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Today I will be presenting my article critique on the Fibonacci Sequence, done by Kelvin Lim and Lawrence Li, published in the year 2008. (next slide) Overview: Fibonacci posed a famous problem about how fast rabbits would breed: Suppose a newly born pair of rabbits, one male and one female, are put in a field. Rabbits are able to mate at the age of 1 month so that at the end of its second month a female can produce another pair of rabbits. Suppose that the rabbits never die, and that the female always produces another pair of rabbits (1 male, 1 female) every month from the second month on. So, the Question was: How many pairs of rabbits will there be in a year? (next slide) As mentioned in the article, the Fibonacci Sequences are related to nature in some aspects. Some plants, as shown here in the slide, have a number of petals that add up to a Fibonacci number. (next slide) The Nautilus has a shell with the shape of an equiangular spiral, which is constructed by putting the squares of 2 consecutive Fibonacci numbers together, and drawing the spiral. I was quite thrilled to see the last part of the article as it stated a few identities regarding the Fibonacci Sequence. It shows how deeply studied the Sequence was. (next slide) Mathematical Concepts learnt: Studying a Sequence can allow one to analyse it deeply, hence finding trends, and patterns that may eventually lead to deriving a formula. This is especially true in the Fibonacci Sequence. Some of these identities may also help us find a selected term of the Fibonacci Sequence. (next slide) Things to be added on or improved on: The 2 authors did not add any proofs for the identities that they stated, which I think they could have added. If it is too hard to proof, or if it is too complicated, the authors could have chosen to use simpler identities. There are several methods of proofs include

there will be some contradiction. Proof by contradiction 2. then prove that any one statement of the infinite sequence of the statements is true. that means must be irrational. Therefore. (next slide) But from the earlier equation. (next slide) Example of Proof by Contradiction One such example is proving shall assume that to be irrational. since something can only be true or false. b must be odd. we in the is rational. where at least 1 of which is odd. . we obtain: a2 = 2b2 Therefore. and b Therefore. By Proof by Contradiction. and can be expressed as a fraction simplest form. Firstly. Proof by induction means that we first prove that the first statement is true. therefore it is impossible for (next slide) Proof by induction: Suppose there is a statement that is true to all natural numbers. the proposition can only be true. This is true. It is a contradiction that b can be odd and even at the same time. by cross-multiplication and squaring. Proof by induction Proof by Contradiction: Basically. we first prove that the first statement is true.(next slide) 1. (next slide) to be rational. Proof by Contradiction is a method to proof some proposition by showing that it were not true. (next slide) Example of Proof by induction: Proving the sum of consecutive natural numbers is easy using induction. in this case. although there are other ways of proving them as well. letting n=0.

we proceed to the inductive step. (the rest just read off the slide) (a lot of slides later) Proofs of some formulae-More Identities (read off the slide) (next slide) An interesting fact: One interesting fact is that when you have 2 consecutive Fibonacci numbers. it seems difficult to prove. we obtain: Therefore. we obtain the expression(point at the expression) (next slide) So. by mathematical induction. the larger one divided by the smaller one. We first show that if P(k) holds. (next slide) Proofs of some Formulae. then P(k+1) hold as well. it is actually quite easy to prove. so now we need to prove that P(k+1) holds. (next slide) . Which means proving this: Applying the formula for P(k). we have proven this formula. will get you closer and closer to the golden ratio as the numbers increase.Then. We can first assume that P(k) holds.Binet’s Formula Looking at the complicated expression. but by using known facts and using simpler symbols to represent values.

and then adding the numbers up.What is the Golden Ratio? This is the golden ratio. (next slide) Thank you very much for your attention! I truly hope you enjoyed this presentation! . the square of the golden ratio is just adding 1 to itself. (next slide) How to draw the golden rectangle? Very simple. By diagonally putting the last digit in 1 line. the decimal places of the number are closely related to the Fibonacci numbers. (read off slides) (many slides later) This is a very special number. because: As you can see. we obtain the decimal places of the number. (next slide) As you can see. which is the sum of the numbers in a certain diagonal pattern. (next slide) What is the Golden Ratio? The reciprocal of the golden ratio is just subtracting 1 from itself. Fibonacci Numbers also appear in Pascal’s Triangle. On the other hand.

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