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# Prepared by: Kenneth Joachim Llanto Last Updated: 07/05/11

Peak value, Vp

## Average value, VDC

The central value of the AC voltage. Also called the DC value. In a pure AC waveform, this value is zero.
A measure of the magnitude of a varying quantity. Used to get the mean of an AC waveform.

## Root-Mean-Square (RMS) value, VRMS

A circuit that changes bidirectional (alternating) current into unidirectional (direct) current.
Two types of rectifier circuits:
Half-wave

Full-wave

Rectifies only half of the input AC waveform Rectifies both the positive and negative alternations of the input AC waveform

## Has a diode in series with the load resistor

Load voltage is a half-wave output

Vin

Vin

Vout

Vout

## The half-wave rectifier

Vin
The dc value of the output is the average value. Vdc = VPk/p = VPk x 0.318 fout = fin Second approximation: VP(out) = VP(in) - 0.7 V

Vin

Vout

Vout

## The half-wave rectifier

Vp = 30 V
1. Using 2nd Approximation: Vout(pk) = 30 0.7 (Si voltage drop) Vout(pk) = 29.3 V 3. Compute for IL: IL = Vdc / RL 2. Compute for Vdc Vdc = Vout(pk) X 0.318 IL = 9.32 / 1000 IL = 9.32 mA V = 29.3 X 0.318
dc

RL = 1k Vdc? IL ? IDiode ?
If the diode has a PIV rating of 50 V, Will the diode be able To withstand the Voltage? Yes, because the Vput(pk) is only 30 V

Vdc = 9.32 V

## At this point, this rectifier is not very useful.

Although the output polarity no longer changes, it has a lot of ripple (variations in output voltage about a steady value) To generate an output voltage that more closely resembles a true d.c. voltage we can use a smoothing capacitor in parallel with the load resistance

Discharge

VP

0 Charge -

## Vripple = Vout(pk)( 1 e Vripple = 30( 1 e

-t ___ RLC

RL = 1k C = 1000F Vout(pk) = 30

RL

)
+

Vdc = Vout(pk)
Vdc = 30

## Vripple _____ 2 0.496 _____ 2

VP
0

f = 60 Hz
16.67 ms

Vdc = 29.752 V

t=1/f t = 16.67 ms

16.67 ms

## Commonly makes use of an input transformer Two types:

Center tapped

Bridge type

Has a center-tapped transformer with two diodes and a load resistor Load voltage is a full-wave signal whose peak is half of the secondary voltage
Has four diodes Load voltage is a full-wave signal with peak value equal to the secondary voltage

When the turns ratio (N1/N2) is greater than 1, the primary voltage is stepped down. When the turns ratio is less than 1, the primary voltage is stepped up.
Secondary voltage equals the primary voltage

## divided by the turns ratio multiplied by the primary voltage

Vs = (Ns /Np ) x Vp

## diodes and a load resistor

Load voltage is a full-wave signal whose peak is half of the secondary voltage

Vin

. .
C.T.

Vout

Vout

## The full-wave rectifier

Vin

. .
C.T.

Vout

The dc value of the output is the average value. Vdc = 2VPk/p = VP x 0.636 fout = 2fin The input to each diode is half the secondary voltage. Second approximation: VP(out) = VP(in) - 0.7 V

Vout

Np: Ns

## The full-wave rectifier

Vac= 220 V 60 Hz
1. Compute for Vs: Vs = (Ns /Np ) x Vp Vs = (1 /4 ) x 220 Vs = 55 V

4 :1

C.T.

RL = 1k Vdc? IL ?

## 3. Using 2nd Approximation: Vout(pk) = 38.89 0.7 Vout(pk) = 38.19 V

2. Compute for Vs(pk) Vs(pk) = (Vs / 2) X 1.414 4. Compute for Vdc Vdc = Vout(pk) X 0.636 Vs(pk) = (55 / 2) X 1.414 Vdc = 38.19 X 0.636 Vs(pk) = 38.89 V Vdc = 24.29 V

Np: Ns

## The full-wave rectifier

Vac= 220 V 60 Hz
5. Compute for IL: IL = Vdc / RL IL = 24.29 / 1000 IL = 24.29 mA

4 :1

C.T.

RL = 1k Vdc? IL ?

Idiode = IL / 2 ?
Each diode is passes only half of the current passing through the load

## 6. Idiode = IL / 2 Idiode = 0.02429 / 2 Idiode = 0.01215 A

If the diode has a PIV rating of 50 V, will the diode be able To withstand the Voltage?

.
.

C.T.

If the diode has a PIV rating of 50 V, will the diode be able To withstand the Voltage?

.
.

## 38.89 V 77.77 V 38.89 V

VAK = -Vs(pk) + VD1 VAK = -77.77 + 0.7 No, because the Vs is 77.07 V

Discharge

C.T.

VP

0 Charge -

RL

___ 1000 (1k)

## Vripple = 30( 0.00829) Vripple = 0.249 Vdc = Vout(pk) Vdc = 30

Vripple _____ 2 0.249 _____ 2
8.83 ms

VP

Vdc = 29.876 V
e = 2.71828 (eulers number)

8.83 ms

## Has four diodes

Load voltage is a full-wave signal with peak

Vin

Vout

Vout

## The bridge rectifier

Vin

The dc value of the output is the average value. Vdc = 2VPk/p = VP x 0.636 fout = 2fin Vout Second approximation: V VP(out) = VP(in) - 1.4

Vout

Np: Ns

## The bridge rectifier

Vac= 120 V 60 Hz
1. Compute for Vs: Vs = (Ns /Np ) x Vp Vs = (1 /4 ) x 120 Vs = 30 V 2. Compute for Vs(pk) Vs(pk) = (Vs) X 1.414 Vs(pk) = (30) X 1.414 Vs(pk) = 42.42 V

4 :1

RL = 1k Vdc? IL ?
3. Using 2nd Approximation: Vout(pk) = 42.42 1.4 Vout(pk) = 41.02 V 4. Compute for Vdc Vdc = Vout(pk) X 0.636 Vdc = 41.02 X 0.636 Vdc = 26.09 V

Np: Ns

## The bridge rectifier

Vac= 120 V 60 Hz
5. Compute for IL: IL = Vdc / RL IL = 26.09 / 1000 IL = 26.09 mA

4 :1

RL = 1k Vdc? IL ?
If the diode has a PIV rating of 50 V, Will the diode be able To withstand the Voltage? Yes, because the PIV applied to the diode is only 42.42. 0.7 V

Half-wave

Frequency Vdc

## Diode PIV Ratings

> VPk

> 2VPk

>VPk

Calculate the average current of the silicon diode from rectified signal obtained from the circuit below.

= 220 Ohms

A 20 k load is fed by a full-wave rectifier having a 240:80 V transformer. a) What is the peak value of the output voltage? b) What is the average value of the output voltage? c) What is the peak value of the current to the load? d) What is the average value of the current to the load?

Lecture notes by Engr. Emmanuel Guevara Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory by Boylestad and Nashelsky Grobs Basic Electronics by Schultz Electronic Principles by Malvino and Bates