Describe Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing (CB-WFQ) Configure CB-WFQ Monitor and troubleshoot CB-WFQ

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IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing
• Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing (CB-WFQ) is a mechanism that is used to guaranetee bandwidth to classes • CB-WFQ extends the standard WFQ functionality to provide support for user-defined traffic classes
– Classes are based on user-defined match criteria – Packets satisfying the match criteria for a class constitute the traffic for that class

• A queue is reserved for each class, and traffic belonging to a class is directed to that class's queue

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CBWFQ extends the standard WFQ functionality to provide support for userdefined traffic classes. For CBWFQ, the user defines the traffic classes based on match criteria including protocols, access control lists (ACLs), and input interfaces. Packets satisfying the match criteria for a class constitute the traffic for that class. A queue is reserved for each class, and traffic belonging to a class is directed to that class's queue. Once a class has been defined according to its match criteria, you can assign it characteristics. To characterize a class, you assign it bandwidth, weight, and maximum packet limit. The bandwidth assigned to a class is the minimum bandwidth delivered to the class during congestion. To characterize a class, you also specify the queue limit for that class, which is the maximum number of packets allowed to accumulate in the class's queue. Packets belonging to a class are subject to the bandwidth and queue limits that characterize the class. After a queue has reached its configured queue limit, enqueuing of additional packets to the class causes tail drop or packet drop to take effect, depending on how the class policy is configured.

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CB-WFQ
Forwarded Packets
CB-WFQ

Class 1?

Tail-drop

Queue 1

Class 2?

Tail-drop

Queue 2 CB-WFQ Scheduler

Hardware Queuing System Hardware Q Interface

Class-default?

Tail-drop

Default Queue

• Up to 64 classes (class maps) and one default class
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CB-WFQ uses up to 64 class maps to classify traffic into their corresponding FIFO queues. Tail-drop is the default dropping scheme of CB-WFQ although it can be combined with WRED. The CB-WFQ scheduler is used to guarantee bandwidth based on the configured weights.

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CB-WFQ Classification
• Classification uses class-maps • Availability of certain classification options depends on the Cisco IOS version • Some classification options depend on type of interface and encapsulation where service policy is used • For example:
– Matching on Frame Relay DE bits can only be used on interfaces with Frame Relay encapsulation – Matching on MPLS experimental bits has no effect if MPLS is not enabled – Matching on ISL Priority bits has no effect if ISL is not used

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Any classification option can be used depending on the availability in the Cisco IOS version and the support on the selected interface and encapsulation.

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CB-WFQ Insertion Policy
• Each queue has a maximum number of packets that it can hold (queue size) • The default maximum queue size is 64 • After a packet is classified to one of the queues, the router will enqueue the packet if the queue limit has not been reached (taildrop within each class) • WRED can be used in combination with CBWFQ to prevent congestion of the class

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CB-WFQ reserves 64 FIFO queues in the WFQ system. The default queue limit is 64 (tail-drop) and can be configured with WRED (random drop).

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CB-WFQ Scheduling
• CB-WFQ guarantees bandwidth according to weights assigned to traffic classes • Weights can be defined by specifying:
– Bandwidth (in kbps) – Percentage of bandwidth (percentage of configured interface bandwidth) – Percentage of available bandwidth

• One service policy can not have mixed types of weights • The “show interface” command can be used to display the available bandwidth
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The configuration of bandwidth guarantees can be done using one of the following commands:
n

The bandwidth command allocates a fixed amount of bandwidth by specifying the amount in kilobits per second (kbps). The reserved bandwidth is subtracted from the available bandwidth of the interface where the service policy is used. The allocated bandwidth must also be within the default or configured reservable limit (75% by default). The bandwidth percent command can be used to allocate a percentage of the default or configured bandwidth of an interface. The default bandwidth usually equals the maximum speed of an interface. Sometimes it actually reflects the real speed of an interface (for example: Ethernet or FastEthernet). The default value can be replaced by using the bandwidth interface command. It is recommended that the bandwidth reflect the real speed of the link. The allocated bandwidth is subtracted from the available bandwidth of the interface where the service policy is used. The bandwidth remaining percent command can be used to allocate a portion of the available bandwidth. The allocated bandwidth is not subtracted from the available bandwidth of the interface where the service policy is used.

n

n

A single service policy cannot mix different bandwidth commands.

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Available Bandwidth
• Available bandwidth is calculated according to the following formula:
Configured using the interface “bandwidth” command Configured using the interface max-reserved -bandwidth command 75% is the default value

BWavail = BW * MaxReservable – SUM(all fixed guarantees)

Sum of all fixed guarantees using CB-WFQ, CB-LLQ, IP RTP Prioritization

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The available bandwidth displayed by the show interface command is calculated by subtracting all fixed bandwidth reservations from 75% of the default or configured bandwidth of an interface.

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Available Bandwidth Example 1
• Ethernet interface uses default bandwidth 10000 (kbps) and WFQ
BWavail = BW * MaxReservable – SUM(all fixed guarantees) BWavail = 10000 kbps * 75% – 0 kbps = 7500 kbps
Router#show interface Ethernet 0/0 Router#show interface Ethernet 0/0 Ethernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up Ethernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up Hardware is AmdP2, address is 00b0.64e2.2860 ( bia 00b0.64e2.2860) (bia 00b0.64e2.2860) Hardware is Internet address is 192.168.20.1 255.255.255.0 Internet MTU 1500 bytes, BW 10000 Kbit, DLY 1000 usec, MTU 1500 bytes, BW 10000 Kbit, DLY 1000 usec, reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255 reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255 Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set Keepalive set (10 sec) Keepalive ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00 ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00 Last input 00:00:04, output 00:00:08, output hang never Last input 00:00:04, output 00:00:08, output hang never Last clearing of "show interface" counters never Last clearing of "show interface" counters never Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output d rops: 0 Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0 Queueing strategy: weighted fair Queueing strategy: weighted fair Output queue: 0/1000/64/0 (size/max total/threshold/drops) Output queue: 0/1000/64/0 (size/max total/threshold/drops) Conversations 0/0/256 (active/max active/max total) Conversations 0/0/256 (active/max active/max total) Reserved Conversations 0/0 (allocated/max allocated) Reserved Conversations 0/0 (allocated/max allocated) Available Bandwidth 7500 kilobits/sec Available Bandwidth ... ...
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The figure illustrates a situation where there are no fixed guarantees on the interface. The show interface command confirms that there are 7.5 Mbps of bandwidth available (only 75% of 10Mbps is reservable by default).

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Available Bandwidth Example 2
• Ethernet interface uses default bandwidth 10000 (kbps) with WFQ • Maximum Reservable bandwidth is set to 50% • IP RTP Prioritization is used to guarantee 1 Mbps to VoIP
BWavail = BW * MaxReservable – SUM(all fixed guarantees) BWavail = 10000 kbps * 50% – 1000 kbps = 4000 kbps

interface Ethernet0/0 ip address 192.168.20.1 255.255.255.0 half-duplex max-reserved-bandwidth 50 fair-queue ip rtp priority 16384 16383 1000

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After enabling IP RTP Prioritization with 1Mbps of guaranteed bandwidth and reducing the reservable limit to 50% there are only 4Mbps left. The IP RTP Priority feature provides a strict priority queueing scheme that allows delay-sensitive data such as voic e to be dequeued and sent before packets in other queues are dequeued. This feature can be used with either WFQ or CBWFQ on the same outgoing interface. In either case, traffic matching the range of UDP ports specified for the priority queue is guaranteed strict priority over other CBWFQ classes or WFQ flows; packets in the priority queue are always serviced first.

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Available Bandwidth Example 2
Router#show interface Ethernet0/0 Router#show interface Ethernet0/0 Ethernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up Ethernet0/0 line protocol up Hardware is AmdP2, address is 00b0.64e2.2860 (bia 00b0.64e2.2860) Hardware is AmdP2, address is 00b0.64e2.2860 (bia 00b0.64e2.2860) Internet address is 192.168.20.1 255.255.255.0 Internet address is 192.168.20.1 255.255.255.0 MTU 1500 bytes, BW 10000 Kbit, DLY 1000 usec, MTU 1500 bytes, BW 10000 Kbit, DLY 1000 usec, reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255 reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255 Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set Keepalive set (10 sec) Keepalive set (10 sec) ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00 ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00 Last input 00:00:04, output 00:00:06, output hang never Last input 00:00:04, output 00:00:06, output hang never Last clearing of "show interface" counters never Last clearing of "show interface" counters never Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output d rops: 0 drops: Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Queueing strategy: weighted fair Queueing strategy: weighted fair Output queue: 0/1000/64/0 (size/max total/threshold/drops) Output queue: 0/1000/64/0 (size/max total/threshold/drops) Conversations 0/1/256 (active/max active/max total) Conversations 0/1/256 (active/max active/max total) Reserved Conversations 0/0 (allocated/max allocated) Reserved Conversations 0/0 (allocated/max allocated) Available Bandwidth 4000 kilobits/sec Available Bandwidth 4000 kilobits/sec ... ...

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The show interface command confirms the calculation of available bandwidth for Example 2.

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Configuring CB-WFQ
Router(config-pmap-c)#

bandwidth bandwidth

• Allocate a fixed amount of bandwidth to a class • Set the value in kbps
Router(config-pmap-c)#

bandwidth percent percent

• Allocate a percentage of bandwidth to a class • The configured (or default) interface bandwidth is used to calculate the guaranteed bandwidth
Router(config-pmap-c)#

bandwidth remaining percent percent remaining percent

• Allocate a percentage of available bandwidth to a class

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Bandwidth guarantee is configured in the cla ss policy-map configuration mode (config-pmap-c). All classes belonging to one policy map should use the same type of bandwidth guarantee (fixed in kbps, in percentage of interface bandwidth, in percentage of available bandwidth).

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Configuring CB-WFQ
Router(config-pmap-c)#

queue-limit queue-limit

• Set the maximum number of packets this queue can hold • The default maximum is 64 • Sets the discard threshold in the “class-default” if flow-based WFQ is used

Router(config-pmap-c)#

fair-queue [dynamic-queues]

• The “class-default” class can be configured to use flow-based WFQ • WFQ can be configured with 16 to 4096 dynamic queues

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The default queue limit of 64 packets can be changed using the queue-limit command. It is recommended not to change the default value. The default class can be selected by specifying the class-default name of the class. The default class supports two types of queuing: one FIFO queue (Default) or a Flow-based WFQ system. Both types can be combined with WRED. FIFO queue can also get a bandwidth guarantee. The following example shows the configuration of FIFO queuing within the default class. The default class is also guaranteed 1 Mbps of bandwidth and the maximum queue size is limited to 40 packets. policy-map A class A bandwidth 1000 class class-default bandwidth 1000 queue-limit 40 This next example shows the configuration of WFQ queuing within the default class. The number of dynamic queues is set to 1024 and the discard threshold is set to 50. policy-map A class A bandwidth 1000 class class-default fair-queue 1024 queue-limit 50

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CB-WFQ Example 1
policy-map Policy1 policy-map Policy1 class Class1 class Class1 bandwidth 2000 2000 class Class2 class Class2 bandwidth 2000 2000 ! interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 ip address 10.1.1.1 duplex auto duplex speed 10 speed 10 max-reserved-bandwidth 80 max-reserved-bandwidth 80 service-policy output Policy1 service-policy ip rtp priority 16384 16383 1000 ip rtp priority 16384 16383 1000 ! BWavail = 10000 kbps * 80% - (2000+2000+1000) kbps = 3000 kbps
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The sample configuration shows how CB-WFQ is used to guarantee 2Mbps to each of the two classes. The FastEthernet interface (in Ethernet mode) allows up to 80% of the interface bandwidth (10Mbps) to be reserved. IP RTP Prioritization together with the two classes consumes 5Mbps. The available bandwidth, therefore, is 3Mbps.

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CB-WFQ Example 2
policy-map Policy1 policy-map Policy1 class Class1 class Class1 bandwidth percent 20 percent 20 class Class2 class Class2 bandwidth percent 20 percent 20 ! interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 ip address 10.1.1.1 duplex auto duplex speed 10 speed 10 max-reserved-bandwidth 80 max-reserved-bandwidth 80 service-policy output Policy1 service-policy ip rtp priority 16384 16383 1000 ip rtp priority 16384 16383 1000 ! BWavail = 10000 kbps * 80% - (10000*(20%+20%)+1000) kbps = 3000 kbps
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This implementation is equal to CB-WFQ Example 1. The main benefit of using the percentage keyword is that this policy map can easily be used on another interface with a different link speed (bandwidth).

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

CB-WFQ Examples 1 and 2
Router#show interface fastethernet 0/0 Router#show interface fastethernet 0/0 FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up FastEthernet0/0 line protocol is up Hardware is AmdFE, address is 0030.8546.aa00 (bia 0030.8546.aa00) Hardware is AmdFE, address is 0030.8546.aa00 (bia 0030.8546.aa00) Internet address is 10.1.1.1 /24 Internet address is 10.1.1.1 /24 MTU 1500 bytes, BW 10000 Kbit, DLY 1000 usec, MTU 1500 BW 10000 Kbit, DLY 1000 usec, reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255 reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255 Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set Keepalive set (10 sec) Keepalive set (10 sec) Half-duplex, 10Mb/s, 100BaseTX/FX Half-duplex, 10Mb/s, 100BaseTX/FX ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00 ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00 Last input 00:00:00, output 00:00:09, output hang never Last input 00:00:00, output 00:00:09, output hang never Last clearing of "show interface" counters never Last clearing of "show interface" counters never Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output d rops: 0 drops: Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Queueing strategy: weighted fair Queueing strategy: weighted fair Output queue: 0/1000/64/0 (size/max total/threshold/drops) Output queue: 0/1000/64/0 (size/max total/threshold/drops) Conversations 0/1/256 (active/max active/max total) Conversations 0/1/256 (active/max active/max total) Reserved Conversations 2/2 (allocated/max allocated) Reserved Conversations 2/2 (allocated/max allocated) Available Bandwidth 3000 kilobits/sec Available Bandwidth 3000 kilobits/sec ... ...

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The show interface command confirms the calc ulation of available bandwidth on the previous CB-WFQ examples.

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CB-WFQ Example 3
policy-map Policy1 policy-map Policy1 class Class1 class Class1 bandwidth remaining percent 20 remaining 20 class Class2 class Class2 bandwidth remaining percent 20 remaining 20 ! interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 ip address 10.1.1.1 duplex auto duplex speed 10 speed 10 max-reserved-bandwidth 80 max-reserved-bandwidth 80 service-policy output Policy1 service-policy ip rtp priority 16384 16383 1000 ip rtp priority 16384 16383 1000 ! BWavail = 10000 kbps * 80% - 1000 kbps = 7000 kbps
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Example 3 shows how the available bandwidth can be distributed among the classes configured with the bandwidth remaining percent command. The reservation does not affect the calculation of available bandwidth (it is not a fixed guarantee).

The bandwidth remaining percent command allows you to allocate bandwidth as a relative percentage of the total bandwidth available on the interface. This command allows you to specify the relative percentage of the bandwidth to be allocated to the classes of traffic. In this example, 20 percent of the available bandwidth is allocated to Class1 and 20 percent to Class2. Essentially, you are specifying the ratio of the bandwidth to be allocated to the traffic class. The sum of the numbers used to indicate this ratio cannot exceed 100 percent. This way, you need not know the total amount of bandwidth available, just the relative percentage you want to allocate for each traffic class. Each traffic class gets a minimum bandwidth as a relative percentage of the remaining bandwidth. The remaining bandwidth is the bandwidth available after the priority queue, if present, is given its required bandwidth, and after any Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) flows are given their requested bandwidth.

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CB-WFQ Example 3
Router#show interface fastethernet 0/0 Router#show interface fastethernet 0/0 FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up FastEthernet0/0 line protocol is up Hardware is AmdFE, address is 0030.8546.aa00 (bia 0030.8546.aa00) Hardware is AmdFE, address is 0030.8546.aa00 (bia 0030.8546.aa00) Internet address is 10.1.1.1 /24 Internet address is 10.1.1.1 /24 MTU 1500 bytes, BW 10000 Kbit, DLY 1000 usec, MTU 1500 bytes, BW 10000 Kbit, DLY 1000 usec, reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255 reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255 Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set Keepalive set (10 sec) Keepalive set (10 sec) Half-duplex, 10Mb/s, 100BaseTX/FX Half-duplex, 10Mb/s, 100BaseTX/FX ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00 ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00 Last input 00:00:00, output 00:00:03, output hang never Last input 00:00:00, output 00:00:03, output hang never Last clearing of "show interface" counters never Last clearing of "show interface" counters never Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output d rops: 0 drops: Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Queueing strategy: weighted fair Queueing strategy: weighted fair Output queue: 0/1000/64/0 (size/max total/threshold/drops) Output queue: 0/1000/64/0 (size/max total/threshold/drops) Conversations 0/1/256 (active/max active/max total) Conversations 0/1/256 (active/max active/max total) Reserved Conversations 2/2 (allocated/max allocated) Reserved Conversations 2/2 (allocated/max allocated) Available Bandwidth 7000 kilobits/sec Available Bandwidth 7000 kilobits/sec ... ...

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The show interface command confirms the calculation of available bandwidth for Example 3.

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Monitoring and Troubleshooting CB-WFQ
Router#

show policy-map interface [intf]

• Displays parameters and statistics of CB-WFQ
Router#show policy -map interface Router#show policy-map interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/0 Service-policy output: Policy1 Service-policy Class-map: Class1 (match-any) Class-map: Class1 (match-any) 0 packets, 0 bytes 0 packets, 0 bytes 5 minute offered rate 0 bps, drop rate 0 bps 5 minute offered rate bps, Match: any Match: any Weighted Fair Queueing Weighted Fair Queueing Output Queue: Conversation 265 Output Queue: Bandwidth remaining 20 (%) Max Threshold 64 (packets) Bandwidth remaining 20 (%) Max Threshold 64 (packets) (pkts matched/bytes matched) 0/0 (pkts matched/bytes matched) 0/0 (depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/0/0 (depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/0/0 Class-map: class-default (match-any) Class-map: class -default (match-any) 42 packets, 4439 bytes 42 packets, 4439 bytes 5 minute offered rate 0 bps, drop rate 0 bps 5 minute offered rate 0 bps, drop rate 0 bps Match: any Match: any

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The show policy-map interface command displays all service policies applied to the interface. Among the settings, policing parameters and statistics are displayed.

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Monitoring and Troubleshooting CB-WFQ
Router#

show queueing fair

• Displays queuing parameters on interfaces
Router#show queueing fair Router#show queueing fair Current fair queue configuration: Current fair queue configuration: Interface Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/0 Serial0/0 Serial0/0 Serial0/1 Serial0/1 Discard Discard threshold threshold 64 64 64 64 64 64 Dynamic Dynamic queues queues 256 256 32 32 32 32 Reserved Reserved queues queues 64 64 0 0 0 0 Link Link queues queues 8 8 8 8 8 8 Prio rity Prio rity queues queu es 1 1 1 1 1 1

CB-WFQ reserves 64 queues in the WFQ system

One queue is reserved for IP RTP Prioritization

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The show queueing fair command displays all interfaces using Weighted Fair Queuing. The FastEthernet interface show there are 64 reserved queues (for CB-WFQ). One queue is used for IP RTP prioritization. The discard threshold is the number of packets than have to be in the queuing system to start dropping packets in the longest queue. The number of dynamic queues specifies how many queues are used in the default class if flow-based WFQ is used. WFQ reserves 8 queues (link queues) for PAK_Priority packets (link-level messages and keepalives, routing protocol hello messages and keepalives etc.).

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Monitoring and Troubleshooting CB-dWFQ
Router#

show queueing interface [intf]

• Displays queuing parameters on a specific VIP-based interface
c7500#show queueing interface serial 5/1/0 c7500#show queueing interface serial 5/1/0 Interface Serial5/1/0 queueing strategy: VIP -based fair queueing Interface Serial5/1/0 queueing strategy: VIP-based fair queueing Serial5/1/0 queue size 0 Serial5/1/0 queue size 0 pkts output 0, wfq drops 0, nobuffer drops 0 pkts output 0, wfq drops nobuffer drops 0 WFQ: aggregate queue limit 0 max available buffers 0 WFQ: aggregate queue limit 0 max available buffers 0 Class 0: weight 50 limit 250 qsize 0 pkts output 0 drops 0 Class 0: weight 50 limit 250 qsize 0 pkts output 0 drops 0 Class 23: weight 30 limit 150 qsize 0 pkts output 0 drops 0 Class 23: weight 30 limit 150 qsize 0 pkts output 0 drops 0 Class 24: weight 20 limit 100 qsize 0 pkts output 0 drops 0 Class 24: weight 20 limit 100 qsize 0 pkts output 0 drops 0

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The show queueing interface command can be used to display the parameters and statistics of distributed Weighted Fair Queuing (dWFQ) on Cisco 7x00 series routers using Versatile Interface Processors (VIPs).

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Summary
Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing (CB-WFQ) is a queuing mechanism that can provide bandwidth guarantees for up to 64 classes on one interface. Bandwidth guarantees can be configured by specifying:
n n n

A fixed guarantee in kbps A fixed guarantee in a percentage of interface bandwidth A dynamic guarantee by specifying a percentage of available bandwidth

Lesson Review
1. What type of guarantee does CB-WFQ provide? 2. Which DiffServ PHB can be implemented using CB-WFQ? 3. What configuration steps are needed to configure CB-WFQ?

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Class-based WRED
Overview
This lesson describes the WRED feature and shows how and where it can be used in the MQC.

Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n

Describe Class-based Weighted Random Early Detection (CB-WRED) Configure CB-WRED Monitor and troubleshoot CB-WRED

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Class-based WRED
• Class-based WRED can be used in combination with CB-WFQ • Using CB-WFQ with WRED allows the implementation of DiffServ’s Assured Forwarding PHB • Class-based configuration of WRED is identical to standalone WRED • Flow-based WRED is not available with the Modular QoS CLI

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Congestion avoidance techniques monitor the network interface load in an effort to anticipate and avoid congestion at common network bottlenecks. Congestion avoidance is achieved through packet dropping using more complex techniques. Traditionally, Cisco IOS used standalone RED and WRED mechanisms, as described in the A_QoS_CongestAvoid module, to avoid congestion on an interface. Those mechanisms can perform a differentiated drop based on the IP precedence or DSCP-value. The Class-Based Weighted Fair Queueing (CB-WFQ) system supports the use of WRED inside the queueing system, therefore implementing Class-based WRED. Each class is queued in its separate queue, and has a queue limit, performing taildrop by default. WRED can be configured as the preferred dropping method in a queue, implementing a differentiated drop based on traffic class and further on the IP precedence or DSCP value.
Note The combination of CB-WFQ with WRED on a single device is currently the only way to implement the DiffServ’s Assured Forwarding Per-Hop Behavior (AF PFB) using Cisco IOS software.

The class-based configuration of WRED is analogous to standalone WRED configuration. Flow-based WRED (FRED) is not available within the CB-WFQ queueing system and the Cisco IOS MQC.

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RED Profile
Drop Probability 100% No drop Random drop Full drop

Maximum Drop Probability

10% 20 40

Average Queue Size

Minimum Threshold

Maximum Threshold

• WRED starts randomly dropping packets when the average queue size is above the minimum threshold
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RED is currently the primary congestion avoidance method used on router interfaces. Random Early Detection is a dropping mechanism that randomly drops packets before a queue is full. The dropping strategy is based primarily on the average queue length. When the average queue gets longer (fuller), RED will be more likely to drop an incoming packet than when the queue is shorter. Because RED drops packets randomly, it has no per-flow intelligence. The rationale behind this is that an aggressive flow will represent most of the arriving traffic. Therefore it is more probable that RED will drop a packet of an aggressive session. RED therefore punishes more aggressive sessions with higher statistical probability, and is able to somewhat selectively slow down the most significant cause of congestion. Directing one TCP session at a time to slow down allows for the full utilization of the bandwidth, rather than a utilization that manifests itself as crests and troughs of traffic. As a result, the TCP global synchronization is much less likely to occur, and TCP can utilize the bandwidth more efficiently. The average queue size also decreases significantly, because the possibility of the queue filling up is very small. This is due to very aggressive dropping in the event of traffic bursts, when the queue is already quite full. RED distributes losses over time and maintains normally low queue depth while absorbing spikes. RED can also utilize IP precedence or DSCP bits in packets to establish different drop profiles for different classes of traffic. The probability of a packet being dropped is based on three configurable parameters:
n

Minimum threshold: When the average queue depth is above the minimum threshold, RED starts dropping packets. The rate of packet drop increases
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linearly as the average queue size increases, until the average queue size reaches the maximum threshold.
n

Maximum threshold: When the average queue size is above the maximum threshold, all packets are dropped. If the difference between the maximum threshold and the minimum threshold is too small, many packets might be dropped at once, resulting in global synchronization. Mark probability denominator: This is the fraction of packets dropped when the average queue depth is at the maximum threshold. For example, if the denominator is 512, one out of every 512 packets is dropped when the average queue is at the maximum threshold.

n

These parameters define the RED profile, which implements the packet dropping strategy, which is based on the average queue length.

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RED Modes
• RED has three modes:
– No drop: when the average queue size is between 0 and the minimum threshold – Random drop: when the average queue size is between the minimum and the maximum threshold – Full drop (tail-drop): when the average queue size is at maximum threshold or above

• Random drop should prevent congestion (prevent tail-drops)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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RED has three dropping modes, based on the average queue size:
n

When the average queue size is between 0 and the configured minimum threshold, no drops occur and all packets are queued. When the average queue size is between the configured minimum threshold, and the configured maximum threshold, random drop occurs. Random drop is linearly proportional to the average queue length. The maximum probability of drop (when the queue is almost completely full) is 10% in Cisco IOS software if the default settings are used. When the average queue size is at maximum or higher than the maximum threshold, RED performs full (tail) drop in the queue. This event is unlikely, because RED should slow down TCP traffic ahead of the congestion. If a lot of non-TCP traffic is present, RED cannot effectively drop traffic to reduce congestion, and tail-drops are likely to occur.

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WRED Building Blocks
Calculate Average Queue Size

Current Queue Size FIFO Queue

IP packet IP precedence or DSCP

WRED

Queue Full? Yes

No

Select WRED Profile

Min. threshold Max. threshold Max prob. denom.

Random Drop

Tail Drop

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy-47

The figure shows how WRED is implemented, and what parameters influence WRED dropping decisions. The WRED algorithm is constantly updated with the calculated average queue size, which is based on the recent history of queue sizes. The configured WRED profiles define the dropping thresholds (and therefore the WRED probability slopes). When a packet arrives at the output queue, the IP precedence or the DSCP-value is used to select the correct WRED profile for the packet, and the packet is passed to WRED to perform a drop/enqueue decision. Based on the profile and the average queue size, WRED calculates the probability for dropping the current packet and then either drops it or passes it to the output queue. If the queue is already full, the packet is tail-dropped. Otherwise, it is eventually transmitted out on the interface.

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Weighted Random Early Detection
• WRED uses a different RED profile for each weight • Each profile is identified by:
– minimum threshold – maximum threshold – maximum drop probability

• Weight can be
– IP precedence (8 profiles) – DSCP (64 profiles)

• WRED drops less important packets more aggressively than more important packets
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy-48

Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) combines RED with IP Precedence or DSCP and does packet drops based on IP Precedence or DSCP markings. WRED can selectively discard lower priority traffic when the interface begins to get congested and provide differentiated performance characteristics for different classes of service. WRED can also be configured so that non-weighted RED behavior is achieved.

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WRED Profiles
Drop Probability 100%

10% 10 20 40

Average Queue Size

• WRED profiles can be manually set • WRED has 8 default value sets for IP precedence based WRED • WRED has 64 default value sets for DSCP based WRED
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy-49

The figure shows two WRED profiles, used with traffic of different QoS classes. One class has a much lower minimum and maximum threshold, and traffic of that class will be dropped much earlier and more aggressively, and will ultimately be tail dropped early, when heavy congestion occurs. The other class has a higher minimum and maximum threshold. Therefore dropping occurs later and is less likely to occur. These two classes maintain differentiated levels of service in the event of congestion. To avoid the need for setting all WRED parameters in a router, 8 default values are already defined for precedence-based WRED, and 64 DiffServ-aligned values are defined for DSCP-based WRED. Therefore, the default settings should suffice in the vast majority of deployments.

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IP Precedence and Class Selector Profiles
Drop Probability

100%

10%
IP precedence

0

20

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 RSVP 22 24 26 28 31 33 35 37 40

Average Queue Size

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The Class selector range of DSCP values is used for backward compatibility with IP precedence. The same WRED profiles are applied to equal IP precedence and Class selector values: IP precedence (three bits) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 RSVP DSCP (Class selector) (six bits) Default (0) cs1 (8) cs2 (16) cs3 (24) cs4 (32) cs5 (40) cs6 (48) cs7 (56) RSVP Default minimum threshold 20 22 24 26 28 31 33 35 37

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DSCP-based WRED (Expedited Forwarding)
Drop Probability

100%

10%

EF Average Queue Size

20

36 40

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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For the Expedited Forwarding DiffServ traffic class, WRED configures itself by default so that the minimum threshold is very high, thus increasing the probability of no drops being applied to that traffic class. EF-traffic is therefore expected to be dropped very late, compared to other traffic classes, and is therefore prioritized in the event of congestion. DSCP (six bits) EF (101110) Default minimum threshold 36

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DSCP-based WRED (Assured Forwarding)
Drop Probability

100%

AF Low Drop AF Medium Drop AF High Drop

10%
Average Queue Size

20 24

28 32

40

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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For the Assured Forwarding DiffServ traffic class, WRED configures itself by default, for three different profiles, depending on the Drop Preference DSCP marking bits. AF-traffic should therefore be classified into the three possible classes based on the application sensitivity to dropping. WRED implements a congestion avoidance PHB in agreement with the initial classification.
DROP Precedence Low Drop Prec Medium Drop Prec High Drop Prec Class #1 Class #2 Class #3 Class #4

(AF11) 001010 (AF12) 001100 (AF13) 001110

(AF21) 010010 (AF22) 010100 (AF23) 010110

(AF31) 011010 (AF32) 011100 (AF33) 011110

(AF41) 100010 (AF42) 100100 (AF43) 100110

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Configuring WRED
Router(config-pmap-c)#

random-detect

• Enables IP precedence based WRED in the selected class within the service policy configuration mode • Default service profile is used

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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The random-detect command is used to enable WRED on an interface. By default, WRED is IP precedence-based, using eight default WRED profiles. Within the CB-WFQ system, WRED is used to perform per-queue drop in the class queues. Therefore, each class queue has its own WRED method, which can be further weighed based on the IP precedence or DSCP-value. Each queue can therefore be configured with a separate dropping policy, to implement different drop policies for every class of traffic.

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Changing WRED Profile
Router(config-pmap-c)#

random-detect precedence precedence min-threshold max-threshold mark-prob-denominator

• Changes RED profile for specified IP precedence value • Packet drop probability at maximum threshold is 1 / mark-prob-denominator • Non-weighted RED is achieved by using the same RED profile for all precedence values

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy-54

In the example in the figure, WRED is enabled with default values, and then the values are changed for each IP Precedence level. The configured values are the same as for Random Early Detection, and are:
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Minimum threshold - When the average queue depth is above the minimum threshold, RED starts dropping packets. The rate of packet drop increases linearly as the average queue size increases, until the average queue size reaches the maximum threshold. Maximum threshold - When the average queue size is above the maximum threshold, all packets are dropped. If the difference between the maximum threshold and the minimum threshold is too small, many packets might be dropped at once, resulting in global synchronization. Mark probability denominator - This is the fraction of packets dropped when the average queue depth is at the maximum threshold. For example, if the denominator is 512, one out of every 512 packets is dropped when the average queue is at the maximum threshold.

n

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It is interesting to note, that the maximum probability of drop at the maximum threshold can be expressed as 1/mark-prob-denominator. The maximum drop probability is 10%, if default settings are used which have a mark probability denominator value of 10. If required, RED can be configured as a special case of WRED, by assigning the same profile to all eight IP precedence values.

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Changing WRED Sensitivity to Bursts
Router(config-pmap-c)#

random-detect exponential-weighting-constant n

Qavg ( t + 1) = Qavg (t ) ⋅ (1 − 2 − n ) + Qt ⋅ 2 − n
New average queue size Previous average queue size Current queue size

• WRED takes the average queue size to determine the current WRED mode (no drop, random drop, full drop) • High values of N allow short bursts • Low values of N make WRED more burst-sensitive • Default value (9) should be used in most scenarios • Average output queue size with N=9 is
average t+1 = average t * 0.998 + queue_sizet * 0.002
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy-55

WRED does not calculate the drop probability using the current queue length, but rather uses the average queue length. The average queue length is constantly recalculated using two terms: the previously calculated average queue size and the current queue size. An exponential weighting constant N influences the calculation by weighing the two terms, therefore influencing how the average queue size follows the current queue size, in the following way:
n

A low value of N makes the current queue size more significant in the new average size calculation, therefore more sensitive to bursts A high value of N makes the previous average queue size more significant in the new average seize calculation, so that bursts influence the new value to a smaller degree.

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The default value is 9 and should suffice for most scenarios, except perhaps those involving extremely high-speed interfaces (e.g. OC12), where it can be increased slightly (to about 12) to allow more bursts.

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Configuring DSCP-based WRED
Router(config-pmap-c)#

random-detect {prec-based | dscp-based}

• Selects WRED mode • Precedence-based WRED is the default mode • DSCP-based uses 64 profiles

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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The random-detect dscp-based command is used to enable DSCP-based WRED on an interface, using the 64 default DSCP-based WRED profiles.

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Changing the WRED Profile
Router(config-pmap-c)#

random-detect precedence precedence min-threshold max-threshold mark-prob-denominator

• Changes RED profile for specified IP precedence value • Packet drop probability at maximum threshold is 1 / mark-prob-denominator • Non-weighted RED is achieved by using the same RED profile for all precedence values

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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The DSCP-weighted WRED profiles can be changed, using the known three WRED parameters. The mask-prob-denominator defines the packet drop probability at the WRED maximum threshold. The maximum drop probability is 10%, if default settings are used which have a mark probability denominator value of 10. Normally, the DSCP-weighed profiles should be left at their default settings, because those settings are appropriate for most situations, if the traffic is classified according to the DiffServ service specification. IP prcecdence 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 RSVP Default minimum threshold 20 22 24 26 28 31 33 35 37

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CB-WFQ with WRED Example 1
• Enable CB-WFQ to prioritize traffic according to the following requirements:
– Class Gold is marked with IP precedence values 3 and 4 (3 is high drop, 4 is low drop) and should get 30% of interface bandwidth – Class Silver is marked with IP precedence values 1 and 2 (1 is high drop, 2 is low drop) and should get 20% of interface bandwidth – All other traffic should be per -flow fair-queued

• Use differentiated WRED to prevent congestion in all three classes (try to set up your own WRED profiles for Gold and Silver)
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy-58

The first CB-WFQ with WRED example focuses on a network, which provides three different service levels for three traffic classes
n

The Gold class, marked with IP precedence values of 3 and 4 (3 is used for high drop, and 4 is used for low drop within the service class) should get 30% of an interface bandwidth The Silver class, marked with IP precedence values of 1 and 2 (1 being highdrop, and 2 being low-drop service) should get 20% of the interface bandwidth. Best effort traffic should get the remaining bandwidth share, and should be fair-queued.

n

n

To enforce this service policy, a router will use CB-WFQ to perform bandwidth sharing, and WRED within service classes to perform differentiated drop.

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CB-WFQ with WRED Example 1
class-map Gold class-map Gold match ip precedence 3 4 match ip precedence 3 4 ! ! class-map Silver class-map Silver match ip precedence 1 2 match ! ! policy-map Policy1 policy-map Policy1 class Gold class Gold bandwidth percent 30 bandwidth percent 30 random-detect random-detect random-detect precedence random-detect precedence random-detect precedence random-detect precedence class Silver class Silver bandwidth percent 20 bandwidth percent 20 random-detect random-detect random-detect precedence random-detect precedence random-detect precedence random-detect precedence class class-default class class-default fair-queue fair-queue random-detect random-detect ! !
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

3 20 40 10 4 30 40 10

1 15 35 10 2 20 35 10

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The figure shows a configuration implementing the example service policie s. The traffic is classified based on the precedence bits, and all non-contract traffic is classified into the default class.
n

The Gold class is guaranteed at least 30 percent of bandwidth, with a custom WRED profile, which establishes a low-drop and a high-drop per-hop behavior. The Silver class is guaranteed at least 20 percent of bandwidth, is configured with somewhat lower WRED drop thresholds, and is therefore more likely to be dropped than the Gold class in the event of interface congestion. All other traffic is part of the default class, is fair-queued, with default WRED parameters.

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CB-WFQ with WRED Example 2
• Use the QoS design from the previous example • Implement it using DSCP:
– Class “Gold” is using AF1 – Class “Silver” is using AF2

• Make sure the new configurations still conform to the design and implementation from the previous example

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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CB-WFQ with WRED Example 1 was implemented using a CoS based on the precedence bit. In this example, the same policy is configured, but DSCP-based CoS classification and QoS services are used. Remember that the DiffServ model itself provides defined traffic classes and their associated PHB. DiffServ-based classification is used in this example.

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CB-WFQ with WRED Example 2
class-map Gold class-map Gold match ip dscp af11 af12 af13 cs3 cs4 match ip dscp af11 af12 af13 cs3 cs4 ! ! class-map Silver class-map Silver match ip dscp af21 af22 af23 cs1 cs2 match dscp af21 af22 af23 cs1 cs2 ! ! policy-map Policy1 policy-map Policy1 class Gold class Gold bandwidth percent 30 bandwidth percent 30 random-detect dscp -based random-detect dscp-based random-detect dscp af11 30 40 10 random-detect dscp af11 30 40 10 random-detect dscp af12 25 40 10 random-detect dscp af12 25 40 10 random-detect dscp af13 20 40 10 random-detect dscp af13 20 40 10 random-detect dscp cs3 20 40 10 random-detect dscp cs3 20 40 10 random-detect dscp cs4 30 40 10 random-detect class Silver class Silver bandwidth percent 20 bandwidth percent 20 random-detect dscp -based random-detect dscp-based random-detect dscp af11 25 35 10 random-detect dscp af11 25 35 10 random-detect dscp af12 20 35 10 random-detect dscp af12 20 35 10 random-detect dscp af13 15 35 10 random-detect dscp af13 15 35 10 random-detect dscp cs3 15 35 10 random-detect dscp cs3 15 35 10 random-detect dscp cs4 25 35 10 random-detect dscp cs4 25 35 10 class class-default class class-default fair-queue fair-queue random-detect dscp -based random-detect dscp-based ! !

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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The configuration example shows how traffic classification is performed using DSCP-based classes, representing the Gold class as the AF1 class, and using the AF2 class as the Silver class. WRED DSCP-based parameters are sent reflecting the class-dependent drop strategy.

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Monitoring and Troubleshooting CB-WRED
Router#show policy -map interface fastEthernet 0/0 Router#show policy-map interface fastEthernet 0/0 FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/0 Service-policy output: Policy1 Service-policy Class-map: Gold (match-all) Class-map: (match -all) 0 packets, 0 bytes 0 packets, 0 bytes 5 minute offered rate 0 bps, drop rate 0 bps 5 minute offered rate bps, Match: ip precedence 3 4 Match: ip precedence 3 4 Match: ip dscp 10 12 14 24 32 Match: ip dscp 10 12 14 24 32 Weighted Fair Queueing Weighted Fair Queueing Output Queue: Conversation 265 Output Queue: Conversation 265 Bandwidth 30 (%) Bandwidth 30 (%) Bandwidth 3000 (kbps) Bandwidth 3000 (kbps) (pkts matched/bytes matched) 0/0 (pkts matched/bytes matched) 0/0 (depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/0/0 (depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/0/0 exponential weight: 9 exponential weight: 9 mean queue depth: 0 mean queue depth: 0 Dscp Dscp (Prec) (Prec) 0(0) 0(0) 1 1 2 2 3 3 ... ...
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy-62

Random drop Random drop pkts/bytes pkts/bytes 0/0 0/0 0/0 0/0 0/0 0/0 0/0 0/0

Tail drop pkts/bytes pkts/bytes 0/0 0/0 0/0 0/0 0/0 0/0 0/0 0/0

Minimum Maximum Mark threshold threshold probability threshold threshold probability 20 40 1/10 20 40 1/10 22 40 1/10 22 40 1/10 24 40 1/10 24 40 1/10 26 40 1/10 26 40 1/10

The show policy-map interface command shows the service policy applied to an interface, including all WRED parameters implementing the dropping policy on that interface.

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Summary
n n n

WRED can be used inside the Cisco IOS CB-WFQ, configured via the MQC WRED can be applied per-service policy All WRED parameters are inherited from the traditional Cisco IOS WRED implementation

Lesson Review
1. How does WRED supplement CB-WFQ? 2. Can WRED be combined with flow-based WFQ in the default class? 3. Which two operational modes does WRED support? 4. How many profiles does WRED support?

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Class-based Low-latency Queuing
Overview
This lesson describes the Low-latency Queueing (LLQ) feature within the CBWFQ system.

Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n

Describe Class-based Low-latency Queuing (CB-LLQ) Configure CB-LLQ Monitor and troubleshoot CB-LLQ

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Class-based Low-latency Queuing
• VoIP or other multimedia applications should not be fair-queued with other data • IP RTP Prioritization has a number of drawbacks:
– It is not selective enough (filters only on UDP port range) – It does not support TCP or other protocols – You can only specify overall high-priority traffic rate

• Class-based Low-latency Queuing (CB-LLQ) removes most of the drawbacks of IP RTP Prioritization
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy-67

While Weighed Fair Queuing (WFQ) provides a fair share of bandwidth to every flow, and provides fair scheduling of its queues, it cannot provide guaranteed bandwidth and low delay to select applications. Voice traffic, for example, may still compete with other aggressive flows in the WFQ queuing system, which lacks priority scheduling for time-critical traffic classes. IP RTP Prioritization is one Cisco IOS feature designed to guarantee priority of voice traffic. However, because it only can only prioritize pure RTP traffic (IP RTP Prioritization uses a UDP port range heuristic to distinguish RTP from the rest of the traffic), and lacks flexibility in policing, it does not present a via ble solution when multiple non-RTP time-critical applications are deployed in the network. Class-based Low-latency Queueing (CB-LLQ) is a method, used within the CBWFQ framework, which can prioritize traffic flows with the flexibility of the Cisco IOS MQC interface.

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Low-Latency Queueing Queuing and Scheduling
Forwarder
Class Priority
No Yes

BW Policing

Yes

Priority queue (FIFO)

Class Priority
No

Yes

BW Policing

Class N?
No

Yes

Flow queue (FIFO)

WFQ Scheduling

Class Default?

WFQ/FIFO

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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When CB-WFQ is configured as the queueing system, it creates a number of queues, into which it classifies traffic classes. These queues are then scheduled with a WFQ-like scheduler, which can guarantee bandwidth to each class. If Class-based Low-latency Queuing is used within the CB-WFQ system, it creates additional, priority queues in the WFQ system, which are serviced by a strict priority scheduler. Any class of traffic can therefore be attached to a service policy, which uses priority scheduling, and hence can be prioritized over other classes.

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CB-LLQ Scheduling
• High-priority classes are guaranteed:
– Low-latency propagation of packets – Bandwidth

• High-priority classes are also policed – they can not exceed the guaranteed bandwidth

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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The CB-LLQ priority scheduler guarantees both low-latency propagation of packets and bandwidth to high-priority classes. Low-latency is achieved by expediting traffic using a priority schedule r. Bandwidth is also guaranteed by the nature of priority scheduling, but is policed to a user-configurable value. Policing of priority queues also prevents the priority scheduler from monopolizing the CBWFQ scheduler and starving non-priority classes, like legacy Priority Queuing does.

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Configuring CB-LLQ
Router(config-pmap-c)#

priority bandwidth

• Allocate a fixed amount of bandwidth (in kbps) to a class and ensure expedited forwarding • Traffic exceeding the specified bandwidth is dropped
Router(config-pmap-c)#

priority percent percent

• Allocate a percentage of configured or default interface bandwidth to a class and ensure expedited forwarding • Traffic exceeding the specified bandwidth is dropped

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy-70

Configured by the priority command, LLQ enables the use of a single priority queue within CBWFQ at the class level, allowing the user to direct traffic belonging to a class to the CBWFQ priority queue. To enqueue class traffic to the priority queue, configure the priority command for the class after the named class is specified within a policy map. Classes to which the priority command is applied are considered priority classes. One or more classes can be given priority status within a policy map. When multiple classes within a single policy map are configured as priority classes, all traffic from these classes is enqueued to the same, single, priority queue. The bandwidth and percent options allocate a fixed amount of bandwidth (in kbps) to the priority class, using absolute or relative bandwidth respectively. The priority queue is policed using this bandwidth parameter and all exceeding packets are dropped. Keep the following guidelines in mind when using the priority command:
n

Layer 2 encapsulations are accounted for in the amount of bandwidth specified with the priority command. However, ensure a bandwidth is configured that has room for cell-tax overhead and possible jitter introduced by the routers in the voice path. Use the priority command for VoIP on serial links and ATM PVCs. It does not support VoIP over Frame Relay links. Use the priority command in conjunction with the set command. You cannot use the priority command in conjunction with any other command, including the random-detect, queue-limit, and bandwidth commands.

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n

You can configure the priority command in multiple classes, but you should only use it for voice-like, constant bit rate (CBR) traffic. If the traffic is not CBR, you must configure a large enough bandwidth parameter to absorb the data bursts.

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CB-LLQ Example
class-map VoIP class-map VoIP match ip precedence 5 match ip precedence 5 ! ! class-map Gold class-map Gold match ip precedence 3 4 match ! ! class-map Silver class-map Silver match ip precedence 1 2 match ip precedence 1 2 ! ! policy-map Policy1 policy-map Policy1 class VoIP class priority percent 10 priority percent 10 class Gold class Gold bandwidth percent 30 bandwidth percent 30 random-detect random-detect class Silver class bandwidth percent 20 bandwidth percent 20 random-detect random-detect class class-default class class-default fair-queue fair-queue random-detect random-detect ! !
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy-71

This figure shows a configuration example, where the VoIP traffic class, classified by the IP precedence of 1, is queued in a priority queue within the CB-WFQ system. The priority class received priority scheduling compared to other classes’ queues, and is guaranteed, but limited to 10 percent of bandwidth.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Monitoring and Troubleshooting CB-LLQ
Router#show policy-map interface fastethernet 0/0 Router#show policy-map interface fastethernet 0/0 FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/0 Service-policy output: LLQ Service-policy output: LLQ Class-map: LLQ (match -any) Class-map: LLQ (match-any) 0 packets, 0 bytes 0 packets, 0 bytes 5 minute offered rate 0 bps, drop rate 0 bps 5 minute offered rate 0 bps, drop rate 0 bps Match: any Match: Weighted Fair Queueing Weighted Fair Queueing Strict Priority Strict Priority Output Queue: Conversation 264 Output Bandwidth 1000 (kbps) Burst 25000 (Bytes) Bandwidth 1000 (kbps) Burst 25000 (Bytes) (pkts matched/bytes matched) 0/0 (pkts matched/bytes matched) 0/0 (total drops/bytes drops) 0/0 (total drops/bytes drops) 0/0 Class-map: class -default (match -any) Class-map: class-default (match-any) 0 packets, 0 bytes 0 packets, 5 minute offered rate 0 bps, drop rate 0 bps 5 minute offered rate 0 bps, drop rate 0 bps Match: any Match: any

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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The show policy-map interface command shows the service policy settings on an interface. The priority scheduling method is listed, if enabled.

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Summary
n

CB-LLQ guarantees priority scheduling with guaranteed bandwidth on an interface CB-LLQ is integrated with CB-WFQ and configured via the Cisco IOS MQC CB-LLQ is more flexible than IP RTP Prioritization

n n

Lesson Review
1. What advantages does CB-LLQ have over IP RTP Prioritization? 2. What guarantees does CB-LLQ provide?

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Class-based Policing
Overview
This lesson section describes the Class-based Policing mechanism used within the CB-WFQ system. The lesson also compares Class-based Policing implementation with the standalone CAR mechanism.

Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n

Describe Class-based Policing Configure CB-Policing Monitor and troubleshoot CB-Policing

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Class-based Policing
• Class-based Policing is used to limit a traffic class to a configured bit rate • It uses a Token Bucket model to measure the arrival rate of packets • Class-based Policing is an improved version of the Committed Access Rate (CAR) mechanism • Class-based Policing is configured using the Modular QoS CLI

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Class-based Policing allows the servic e provider to rate-limit traffic in and out of the router interfaces to a configured bit rate, thereby enabling various forms of ingress and egress rate-limiting in a network. Class-based policing is implemented within the CB-WFQ queueing method, and configured via the Cisco IOS MQC. Like Committed Access Rate (CAR), Class-based Policing simply rate-limits traffic according to a simple “forward or drop” policy, according to the configuration. Class-based policing also uses a token-bucket metering mechanism, similar to CAR, but with some modification and added flexibility.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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How do Routers Measure Traffic Rate
Bandwidth Link bandwidth Exceeding traffic Rate limit Conforming Traffic Time

• Routers use the Token Bucket mathematical model to keep track of packet arrival rate • The Token Bucket model is used whenever a new packet is processed • The return value is conform or exceed
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy-78

In order to perform rate limiting, routers must meter (or measure) traffic rates through its interfaces. To enforce a rate limit, metered traffic is said to:
n n

Conform to the rate limit, if the rate of traffic is below the configured rate limit Exceed the rate limit, if the rate of traffic is above the configured rate limit

The metering is usually performed with an abstract mathematical model called a token bucket, which is used when processing each packet. The token bucket can calculate whether the current packet conforms or exceeds the configured rate limit on an interface.

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Token Bucket

700

500 bytes

Conform Action

500 bytes

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The token bucket is a mathematical model used in a device that regulates the data flow. The model has two basic ingredients:
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Tokens, where each token represents the permission to send a fixed number of bits into the network The bucket, which has the capacity to hold a specified amount of tokens

n

Tokens are put into the bucket at a certain rate by the operating system. Each incoming packet, if forwarded, takes tokens from the bucket, representing the packet’s size. If not enough tokens are available in the bucket to send the packet, the policer discards the packet. If the bucket fills to capacity, newly arriving tokens are discarded, and discarded tokens are not available to future packets. The figure shows a token bucket, with the current capacity of 700 bytes. When a 500-byte packet arrives at the interface, its size is compared to the bucket capacity (in bytes). The packet conforms to the rate limit (500 bytes < 700 bytes), the packet is forwarded, and 500 bytes worth of tokens are removed from the bucket.

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Token Bucket

200

300 bytes

Exceed Action

s byte 300

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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When the next packet arrives immediately after the first packet, and because no new tokens have been added to the bucket (which is done periodically), there are not enough tokens in the bucket to represent the current packet. The current packet therefore exceeds the rate limit and is dropped.

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Token Bucket
Be

Bc of tokens is added every Tc [ms] Tc = Bc / CIR

Link Utilization Bc Bc Bc Bc Bc Bc

Link BW

Average BW (CIR)

Tc

2*Tc

3*Tc

4*Tc

5*Tc

Time

Be

• Bc is normal burst size (specifies sustained rate) • Be is excess burst size (specifies length of burst)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Token bucket implementations usually rely on three parameters: CIR, Bc and Be. CIR is the Committed Information Rate (also called the committed rate), which represents the long-term average rate of traffic. Bc is known as the burst capacity. Be is known as the excess burst capacity. Tc is a time interval constant. In the token bucket metaphor, tokens are put into the bucket at a certain rate, which is Bc tokens every Tc seconds. The bucket itself has a specified capacity. If the bucket fills to capacity (Bc + Be), newly arriving tokens are discarded. Each token is permission for the source to send a certain number of bits into the network. To send a packet, the regulator must remove, from the bucket, the number of tokens equal in representation to the packet size. For example, if 8000 bytes worth of tokens are placed in the bucket every 125 milliseconds, the router can steadily transmit 8000 bytes every 125 milliseconds, if traffic constantly arrives at the router. If there is no traffic at all, 8000 bytes per 125 milliseconds get accumulated in the bucket, up to the maximum size (Bc+Be). One second’s accumulation therefore collects 64000 bytes worth of tokens, which can be transmitted immediately in the case of a burst. The upper limit, Bc+Be, defines the maximum amount of data, which can be transmitted in a single burst, at the line rate. A token bucket permits burstiness but bounds it. It guarantees that the burstiness is bounded so that the flow will never send faster than the token bucket's capacity. This means, that in the long-term, the transmission rate will not exceed the established rate at which tokens are placed in the bucket (the committed rate).

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Class-based Policing
• CAR uses one single token bucket to determine if a packet conforms to or exceeds the bit-rate policy • CB-Policing uses one or two token buckets to determine if a packet:
– Conforms – is within the average bit rate – Exceeds – exceeds the average bit rate but is within the allowed excess burst – Violates – exceeds both the average bit rate and the allowed excess burst (optional)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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When CAR is in effect, its metering code uses a single token bucket, and is able to determine whether incoming traffic conforms or exceeds the configured rate-limit. Class-based Policing introduces a two-token-bucket scheme in the policer. Using two token buckets, traffic can:
n n

Conform to the rate limit, when it is within the average bit rate Exceed the rate limit, when it exceeds the average bit rate, but does not exceed the allowed excess burst Violate the rate limit, when it exceeds both the average rate and the excess bursts.

n

The double token bucket method is explained later in the lesson.

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Class-based Policing Actions
• CB-Policing can execute three different actions (conform, exceed or violate) • Each action can be one of the following:
– Transmit – Drop – Set IP Precedence and transmit – Set IP DSCP and transmit – Set QoS group and transmit – Set MPLS experimental bits and transmit – Set Frame Relay DE bit and transmit – Set ATM CLP bit and transmit
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy-83

Based on the current packet conforming, exceeding, or violating the rate limit, an action can be taken by the policer. The CB-WFQ policer supports the following actions:
n n n

Transmit—the packet is transmitted Drop—the packet is dropped Set precedence (or DSCP value) and transmit: the IP Precedence (ToS) or DSCP bits in the packet header are rewritten. The packet is then transmitted. This action can be used to either color (set precedence) or recolor (modify existing packet precedence) the packet. Set QoS group and transmit: the QoS group can be set and then used only locally within the router. The QoS group can be used in later QoS mechanisms and performed in the same router, such as CB-WFQ. The packet is then transmitted. Set MPLS experimental bits and transmit: the MPLS experimental bits can be set. The packet is then transmitted. These are usually used to signal QoS parameters in a MPLS cloud. Set Frame Relay DE bit and transmit: the Frame Relay Discard Eligibility (DE) bit is set in the Layer-2 (Frame Relay) header and the packet is transmitted. This setting can be used to mark excessive or violating traffic (which should be dropped with preference on Layer-2 switches) at the edge of a Frame Relay network. Set ATM CLP bit and transmit: the ATM Cell Loss Priority (CLP) bit is set in the Layer-2 (ATM) header and the packet is transmitted. This setting

n

n

n

n

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can be used to mark excessive or violating traffic (which should be dropped with preference on Layer-2 switches) at the edge of an ATM network.

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Single Token Bucket with Class-based Policing

700

BE

500 bytes

Conform Action

• Packet conforms to the policy if the size of the packet is less or equal to the number of tokens in the TB
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy-84

Class-based Policing can use a single or double token bucket method as the metering mechanism. The one token bucket algorithm is used when the violateaction option is not specified in the police MQC command. If one token bucket is used, the meter can only differentiate between conforming and exceeding traffic. Therefore, in a simple single token bucket algorithm, a packet conforms to the line rate, if the size of the packet is less or equal to the number of tokens in the token bucket. The actual metering algorithm used by CB-Policing is somewhat different from a pure token bucket, described above, and used by CAR. With CAR, the token bucket is refilled at periodic intervals (Tc) with a fixed number of tokens (Bc). Class-based policing employs a different method, which calculates the bucket size and adds tokens on every processed packet. The Class-based policing works in the following manner:
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The token bucket is initially set to the full size (the full size is the number of bytes specified as the normal burst size or Bc) When a packet of size B bytes arrives at time t the following actions occur:

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Tokens are updated in the conform bucket. If the previous arrival of the packet was at t1 and the current time is t, the bucket is updated with (t-t1) worth of bits based on the token arrival rate. The perpacket token arrival rate is calculated as: (time between consecutive packets * policer rate)/8 bytes

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If the number of bytes in the conform bucket - B is greater than or equal to 0, the packet conforms and the conform action is taken on the packet. If the packet conforms, B bytes are removed from the conform bucket and the conform action is completed for the packet. If the number of bytes in the conform bucket - B is less than 0, the exceed action is taken.

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Single Token Bucket with Class-based Policing

200

BE

300 bytes

Exceed Action

• Packet exceeds the policy if the size of the packet is more than the number of tokens in the TB
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy-85

When a packet size is more than the available number of tokens in a TB, the packet exceeds the rate limit. Again, this is a simplified algorithm for a pure token bucket. Class-based policing uses a slightly different algorithm, which was described previously.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Double Token Bucket with Class-based Policing

700

BC

400

BE

500 bytes

Conform Action

• Packet conforms to the policy if the size of the packet is less or equal to the number of tokens in the first TB
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy-86

Cisco IOS Class-based policing uses a double token bucket metering method, when the violate action is specified in the police MQC command. One bucket is used to meter conforming traffic (the conform bucket), and is of size BC. The other bucket is used to meter exceeding traffic, and is of size BE. The conform bucket is initially full (the full size is the number of bytes specified as the normal burst size, BC). The exceed bucket is also initially full (the full exceed bucket size is the number of bytes specified in the maximum burst size, BE). The tokens for both the conform and exceed token buckets are updated based on the token arrival rate (or CIR). In simple terms, with the double token bucket system, an incoming packet conforms to the rate limit, if the conform bucket has enough tokens for the size of the packet. Looking into the details of the algorithm, the actual processing which occurs is as follows:
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A packet of size B bytes arrives at time t Tokens are updated in the conform bucket. If the previous arrival of the packet was at t1 and the current arrival of the packet is at t, the bucket is updated with t-t1 worth of bits based on the token arrival rate. The refill tokens are placed in the conform bucket. If the tokens overflow the conform bucket, the overflow tokens are placed in the exceed bucket. The token arrival rate is calculated as follows: (time between packets<which is equal to t-t1> * policer rate)/8 bytes

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n

If the number of bytes in the conform bucket - B is greater than or equal to 0, the packet conforms and the conform action is taken on the packet. If the packet conforms, B bytes are removed from the conform bucket and the conform action is taken. The exceed bucket is unaffected in this scenario. If the number of bytes in the conform bucket - B is less than 0, the excess token bucket is checked for bytes by the packet. If the number of bytes in the exceed bucket - B is greater than or equal to 0, the exceed action is taken and B bytes are removed from the exceed token bucket. No bytes are removed from the conform bucket. If the number of bytes in the exceed bucket - B is less than 0, the packet violates and the violate action is taken. The action is complete for the packet.

n

n

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Double Token Bucket with Class-based Policing

200

BC

400

BE

300 bytes

Exceed Action

• Packet exceeds the policy if the size of the packet is more than the number of tokens in the first TB and less or equal to the number of tokens in the second TB
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy-87

If looking at the double token bucket in a simplified way, an incoming packet would exceed the rate limit, if the conform bucket does not have enough tokens for the size of the packet, but the exceed bucket does. For a detailed insight, consult the previously laid-out algorithm.

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Double Token Bucket with Class-based Policing

200

BC

100

BE

400 bytes

Violate Action

• Packet violates the policy if the size of the packet is more than the number of tokens in the first and the second TB
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy-88

In simple terms, the double token bucket system means that an incoming packet violates the rate limit, if neither the conform nor the exceed buckets have enough tokens for the size of the packet. For a detailed insight, consult the previously laid-out algorithm

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Refilling the Token Buckets
Add tokens at the configured bit rate Excess spills over into the second token bucket

BC

TB1

TB2

BE

• The number of tokens that have to be added is actually calculated every time a new packet has to be processed:

TB1 = min(B C, TB1 + (Tnow -TLastPacket) * BitRate / 8)
New size of the token bucket
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Previous size of the token bucket

Time now [seconds]

Time of the last packet [seconds]

IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy -89

The detailed token bucket algorithms are somewhat different from the classic token bucket algorithms used by CAR and GTS. Token refilling is done per packet, which can considerably smooth out rate limiting, because there is no fixed interval (Tc) for bucket refills. Instead, the calculation TB1_after = min(BC, TB1_before + (Tnow -TLastPacket ) * BitRate / 8) where TB1 is the token bucket size, BC is the maximum conform token bucket size, Tnow is the current time, TLastPacket is the time of arrival of the previous packet, and the BitRate is the CIR of the rate limit, defines the new size of the conform bucket, and is calculated for each incoming packet. If the number of tokens exceeds the size of the conform bucket (BC), excess tokens spill over and fill the second (exceed) bucket. If the exceed bucket overflows with tokens, those tokens are lost. The new token bucket size, therefore, equals to the BC (Conform Bucket Size) or the “Previous bucket size + added tokens since the last packet was transmitted”, which ever is smaller.

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Configuring Class-based Policing
Router(config-pmap-c)#

police avg-rate [BC [BE]] [conform-action [action] C E [exceed-action [action] [violate-action [action]]]] • avg-rate – traffic rate in bps (8.000 to 200.000.000) • BC – normal burst sets the size of the first token bucket in bytes (default is 1500 or avg-rate/32; whatever is higher) • BE – excess burst sets the size of the second token bucket in bytes (equals BC if not configured) • action – can be:
• • • • • • • • transmit (default conform action) drop (default exceed and violate action) set-prec-transmit ip-precedence set-dscp-transmit dscp set-qos-transmit qos-group set-mpls-exp-transmit mple-exp set frde-transmit set-clp-transmit
IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy-90

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

The police MQC command defines policing parameters for a traffic class. The avg-rate parameter defines the policed average traffic rate (CIR), the BC and BE define the double token bucket sizes, and the action defines an action for conforming, exceeding, and optionally violating traffic.

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Class-based Policing Example

• The customer can locate his server at service provider premises (switched LAN) • CB-Policing is used to limit the amount of traffic the web server can generate (more flexible perbandwidth pricing) • Unknown traffic is rate-limited to 64 kbps to allow remote configuration of new servers
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy-91

This example uses Class-based Polic ing to perform rate-limiting of end-station traffic. The example setting is a hosting-farm, where a service provider needs to limit the amount of traffic a web-server can send towards its clients. All traffic from a particular server will be rate-limited according to a contract, and 64 kbps of bandwidth will be reserved for unknown traffic, such as future provisioning and configuration of new servers in the farm.

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Class-based Policing Example
class-map www.acme.com class-map www.acme.com match source-address mac 000d.dddf.0480 match source-address mac 000d.dddf.0480 ! ! class-map www.void.com class-map www.void.com match source-address mac 000d.dddc.ad21 match source-address mac 000d.dddc.ad21 ! ! policy-map ServerFarm policy-map class www.acme.com police 128000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop police 128000 conform-action transmit exceed-action class www.void.com police 256000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop police 256000 conform-action transmit exceed-action class class-default police 64000 ! ! interface FastEthernet 0/0 interface FastEthernet service-policy input ServerFarm ! !

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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The configuration example shows three configured traffic classes, two based on upstream MAC addresses, and one on the default traffic class. Traffic from particular servers is policed to a fixed bandwidth, and exceeding traffic is dropped. If Bc and Be are not specified within the police command, the default value will be used.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Monitoring and Troubleshooting CB-Policing
Router #show policy interface fastethernet 0/0 Router#show policy interface fastethernet 0/0 FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/0 Service-policy input: ServerFarm (1207) Service-policy input: ServerFarm (1207) Class-map: www.acme.com (match-all) (1209/6) Class-map: www.acme.com (match-all) (1209/6) 0 packets, 0 bytes 0 packets, 0 bytes 5 minute offered rate 0 bps, drop rate 0 bps 5 minute offered rate bps, Match: ip precedence 4 (1213) Match: ip precedence 4 (1213) Match: source-address mac 000D.DDDF.0480 (1217) Match: source-address mac 000D.DDDF.0480 (1217) police: police: 128000 bps, 4000 limit, 4000 extended limit 128000 bps, 4000 limit, 4000 extended limit conformed 0 packets, 0 bytes; action: transmit conformed 0 packets, 0 bytes; action: transmit exceeded 0 packets, 0 bytes; action: drop exceeded 0 packets, 0 bytes; action: drop conformed 0 bps, exceed 0 bps violate 0 bps conformed 0 bps, exceed 0 bps violate 0 bps ... ... Class-map: class-default (match-any) (1229/0) Class-map: class -default (match-any) (1229/0) 0 packets, 0 bytes 0 packets, 0 bytes 5 minute offered rate 0 bps, drop rate 0 bps 5 minute offered rate bps, Match: any (1233) Match: any (1233) police: police: 64000 bps, 2000 limit, 2000 extended limit 64000 bps, conformed 0 packets, 0 bytes; action: transmit conformed 0 packets, 0 bytes; action: transmit exceeded 0 packets, 0 bytes; action: drop exceeded 0 packets, 0 bytes; action: drop conformed 0 bps, exceed 0 bps violate 0 bps conformed 0 bps, exceed 0 bps violate 0 bps ... ...

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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The show policy-map interface command displays all service policies applied to the interface. Among the settings, policing parameters and statistics are displayed. For the www.acme.com class, the CIR was set to 128000 bps, the BC defaults to 128000/32 or 4000 bytes and BE defaults to BC or 4000 bytes also.

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Summary
n n n

Like CAR, Class-based Policing provides rate limiting of traffic Class-based policing is integrated with CB-WFQ Class-based policing uses a modified double token bucket mechanism for metering

Lesson Review
1. What do CAR and Class-based Policing do? 2. What are the main differences between CAR and Class-based Policing? 3. What marking options does Class-based Policing support? 4. What actions does do Class-based Policing support?

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Class-based Shaping
Overview
This lesson describes the Class-based Shaping mechanism. The lesson also compares the Class-based Shaping implementation with the standalone GTS mechanism.

Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
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Describe Class-based Shaping Configure CB-Shaping Monitor and troubleshoot CB-Shaping

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Class-based Shaping
• Use of Class-based Shaping is similar to that of Class-based Policing • CB-Shaping is used to rate-limit packets • Delays exceeding packets rather than dropping them • Has no marking capabilities • CB-Shaping is a version of Generic Traffic Shaping (GTS) using the Modular QoS CLI

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy-98

Class-based Shaping, like Class-based Policing, is used to rate-limit traffic within the CB-WFQ queueing system. Class-based Shaping works by metering the traffic rate and delaying excessive packets until they conform to the configured shaped rate. Class-based Shaping is very similar to Generic Traffic Shaping (GTS), but is implemented as a part of the CB-WFQ system and is configured via the Cisco IOS MQC. Like GTS, Class-based Shaping has no packet marking capability.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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CB-Shaping
CB-Shaping
Add tokens

Check shaping queue N

BC+BE

Token Bucket

Enough Tokens? Yes

No

Do nothing

Tokens Packet size
Shaping Queue N packet

Forward

Queue N

• Router periodically updates the token bucket (every TC ) and checks if any packets can be forwarded to the main queue • T C = BC / BitRate
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy-99

CB-Shaping uses the basic token bucket mechanism, where BC tokens are added at every TC time interval. If enough tokens are present in the bucket when a packet arrives, the packet is immediately forwarded. Otherwise, the packet is delayed in the shaping queue, until enough tokens are available. The router periodically checks the shaping queue by doing the following: 1. Add BC of tokens to the token bucket. 2. Check if there are enough tokens to forward a packet from the shaping queue to the main class queue. The size of the first packet in the shaping queue must be smaller or equal to the number of tokens in the token bucket. Repeat this step until there is no longer enough tokens to forward a packet or the shaping queue is empty. 3. If there are not enough tokens the router stops processing the shaping queue for another period of TC.

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Refilling the Token Bucket
• CB-Shaping has two shaping methods:
– Shaping to the configured average rate (adds B C tokens every TC) – Shaping to the peak rate (adds BC+B E tokens every TC)

• Average rate is forwarding packets at the configured average rate with allowed bursting up to B E when there are extra tokens available • Peak rate is forwarding packets at the peak rate which is calculated using this formula:
PeakRate = AvgRate * (1+BE/BC)
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Class-based Shaping can be configured in two different ways:
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Shaping to the average rate, which uses the normal token bucket refilling method, adding BC tokens every TC time interval Shaping to the peak rate, which adds BC+BE tokens every TC time interval

n

Shaping to the average rate behaves like standard GTS; it establishes a long-term average rate, with bursts of up to BE allowed, when enough tokens are in the bucket. Shaping to the peak rate sends traffic at the peak rate, which is defined as the average rate, multiplied by (1+BE/BC). This translates to sending packets at the average rate of the excess burst size all the time, which may result in dropping in the WAN cloud.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Configuring CB-Shaping
Router(config-pmap-c)#

shape {average | peak} bit-rate [BC [BE]] C E

• BC and BE can be omitted to let the router select the optimal values
Router(config-pmap-c)#

shape max-buffers queue-limit

• Set the maximum number of packets that can be stored in the shaping queue

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy-101

The shape average and shape peak commands configure average and peak shaping respectively within the CB-WFQ system. The shape max-buffers command specifies the maximum size of the shaping queue. The shaping queue delays packets until they conform to the shaping rate. If the shaping queue is full, packets are tail-dropped.

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CB-Shaping Frame Relay Adaptation
Router(config-pmap-c)#

shape adaptive mir-rate

• Adapts the shaping rate when BECN bits are received • Each BECN bit causes the shaping rate to be reduced to three quarters of the previous rate but not below the min-rate • This command has effect only if used on Frame Relay interfaces
Router(config-pmap-c)#

shape fecn-adapt shape fecn-adapt

• Responds to FECN bits by creating test frames in the opposite direction with the BECN bit set
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy-102

Class-based Shaping is able to respond to Layer-2 congestion by reducing its shaping rate to three-quarters of the current rate, until the Layer-2 network recovers from congestion. When BECN flags are no longer received, the rate is slowly ramped up again to the original shaping rate. This is also a lower limit of rate reduction, which bounds the reduction process so that at least some throughput is maintained. The BECN-integrating functionality is performed on a per subinterface (DLCI) basis. The shape adaptive command configures the Class-based Shaping system to adapt the shaping rate to BECN indications, as described above. The min-rate parameter specifies the minimum shaping rate allowed. However, if the congestion was caused by simplex traffic (such as a multicast video stream) or by an aggressive TCP connection, it is expected that the reverse traffic (frames flowing from the receiver to the sender, marked with the BECN bit) might come by less frequently than required to feed the integration. So the receiving DTE (the receiving router) can help matters when it receives a message with FECN set by first checking to see if it has any data, and if it does not, originating a message with BECN set. This message might be a Q.922 TEST RESPONSE message, which would, by virtue of its message type, be understood to be a message to discard and not reply to. This feature is called FECN-to-BECN propagation. The shape fecn-adapt command configures the Class-based Shaping system to respond to FECN-marked frames with BECN TEST frames.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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CB-Shaping Example
class-map Shape class-map Shape match access-group 123 match access-group 123 ! ! policy-map ShapeAvg policy-map S hapeAvg class Shape Shape shape average 16000 1024 2048 shape 16000 1024 ! ! policy-map S hapePeak policy-map ShapePeak class Shape Shape shape peak 16000 1024 2048 shape peak 16000 ! ! interface Serial0/0 interface Serial0/0 service-policy output ShapeAvg service-policy ! ! interface Serial0/1 interface Serial0/1 service-policy output ShapePeak service-policy ! ! access-list 123 permit udp any any access-list

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy-103

This figure shows an example configuration for Class-based Shaping. All UDP traffic is classified into one class, which is shaped differently on two interfaces. On the Serial0/0 interface, all UDP traffic is shaped to the average rate, while on the Serial0/1 interface, all UDP traffic is shaped to the peak rate.

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Monitoring and Troubleshooting CB-Shaping
Router#show policy -map interface Router#show policy-map interface Serial0/0 Serial0/0 Service-policy output: ShapeAvg Service-policy output: Class-map: Shape (match-all) Class-map: Shape (match-all) 782 packets, 728824 bytes 782 packets, 728824 bytes 5 minute offered rate 24000 bps, drop rate 22000 5 minute offered rate 24000 bps, drop rate 22000 Match: access -group 123 Match: access-group 123 Traffic Shaping Traffic Target Byte Sustain Excess Interval Target Byte Rate Limit bits/int bits/int (ms) Rate bits/int bits/int (ms) 16000 384 1024 2048 64 16000 384 1024 2048 64 Queue Queue Depth Depth 64 64 Packets Packets 135 135 Bytes Bytes 125820 125820 Packets Packets Delayed Delayed 134 134

bps bps

Increment Adapt Increment Adapt (bytes) Active (bytes) Active 128 128 Shapin g Shapin g Active Active yes yes

Bytes Bytes Delayed Delayed 124888 124888

Class-map: class -default (match -any) Class-map: class-default (match-any) 9 packets, 3234 bytes 9 packets, 3234 bytes 5 minute offered rate 0 bps, drop rate 0 bps 5 minute offered rate Match: any Match:
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The show policy-map interface command displays all service policies applied to the interface. Among the settings, shaping parameters and statistics are displayed.

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Summary
n n n

Class-based Shaping rate-limits traffic by delaying it in a shaping queue Class-based Shaping meters traffic like GTS, using a single token bucket Class-based Shaping is integrated into the CB-WFQ queuing system, configured via the Cisco IOS MQC

Lesson Review
1. What are the main differences between CB-Policing and CB-Shaping? 2. What two shaping methods does CB-Shaping support?

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Class-based Marking
Overview
This lesson describes the Class-based Marking capability of the Cisco IOS Modular QoS CLI (MQC).

Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n

Describe Class-based Marking Configure CB-Marking Monitor and troubleshoot CB-Marking

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Class-based Marking
• Class-based Marking is an additional tool available with the Modular QoS CLI that allows static per-class marking of packets • It can be used to mark inbound or outbound packets • It can be combined with any other QoS feature on output • It can be combined with CB-Policing on input

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Marking packets or frames lets you set information in the Layer 2, 3, or 4 headers, or even set information within the payload of a packet, so the packet or frame can be identified and distinguished from other packets or frames. The CB-WFQ queuing system provides packet marking capabilities, using Classbased Marking, which is configured within the Cisco IOS MQC feature. It is perhaps the most flexible IOS marking tool, extending the marking functionality of CAR and policy routing. Class-based Marking can be used on input or output of interfaces, as a part of an input or an output service policy. On input, Class-based Marking can be combined with Class-based Policing, and on output, with any other CB-WFQ QoS feature.

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Class-based Marking
• Packets can be marked with one of the following markers:
– IP Precedence – IP DSCP – QoS Group – MPLS Experimental bits – IEEE 802.1Q or ISL CoS/Priority bits – Frame Relay DE bit – ATM CLP bit

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Class-based Marking supports the following markers:
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IP precedence IP DSCP value QoS group MPLS experimental bits ATM CLP bit Frame Relay DE bit IEEE 802.1Q or ISL CoS/priority bits

Class-based marking can be combined with other mechanisms available in the Modular QoS CLI.

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Configuring IP Precedence Marking
Router(config-pmap-c)#

set ip precedence ip-precedence • Mark IP packets with the specified IP precedence value • IP precedence can be set using a value (0 to 7) or a corresponding name (e.g. routine, priority, immediate)
policy-map SetPrec policy-map SetPrec class Class1 class Class1 set ip precedence priority class Class2 class Class2 set ip precedence flash set ip precedence flash class Class3 class Class3 set ip precedence 5 ! !

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IP precedence is encoded into the three high-order bits of the ToS field in the IP header. It supports eight classes of which two are reserved and should not be used for user-defined classes (IP precedence 6 and 7). IP precedence 0 is the default value and is usually used for the best-effort class. The set ip precedence command marks packets of a class with the specified precedence value.

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Configuring IP DSCP Marking
Router(config-pmap-c)#

set ip dscp dscp • Mark IP packets with the specified DSCP value • DSCP can be set using a value (0 to 63) or a corresponding name (e.g af11, af12, af13, af21, ef, cs1, default)
policy-map SetDSCP policy-map SetDSCP class Class1 class Class1 set ip dscp af11 class Class2 class Class2 set ip dscp af21 class Class3 class Class3 set ip dscp ef ! !

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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DiffServ is a new model that supercedes, and is backward compatible with, IP Precedence. DiffServ uses 6 prioritization bits, which permits classification of up to 64 values (0-63). A DiffServ value is called a Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP). The set ip dscp command is used to mark packets of a class with a DSCP value.

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Configuring QoS Group Marking
Router(config-pmap-c)#

set qos-group qos-group

• Mark packets with the specified QoS group value (0 to 99)
policy-map SetQoS policy-map SetQoS class Class1 class Class1 set qos-group 1 class Class2 class Class2 set qos-group 2 class Class3 class Class3 set qos-group 3 ! !

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Class-based Marking can mark packets with the QoS group value. The QoS group is a parameter that is local to the router where it is set. It is not part of any header. It is usually set on an input interface and later examined (matched) on output interfaces. Once the packet is transmitted, the QoS-group information is lost, and the next router must reclassify and mark the packet. QoS group supports up to 100 distinct values (classes). The set qos-group command is used to set the QoS group value to a packet inside a router. Values from 0 to 99 can be used to mark packets.

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Configuring MPLS Marking
Router(config-pmap-c)#

set mpls experimental exp-bits

• Mark labeled packets with the specified value (0 to 7) • MPLS marking can only be used on input
policy-map SetMPLS policy-map SetMPLS class Class1 qos-group class Class1 qos-group set mpls experimental mpls experimental class Class2 qos-group class Class2 qos-group set mpls experimental mpls experimental class Class3 qos-group class Class3 qos-group set mpls experimental mpls experimental ! ! 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3

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Cisco IOS also supports marking of MPLS frames, which is used to set MPLS CoS parameters. The three EXP(erimetal) bits inside the MPLS label are used, and the set mpls experimental command is used within the MQS to mark MPLS frames with CoS information. Values from 0 to 7 can be used to mark MPLS frames.

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Configuring LAN Marking
Router(config-pmap-c)#

set cos cos • Mark frames with the specified value (0 to 7) • The value applies to the Class of Service bits with the IEEE 802.1Q encapsulation or Priority bits with the ISL encapsulation • The command can only be used on output LAN interfaces that are using one of the two mentioned encapsulations
policy-map SetCoS policy-map SetCoS class Class1 class Class1 set cos 1 class Class2 class Class2 set cos 2 class Class3 class Class3 set cos 3 ! !
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy-115

The IEEE 802.1p standard specifies a standard for delivering QoS in local area networks (LANs). Packets are marked with three CoS bits, where CoS values range from zero for low-priority to seven for high-priority. CoS can only be applied on trunks, because only there is an encapsulation available with space for the bits:
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Inter-Switch Link (ISL) frame headers have a 1-byte User field that carries the CoS value in the three least significant bits. IEEE 802.1p and 802.1q frame headers have a 2-byte Tag Control Information field that carries the CoS value in the three most significant bits, which are called the User Priority bits.

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Other frame types cannot carry CoS values. In general, Layer 2 switches can examine, use, or alter MAC layer markings, not IP precedence or DSCP settings, since those are Layer 3. Layer 2 markings are generally applied on egress trunk ports.

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Configuring Frame Relay DE Marking
Router(config-pmap-c)#

set fr-de • Mark packets with the Frame Relay Discard Eligibility (DE) bit value 1 • Do not use the command to mark frames with the default value 0 • The command can only be used on output Frame Relay interfaces
policy-map SetFR policy-map SetFR class Class1 class Class1 set fr-de fr-de class Class2 class Class2 class Class3 class Class3 set fr-de fr-de ! !

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The user can specify which Frame Relay packets have low priority or low time sensitivity and will be the first to be dropped when a Frame Relay switch is congested. The mechanism that allows a Frame Relay switch to identify such packets is the discard eligible (DE) bit. This bit is set for all packets of a class with the set fr-de command. This feature requires that the Frame Relay network be able to interpret the DE bit. Some networks take no action when the DE bit is set. Other networks use the DE bit to determine which packets to discard. The most desirable interpretation is to use the DE bit to determine which packets should be dropped first and also which packets have lower time sensitivity.

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Configuring ATM CLP Marking
Router(config-pmap-c)#

set atm-clp • Mark cells of packets with the ATM Cell Loss Priority (CLP) bit value 1 • Do not use the command to mark cells with the default value 0 • The command can only be used on output ATM interfaces
policy-map SetATM policy-map SetATM class Class1 class Class1 set atm-clp atm-clp class Class2 class Class2 class Class3 class Class3 set atm-clp atm-clp ! !

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The ATM CLP Setting feature somewhat allows users to extend their IP QoS policies into an ATM network by setting the ATM CLP bit in ATM cells based on the IP Precedence value of the packets being sent. As congestion occurs in the ATM network, cells with the CLP bit set are more likely to be dropped, resulting in improved network performance for high priority traffic and applications. The set atm-clp command marks packets of a class with the ATM CLP bit as a part of an input or output policy.

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Monitoring and Troubleshooting CB-Marking
Router #show policy -map interface serial 0/0 Router#show policy-map interface serial 0/0 Serial0/0 Serial0/0 Service-policy input: SetMPLS (1837) Service-policy input: SetMPLS (1837) Class-map: Class1 (match-any) (1839/12) Class-map: Class1 (match-any) (1839/12) 0 packets, 0 bytes 0 packets, 0 bytes 30 second offered rate 0 bps, drop rate 0 bps 30 second offered rate 0 bps, drop rate 0 bps Match: qos-group 1 (1843) Match: qos-group 1 (1843) 0 packets, 0 bytes 0 packets, 0 bytes 30 second rate 0 bps 30 second rate 0 bps QoS Set QoS Set mpls experimental 1 mpls experimental 1 Class-map: Class2 (match-any) (1847/13) Class-map: Class2 (match-any) (1847/13) 0 packets, 0 bytes 0 packets, 0 bytes 30 second offered rate 0 bps, drop rate 0 bps 30 second offered rate 0 bps, drop rate 0 bps Match: qos-group 2 (1851) Match: qos-group 2 (1851) 0 packets, 0 bytes 0 packets, 0 bytes 30 second rate 0 bps 30 second rate 0 bps QoS Set QoS Set mpls experimental 2 mpls experimental 2 ... ...

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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The show policy-map interface command displays all service policies applied to the interface. Among the settings, marking parameters and statistics are displayed.

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MQC Compatibility Matrix
CB QoS mechanism WFQ LLQ LLQ WRED Policing Shaping Marking Configuration command bandwidth priority randomrandom-detect police shape set Supported directions output output output input/output input/output output input/output input/output Can be combined with the following ClassClass- based mechanisms WRED, Shaping, Policing, Marking Shaping, Policing, Marking WFQ, LLQ WRED, Shaping, WFQ, LLQ, Marking WRED, Policing, WFQ, LLQ, Marking WFQ, LLQ, Marking WRED, Policing, Shaping, WFQ, LLQ

Output

Classify

Mark

Police

Shape

WRED

Queue

Schedule

Input

Classify

Mark

Police

Forward

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy-119

The figure shows the compatibility matrix of all QoS mechanisms within the CB-WFQ system that can be configured via the Cisco IOS MQC. Supported combinations of features are shown, as well as their processing sequence, and applicability on input and output interfaces.

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Summary
n n n

Class-based Marking is the most flexible Cisco IOS marking tool Class-based Marking is implemented as a part of the CB-WFQ system Class-based Marking supports marking of IP packets and a variety of Layer-2 frames

Lesson Review
1. Which parameters can be set using CB-Marking? 2. Can CB-Marking be used on input? 3. Can CB-Marking be combined with any other QoS mechanisms?

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Summary
After completing this module, you should be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n n n n

Describe the policy part of the Modular QoS CLI Configure packet marking with modular CLI Configure policing and shaping with modular CLI Configure class-based WFQ with modular CLI Configure congestion avoidance mechanisms (WRED) with modular CLI Configure low-latency queuing Monitor and troubleshoot policy maps

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Review Questions and Answers
Service Policy Question: What are the benefits of using MQC? Answer: Template-based configuration; new classification options can be used with any MQC-based QoS mechanism. Question: How many classes can be used for one service policy? Answer: The MQC allows up to 256 classes to be defined. One service policy can use any number of classes. CB-WFQ is limited to 64 classes.

Class-based We ighted Fair Queuing Question: What type of guarantee does CB-WFQ provide? Answer: CB-WFQ provides bandwidth guarantees. Question: Which DiffServ PHB can be implemented using CB-WFQ? Answer: Assured Forwarding (AF) PHB can be implemented using CB-WFQ. Question: What configuration steps are needed to configure CB-WFQ? Answer: a. Create class maps for all classes that require individual bandwidth guarantees b. Create a policy map and specify the bandwidth for each class c. Apply the policy map to one or more interfaces where the same policy is needed

Class-based WRED Question: How does WRED supplement CB-WFQ? Answer: WRED is used to prevent congestion within a class queue. Question: Can WRED be combined with flow-based WFQ in the default class? Answer: Yes. Question: Which two operational modes does WRED support? Answer: IP-precedence-based and DSCP-based. Question: How many profiles does WRED support? Answer: 8 profiles for IP-precedence-based WRED and 64 profiles for DSCPbased WRED.
Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Modular QoS CLI Service Policy 9-115

Class-based Low-latency Queuing Question: What advantages does CB-LLQ have over IP RTP Prioritization? Answer: CB-LLQ can use any classification supported by class maps. IP RTP Prioritization can only classify based on a range of UDP port numbers. Question: What guarantees does CB-LLQ provide? Answer: CB-LLQ provides a bandwidth guarantee and minimum-delay forwarding of packets.

Class-based Policing Question: What do CAR and Class-based Policing do? Answer: CAR and Class-based policing are primarily used to limit the rate of a
traffic cla ss by dropping excess packets.

Question: What are the main differences between CAR and Class-based Policing? Answer: Class-based Policing uses the MQC and supports three different actions
(confirm, exceed and violate).

Question: What marking options does Class-based Policing support? Answer: IP precedence, DSCP, MPLS experimental bits, QoS group, Frame Relay
DE bit, ATM CLP bit.

Question: What actions does do Class-based Policing support? Answer: CB-Policing supports the following actions: transmit, drop and set
(marker). A different action can be used depending on whether a packet conforms, exceeds or violates the policy.

Class-based Shaping Question: What are the main differences between CB-Policing and CB-Shaping? Answer: CB-Shaping polices bandwidth by delaying exceeding packets instead of dropping them. Question: What two shaping methods does CB-Shaping support? Answer: CB-Shaping supports shaping to average or peak rate.

Class-based Marking

Question: Which parameters can be set using CB-Marking? Answer: CB-Marking can mark packets with the following markers: IP
Precedence, IP DSCP, QoS Group, MPLS Experimental bits, IEEE 802.1Q or ISL CoS/Priority bits, Frame Relay DE bit, ATM CLP bit
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Question: Can CB-Marking be used on input? Answer: Yes. Question: Can CB-Marking be combined with any other QoS mechanisms? Answer: Yes. CB-Marking can be combined with WRED, Policing, Shaping,
WFQ, LLQ.

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10

IP over ATM

Overview
This module focuses on IP QoS mechanisms that can be used on ATM interfaces. It includes the following topics:
n n n n n

Introduction to IP over ATM Per-VC WRED VC Bundling Per-VC CB-WFQ RSVP to SVC Mapping

Objectives
Upon completion of this module, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n

List the requirements of IP QoS in combination with ATM QoS Describe the hardware and software requirements for advanced IP QoS mechanisms on ATM interfaces Describe per-VC queuing Describe and configure per-VC WRED Describe and configure VC bundling Describe and configure per-VC CB-WFQ Describe RSVP to SVC mapping Monitor and troubleshoot IP QoS on ATM interfaces

n n n n n n

Introduction to IP over ATM
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n

Describe the QoS-related problems when using ATM networks Describe the hardware and software requirements for advanced IP QoS mechanisms on ATM interfaces Describe per-VC queuing

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IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP vs. ATM Technology comparison
IP
• Connectionless • Per-packet QoS (IP precedence) • Small number of service classes • IP precedence or DSCP does not encode service parameters

ATM
• Connection oriented • Per-connection (virtual circuit) QoS • Large number of QoS traffic classes (CBR, VBR, UBR, ABR) • Rich traffic parameters (PCR, MCR, SCR ...) specified for each VC

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-5

The Internet Protocol (IP) is a routed protocol that is used to transmit data in packets. It uses the best-effort delivery for individual packets without any flow control. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is used with IP to provide a connection-oriented service. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), on the other hand, provides connections between endpoints in the ATM network. The connections are called virtual circuits (VCs). IP’s default best effort service can be supplemented by differentiated quality of service based on IP precedence or DSCP marking. A QoS solution using IP precedence is limited to 8 classes, 2 of which are reserved and 1 should be used for the default best-effort class. A QoS solution using DSCP scales up to 64 classes. ATM provides a wider range of services:
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Constant Bit Rate (CBR) is useful for delay-sensitive applications such as voice. This service provides bandwidth and delay guarantees. Variable Bit Rate—Real Time (VBR-RT) is useful for burstier delay-sensitive applications. This service provides bandwidth and delay guarantees. Variable Bit Rate—Non Real Time (VBR-NRT) is useful for bursty traffic. This service provides bandwidth guarantees. Available Bit Rate (ABR) is useful for best-effort traffic that is allowed more bandwidth, when available or configured. This service provides bandwidth guarantees and access to extra bandwidth. Unspecified Bit Rate is useful for the real best effort where there are no guarantees.

n

n

n

n

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IP QoS IP over ATM

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IP’s IP precedence or DSCP are only used to mark packets. They do not include any service parameters. Servic e parameters depend on the QoS mechanism being deployed. ATM’s services also include various per-connection service parameters, such as:
n n n n

Sustained Cell Rate (SCR) for CBR, VBR and ABR services Minimum Cell Rate (MIR) for ABR Peak Cell Rate (PCR) for VBR, ABR and UBR services Maximum Burst Size (MBS)

Both IP and ATM can implement Quality of Service (QoS). The decision on which technology to use for quality of service should be based on a number of factors, such as:
n n n n

Availability of ATM Interaction between ATM and IP Scalability options of the technology Performance limitations

This module introduces the possibilities of combining IP QoS with ATM.

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IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Integrating IP and ATM
• Overlay model (ATM forum)
– ATM VC’s are manually established between pairs of devices – IP packets are sent across these VC’s – ATM switches are not IP aware

• Peer model (MPLS)
– ATM switches are IP aware on control (but not data) plane – ATM VC’s are established on-demand based on IP routing tables

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-6

There are two main approaches to integration of IP with/over ATM:
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The traditional way (overlay model) is to use individual permanent virtual circuits (PVC) to establish point-to-point adjacencies between IP routers. IP routing protocols are used to provide reachability across a network of ATM connections. ATM has no knowledge of IP and cannot use IP information to optimize its links. The newer approach (MPLS) is to make ATM switches IP aware. ATM switches run an IP routing protocol to establish virtual circuits.

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This module focuses on the QoS available with traditional permanent and switched virtual circuits (PVCs and SVCs). The IP QoS- IP over MPLS module discusses QoS possibilities when using the peer model.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM

10-5

IP QoS and ATM
• Routers can be interconnected over an ATM backbone using different ATM services:
– UBR – congestion management is virtually impossible because routers are allowed to transmit packets at line speed – VBR – congestion management is easier, but it requires conservative setting of transmit rates – CBR – similar to VBR from IP perspective – ABR – pushes congestion back to the source, requires dynamic adjustment to available bandwidth

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-7

Achieving good quality of service for IP classes greatly depends on the type of ATM network and services used.
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Using UBR, prevents routers from detecting congestion in the network. It is therefore difficult to manage congestion based on IP precedence or DSCP. The reason for this is because all packet drops happen on the congested link somewhere in the ATM network. VBR makes it easier to push congestion back to the source where it can be managed by routers. CBR is typically used for non-bursty delay sensitive traffic. It is therefore more important to prevent congestion by correctly provisioning the class that is using CBR. ABR is a good solution where bandwidth can be utilized to the maximum without having many drops in the ATM network.

n

n

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UBR Virtual Circuits
Random CLP marking Unintelligent drops based on CLP

No congestion Router allowed to send at full speed

Congestion

• Solution:
– Set CLP on the router based on IP information to minimize the effect of cell drops
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over ATM-8

A solution using UBR can be improved in terms of IP QoS, by marking less important packets with the CLP bit for congestion control. In case of congestion, the ATM switches will drop the less important packets to give more bandwidth for the higher-priority packets. The ATM FORUM also calls the UBR service category a “best effort” service, which requires neither tightly constrained delay nor delay variation. In fact, UBR provides no specific quality of service or guarantee throughput whatsoever. This traffic is therefore “at risk” since the network provides no performance guarantees for UBR traffic. The Internet and Local Area Networks are examples of this type of “best effort” delivery performance. Examples of this are LAN emulation (LANE), IP over ATM, and non-mission-critical traffic. This solution is fairly limited, since it allows for only two classes on the IP layer where congestion should be managed.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM

10-7

VBR Virtual Circuits
Congestion! Unintelligent random drops

Router is sending at configured rate

Congestion is possible

• Solution:
– Set CLP on the router based on IP information – Use available IP QoS mechanisms to manage congestion at the source
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over ATM-9

A solution using VBR is better at providing feedback to routers sending cells into the ATM network. Congestion will occur on a router’s virtual circuit, where it can be managed by using the QoS mechanisms available in the Cisco IOS software. CLP marking can be used for less-important packets or for those packets above the Sustained Cell Rate (SCR) to improve the chances for higher-priority packets when congestion occurs in the ATM network. The rt-VBR service category supports time-sensitive applications, which also requires constrained delay and delay variation requirements, but which transmit at a time varying rate constrained to a PCR, SCR, and MBS define a traffic contract in terms of the worst-case source traffic pattern for which the network guarantees a specified QOS. Examples of such bursty, delay-variation-sensitive sources are voice and variable -bit-rate video. The nrt-VBR service category supports applications that have no constraints on delay and delay variations, but which still have variable -rate, bursty traffic characteristics. This class of application expects a low Cell Loss Ratio (CLR). The traffic contract is the same as that for rt-VBR. Applications include packet data transfers, terminal sessions, and file transfers. Networks may statistically multiplex these VBR sources effectively.

10-8

IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

CBR and ABR Virtual Circuits
Congestion!

Router is sending at configured rate.

• Solution:
– Use available IP QoS mechanism to handle congestion at the source
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over ATM-10

CBR virtual circuits, are used for delay-sensitive traffic. This traffic should not experience congestion due to keeping the quality of data being transmitted. If congestion occurs, it can be managed by the IP layer using the IP QoS mechanisms on the router’s ATM interface. The CBR service category supports real-time applications requiring a fixed amount of capacity defined by the PCR. CBR supports tightly constrained variations in delay. Example applications are voice, constant-bit-rate video, and Circuit Emulation Services (CES). Normally, networks must allocate the peak rate to these types of source. The ABR service category works in cooperation with sources that can change their transmission rate in response to rate-based network feedback used in the context of closed-loop flow control. The aim of ABR service is to dynamically provide access to capacity currently not in use by other service categories to users who can adjust their transmission rate in response to feedback. In exchange for this cooperation by the user, the network provides a service with very low loss. Applications specify a maximum transmit-rate (PCR_ and the minimum required rate, called the Minimum Cell Rate (MCR). ABR service does not provide bounded delay variation; hence real-time applications are for ABR are LAN interconnection, high-performance file transfers, database archival, non-timesensitive traffic, and web browsing.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM

10-9

Congestion Management in ATM Networks
• Congestion management on routers should be performed on a per-VC basis • Design options:
– Make sure there is no congestion in the ATM network (ABR, CBR, VBR) and use IP QoS mechanisms at the source (CB-WFQ, WRED) – Mark less important packets with the CLP bit in case there is congestion in the ATM network (CBPolicing, CB-Marking) – Use multiple parallel (per-CoS) virtual circuits with ATM QoS (VC Bundling)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-11

This module discusses three different approaches to designing QoS in IP networks on ATM: 1. 2. 3. Using IP QoS mechanisms to ensure there is no congestion in the AMT network Using ATM QoS mechanisms with IP precedence used for classification (VC Bundling) Combining both IP and ATM QoS mechanisms

10-10

IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Per-VC Queuing
VIP Memory
Frame queue VC 1/50

ATM Port Adapter
Cell queue VC 1/50

ATM interface
VC 1/50 VC 1/64 VC 1/76

Frame queue VC 1/64

Cell queue VC 1/64

Frame queue VC 1/76

Cell queue VC 1/76

VC 1/39

Frame queue VC 1/39

Cell queue VC 1/39

Per-VC queuing with per-VC congestion management

ATM hardware shaping

• Per-VC queuing is required in order to handle congestion on per-VC basis • Per-VC queuing prevents head-of-line blocking by slow virtual circuits
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over ATM-12

One of the most important parts of implementing QoS is to make ATM virtual circuits appear as physical interfaces on routers; that is, each VC must have its own queue (per-VC queuing). Per-VC queuing prevents one congested VC from slowing down other VCs (head-of-line blocking). Per-VC queuing can then be supplemented by various IP QoS mechanisms, such as:
n n n n n n n

WRED CAR CB-WFQ CB-LLQ CB-Policing CB-Shaping CB-Marking

CB-Marking and CB-Policing can also be used to set the CLP bit.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM

10-11

Summary
The following steps have to be taken prior to the designing of a QoS solution for IP over ATM:
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Implement Per-VC queuing (to prevent head-of-line blocking and allow for IP QoS mechanisms to be implemented on individual virtual circuits) Decide on the technology that will be used to implement QoS

n

Review Questions
Answer the following questions: 1. What are the main differences between IP and ATM? 2. Which QoS services does ATM support? 3. How should congestion be handled when an ATM backbone is used? 4. Why is per-VC queuing so important?

10-12

IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Per-VC WRED
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n

Describe per-VC WRED Configure per-VC WRED Monitor and troubleshoot per-VC WRED

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM

10-13

Per-VC WRED
• Single ATM VC is established over an ATM cloud between a pair of routers
– ABR, VBR, UBR or CBR – Using UBR will not result in proper operation, as there is no ATM shaping in UBR

• All IP traffic toward a next-hop router is forwarded across a single ATM VC • Congestion is managed entirely on the IP layer using WRED on each individual ATM VC, resulting in differentiated IP services

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-17

A simple addition to best-effort service on ATM interfaces is Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED). WRED is most efficient when the majority of the traffic is TCP (TCP reacts to random drops and slows down the transmission rate). With other protocols, packet sources may not respond or may resend dropped packets at the same rate. Thus, dropping packets does not decrease congestion. WRED treats non-IP traffic as precedence 0, the lowest precedence. Therefore, non-IP traffic is more likely to be dropped than IP traffic UBR would probably result in congestion somewhere in the ATM network, thus preventing any intelligent congestion management on the IP layer. Any other ATM service (CBR, VBR or ABR) will push congestion back to the source where WRED can be used to drop packets based on the IP precedence or DSCP value.

10-14

IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Per-VC WRED : Intelligent IP Packet Discard
Threshold Exceeded VIP2-50 PA-A3-XX
VC1 VC2

Traffic Shaping

VC3

Per-VC WRED: Intelligent Discard
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Per-VC Queues

No discard on PA

IP QoS IP over ATM-18

Per-VC queuing requires an Enhanced ATM Port Adapter that support up to 4096 cell queues. Each virtual circuit is assigned a queue and the ATM scheduler forwards cells according to the ATM service and shaping parameters. The router (or VIP on Cisco 7x00 series routers) also assigns one queue per virtual circuit. Cell departure is shaped if ABR, VBR or CBR services are used, thus causing congestion in the frame queue if packet arrival is greater than the shaping rate in ATM. Per-VC WRED can be used to manage congestion within individual queues (classes).

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM

10-15

Configuring Per-VC WRED Configuring
• The following configuration steps are needed to enable per-VC WRED:
– Create a Random-Detect-Group template with a WRED profile – Apply the WRED template to an ATM interface or to individual ATM VCs – Verify and monitor the operation of per-VC WRED

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-19

Applying WRED to individual VCs is slightly different than applying WRED to interfaces. A Random Detect Group must be created if non-default WRED profiles need to be used on VCs. Standard WRED parameters (per-precedence minimum threshold, maximum threshold and maximum drop probability) are set in the random-detect-group configuration mode.

10-16

IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Create and configure RED-group
Router(config)# random-detect-group name name

• Creates a WRED template
Router(cfg-red-group)# exponential-weighting-constant exp exponential-weighting-constant

• Defines WRED weighting constant • Default: 9
Router(cfg-red-group)# precedence IP-prec min-threshold max-threshold prob-denominator max-threshold precedence

• Defines RED profile for specified precedence • Default: as with per-interface WRED
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over ATM-20

The random-detect-group global configuration command creates a WRED profile and enters the red-group configuration mode. WRED per-precedence profiles are configured in the red-group configuration mode, using similar commands as with per-interface WRED, except the commands are not preceded by the random-detect keyword. Any class (IP precedence) can be configured with a RED profile different from the default by using the precedence command in the red-group configuration mode:
n

Minimum threshold—When the average queue depth is above the minimum threshold, RED starts dropping packets. The rate of packet drop increases linearly as the average queue size increases, until the average queue size reaches the maximum threshold. Maximum threshold—When the average queue size is above the maximum threshold, all packets are dropped. If the difference between the maximum threshold and the minimum threshold is too small, many packets might be dropped at once, resulting in global synchronization. Mark probability denominator—This is the fraction of packets dropped when the average queue depth is at the maximum threshold. For example, if the denominator is 512, one out of every 512 packets is dropped when the average queue is at the maximum threshold.

n

n

WRED does not calculate the drop probability using the current queue length, but instead uses the average queue length. The average queue length is constantly recalculated, using two terms:
n n

The previously calculated average queue size The current queue size
IP QoS IP over ATM 10-17

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

An exponential weighting constant N influences the calculation by weighing the two terms. It therefore influences how the average queue size follows the current queue size, in the following way:
n

A low value of N makes the current queue size more significant in the new average size calculation, therefore allowing larger bursts A high value of N makes the previous average queue size more significant in the new average size calculation, so that bursts influence the new value to a smaller degree

n

The default value is 9 and should suffice for most scenarios, except perhaps those involving extremely high-speed interfaces (such as OC12), where it can be increased slightly (to about 12) to allow more bursts.
Note The default WRED parameter values are based on the best available data. Cisco recommends that you do not change the parameters from their default values unless you have determined that your applications will benefit from the changed values.

10-18

IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Apply WRED group to an ATM PVC
Router(config-if-atm-vc)#

random-detect [attach random-detect-group] random-detect [attach random-detect-group]

• Enables WRED on a PVC using the selected WRED profile • Default WRED parameters are used if the group name is omitted or refers to non-existent group • Default: no WRED is used on the ATM PVC

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-21

The last step in the configuration of per-VC WRED is to attach a random-detectgroup to a virtual circuit. The random-detect command is used in the VC configuration mode to enable WRED. If no random-detect-group is specified WRED will use the default WRED profiles.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM

10-19

Monitoring and Troubleshooting Per-VC WRED
Router# show queueing random-detect [interface intf [vc vpi vci ]] show random-detect [interface vci ]]

• Displays WRED parameters for an ATM (sub)interface or for individual VC

Router# show queueing interface interface [vc vpi vci] show interface vpi vci]

• Displays interface queues or individual per-VC queue

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-22

The show queuing random-detect command display WRED parameters and statistics for a specific interface or virtual circuit. There is only a single queue into which packets from all IP precedences are placed after dropping has taken place. The show queuing interface command displays per-VC queue parameters and statistics. The “Queuing strategy” reported by the command lists “random early detection (RED)” as the queuing mechanism. The default minimum thresholds are spaced evenly between half and the entire maximum threshold. Thresholds are specified in terms of packet count.

10-20

IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

WRED Case Study
• WRED is applied to a ATM PVCs in a network with the following IP precedence definitions
IP prec. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning High-loss best-effort traffic Low-loss best-effort traffic Premium traffic outside of the contract Premium traffic in the contract Unused Voice-over-IP Routing protocol traffic Routing protocol traffic

• WRED queue length is 100 packets for PVCs with SCR > 10 Mbps and 40 packets for slower PVCs

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-23

The case study shows a QoS design where packets are classified into three user classes:
n n n

Best-effort class Premium class Voice class

The Best-effort and Premium classes use two IP precedence values to mark high-drop (out-of-contract) traffic and low-drop (within contract) traffic. IP precedence values 6 and 7 are reserved for control messages (for example, routing protocols) and should not be used for user traffic. The design lists these two additional requirements:
n

Virtual circuits faster than 10Mbps should have queues that can hold up to 100 packets Slower virtual circuits can store up to 40 packets in the queue

n

All virtual circuits should manage congestion by using WRED.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM

10-21

Case Study WRED Profile

Packet Discard Probability

Precedence 3 Precedence 1 Precedence 2 Precedence 0
10 15 20 25 30

VoIP Routing

0.1

Average Queue Size
35 37

RSVP

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-24

The figure illustrates the WRED parameters that should be implemented for fast and slow virtual circuits. The minimum and maximum thresholds should reflect a different maximum queue size for fast VCs (100 instead of 40). High drop Best-effort and Premium packets start being dropped when the average queue size reaches 10 or 15 respectively (25 or 37 on fast VCs). If the queue still grows the low-drop Best-effort packets start being dropped when the queue size reaches 20 (50 on fast VCs). High drop packets, of course, are more aggressively dropped than low-drop packets. Control packets, VoIP packets and packets of RSVP flows are only dropped in extreme situations when the average queue size is close to the maximum (40 for slow VCs and 100 for fast VCs).

10-22

IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Router Configuration
• Step #1 - configure WRED profile for slow PVCs
random-detect-group slow-wred-profile random-detect-group slow-wred-profile precedence 0 10 25 10 precedence 1 20 40 10 precedence 2 15 25 10 precedence 3 25 40 10 precedence 4 1 10 10 precedence 4 precedence 5 35 40 10 precedence 6 30 40 10 precedence 7 30 40 10

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-25

The figure shows the configuration of WRED profiles used for slow VCs.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM

10-23

Router Configuration
• Step #2 - configure WRED profile for fast PVCs
random-detect-group fast-wred-profile random-detect-group fast-wred-profile precedence 0 25 62 10 precedence 0 25 62 10 precedence 1 50 100 10 precedence 1 50 100 10 precedence 2 37 62 10 precedence 2 37 62 10 precedence 3 62 100 10 precedence 3 62 100 10 precedence 5 87 100 10 precedence 5 87 100 10 precedence 4 1 10 10 precedence 4 precedence 6 75 100 10 precedence 6 75 100 10 precedence 7 75 100 10 precedence 7 75 100 10

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-26

The figure shows the configuration of WRED profiles used for fast VCs.
Note This configuration simply uses scaled thresholds to support up to 100 packets in the queue.

10-24

IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Router Configuration
• Step #3 - Apply WRED profile on various PVCs
interface ATM11/0/0 interface ATM11/0/0 ip address 17.1.0.1 255.255.255.0 17.1.0.1 255.255.255.0 atm pvc 50 0 50 aal5snap 25000 50000 10 inarp pvc inarp random-detect fast-wred-profile random-detect fast-wred-profile ! ! interface ATM11/0/0.100 point-to-point interface ATM11/0/0.100 ip address 17.1.1.1 255.255.255.252 atm pvc 100 0 100 aal5snap 17000 34000 10 inarp pvc 100 inarp random-detect fast-wred-profile random-detect fast-wred-profile ! ! interface ATM11/0/0.101 point-to-point interface ATM11/0/0.101 ip address 17.1.1.5 255.255.255.252 atm pvc 101 5 101 aal5snap 2000 4000 10 inarp atm 101 5 101 aal5snap 2000 4000 10 random-detect slow-wred-profile random-detect slow-wred-profile

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-27

The figure shows the configuration of three virtual circuits. Two are using the WRED profile for fast VCs and the third is using the WRED profile for slow VCs.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM

10-25

Summary
Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) is one of the IP QoS mechanisms that can be applied to individual virtual circuits. A Random Detect Group is used to configure a WRED profile that is attached to individual VCs using the random-detect command in the VC configuration mode.

Review Questions
Answer the following questions: 1. What are the benefits of per-VC WRED? 2. What are the configuration steps needed to enable per-VC WRED?

10-26

IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

VC Bundling
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n

Describe VC bundling Configure VC bundling Monitor and troubleshoot VC bundling

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM

10-27

VC Bundling
• VC Bundling is a solution where ATM QoS mechanisms are used • Classes of Service are identified by IP precedence • Each VC uses an ATM service based on the requirements of the class • Routers automatically map packets in VCs based on their IP precedence value • Multiple parallel VCs are needed for each IP adjacency
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over ATM-32

VC Bundling is a solution where the task of providing differentiated quality of service is offloaded to the ATM switches. Classes are identified by using IP precedence values. The routers then perform classification based on IP precedence values. Up to eight parallel virtual circuits can be used for one IP adjacency. Appropriate ATM services are used for each IP precedence value, depending on the QoS requirements and provisioning. An IP precedence value or a range of IP precedence values are mapped to one virtual circuit. Non-contiguous IP precedence ranges are not supported.

10-28

IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

VC Bundling Case Study
ATM VC ATM VC type Control VC (routing updates) VBR Voice CBR VPN traffic VBR Premium Internet traffic VBR Best-effort Internet traffic ABR
Control (routing) Voice VPN traffic Premium Internet Best-effort Internet

IP prec. 6-7 5 4 2-3 0-1

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-33

The figure illustrates a case study where there are four user classes and one class for control traffic. Routers perform classification based on IP precedence values:
n n n n n

IP precedence 6 and 7 traffic is forwarded through the Control VC IP precedence 5 traffic is forwarded through the Voice VC IP precedence 4 traffic is forwarded through the VPN VC IP precedence 2 and 3 traffic is forwarded through the Premium VC IP precedence 0 and 1 traffic is forwarded through the Best-effort VC

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM

10-29

VC Bundling Routing Adjacency

Routing protocol packets are exchanged over control VC as they are sent with IP precedence 6 Control (routing) Voice VPN traffic Premium Internet Each VC has its own HW queue in the Best-effort Internet router, managed with WRED Whole bundle is treated as one routing adjacency and is covered by a single ATM map

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-34

All five classes are separated in the ATM network and receive different quality of service. Routers have to perform per-VC queuing to prevent head-of-line blocking. All five virtual circuits, though, appear as one single point-to-point link on the IP layer.

10-30

IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

VC Provisioning
• VCs are dimensioned based on expected load for the precedence(s) level transported on that VC • More isolation between classes • At the expense of
– less statistical multiplexing, – more complex provisioning/engineering

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-35

VC Bundling provides an efficient utilization of QoS capabilities provided by ATM. IP classes are effectively isolated by being transported over different virtual circuits. The drawbacks of this approach are:
n

Less statistical multiplexing. One class cannot use another class’s bandwidth (unless ABR is used). More complex provisioning. Each IP adjacency, which normally requires one point-to-point virtual circuit, now requires multiple virtual circuits of different types and QoS.

n

As much as IP QoS is simplified to classification and marking using IP precedence, ATM QoS is more complex because there are up to eight times more virtual circuits to be configured.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM

10-31

VC Bundle Management
• Integrity of each individual VC is verified with end-to-end OAM cells

Control (routing) Voice VPN traffic Premium Internet Best-effort Internet

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-36

Most Layer-2 technologies include some type of link management. Keepalive frames are typically used as a last resort to determine if end-to-end connectivity works. For example:
n

HDLC and PPP use link-level keepalive frames to determine if the link is operational. Frame Relay uses keepalive frames to determine if the link between a router and a switch is operational. Frame Relay can also have end-to-end keepalive messages to determine if the virtual circuit is operational. ATM uses two types of Operation Administration and Maintenance (OAM) cells to determine if link-level and end-to-end connectivity works.

n

n

VC bundling is more complex since there are multiple parallel virtual circuits used for one single IP adjacency. The question is: what should happen if only one VC goes down?

10-32

IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

VC Bundle Management

Control (routing) Voice VPN traffic

Best-effort Internet Two ways of handling loss of VC in the bundle: • The whole bundle is declared down • Traffic from the lost VC is bumped onto another VC • IP routing model does not allow the traffic for a single precedence value to be rerouted over another path
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over ATM-37

There are two possible ways of handling lost VCs:
n n

All VCs are declared inactive The traffic for the lost VC is rerouted onto another VC within the same bundle

IP forwarding decisions are based solely on the destination address and cannot reroute packets based on their IP precedence values.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM

10-33

VC Bumping
• VC bumping = possibility for a traffic mapped to VC X to be forwarded onto another VC Y, in case of failure of X • Traffic can be bumped based on implicit or explicit rules • Individual VC or a group of VCs can be protected

Keep All Graphics Inside This Box
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

www.cisco.com

Course acronym 2.0 —Chapter#-38

n

VC bumping is one approach to handling lost VCs. If one of the VCs goes down the traffic from that VC is forwarded through another VC in the same bundle. Implicit bumping is the default behavior where packets are forwarded through the first available VC of a lower IP precedence value. Explicit bumping requires manual configuration where the IP precedence of a backup VC is set.

n

n

10-34

IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Implicit Bumping

Control (routing) Voice VPN traffic

Best-effort Internet

• Traffic from the lost VC is bumped onto the VC carrying traffic with the next lower precedence
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over ATM-39

The figure illustrates how routers automatically reroute Premium traffic to the first VC with a lower IP precedence value (Best-effort in the example).

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM

10-35

Reject Bumping

Voice VPN traffic Premium Internet Best-effort Internet

Rejects bumping

• Problem: Control traffic shall not be bumped onto voice VC (implicit rule) • Solution #1: Voice VC can reject bumping, bumped traffic goes to next lower VC
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over ATM-40

Some virtual circuits can be configured to reject bumped traffic. The figure illustrates how the Voice VC rejects bumped traffic (mixing delay sensitive, well-provisioned traffic with other types of packets is not desired and should be prevented). Implicit bumping searches down the “ladder” for the first available VC (it has to be operational and accept bumped traffic).

10-36

IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Explicit Bumping

Bump explicitely to precedence 0

Voice VPN traffic Premium Internet Best-effort Internet

• Problem: Control traffic shall not be bumped onto voice VC (implicit rule) • Solution #2: Specify explicitely onto which VC the traffic will be bumped
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over ATM-41

Another approach is to explicitly set the backup VC. The Control VC in the figure was configured to use the Best-effort VC as backup.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM

10-37

Bundle Failure Scenarios
When a bundle is declared down, no traffic is forwarded out of the bundle, even if some VCs are still up (routing) Control Voice VPN traffic Premium Internet
Whole bundle is lost
Precedence 0 traffic cannot be implicitly bumped

• Problem: under default settings, the whole bundle is declared down if the lowest-precedence VC is lost • Solution: be sure that the lowest-precedence VC is always bumped via explicit bumping rule
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over ATM-42

In this figure the VC used for IP precedence 0 does not have a lower-precedence VC to be used as backup. It is recommended to use explicit bumping for this VC.

10-38

IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Protected VC

Control (routing)
Voice VC is protected VC

VPN traffic Premium Internet
Whole bundle is lost

Best-effort Internet

• Problem: voice traffic shall not be bumped onto data VC • Solution: failure of protected VC brings down the whole bundle, IP routing will find alternate path
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over ATM-43

Some VCs have special QoS requirements that cannot be accommodated by any other VC. The Voice VC in the figure cannot be bumped to any other VC because the voice quality would no longer meet the requirements. It is better to declare the entire bundle down and let the IP routing protocol find another path where guarantees can be met. Classes that under no circumstances should be mixed with other classes should reject bumped traffic (if a higher-precedence VC fails) and be protected (if their VC fails).

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM

10-39

Protected group

Control (routing) Voice

Whole bundle is lost

All VCs in the protected group are lost

• Problem: if most of the VC’s are lost, it does not make sense to bump traffic onto low-volume VC’s • Solution: failure of all VC’s in a protected group will bring down the bundle
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over ATM-44

One group of VCs can be protected in a way where the bundle is declared down but only if all of the VCs in the group fail.

10-40

IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

VC Bumping – Final Details
• If the VC which carries the bumped traffic fails, the traffic will follow the bumping rules specified for that VC • Traffic is restored to the original VC when that VC becomes operational

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-45

To summarize bumping:
n

Default implicit bumping is used to find the first-lower precedence VC that accepts bumped traffic and is operational. Explicit bumping can be used to select the backup VC. If the backup VC is down, that VC’s rules are used to find the backup of the backup VC. Individual VCs can be configured to reject bumped traffic. Bumped traffic will skip such VCs. An individual VC can be protected. If a protected VC fails the entire bundle is declared down. A collection of VCs can belong to a protected group. If all VCs in the protected group fail the entire bundle is declared down.

n

n

n

n

Traffic is restored to the original VC the moment it becomes operational.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM

10-41

Configuring VC Bundling
• Configuration steps:
– Configure ATM interface – Configure VC bundle – Configure individual VC in the bundle – Optionally use VC-class object as VC parameter template

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-46

The following configuration steps are needed to enable VC Bundling:
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4

Configure interface-wide parameters on an ATM interface Create a VC bundle Create up to eight VCs as members of the bundle Optionally, use the VC-class object as a template for bundle or VC configuration

10-42

IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

VC Bundle Parameters
• Parameters configurable on the VC bundle or vc-class applied to the bundle
– Layer-3 ATM maps – Encapsulation – Broadcast propagation – ATM Inverse ARP – OAM management – Global bumping rules

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-47

The figure lists the parameters that can be set on a bundle or a vc-class template. Individual member VCs inherits the parameters if they are not overridden in the VC configuration.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM

10-43

Individual VC Parameters
• Parameters configurable on individual VC in the bundle (or vc-class)
– IP precedence mapping – VC protection mode – VC bumping rules – ATM VC mode and ATM QoS parameters – WRED group

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-48

Individual VC parameters can be inherited from a vc-class configured on the bundle, the bundle, or a vc-class configured on the VC. Parameters configured on the VC override all inherited parameters.

10-44

IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Configuring Bundle-wide VC Class
Router(config)#

class-vc vc-class-name class-vc vc-class-name oam-bundle [manage] [frequency] oam-bundle [frequency] bump {implicit | explicit precedence-level | traffic} bump {implicit precedence-level encapsulation atm-encap encapsulation atm-encap protocol atm-map-parameters … protocol [no] broadcast [no] broadcast inarp timeout inarp timeout

• Configures all parameters that can be specified on an ATM VC bundle in a VC class

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-49

Use the class-vc global configuration command to create a template used to configure common parameters on ATM interfaces, bundles or individual virtual circuits. VC classes can contain ATM specific configuration commands as well as commands used for VC Bundle management.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM

10-45

Configuring ATM VC Bundle
Router(config-if)#

bundle bundle-name bundle bundle-name class vc-class-name class vc-class-name oam-bundle [manage] [frequency] [frequency] oam-bundle bump {implicit | explicit precedence-level | traffic} bump {implicit | explicit precedence-level | traffic} encapsulation atm-encap encapsulation atm-encap protocol atm-map-parameters … protocol [no] broadcast [no] broadcast inarp timeout inarp timeout

• Configures ATM VC bundle • If a vc-class is applied to the bundle, the bundle inherits parameters specified in the vc-class • Individual parameters specified in the vc-class can be overwritten by bundle configuration commands
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over ATM-50

Use the bundle interface command to enter the bundle configuration mode. Parameters specific to this bundle should be configured on the bundle. Parameters that are common to multiple bundles should be configured in a template (VC class) and attached to the bundle using the class-bundle command. The command used to attach VC class templates differs, depending on which configuration mode is used:
n n n

The class-int interface command is used to attach a VC class to an interface The class-bundle command is used to attach a VC class to a bundle The class-vc command is used to attach a VC class to a virtual circuit

10-46

IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Configuring OAM Management in the Bundle
Router(config-atm-vc)#

oam-bundle [manage] [frequency] oam-bundle [frequency]

• Enables VC management with end-to-end OAM cells • Cells are sent but the bundle is not managed if the manage keyword is omitted • The frequency parameter specifies the cell generation rate in seconds
Router(config-atm-vc)#

oam retry up-count down-count retry-frequency oam up-count down-count retry-frequency

• Specifies the OAM management-related thresholds • The up-count and down-count parameters specify the number of consecutive cells that have to be received (or lost) before the VC is declared up or down • The frequency parameter specifies the cell send frequency during VC state change verification
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over ATM-51

To enable end-to-end F5 Operation, Administration and Maintenance (OAM) loopback cell generation and OAM management for a virtual circuit (VC) class that can be applied to a VC bundle, use the oam-bundle vc-class configuration command. To enable end-to-end F5 OAM loopback cell generation and OAM management for all VC members of a bundle, use the oam-bundle bundle configuration command. If the manage keyword is omitted, loopback cells are sent but the bundle is not managed. The frequency parameter specifies the number of seconds between sending OAM loopback cells. Values range from 0 to 600 seconds. To configure parameters related to OAM management for an ATM PVC, SVC, or VC class, use the oam retry command in the appropriate command mode. The up-count parameter specifies the number of consecutive end-to-end F5 OAM loopback cell responses that must be received in order to change a PVC connection state to up. The down-count parameter specifies the number of consecutive end-to-end F5 OAM loopback cell responses that are not received in order to change a PVC state to down. The retry-frequency parameter specifies the frequency (in seconds) that the end-to-end F5 OAM loopback cells are transmitted when a change in the UP/DOWN state of a PVC is being verified. For example, if a PVC is up and a loopback cell response is not received after the frequency (in seconds) specified using the oam-pvc command, then loopback cells are sent at the retry-frequency to verify whether or not the PVC is down.
Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over ATM 10-47

Configuring Traffic Bumping
Router(config-atm-vc)#

bump implicit bump implicit

• Configures implicit bumping rules for the bundle or individual VC in the bundle • If the VC fails, the traffic is bumped to the VC carrying lower-precedence traffic
Router(config-atm-vc)#

bump explicit precedence bump explicit precedence

• Configures explicit bumping rules for the bundle or individual VC in the bundle • If the VC fails, the traffic is bumped to the VC currently carrying packets with specified IP precedence
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over ATM-52

The bump implicit command, depending on the mode, applies implicit bumping rules, which is also the default, to a single VC bundle member (bundle -vc mode) or all VCs in the bundle (bundle mode). The (default) implicit bumping rule stipulates that bumped traffic is to be carried by a VC with a lower precedence. The bump implicit command specifies the IP precedence level to which traffic on a VC (bundle -vc mode) will be bumped when the VC goes down. It specifies a single number as the value of the precedence-level argument.

10-48

IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Configuring Traffic Bumping
Router(config-atm-vc)#

no bump traffic no bump traffic

• Prevents the VC (or all VCs in a bundle) from accepting bumped traffic
Router(config-atm-vc)#

bump traffic bump traffic

• Allows the VC (or all VCs in a bundle) to accept bumped traffic

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-53

Use the no bump traffic command to reject bumped traffic on the configured VC. Use the bump traffic command to restore the default behavior.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM

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Configuring VC-wide VC Class
Router(config)#

class-vc vc-class-name class-vc vc-class-name precedence [other | range ] precedence bump {implicit | explicit precedence-level | traffic} bump {implicit precedence-level protect {group | vc } protect {group ubr | ubr+ | vbr-nrt atm-qos-parameters ubr | ubr+ | vbr-nrt random-detect [attach group-name] random-detect

• Configures all parameters that can be specified on an ATM VC within the bundle in a VC class

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-54

Use the class-vc global configuration command to create a VC template. Interface, VC or bundle specific parameters can be set within the VC class.

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IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Configuring ATM VC in a Bundle Bundle
Router(config-if)# bundle bundle-name pvc name [vpi/]vci pvc name class vc-class-name vc-class-name precedence [other | range ] precedence [other | range bump {implicit | explicit precedence-level | traffic} {implicit | explicit precedence-level protect {group | vc} ubr | ubr+ | vbr-nrt atm-qos-parameters ubr | ubr+ | vbr-nrt random-detect [attach group-name] random-detect group-name]

• Configures individual VC in an ATM VC bundle • If a vc-class is applied to the VC, the VC inherits parameters specified in the vc-class • Individual parameters specified in the vc-class can be overwritten by bundle configuration commands • Unspecified VC parameters are inherited from the bundle or from the ATM interface
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over ATM-55

Use the bundle command in the ATM interface or subinterface configuration mode. From within the bundle configuration mode the characteristics and attributes of the bundle and its members, such as the encapsulation type for all virtual circuits (VCs) in the bundle, the bundle management parameters and the service type, can be configured. Attributes and parameters that are configured in the bundle configuration mode are applied to all virtual circuit (VC) members of the bundle. VCs in a VC bundle are subject to the following configuration inheritance guidelines (listed in order of next highest precedence): 1. VC configuration in bundle -vc mode 2. Bundle configuration in bundle mode 3. Subinterface configuration in subinterface mode

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Map IP Precedence to an ATM VC
Router(config-atm-vc)#

precedence [other | range ] precedence [other | range ]

• Maps packets with specified range of IP precedence into the configured ATM VC • All the unmapped IP precedence values are mapped to the VC specifying “other” • Default: VC accepts all unspecified IP traffic

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-56

Assignment of precedence levels to VC bundle members provides the ability to create a differentiated service, because the IP Precedence levels can be distributed over the different VC bundle members. A single precedence level, or a range of levels to each discrete VC in the bundle, can be mapped, thereby enabling VCs in the bundle to carry packets marked with different precedence levels. Alternatively, a VC can be configured with the precedence other command to indicate that it can carry traffic marked with precedence levels not specifically configured for it. Only one VC in the bundle can be configured with the precedence other command to carry all precedence levels not specified. This VC is considered the default.

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IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

VC Protection
Router(config-atm-vc)#

protect { group | vc } protect { group | vc }

• Configures the VC to be part of protected group or to be individually protected • Bundle is declared down if all VCs in the protected group are lost or if any individually-protected VC is lost • Only one protected group can be configured in a bundle • Default: VC is not protected

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-57

Use the protect vc command to protect a virtual circuit. Use the protect group command to make the VC a member of the protected group. When a protected VC goes down, it takes the bundle down. When all members of a protected group go down, the bundle goes down.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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VC Inheritance Rules
• VC parameters are inherited in the following order
– Parameters specified on individual VC – Parameters in the VC class applied to the individual VC – Parameters specified on the bundle to which the VC belongs – Parameters specified in the VC class applied to the bundle – Parameters specified on an interface or subinterface

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-58

The figure shows the inheritance rules for parameters set on interfaces, bundles, VC classes or individual VCs. The parameters configured on individual VCs override all inherited values.

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IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

ATM VC Bundle Case Study
• IP traffic is transported across an international ATM PVC with the following IP precedence values
Precedence 0-1 2-3 4 5 6,7 Meaning Best-effort Internet traffic Premium Internet traffic VPN traffic VoIP traffic Routing protocols

• Voice traffic, VPN traffic and Premium Internet traffic shall be transported across dedicated PVCs for easier provisioning

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-59

The figure illustrates a case study where there are four user classes and one class for control traffic. Routers perform classification based on IP precedence values:
n n n n n

IP precedence 6 and 7 traffic is forwarded through the Control VC IP precedence 5 traffic is forwarded through the Voice VC IP precedence 4 traffic is forwarded through the VPN VC IP precedence 2 and 3 traffic is forwarded through the Premium VC IP precedence 0 and 1 traffic is forwarded through the Best-effort VC

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Case Study Step 1: Bundle Design
• Precedence 5 traffic (VoIP) is transported over a separate VC, no bumping is possible • Precedence 2-3 traffic (Premium Internet) is transported over a separate VC, can be bumped onto the best-effort VC • Precedence 4 traffic (VPN) is transported over a separate VC, can be bumped onto best -effort VC • Control traffic is transported over a separate VC, can be bumped onto the best-effort VC • Best-effort VC can be bumped onto Premium Internet VC • WRED has to be deployed on all VCs to prevent bumped best-effort traffic from congesting the VC
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over ATM-60

Per-VC WRED is the only IP QoS mechanism that will be used on the routers to manage congestion.

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IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Router Configuration
• Case study step 2: configuring VC classes
vc-class best_effort vc-class best_effort precedence other bump explicitly 2 bump explicitly 2 protect group ! ! vc-class premium vc-class precedence 2-3 precedence 2-3 bump implicitly protect group ! ! vc-class bundle vc-class encapsulation aal5snap broadcast protocol ip inarp ip inarp oam-bundle manage 3 oam-bundle
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

vc-class vpn vc-class precedence 4 precedence 4 bump explicitly 0 explicitly 0 protect group ! ! vc-class voip vc-class voip precedence 5 precedence 5 no bump traffic protect vc ! ! vc-class control vc-class precedence 6-7 precedence 6-7 bump explicitly 0 explicitly 0 protect group

IP QoS IP over ATM-61

The first part of the implementation shows the templates (VC classes) that will be used for individual virtual circuits (classes) and one for the bundle.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Router Configuration
• Case study step 3: configuring the WRED profile Guaranteed_BW PVC
random-detect-group guaranteed_bw_pvc random-detect-group guaranteed_bw_pvc precedence 0 precedence 0 20 40 10 20 40 precedence 1 25 40 10 precedence 1 25 40 precedence 2 35 40 10 precedence 2 35 40 precedence 6 30 40 10 precedence 6 30 40 precedence 7 30 40 10 precedence 7 30 40

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-62

A random-detect-group is created for the virtual circuits that need non-default WRED profiles.

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IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Router Configuration
• Case study step 4: configure the bundle and individual PVC
interface ATM 5/1/0.22 point-to-point interface ATM 5/1/0.22 point -to-point ip address 216.23.45.5 255.255.255.252 ip address 216.23.45.5 255.255.255.252 bundle SanFrancisco bundle SanFrancisco class bundle class pvc-bundle SF-control 2 6 pvc-bundle SF-control 2 6 class control class vbr-nrt 1000 1000 vbr-nrt 1000 1000 pvc-bundle SF-voip 25 pvc-bundle SF-voip 25 class voip class voip vbr 2000 2000 vbr 2000 2000 pvc-bundle SF-vpn 24 pvc-bundle SF-vpn class vpn class vpn vbr-nrt 4000 4000 vbr-nrt 4000 4000 pvc-bundle SF-guaranteed 22 pvc-bundle SF-guaranteed class guaranteed_bw class guaranteed_bw random-detect attach guaranteed_bw_pvc random -detect attach guaranteed_bw_pvc vbr-nrt 8000 8000 vbr-nrt 8000 8000 pvc-bundle SF-best-effort 23 pvc-bundle SF-best-effort 23 class best_effort class best_effort random-detect random -detect
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over ATM-63

The figure shows the configuration of the bundle with five individual VCs. Each VC is configured with the PVC type and parameters. All other configuration parameters are inherited from the VC classes attached to individual VCs and the VC class attached to the bundle.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Summary
VC Bundling is a solution where the task of providing differentiated quality of service is offloaded to ATM switches. Classes are identified by using IP precedence values, then the routers perform classification based on IP precedence values. Up to eight parallel virtual circuits can be used for one IP adjacency. Appropriate ATM services are used for each IP precedence value, depending on the QoS requirements and provisioning. A range of IP precedence values or a single IP precedence value are mapped to one virtual circuit. Non-contiguous IP precedence ranges are not supported.

Review Questions
Answer the following questions: 1. How does VC Bundling classify IP packets? 2. Which QoS mechanisms are used when using VC Bundling? 3. How many parallel VCs can be used for one IP adjacency? 4. How many IP precedence values can map into one VC?

10-60

IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Per-VC CB-WFQ
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n

Describe per-VC CB-WFQ Configure per-VC CB-WFQ Monitor and troubleshoot per-VC CB-WFQ

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM

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Per-VC CB-WFQ
• Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing (CB-WFQ) can be used on ATM interfaces • QoS service policies can be applied to:
– An interface – A subinterface – An individual virtual circuit

• Supported service policies are:
– – – – – CB-WFQ including WRED CB-LLQ CB-Marking including setting of ATM CLP bit CB-Shaping CB-Policing including setting of ATM CLP bit

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-68

Per-VC queuing can be supplemented by using the Modular QoS CLI (MQC). ATM PVCs can be combined with any QoS mechanism available with the MQC:
n n n n n

CB-WFQ for bandwidth management CB-LLQ for delay management CB-Marking CB-Shaping CB-Policing

CB-Marking and CB-Policing also include the capability to mark cells with the Cell Loss Priority (CLP) bit.

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IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Per-interface CB-WFQ Per-interface
PVC 0/50 PVC 0/51 PVC 0/52 PVC 0/53 PVC 0/54 Subinterface ATM1/0/0.2 Subinterface ATM1/0/0.1

CB-WFQ

Interface ATM1/0/0

• CB-WFQ can be applied to an entire interface
class-map HTTP class-map HTTP match http match http ! ! policy-map LimitHTTP policy-map LimitHTTP class HTTP class HTTP police 256000 conform transmit exceed set-clp-transmit police 256000 conform transmit exceed set-clp-transmit ! ! interface ATM5/0/0 interface ATM5/0/0 service-policy output LimitHTTP service-policy output LimitHTTP ! !
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over ATM-69

The figure illustrates an ATM interface with two configured subinterfaces. The first subinterface uses two ATM PVCs, the second subinterface uses three ATM PVCs. A service policy can be applied to an entire ATM interface.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM

10-63

Per-subinterface CB-WFQ
PVC 0/50 PVC 0/51 PVC 0/52 PVC 0/53 PVC 0/54
CB-WFQ

Subinterface ATM1/0/0.1
CB-WFQ

Interface ATM1/0/0

Subinterface ATM1/0/0.2

• CB-WFQ can be applied to subinterfaces
class-map CorporateTraffic class-map CorporateTraffic match access -group 100 match access-group 100 ! ! policy-map Smart policy-map Smart class CorporateTraffic class CorporateTraffic bandwidth 10000 bandwidth 10000 class class-default class class-default set atm-clp set atm-clp ! ! interface ATM5/0/0.1 point-to-point interface ATM5/0/0.1 point-to-point service-policy output Smart service-policy output Smart pvc Core 0/51 pvc Core 0/51 vbr-nrt 10000 2000 vbr-nrt 10000 ! !

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-70

A service policy can also be applied to individual ATM subinterfaces.

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IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Per-interface CB-WFQ Per-interface
CB-WFQ

PVC 0/50 PVC 0/51 PVC 0/52 PVC 0/53 PVC 0/54

Subinterface ATM1/0/0.1

CB-WFQ

CB-WFQ

Interface ATM1/0/0

CB-WFQ

CB-WFQ

Subinterface ATM1/0/0.2

• CB-WFQ can be applied to an individual virtual circuit

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-71

The highest QoS granularity is achieved by attaching service policies to individual virtual circuits.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Per-interface CB-WFQ Per-interface Configuration Example
class-map MatchCorporate class-map MatchCorporate match access -group 100 match access-group 100 ! ! policy-map MARK policy-map MARK class MatchCorporate class MatchCorporate police 2000000 conform-action transmit exceed -action set-clp-transmit police conform-action transmit exceed-action set-clp-transmit ! ! interface ATM5/0/0 interface ATM5/0/0 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 service-policy output MARK service-policy output MARK pvc 0/50 pvc 0/50 vbr-nrt 500 400 1000 vbr-nrt 500 400 1000 inarp 1 inarp 1 broadcast broadcast ! ! access-list 100 permit ip 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 access-list 100 permit ip 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-72

The example shows how a service policy is used in simple ATM configurations where the main interface is used to establish IP adjacency. The service policy is attached directly to the interface.

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IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Per-VC CB-WFQ Configuration Example
class-map MatchCorporate class-map MatchCorporate match access -group 100 match access-group 100 ! ! policy-map MARK policy-map MARK class MatchCorporate class MatchCorporate police 2000000 conform-action transmit exceed -action set-clp-transmit police conform-action transmit exceed-action set-clp-transmit ! ! interface ATM5/0/0 interface ATM5/0/0 no ip address no ip address ! ! interface ATM5/0/0.1 point-to-point interface ATM5/0/0.1 point-to-point ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 pvc 0/50 pvc 0/50 vbr-nrt 500 400 1000 vbr-nrt 500 400 1000 inarp 1 inarp 1 service-policy output MARK service-policy output MARK broadcast broadcast ! ! access-list 100 permit ip 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 access-list 100 permit ip 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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The more common alternative to configuring ATM is to use subinterfaces. A service policy can be attached to the subinterface or a virtual circuit.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Monitoring and Troubleshooting Per-interface CB-WFQ Per-interface
Router#

show policy-map interface ATM-interface

• Displays the Service Policy parameters and statistics for the selected interface or subinterface
Router#show policy interface atm 5/0/0.1 Router#show policy interface atm 5/0/0.1 ATM5/0/0.1 ATM5/0/0.1 Service-policy output: Smart (1755) Service-policy output: Smart (1755) Class-map: CorporateTraffic (match-all) (1757/42) Class-map: CorporateTraffic (match -all) (1757/42) 0 packets, 0 bytes 0 packets, 0 bytes 5 minute offered rate 0 bps, drop rate 0 bps 5 minute offered rate 0 bps, drop rate 0 bps Match: access-group 100 (1761) Match: access-group 100 (1761) queue size 0, queue limit 2500 queue size 0, queue limit 2500 packets output 0, packet drops 0 packets output 0, tail/random drops 0, no buffer drops 0, other drops 0 tail/random drops 0, no buffer drops 0, other drops 0 Bandwidth: kbps 10000, weight 29 Bandwidth: kbps 10000, weight 29 ... ...

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-74

Use the show policy-map interface command to display the parameters and statistics of input and output policies attached to interfaces. This command displays information about all classification options and the attached QoS mechanisms.

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IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Monitoring and Troubleshooting Per-VC CB-WFQ
Router#

show queueing interface ATM-interface [vc [VPI/]VCI]

• Displays CB-WFQ parameters and statistics for the selected interface, subinterface or VC
Router#show queueing interface atm5/0 Router#show queueing interface atm5/0 Interface ATM5/0 VC 0/5 Interface ATM5/0 VC 0/5 Queueing strategy: fifo Queueing strategy: fifo Output queue 0/40, 0 drops per VC Output queue 0/40, 0 drops per VC Interface ATM6/0 VC 0/16 Interface ATM6/0 VC 0/16 Queueing strategy: fifo Queueing strategy: fifo Output queue 0/40, 0 drops per VC Output queue 0/40, 0 drops per VC Interface ATM6/0 VC 0/50 Interface Queueing strategy: weighted fair Queueing strategy: weighted fair Total output drops per VC: 0 Total output drops per VC: 0 Output queue: 0/512/64/0 (size/max total/threshold/drops) Output queue: 0/512/64/0 (size/max total/threshold/drops) Conversations 0/1/32 (active/max active/max total) Conversations 0/1/32 (active/max active/max total) Reserved Conversations 0/0 (allocated/max allocated) Reserved Conversations 0/0 (allocated/max allocated) Available Bandwidth 225 kilobits/sec Available Bandwidth 225 kilobits/sec

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-75

Use the show queueing exec command to list all, or selected, configured queuing strategies.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Summary
Per-VC CB-WFQ allows the usage of the same QoS mechanisms as any other technology using single physical interfaces. The same configuration steps are needed to create a service policy. The policy can then be attached to an interface, subinterface or an individual VC. CB-Policing and CB-Marking also support the setting of the ATM CLP bit.

Review Questions
Answer the following question: 1. Where can CB-WFQ be attached on ATM interfaces?

10-70

IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

RSVP to SVC Mapping
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n

Describe RSVP to SVC mapping Configure RSVP to SVC mapping Monitor and troubleshoot RSVP to SVC mapping

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM

10-71

RSVP to SVC Mapping
• RSVP-enabled flows have bandwidth and delay requirements • Pass-through RSVP could affect the quality of service in case an ATM interface or PVC is congested • RSVP-enabled flows can get their own VCs and queues to prevent congestion affecting these flows • RSVP reservations are mapped to SVCs

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-80

The RSVP-ATM QoS Interworking feature provides support for Controlled Load Service using RSVP over an ATM core network. This feature requires the ability to signal for establishment of switched virtual circuits (SVCs) across the ATM cloud in response to RSVP reservation request messages. To meet this requirement, RSVP over ATM supports mapping of RSVP sessions to ATM SVCs.

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IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

RSVP to SVC Mapping

SVC
RSVP RSVP

• RSVP triggers SVC creation • ATM SVC parameters are calculated from the parameters in the RSVP reservation request

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-81

Traditionally, RSVP has been coupled with WFQ. WFQ provides bandwidth guarantees to RSVP and gives RSVP visibility to all packets visible to it. This visibility allows RSVP to identify and mark packets pertinent to it. The RSVP-ATM QoS Interworking feature provides the capability to decouple RSVP from WFQ, and instead associate it with ATM SVCs to handle reservation request messages (and provide bandwidth guarantees), and NetFlow to make packets visible to RSVP.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM

10-73

ATM SVC Parameters
Cell 1
ATM Header AAL5SNAP Header IP Header Voice Data ATM Header

Cell 2
Voice Data Unused

5

5

43

5

48
Data Link Encapsulation overhead AAL5SNAP has 5 bytes of overhead Unused Cell Overhead

Sustained Cell Rate

Cell overhead

SCR = BW RSVP . (53/48) . (MPS + DLE + UCO)/MPS
Bandwidth requested by RSVP Minimum IP packet size

• Peak Cell Rate uses the same formula except it is based on the line rate or the configured peak cell rate
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over ATM-82

To ensure correspondence between RSVP and ATM SVC values, the software algorithmically maps the rate and burst size parameters in the RSVP service parameters to the ATM Sustained Cell Rate (SCR) and Maximum Burst Size (MBS). For the Peak Cell Rate (PCR), it uses the value that is configured or it defaults to the line rate. The figure illustrates the formula used to calculate the ATM service parameters from the RSVP service parameters. RSVP does not include the Layer-2 overhead, which is difficult to calculate for ATM. Layer-3 packets are first framed (AAL5SNAP header is prepended) and then segmented in 48-byte cells. Each cell has an additional 5 bytes of overhead.

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IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

RSVP to SVC Mapping Optional QoS
• RSVP can mark conforming and exceeding packets with different IP precedence or ToS values • Per-VC WRED can be used for differentiated dropping

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-83

In addition to RSVP mapping into SVCs, individual virtual circuits can use IP precedence or ToS marking and WRED for congestion management.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Configuring RSVP to SVC Mapping
• The following configuration steps are needed to enable RSVP to SVC mapping:
– Enable RSVP – Enable SVC creation – Optionally enable RSVP-based marking and WRED – Verify and monitor RSVP/ATM

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-84

The RSVP-ATM QoS Interworking feature allows the following tasks to be performed:
n

Enable RSVP by specifying the total amount of bandwidth that can be reserved by RSVP sessions and a maximum amount of bandwidth one session can reserve. Configure an interface or subinterface to dynamically create SVCs in response to RSVP reservation request messages. To ensure defined QoS, these SVCs are established having QoS profiles consistent with the mapped RSVP flow specifications. Optionally, attach distributed Weighted Random Early Detection (dWRED) group definitions to the Enhanced ATM port adapter (PA-A3) interface to support the per-VC dWRED drop policy. Use of per-VC dWRED ensures that, if packets must be dropped, then best-effort packets are dropped first and not those that conform to the appropriate QoS determined by the token bucket of RSVP. Optionally, configure the IP Precedence and ToS values to be used for packets that conform to or exceed QoS profiles. As part of its input processing, RSVP uses the values specified to set the ToS and IP Precedence bits on incoming packets. If per-VC DWRED is configured, it then uses the ToS and IP Precedence bit settings on the output interface of the same router in determining which packets to drop. Also, interfaces on downstream routers use these settings in processing packets.

n

n

n

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Enabling RSVP
Router(config-if)#

ip rsvp bandwidth reservable-bw max-flow-bw

• Enables RSVP reservation on an interface or subinterface • The reservable-bw parameters specifies the total maximum amount of bandwidth that can be reserved by RSVP flows • The max-flow-bw parameter specifies the maximum amount of bandwidth a single flow can reserve

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-85

The ip rsvp bandwidth interface command is used to enable RSVP on an interface. The interface and per-flow maximum reservable bandwidth limits have to be configured.
Note RSVP cannot reserve more than 75% of the default or configured interface bandwidth.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM

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Enabling Creation of SVCs
Router(config-if)#

ip rsvp svc-required

• Enables creation of SVC for RSVP reservation • ATM QoS parameters are determined by using the parameters in the RSVP request
Router(config-if)#

ip rsvp atm-peak-rate-limit limit ip rsvp atm-peak-rate-limit limit

• Sets the peak cell rate for all new SVC • Uses the line rate as the default

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-86

Use the ip rsvp svc-required interface configuration command to enable the creation of a Switched Virtual Circuit (SVC) to service any new Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) reservation made on the ATM interface or subinterface. Use the ip rsvp atm-peak-rate-limit interface configuration command to set a limit on the Peak Cell Rate (PCR) of reservations for all newly created Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) switched virtual circuits (SVCs) established on the ATM interface or any of its subinterfaces. The PCR, if it is not configured, defaults to the line rate.

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Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

RSVP-based Marking and WRED
Router(config-if)#

ip rsvp precedence {conform | exceed} precedence precedence

• Packets conforming to the reserved bandwidth are marked with conform precedence • Packets exceeding the reserved bandwidth are marked with exceed precedence • NetFlow has to be enabled
Router(config-if)#

random-detect attach random-detect-group random-detect-group

• Enables per-VC WRED • Uses the WRED profiles specified in the WRED group randomdetect-group • CEF switching is required
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over ATM-87

Packets in an RSVP reserved path are divided into two classes: those that conform to the reservation service parameters and those that correspond to a reservation but exceed, or are outside, the reservation service parameters. The ip rsvp precedence interface command allows the IP Precedence values to be set to be applied to packets belonging to these two classes. The IP Precedence value for at least one class of traffic must be set when this command is used. A single instance of the command can be used to specify values for both classes, in which case the conform and exceed keywords can be specified in either order. As part of its input processing, RSVP uses the ip rsvp precedence command to set the IP Precedence bits on conforming and nonconforming packets. If per-VC dWRED is configured, the system uses the IP Precedence and ToS bit settings on the output interface in its packet drop process. The IP Precedence setting of a packet can also be used by interfaces on downstream routers. Execution of the ip rsvp precedence command causes IP Precedence values for all preexisting reservations on the interface to be modified. RSVP receives packets from the underlying forwarding mechanism. Therefore, before the ip rsvp precedence command is used to set IP Precedence, one of the following features is required:
n n

Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) must be enabled on the interface RSVP switched virtual circuits (SVCs) must be used in combination with NetFlow

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM

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RSVP to SVC Mapping Example
interface ATM2/1/0 interface ATM2/1/0 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 ip rsvp bandwidth 10000 10000 ip rsvp bandwidth 10000 10000 ip rsvp svc-required ip rsvp svc-required ip route-cache flow ip route-cache flow ip rsvp precedence conform 5 exceed 0 ip rsvp precedence conform 5 exceed 0 atm pvc 1 0 5 qsaal atm pvc 1 0 5 qsaal atm pvc 2 0 16 ilmi atm pvc 2 16 ilmi atm esi-address 111111111151.00 atm esi-address 111111111151.00 pvc pvc12 0/51 pvc pvc12 0/51 inarp 5 inarp 5 broadcast broadcast ! !

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-88

The sample configuration shows that up to 10Mbps can be reserved by RSVP sessions. RSVP sessions trigger establishment of SVCs and marks conforming packets with IP precedence 5.

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IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Monitoring and Troubleshooting RSVP to SVC Mapping
Router#

show ip rsvp interface [intf]

• Displays RSVP-related interface information
Router#show ip rsvp interface Router#show ip rsvp interface interface allocated i/f max interface allocated i/f max Et4/0 0M 7M Et4/0 0M 7M AT5/0/0 0M 10M AT5/0/0 0M 10M Se5/1/0 0M 192K Se5/1/0 0M 192K flow max pct UDP flow max pct UDP 5M 0 0 5M 0 0 1M 0 0 1M 0 0 192K 0 0 192K 0 0 IP IP 0 0 0 0 0 0 UDP_IP UDP_IP 0 0 0 0 0 0 UDP M/C UDP M/C 0 0 0 0 0 0

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM-89

Use the show ip rsvp interface command to display RSVP parameters and statistics for all RSVP-enabled interfaces.
Field interface allocate i/f max flow max pct UDP IP UDP_IP Description Interface name. Current allocation budget. Maximum allocatable bandwidth. Largest single flow allocatable on this interface. Percent of bandwidth utilized. Number of neighbors sending User Datagram Protocol (UDP)-encapsulated RSVP. Number of neighbors sending IP-encapsulated RSVP. Number of neighbors sending both UDP- and IP-encapsulated RSVP.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM

10-81

Summary
RSVP flows can be provided guarantees either by using a queuing mechanism that supports per-flow queuing (for example, WFQ of CB-WFQ) or it can use dedicated per-flow Switched Virtual Circuits (SVCs) when entering an ATM backbone. Each RSVP flow triggers a generation of a SVC. The SVC inherits service parameters from the RSVP service parameters (modified to account for Layer-2 overhead).

Review Questions
Answer the following questions: 1. How does RSVP benefit from using SVCs? 2. What are the necessary configuration steps to enable RSVP-to-SVC?

10-82

IP QoS IP over ATM

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Summary
After completing this module, you should be able to perform the following tasks:
n n

List the requirements of IP QoS in combination with ATM QoS Describe the hardware and software requirements for advanced IP QoS mechanisms on ATM interfaces Describe per-VC queuing Describe and configure per-VC WRED Describe and configure VC bundling Describe and configure per-VC CB-WFQ Describe RSVP to SVC mapping Monitor and troubleshoot IP QoS on ATM interfaces

n n n n n n

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM

10-83

Review Questions and Answers
Introduction to IP over ATM Question: What are the main differences between IP and ATM? IP is connectionless, ATM is connection oriented IP applies QoS per packet, ATM per virtual circuit IP supports a smaller number of traffic classes (IP precedence, DSCP) and does not include any services by default ATM supports a larger number of traffic classes but has a fixed number of services (xBR) Answer: Which QoS services does ATM support? CBR, VBR, ABR and UBR Question: How should congestion be handled when an ATM backbone is used? Congestion should be pushed back to the ingress into the ATM network to allow IP-based congestion management. Answer: Why is per-VC queuing so important? Per-VC queuing prevents head-of-line blocking and allows per-VC congestion management.

Per-VC WRED Question: What are the benefits of per-VC WRED? Answer: Per-VC WRED allows differentiated congestion avoidance on per-VC
basis.

Question: What are the configuration steps needed to enable per-VC WRED? Answer: Per-VC WRED requires the configuration of WRED profiles (random
detect groups) which are then attached to individual VCs.

VC Bundling Question: How does VC Bundling classify IP packets? Answer: VC Bundling classifies IP packets based on the IP precedence value. Question: Which QoS mechanisms are used when using VC Bundling? Answer: A QoS design can rely on the ATM QoS or supplement it by using per-VC WRED or CB-WFQ. Question: How many parallel VCs can be used for one IP adjacency?
10-84 IP QoS IP over ATM Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Answer: Up to 8 parallel VCs can be used for one point-to-point IP adjacency. Question: How many IP precedence values can map into one VC? Answer: Up to 8 consecutive IP precedence values can map into one VC.

Per-VC CB-WFQ Question: Where can CB-WFQ be attached on ATM interfaces? Answer: CB-WFQ can be used on per-interface, per-subinterface or per-VC basis.

RSVP to SVC Mapping Question: How does RSVP benefit from using SVCs? Answer: RSVP-based flows can get their QoS resources by using dedicated SVCs with the appropriate ATM QoS parameters derived from the RSVP requests. Question: What are the necessary configuration steps to enable RSVP-to-SVC? Answer: Enable RSVP throughout the network and then enable SVC creation for RSVP flows on ATM interfaces
n

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over ATM

10-85

IP over MPLS

Overview
This module focuses on the IP QoS mechanisms available in combination with Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS).

Objectives
Upon completion of this module, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n

Describe and configure QoS Mechanisms in Frame-mode MPLS networks Describe and configure QoS Mechanisms in Cell-mode MPLS networks

MPLS Introduction
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n

Describe basic features of MPLS Describe Frame-mode MPLS Describe Cell-mode MPLS

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World Wide Training Word Templates v1

Copyright © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Basic MPLS Concepts
• Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a new forwarding mechanism in which packets are forwarded based on labels • Labels may correspond to IP destination networks (equal to traditional IP forwarding) • Labels can also correspond to other parameters (QoS, source address, ...) • MPLS was designed to support forwarding of other protocols as well

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over MPLS

Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a switching mechanism that uses labels (numbers) to forward packets. Labels usually correspond to layer-3 destination addresses (equal to destinationbased routing). Labels can also correspond to other parameters (QoS, source address, etc.). MPLS was designed to support other protocols as well. Label switching is performed regardless of the layer-3 protocol.

Copyright © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Release Date: 2/1/99

23-3

MPLS Example
10.1.1.1 10.1.1.1

L=3

5 L=

Label removal and routing lookup L=3

Routing lookup and label assignment 10.0.0.0/8 à L=5 Label swapping L=5 à L=3

• Only edge routers must perform a routing lookup. • Core routers switch packets based on simple label lookups and swap labels.
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over MPLS

The example in the figure illustrates a situation where the intermediary router does not have to perform a time-consuming routing lookup. Instead this router simply swaps a label with another label (5 is replaced by 3) and forwards the packet based on the received label (5). In larger networks, the result of MPLS labeling is that only the edge routers perform a routing lookup. All the core routers forward packets based on the labels.

23-4

World Wide Training Word Templates v1

Copyright © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

MPLS vs. IP-over-ATM
10.1.1.1 L=17 L=3 L=5 10.1.1.1

Layer-2 devices run a layer-3 routing protocol and establish virtual circuits dynamically based on layer-3 information

• Layer-2 devices are IP-aware and run a routing protocol • There is no need to manually establish virtual circuits • MPLS provides a virtual full-mesh topology
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over MPLS

The example in the figure shows how MPLS is used in ATM networks to provide optimal routing across layer-2 ATM switches. In order for MPLS to work with ATM switches, the switches must be layer-3 aware (ATM switches must run a layer-3 routing protocol). Another benefit of this setup is that there is no longer a need to manually establish virtual circuits. ATM switches automatically create a full mesh of virtual circuits based on layer-3 routing information.

Copyright © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Release Date: 2/1/99

23-5

Traffic Engineering with MPLS
Primary OC-192 link

Large site A

Large site B

Secondary OC-48 link

Small site C

• Traffic can be forwarded based on other parameters (QoS, source, ...) • Load sharing across unequal paths can be achieved
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over MPLS

MPLS also supports traffic engineering. Traffic engineered tunnels can be created based on a traffic analysis to provide load balancing across unequal paths. Multiple traffic engineering tunnels can lead to the same destination but can use different paths. Traditional IP forwarding would force all traffic to use the same path based on the destination-based forwarding decision. Traffic engineering determines the path at the source based on additional parameters (available resources and constraints in the network).

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World Wide Training Word Templates v1

Copyright © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

MPLS Architecture
• MPLS has two major components:
• Control plane – exchanges layer-3 routing information and labels • Data plane – forwards packets based on labels

• Control plane contains complex mechanisms to exchange routing information (OSPF, EIGRP, IS-IS, BGP,...) and labels (TDP, LDP, BGP, RSVP, ...) • Control plane maintains the contents of the label switching table (label forwarding information base or LFIB) • Data plane has a simple forwarding engine

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over MPLS

To better understand the inner workings of MPLS, its two major components should be clarified:
n

Control plane, which takes care of the routing information exchange and the label exchange between adjacent devices Data plane, which takes care of forwarding either based on destination addresses or labels.

n

There is a large number of different routing protocols such as OSPF, IGRP, EIGRP, IS-IS, RIP, BGP, etc. that can be used in the control plane. The control plane also requires protocols such as TDP (MPLS), LDP (MPLS), BGP (MPLS/VPNs), RSVP (Traffic Engineering), CR-LDP (Traffic Engineering), etc. to exchange labels. The data plane however, is a simple label-based forwarding engine that is independent of the type of routing protocol or label exchange protocol. A Label Forwarding Information Base (LFIB) is used to forward packets based on labels. The LFIB table is populated by the control plane.

Copyright © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Release Date: 2/1/99

23-7

MPLS Architecture
Control plane
OSPF: 10.0.0.0/8

OSPF

OSPF: 10.0.0.0/8

LDP: 10.0.0.0/8 Label 17

LDP

LDP: 10.0.0.0/8 Label 4

Data plane
Labeled packet Label 17

LFIB 4à17

Labeled packet Label 4

• Router’s functionality is divided into two major parts: control plane and data plane
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over MPLS

A simple MPLS-enabled network implements destination-based forwarding that uses labels to make forwarding decisions. A layer-3 routing protocol is still needed to propagate layer-3 routing information. A label exchange mechanism is simply an add-on to propagate labels that are used for layer-3 destinations. The example in the figure illustrates the two components of the control plane:
n

OSPF that receives and forwards IP network 10.0.0.0/8, and places that prefix into the routing table. LDP that receives label 17 to be used for packets with a destination address 10.x.x.x. A local label 4 is generated and sent to upstream neighbors so these neighbors can label packets with the appropriate label. LDP inserts an entry into the Data Plane’s LFIB table where label 4 is mapped to label 17.

n

The data plane then forwards all packets with label 4 through the appropriate interfaces and replaces the label with label 17.

23-8

World Wide Training Word Templates v1

Copyright © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

MPLS Modes of Operation
• MPLS technology is designed to be Layer-1 and Layer-2 independent • MPLS uses a 32-bit label field which is inserted between Layer-2 and Layer-3 headers (frame mode) • MPLS over ATM uses the ATM header as the label (cell mode)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over MPLS

MPLS is designed for use on virtually any media and layer-2 encapsulation. Most layer-2 encapsulations are frame-based and MPLS simply inserts a 32-bit label between the layer-2 and layer-3 headers (“frame-mode” MPLS). ATM is a special case where fixed-length cells are used and a label cannot be inserted on every cell. MPLS uses the VPI/VCI fields in the ATM header as a label (“cell-mode” MPLS).

Copyright © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Release Date: 2/1/99

23-9

Label Format
LABEL
0

EXP S
19 20 22 23 24

TTL
31

MPLS uses a 32-bit label field that contains the following information:
• 20-bit label • 3-bit experimental field • 1-bit bottom-of-stack indicator • 8-bit time-to-live field (TTL)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over MPLS

A 32-bit label contains the following fields:
n n n

20-bit label: the actual label 3-bit experimental field: used to define a class of service (i.e. IP precedence) Bottom-of-stack bit: MPLS allows multiple labels to be inserted; this bit is used to determine if this is the last label in the packet 8-bit time-to-live (TTL) field: has the same purpose as the TTL field in the IP header

n

23-10

World Wide Training Word Templates v1

Copyright © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Frame Mode MPLS
Frame header
Layer 2

IP header
Layer 3

Payload
Routing lookup and label assignment

Frame header
Layer 2

Label
Layer 2½

IP header
Layer 3

Payload

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over MPLS

The example in the figure shows an edge router that receives a normal IP packet. The router then performs the following actions:
n n

A routing lookup to determine the outgoing interface A label is assigned and inserted between layer-2 frame header and layer-3 packet header if the outgoing interface is enabled for MPLS and a next-hop label for the destination exists The labeled packet is sent

n

Other routers in the core simply forward the packet based on the label.

Copyright © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Release Date: 2/1/99

23-11

Cell mode MPLS
Frame header
Layer 2

IP header
Layer 3

Payload

Frame header
Layer 2

Label
Layer 2½

IP header
Layer 3

Payload

VPI/VCI fields are used for label switching

Cell 1

ATM header ATM header

AAL5 header

Label
Layer 2½

IP header
Layer 3

Payload

Layer 2

Cell 2

Payload

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over MPLS

Cell-mode MPLS uses the ATM header’s VPI/VCI fields to make forwarding decisions while the 32-bit label is still preserved in the frame but not used in the ATM network. The original label is only present in the first cell of a packet.

23-12

World Wide Training Word Templates v1

Copyright © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Label Switch Router
MPLS Domain
10.1.1.1 L=3 L=5 10.1.1.1

20.1.1.1

L=31

L=43

20.1.1.1

Edge LSR

LSR

• Label Switch Router (LSR) primarily forwards labeled packets (label swapping) • Edge LSR primarily labels IP packets and forwards them into the MPLS domain, or removes labels and forwards IP packets out of the MPLS domain
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over MPLS

Before proceeding with a detailed description of MPLS, some of the terminology that is used in this course is presented:
n

Label Switch Router (LSR): a device that primarily forwards packets based on labels. Edge LSR: a device that primarily labels packets or removes labels.

n

LSRs and Edge LSRs are usually devices that are capable of doing both label switching and IP routing. Their names are based on their position in an MPLS domain. Routers that have all interfaces enabled for MPLS are called LSRs because they mostly forward labeled packets. Routers that have some interfaces that are not enabled for MPLS are usually at the edge of an MPLS domain (autonomous system). These routers also forward packets based on IP destination addresses and label them if the outgoing interface is enabled for MPLS.

Copyright © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Release Date: 2/1/99

23-13

ATM Label Switch Router
MPLS Domain
10.1.1.1 L=1/3 L=1/3 L=1/3 L=1/5 L=1/5 L=1/5 10.1.1.1

20.1.1.1

L=1/6 L=1/6

L=1/6

L=1/9 L=1/9

L=1/9

20.1.1.1

ATM Edge LSR

ATM LSR

• ATM LSR can only forward cells • ATM Edge LSR segments packets into cells and forwards them into an MPLS ATM domain, or reassembles cells into packets and forwards them out of an MPLS ATM domain
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over MPLS

Label Switch Routers that perform cell-mode MPLS are called:
n

ATM LSR if they are ATM switches. All interfaces are enabled for MPLS and forwarding is done based only on labels. ATM Edge LSR if they are routers connected to an MPLS-enabled ATM network.

n

23-14

World Wide Training Word Templates v1

Copyright © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Architecture of LSRs
LSRs, regardless of the type, perform the following three functions:
• Exchange routing information • Exchange labels • Forward packets (LSRs and edge LSRs) or cells (ATM LSRs and ATM edge LSRs)

The first two functions are part of the control plane The last function is part of the data plane
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over MPLS

LSRs of all types must perform the following functions:
n

Exchange layer-3 routing information (ATM LSRs must also exchange layer-3 routing information) Exchange labels Forward packets or cells

n n

Frame-mode and cell-mode MPLS use a different data plane:
n n

Frame-mode MPLS forwards packets based on the 32-bit label Cell-mode MPLS forwards packets based on labels encoded into the VPI/VCI fields in the ATM header

The control plane performs the following functions:
n n

Exchange routing information regardless of the type of LSR; Exchange labels according to the type of MPLS (frame-mode or cell-mode);

Copyright © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Release Date: 2/1/99

23-15

Architecture of LSRs
LSR
Exchange of routing information

Control plane
Routing protocol IP routing table

Exchange of labels

Label distribution protocol

Incoming labeled packets

Data plane
Label forwarding table

Outgoing labeled packets

LSRs primarily forward labeled packets or cells (ATM LSRs)
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over MPLS

The primary function of an LSR is to forward labeled packets. Therefore, every LSR needs a layer-3 routing protocol (OSPF, EIGRP, IS-IS, etc.) and a label exchange protocol (LDP, TDP, etc.). The label exchange protocol populates the LFIB table in the data plane that is used to forward labeled packets.
Note LSRs may not be able to forward unlabeled packets either because they are ATM LSRs, or they do not have all the routing information.

23-16

World Wide Training Word Templates v1

Copyright © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Architecture of Edge LSRs
Edge LSR
Exchange of routing information

Control plane
Routing protocol IP routing table

Exchange of labels

Label distribution protocol

Incoming IP packets Incoming labeled packets

Data plane
IP forwarding table Label forwarding table

Outgoing IP packets Outgoing labeled packets

Note: ATM edge LSRs can only forward cells
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over MPLS

Edge LSRs also forward IP packets based on their IP destination addresses and optionally label them if a label exists. The following combinations are possible:
n

A received IP packet is forwarded based on the IP destination address and sent as an IP packet. A received IP packet is forwarded based on the IP destination address and sent as a labeled packet. A received labele d packet is forwarded based on the label; the label is changed and the packet is sent.

n

n

The following scenarios are possible if the network is misconfigured:
n

A received labeled packet is dropped if the label is not found in the LFIB table even if the IP destination exists in the FIB table. A received IP packet is dropped if the destination is not found in the FIB table even if there is a label-switched path available for the destination.

n

Copyright © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Release Date: 2/1/99

23-17

Summary
MPLS architecture is divided into two parts:
n n

Control plane that takes care of routing information and label propagation. Data plane that takes care of the forwarding of packets.

MPLS has two modes:
n n

Frame-mode MPLS that is used on all frame-based media. Cell-mode MPLS that is used in MPLS-enabled ATM networks.

MPLS networks use the following devices:
n n n

Label Switch Router (LSR) to forward packets based on a 32-bit label Edge LSR to forward labeled packets or label IP packets or remove labels. ATM LSRs to forward cells based on labels encoded into the VPI/VCI fields in the ATM header. ATM Edge LSRs that segment labeled or unlabeled packets into ATM cells where a label is encoded into VPI/VCI fields in the ATM header.

n

Review Questions
1. What are the main benefits of MPLS? 2. How is an MPLS label encoded into IP packets? 3. How are labels propagated?

23-18

World Wide Training Word Templates v1

Copyright © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Frame-mode MPLS
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n

Describe the QoS possibilities in networks using Frame-mode MPLS Use MQC to implement QoS with Frame-mode MPLS

Copyright © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Release Date: 2/1/99

23-19

MPLS QoS
• MPLS uses labels to make a forwarding decision • The MPLS label is inserted between Layer-2 (frame) and Layer-3 (IP packet) headers • All Layer-3 information becomes invisible to routers in an MPLS domain • Classification in MPLS-enabled networks can be performed on:
• MPLS experimental bits • MPLS labels (future enhancement)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over MPLS

Frame-mode MPLS uses 32-bit labels primarily to make a forwarding decision. Three bits in the label are used for experimental purposes. When an IP packet enters an MPLS domain a label is inserted between the frame and the IP header. The MPLS experimental bits can be used for classification and marking purposes when implementing QoS in an MPLS domain. Future enhancements will allow multiple labels to be used to describe the quality of service.

23-20

World Wide Training Word Templates v1

Copyright © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

MPLS Label Assignment
Frame Header
IP precedece

IP

Payload

MPLS exp

Frame Header

LABEL

IP

Payload

• An MPLS label has a three-bit experimental field • Cisco routers automatically copy IP precedence bits into the MPLS experimental bits • The Modular QoS CLI can be used to classify labeled packets based on their MPLS experimental bits
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over MPLS

The figure illustrates the default behavior of Cisco routers. IP precedence is automatically copied from the IP header into MPLS label’s experimental bits. The modular QoS CLI can be used to classify labeled packets based on MPLS experimental bits as well as mark labeled packets with MPLS experimental-bit values.

Copyright © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Release Date: 2/1/99

23-21

MPLS-aware QoS Mechanisms
• The following QoS mechanisms are MPLS aware:
- Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED): MPLS experimental bits are used as weight in the same manner as IP precedence - Committed Access Rate (CAR): marking of MPLS experimental bits - Class-Based Policing: marking of MPLS experimental bits - Class-based Marking: marking of MPLS experimental bits

• If classification is performed based on MPLS experimental bits, other MQC QoS mechanisms can also be used

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over MPLS

The figure lists the QoS mechanisms that can interact with MPLS-specific information:
n n

WRED performs random drops based on MPLS experimental values. CAR can mark labeled packets with MPLS experimental values. Conforming and exceeding packets can be marked with different MPLS experimental values. Class-based Policing can mark labeled packets with MPLS experimental values. Conforming, exceeding and violating packets can be marked with different MPLS experimental values. Class-based Marking can statically mark labele d packets with an MPLS experimental value.

n

n

Other QoS mechanisms (for example: CB-WFQ, CB-LLQ) can be used in combination with classification that is based on the value of the MPLS experimental bits.

23-22

World Wide Training Word Templates v1

Copyright © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Configuring CB-WFQ for MPLS
Router(config-cmap)#

match mpls experimental exp

• Classifies packets based on MPLS experimental bits
class-map match-any Gold class-map match-any Gold match ip precedence 3 4 match ip precedence 3 4 match mpls experimental 3 4 match mpls experimental 3 4 ! ! class-map match-any Silver class-map match-any Silver match ip precedence 1 2 match ip precedence 1 2 match mpls experimental 1 2 match mpls experimental 1 2 ! ! policy-map IP+MPLS policy -map class Gold class bandwidth 3000 bandwidth class Silver class Silver bandwidth 1000 bandwidth 1000 ! ! Interface Ethernet0/0 Interface Ethernet0/0 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 mpls ip mpls ip service-policy output IP+MPLS service-policy output IP+MPLS ! !
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over MPLS

Classification based on MPLS experimental bits is performed by using the match mpls experimental command in the class-map configuration mode. Up to eight values can be used within one class map. The sample configuration shows a generic class map using the match-any classification strategy to classify IP packets and labeled packets with the same IP precedence or MPLS experimental value.

Copyright © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Release Date: 2/1/99

23-23

CAR Diagram
Meter Meter Forward or Enqueue

Conforms? Conforms?

Conform or exceed marking value

Transmit? Transmit? No

Yes

Mark? Mark? Set IP prec? Set IP prec? Set DSCP? Set DSCP? Set MPLS exp? Set MPLS exp? Set QoS grp? Set QoS grp? Yes Set IP Precedence Set IP Precedence Set DSCP Set DSCP Set MPLS Experimental Set MPLS Experimental Set QoS Group Set QoS Group

Continue? Continue? No Drop Drop

Yes

Go to Next CAR command

Yes

Yes

Yes

• Marking depends on whether the packet conforms to or exceeds the policy
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over MPLS

Committed Access Rate (CAR) can be used to differentially mark packets based on the arrival rate of packets within the selected class. If a packet conforms (is within contract) it is marked with one value, if it exceeds it is marked with a different value. CAR also supports recursive processing of packets. One packet can be processed by multiple rate-limit commands.

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Copyright © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Configuring CAR for MPLS Configuring
Router(config-if)# rate-limit {input | output} {access-group rate-limit acl} rate B C B E rate-limit acl} C BE conform-act {set-mpls-exp-transmit exp | set-mpls-exp-continue exp} exp set-mpls-exp-continue exp} exceed-act {set-mpls-exp-transmit exp | set-mpls-exp-continue exp} exceed-act {set-mpls-exp-transmit

• CAR can mark MPLS packets based on their arrival rate • CAR supports recursive processing of rate-limit commands • CAR supports classification based on MPLS experimental bit values by using rate-limit access list • Both conform and exceed actions support other actions: transmit, continue, drop, set-prec-transmit, set-prec-continue, …
interface Serial0/0 interface Serial0/0 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.252 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.252 rate-limit input 64000 2000 2000 conform set -mpls-exp-tr 5 exceed setrate-limit 2000 conform set -mpls-exp-tr 5 exceed setmpls -exp-tr 0 mpls-exp-tr 0 rate-limit output 64000 2000 2000 conform set-mpls-exp-tr 5 exceed set rate-limit output 64000 2000 2000 conform set-mpls-exp-tr 5 exceed setmpls -exp-tr 0 mpls-exp-tr 0 ! !

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over MPLS

CAR also supports a special rate-limit access list that can match labeled packets based on their MPLS experimental values. The action options include the two that can set MPLS experimental values:
n

set-mpls-exp-continue: sets the MPLS experimental bits (0 to 7) and evaluates the next rate-limit command. set-mpls-exp-transmit: set the MPLS experimental bits (0 to 7) and transmits the packet.

n

Copyright © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Release Date: 2/1/99

23-25

Configuring CAR for MPLS
Router(config)# access-list rate-limit acl {exp | mask mask} access-list rate-limit mask mask}

• The acl index must be between 200 and 299 to select the rate limit access list for MPLS experimental bits • Rate limit access lists can be used to match on one or more MPLS experimental values • Set one value (exp) to be matched or use the mask option to match on more values • Each access list can have only one line
interface Serial0/0 interface Serial0/0 rate-limit output access-group rate-limit 200 64000 2000 2000 conform rate-limit access-group 64000 2000 conform transmit exceed drop transmit exceed drop rate-limit input access-group rate-limit 201 64000 2000 2000 conform setrate-limit input access-group rate-limit 201 64000 2000 2000 conform setmpls-exp-tr 0 exceed set-mpls-exp-tr 0 mpls-exp-tr 0 exceed set-mpls-exp-tr 0 ! ! access-list rate-limit 200 2 access-list rate-limit 200 2 access-list rate-limit 201 mask FE access-list rate-limit 201 mask ! !
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over MPLS

Special rate-limit access lists allow high-performance classification based on the following parameters:
n

IP precedence value if the number of the access list is in the range from 1 to 99 MAC address if the number of the access list is in the range from 100 to 199 MPLS experimental bits if the number of the access list is in the range from 200 to 299

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A rate limit access list can have only one line. A single MPLS experimental value can be matched by setting the exp value. Multiple values can be matched by using the mask keyword and applying a mask in hex. This mask is an 8 bit value where each bit corresponds to one experimental value 0 through 7. The low order bit corresponds to value 0 and the high-order bit corresponds to value 7. Setting the bit value to 1 indicates that the corresponding experimental value is a match; setting the value to 0 indicates that the corresponding value is not a match. A combination of bits in the mask can be used to match on any number of MPLS experimental values. For example, to match an experimental value of 0, the mask would be 01 (0000 0001 binary). To match a value of 5, the mask would be 20 (0010 0000 binary). The second rate-limit command in the sample configuration above uses the mask FE (1111 1110 binary) to match all MPLS experimental values except value 0.

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CB-Policing
• CB-Policing is similar to CAR except:
- It uses the Modular QoS CLI for classification - It supports three different actions (conform, exceed and violate) - It does not support recursive processing of packets

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over MPLS

Class-based Policing is used for the same purpose as CAR. CB-Policing differs from CAR in the following ways:
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The Modular QoS CLI is used to classify packets. It can use two token buckets to determine whether a packet conforms to, exceeds or violates the policy. It does not support recursive processing of packets (the continue option is not available).

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Configuring CB-Policing for MPLS Configuring
Router(config-pmap-c)#

police avg-rate [BC [BE]] [conform-action [action] [conform-action C [exceed-action [action] [violate-action [action]]]] [action] [action]]]]

• avg-rate – traffic rate in bps (8.000 to 200.000.000) • BC – normal burst size dimensions the first token bucket in bytes (default is 1500 or avg-rate/32; whatever is higher) • BE – excess burst size dimensions the second token bucket in bytes (equals BC if not configured) • action – can be:
transmit (default conform action) drop (default exceed and violate action) set-prec-transmit ip-precedence set-dscp-transmit dscp set-qos-transmit qos-group set-mpls-exp-transmit mple-exp set frde-transmit set-clp-transmit
IP QoS IP over MPLS

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

The figure shows that one of several actions can be used to mark labeled packets with an MPLS experimental value. Three different values can be used within a single class depending on whether a packet conforms to, exceeds or violates the policy.

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CB Marking
• Class-based Marking can be used to mark labeled packets by setting the MPLS experimental bits • MPLS experimental bits can currently only be set on input • DSCP should be translated to IP precedence prior to entry into an MPLS domain

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over MPLS

Class-based Marking can use the classification options available in the Modular QoS CLI and statically mark classes with the MPLS experimental values. Implementation limitations should be considered when translating between any pair of parameters on MPLS domain borders (DSCP to MPLS, IP precedence to MPLS). MPLS marking is currently only supported on input. Inbound IP packets can be directly marked with MPLS experimental values. Using the QoS group parameter is necessary when translating MPLS experimental values back to IP precedence or DSCP (for example: MPLS to QoS group translation on input and QoS group to DSCP translation on output). This functionality and these limitations may change with new IOS versions.

Copyright © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Configuring MPLS Marking
Router(config-pmap-c)#

set mpls experimental exp-bits

• Mark labeled packets with the specified value (0 to 7) • MPLS marking can only be used on input
policy-map SetMPLS policy-map SetMPLS class Class1 qos-group class Class1 qos-group set mpls experimental mpls experimental class Class2 qos-group class Class2 qos-group set mpls experimental mpls experimental class Class3 qos-group class Class3 qos-group set mpls experimental mpls experimental ! !

1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over MPLS

Use the set mpls experimental command in the policy-map class configuration mode to mark inbound packets with MPLS experimental values. The sample configuration shows how a QoS group parameter can be translated into MPLS experimental bits.

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MPLS Translation Case Study
IP Domain MPLS Domain

• IP domain is using the DiffServ model:
EF – Class Premium AF1 – Class Gold AF2 – Class Silver Default – Best effort class

• Translate IP DSCP values to and from MPLS experimental bits to achieve a similar result in the MPLS domain
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over MPLS

The QoS design in the case study uses DSCP to mark packets. Four classes must also be managed in the MPLS domain. A translation between DSCP and MPLS is needed to implement a similar QoS solution in the MPLS domain. Although standard DSCP values for AF classes seamlessly map to IP precedence values for backward compatibility it is sometimes necessary to manually translate markers between DSCP an IP precedence or DSCP and MPLS. For example:
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A QoS design based on IP precedence is using two IP precedence values to mark packets belonging to one class: Class Premium is marked with IP precedence 5 and is guaranteed low latency Class Gold is using IP precedence 4 for conforming (low-drop) packets and IP precedence 3 for exceeding (high-drop) packets Class Silver is using IP precedence 2 for conforming (low-drop) packets and IP precedence 1 for exceeding (high-drop) packets Best effort traffic is marked with IP precedence 0

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When migrating to DSCP-based implementation it is necessary to still support the old QoS design until the entire network is migrated to support DSCP.

The case study shows how this translation can be done manually. If the original IP-precedence-based design did not use multiple IP precedence values per class there should be no need to configure the translation manually. All class-maps, however, should include class selectors in their match options to support backward compatibility with IP precedence:
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Matching packets for AF1 requires af11, af12, af13 and cs1 to be matched

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n n n n

Matching packets for AF2 requires af21, af22, af23 and cs2 to be matched Matching packets for AF3 requires af31, af32, af33 and cs3 to be matched Matching packets for AF4 requires af41, af42, af43 and cs4 to be matched Matching packets for EF requires ef and cs5 to be matched

The solution shown on the following pages illustrates how default behavior can be changed by manually configuring the translation between IP precedence (MPLS experimental bits) and the DSCP.

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MPLS Translation Case Study Design
DSCP IP Domain IP precedence QoS group MPLS exp MPLS Domain

IP DSCP EF AF1 low-drop AF1 medium-drop AF1 high-drop AF2 low-drop AF2 medium-drop AF2 high-drop Default
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

MPLE experimental 5 4 4 3 2 2 1 0
IP QoS IP over MPLS

The figure illustrates how DSCP values should be mapped to IP precedence or MPLS experimental values. Some information is lost because low-drop and medium-drop packets of AF1 and AF2 are marked as one low-drop class in the MPLS domain. The case study shows how some information about the conforming and exceeding packets within one class can be retained when entering a non-DSCP part of the network (either because routers do not support DSCP or because MPLS experimental bits are used to select Class of Service). The figure illustrates the translation from three drop probability levels on the DSCP layer into two drop probability level in the IP precedence (MPLS experimental) layer. Using this design further limits the network to only use two classes for AF PHB.

Copyright © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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MPLS Translation Case Study Implementation
IP precedence DSCP IP Domain
class-map EF class-map EF match ip dscp ef match ip dscp ef class-map AF1LD class-map AF1LD match ip dscp af11 af12 match ip dscp af11 af12 class-map AF1HD class-map AF1HD match ip dscp af13 match ip dscp af13 ! ! policy-map DSCP2prec policy-map DSCP2prec class EF class EF set ip precedence 5 set ip precedence 5 class AF1LD class AF1LD set ip precedence 4 set ip precedence 4 class AF1HD class AF1HD set ip precedence 3 set ip precedence 3 ! !
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

MPLS exp MPLS Domain

interface Serial5/1/0 interface Serial5/1/0 service-policy input DSCP2prec service-policy ! !

IP QoS IP over MPLS

The first part of the configuration shows how DSCP is translated to IP precedence on ingress into the MPLS network. IP precedence is then automatically copied into MPLS experimental bits. The default DSCP value equals the default IP precedence value and does not need to be translated. The EF class does not need to be translated either because the EF value (101110) is copied as IP precedence into the MPLS experimental field (101), which equals 5. The configuration for AF2 is not shown in the figure.

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MPLS Translation Case Study Implementation
QoS group DSCP IP Domain
class-map match-any MPLS5 class-map match-any MPLS5 match mpls exp 5 match match ip precedence 5 match ip precedence 5 class-map match-any MPLS4 class-map match-any MPLS4 match mpls exp 4 match mpls exp match ip precedence 4 match class-map match-any MPLS3 class-map match-any MPLS3 match mpls exp 3 match mpls exp match ip precedence 3 match ip precedence 3 ! ! policy-map MPLS2QoS policy-map class MPLS5 class set qos-group 5 set qos-group class MPLS4 class set qos-group 4 set qos-group 4 class MPLS3 class MPLS3 set qos-group 3 set qos-group
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

MPLS exp MPLS Domain
class-map QoS5 class-map QoS5 match qos-group 5 match qos-group 5 class-map QoS4 class-map QoS4 match qos-group 4 match qos-group 4 class-map QoS3 class-map QoS3 match qos-group 3 match qos-group 3 ! ! policy-map QoS2DSCP policy-map class QoS5 class QoS5 set ip dscp ef set ip dscp ef class QoS4 class QoS4 set ip dscp af12 set dscp af12 class QoS3 class QoS3 set ip dscp af13 set dscp af13 ! !

interface Serial5/1/1 interface Serial5/1/1 service-policy input MPLS2QoS service-policy input MPLS2QoS ! ! interface Serial5/1/0 interface Serial5/1/0 service-policy output QoS2DSCP service-policy output QoS2DSCP

IP QoS IP over MPLS

The remainder of the configuration is used to translate MPLS experimental values back into DSCP. The class-maps are configured to process IP packets (very likely due to penultimate hop popping) or labeled packets. Low-drop packets are translated into medium-drop packets in the DiffServ domain.

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Summary
Frame-mode MPLS allows most IP QoS mechanisms to be used. The three MPLS experimental bits are used in the same way as IP precedence. IP precedence is actually copied into MPLS experimental bits.

Review Questions
1. Which MPLS parameter is used for classification and marking? 2. What is the default value of the MPLS experimental bits? 3. Which QoS mechanisms can be used to set MPLS experimental bits?

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Cell-mode MPLS
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
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Describe QoS features available with Cell-mode MPLS Implement QoS on interfaces using Cell-mode MPLS

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Cell-mode MPLS QoS
• Classes are encoded with MPLS experimental bits • Cell-mode MPLS uses the VPI/VCI fields as labels for forwarding • ATM switches are not capable of looking into the frame-mode label where the experimental bits are • QoS is implemented using up to four parallel virtual circuits (label-switched paths)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over MPLS

ATM is a Layer-2 technology that does not use frames to transmit Layer-3 packets. Packets are fragmented into fixed-length cells. Cell-mode MPLS makes use of the ATM header to encode labels into VPI/VCI fields. These fields are only used to make a forwarding decision. QoS cannot be achieved using MPLS experimental bits because:
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They are only propagated in the first cell of a packet. ATM switches do not look into the payload of cells.

QoS is therefore achieved using multiple labels (up to four).

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Cell-mode MPLS

Cell-mode MPLS Frame-mode MPLS Native IP

• IP precedence used in IP domain is automatically translated into MPLS experimental bits • MPLS experimental bits are optionally translated into up to four parallel virtual circuits (label-switched paths)
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over MPLS

The figure illustrates how IP packets can be propagated over a native IP network (no MPLS and no ATM or with ATM PVCs), a frame-based MPLS network and a cell-based MPLS network. QoS is retained when IP packets enter a frame-based MPLS network by copying the IP precedence bits into MPLS experimental bits. When labeled packets enter a cell-based MPLS network, QoS is retained by forwarding the packet through one of four VCs, which are based on the value of MPLS experimental bits.

Copyright © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Release Date: 2/1/99

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Configuring Multi-VC
Router(config-if)#

mpls atm multi-vc

• The command enables Multi-VC operation of cell-mode MPLS • Eight MPLS experimental values are mapped to four virtual circuits • The class is determined by the two least significant MPLS experimental bits • Default mapping is similar to classification of distributed ToS-based WFQ • Default mapping can be replaced using the cos-map command

MPLS exp VC 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Available Standard Premium Control Available Standard Premium Control

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over MPLS

Cell-mode MPLS uses one single VC for each IP destination. Use the mpls atm multi-vc interface command to enable routers to request up to four VCs for each IP destination. Classification is based on the low-order two bits of the MPLS experimental field (like ToS-based dWFQ). The table in the figure shows the default mapping of MPLS values into four VCs: available, standard, premium and control. Default mapping can be changed using the mpls cos-map and mpls prefix-map commands.

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Configuring CoS Mapping
Router(config)#

mpls cos-map number mpls

• Create a CoS map • Allowed values are from 1 to 255
Router(config-mpls-cos-map)#

class class {available | control | premium | standard}

• Assigns a class to one of four virtual circuits • Class values can be in the range from 0 to 3
Router(config)#

mpls prefix-map pfmap access-list acl cos-map cos-map mpls

• Uses CoS map cos-map for all destinations permitted by access list acl
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS IP over MPLS

A CoS map must be configured to change the default behavior of the translation of MPLS experimental values into one of four virtual circuits (available, standard, premium and control). Classes are identified by the two low-order bits of the MPLS experimental field. Use the mpls prefix-map command to bind a cos-map to all destinations permitted by the acl access list.
Note Most MPLS-related commands are available with the starting keyword mpls or the older tag-switching version. Furthermore, using the mpls keyword results in the command being automatically translated into the tag-switching version for compatibility with older IOS versions.

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Configuration Example
tag-switching prefix-map 10 access-list 100 cos-map 10 cos-map tag-switching prefix-map 11 access-list 101 cos-map 10 cos-map tag-switching prefix-map 21 access-list 32 cos-map 34 access-list 34 ! tag-switching cos-map 10 cos-map 10 class 0 available class 0 class 1 standard class class 2 premium class 2 premium class 3 control class 3 control ! interface ATM1/0.1 mpls interface ATM1/0.1 ip unnumbered Loopback0 ip unnumbered Loopback0 no ip mroute-cache no ip mroute-cache mpls atm multi-vc mpls atm multi-vc mpls ip mpls ! access-list 100 permit ip 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over MPLS

The sample configuration shows that all traffic to network 10.0.0.0/8 uses four parallel VCs. MPLS experimental bits are mapped using cos-map 10. Note that only prefix map 10 is properly configured. Prefix map 11 does not have the corresponding access list and prefix map 21 is missing the CoS map as well.

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Monitoring and Troubleshooting Cell-mode MPLS
Router#

show mpls cos-map [cos-map]

• Lists all configured CoS maps
Router#show mpls cos-map 10 Router#show mpls cos-map 10 class tag-VC cos-map tag-VC 3 control 3 control 2 premium 2 premium 1 standard 1 standard 0 available 0 available Router# Router#

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over MPLS

Use the show mpls cos-map command to verify the parameters assigned to a cos-map.

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Monitoring and Troubleshooting Cell-mode MPLS
Router#

show mpls prefix-map [prefix-map]

• Lists all configured prefix maps
Router#show mpls prefix-map Router#show mpls prefix-map prefix-map 10 access-list 100 cos-map 10 prefix-map 10 access-list 100 cos-map 10 prefix-map 11 access-list 101 cos-map 10 prefix-map 11 access-list 101 cos-map 10 Warning: In prefix-map 11, acl 101 is not configured Warning: prefix -map 11, acl 101 is not configured prefix-map 21 access-list 32 cos-map 34 prefix-map 21 access-list 32 cos-map Warning: In prefix-map 21, acl 32 and cos-map 34 are not configured Warning: prefix -map 21, acl 32 and cos-map 34 are not configured Router# Router#

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS IP over MPLS

Use the show mpls prefix-map command to display one or all configured prefix maps with their corresponding access lists and cos-maps. Using this command helps determine if there is a component missing:
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Access list 101 is not configured for prefix map 11 Prefix map 21 is missing both the access list and the CoS map

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Summary
Cell-mode MPLS uses up to four virtual circuits to achieve differentiated quality of service. Packets are classified based on the two low-order bits of the MPLS experimental field.

Review Questions
1. How is differentia ted QoS implemented on MPLS-enabled ATM interfaces? 2. What information is used for classification in cell-mode MPLS?

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Summary
After completing this module, you should be able to perform the following tasks:
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Describe and configure QoS Mechanisms in Frame-mode MPLS networks Describe and configure QoS Mechanisms in Cell-mode MPLS networks

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Review Questions and Answers
MPLS Introduction Question: What are the main benefits of MPLS? Answer: Simplified BGP designs, support for MPLS-based VPNs. Question: How is an MPLS label encoded into IP packets? Answer: A 32-bit label header is inserted in front of the IP header. Question: How are labels propagated? Answer: Labels are propagated between adjacent routers using TDP or LDP.

Frame-mode MPLS Question: Which MPLS parameter is used for classification and marking? Answer: The MPLS experimental bits are used to classify and mark labeled packets. Question: What is the default value of the MPLS experimental bits? Answer: Cisco routers copy the IP precedence bits into MPLS experimental bits. Question: Which QoS mechanisms can be used to set MPLS experimental bits? Answer: CAR, Class-based Policing and Class-based Marking.

Cell-mode MPLS Question: How is differentiated QoS implemented on MPLS-enabled ATM interfaces? Answers: By using up to 4 VCs (labels) for each destination. Question: What information is used for classification in cell-mode MPLS? Answers: Classification is performed based on the two low-order IP precedence bits.

Copyright © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Release Date: 2/1/99

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