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5.

What purpose is directly served by chlorophyll a during photosynthesis? (

Module 7.6)

Your Answer: It is the raw material from which glucose is formed. Correct Answer: It allows for the conversion of energy. No. Carbon dioxide is fixed during the Calvin cycle to form glucose. Introduction Plant Power

7.1 Autotrophs are the producers of the biosphere Autotrophs make their own food without having to eat things o Plants are autotrophs Plants make their own organic molecules by converting light energy Algae, some protists, and some prokaryotes can also make their own food Things that make organic molecules from light energy are photoautotrophs

7.2 Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts in plant cells All green parts of a plant have chloroplasts Chlorophyll is a light absorbing pigment in the chloroplasts that gives plants their green color Chloroplasts are mainly in the mesophyll of a leaf o The mesophyll is the interior of the leaf CO2 and oxygen enter the leaf through little pores (called stomata) on the underside of a leaf The chloroplast has two membranes Inside the membranes is a thick fluid (stroma) In the stroma are thylakoids The thylakoids close a little space called the thylakoid space o Thylakoids contain chlorophyll and other mechanical things needed for photosynthesis Thylakoids are in stacks (grana) 7.3 Plants produce oxygen gas by splitting water Bubbles seen on plants underwater are oxygen bubbles The oxygen produced during photosynthesis comes from water

7.4 Photosynthesis is a redox process, as is cellular respiration In photosynthesis electrons go up a transport chain due to a gain of energy

Photosynthesis converts light energy to chemical energy and stores it in the chemical bonds of sugar molecules CO2 is reduced

7.5 The two stages of photosynthesis are linked by ATP and NADPH Photosynthesis has two steps Light Reactions (in the thylakoids): o Inputs: Light, Water, NADP+, and ADP o Outputs: Oxygen, ATP, NADPH o Water is split giving a source of electrons and an oxygen waste product o Light energy drives the transfer of electrons into NADP+ o Makes ATP from the ADP and a phosphate o Produces no sugar Calvin Cycle (in the stroma): o Inputs: NADPH, ATP, CO2 o Outputs: Sugar, NADP+, ADP o CO2 enters and some of the carbon is used in the making of organic compounds, called carbon fixation o The enzymes of the cycle make sugars by reducing the carbon compounds The electrons from NADPH power the reduction of carbon o None of the steps require light (can be called dark reactions)

7.6 Visible radiation drives the light reactions The electromagnetic spectrum is the full range of electromagnetic wavelengths Visible light is only a small part of the spectrum o Red has the widest wavelength As wavelength increases, energy decreases Pigments in the chloroplasts absorb some lights and reflect others Chlorophyll a absorbs blue-violet and red, reflects green and yellow Chlorophyll b absorbs blue and orange o Sends its absorbed light to chlorophyll a so that it has more light energy for photosynthesis Carotenoids reflect oranges and yellows o Send its absorbed light to chlorophyll a so that there is more light energy o Absorb excessive light that could damage chlorophyll (called photoprotection) Photon is a fixed quantity of light energy

7.7 Photosystems capture solar power When a photon is absorbed, an electron gets all excited and jumps high up o The electron now has more potential energy o The electron is in an excited state Some pigments release light and heat energy after absorbing a photon Chlorophylls, pigments, and proteins are clustered into a photosystem o Photosystems include many light-harvesting things and a reaction center complex

The light harvesters absorb photons and pass them along other pigment molecules until it reaches the reaction center complex The reaction center contains 2 chlorophyll a molecules and a primary electron acceptor The photon that was being passed is passed to the chlorophyll a molecules It then goes to the primary electron acceptor There are 2 photosystems I and II o II comes first o They both have special reaction centers Theyre special because they each absorb different light wavelengths

2. In rosebushes, chlorophyll is responsible for the process of photosynthesis. Chlorophyll is located in _____. ( Module 7.2) Your Answer: chloroplasts, which are in mesophyll cells in the thylakoids of a leaf Correct Answer: thylakoids, which are in chloroplasts in the mesophyll cells of a leaf No. A thylakoid is a cellular structure, not a type of leaf tissue.

3.

Carbon dioxide enters a leaf through the _____. (

Module 7.2)

Your Answer: mesophyll Correct Answer: stomata No. The mesophyll is the middle of the leaf. Meso is derived from the Greek word for "middle."