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** A relation R from a set A to a set B is a subset of A × B obtained by describing a
**

relationship between the first element a and the second element b of the ordered

pairs in A × B. That is, R _ {(a, b) e A × B, a e A, b e B}

The domain of a relation R from set A to set B is the set of all first elements of

the ordered pairs in R.

The range of a relation R from set A to set B is the set of all second elements of

the ordered pairs in R. The whole set B is called the co-domain of R. Range _

Co-domain

A relation R in a set A is called an empty relation, if no element of A is related to

any element of A. In this case, R = | c A × A

Example: Consider a relation R in set A = {3, 4, 5} given by R = {(a, b): a

b

<

25, where a, b eA}. It can be observed that no pair (a, b) satisfies this condition.

Therefore, R is an empty relation.

A relation R in a set A is called a universal relation, if each element of A is related

to every element of A. In this case, R = A × A

Example: Consider a relation R in the set A = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9} given by R = {(a,

b): a + b is an even number}.

Here, we may observe that all pairs (a, b) satisfy the condition R. Therefore, R is

a universal relation.

Both the empty and the universal relation are called trivial relations.

A relation R in a set A is called reflexive, if (a, a) e R for every a e R.

Example: Consider a relation R in the set A, where A = {2, 3, 4}, given by R =

{(a, b): a

b

= 4, 27 or 256}. Here, we may observe that R = {(2, 2), (3, 3), and

(4, 4)}. Since each element of R is related to itself (2 is related 2, 3 is related to

3, and 4 is related to 4), R is a reflexive relation.

A relation R in a set A is called symmetric, if (a

1

, a

2

) e R ¬ (a

2

, a

1

) e R, ¬a

1

,

a

2

e R

Example: Consider a relation R in the set A, where A is the set of natural

numbers, given by R = {(a, b): 2 ≤ ab < 20}. Here, it can be observed that (b,

a) e R since 2 ≤ ba < 20 [since for natural numbers a and b, ab = ba]

Therefore, the relation R is symmetric.

A relation R in a set A is called transitive, if (a

1

, a

2

) e R and (a

2

, a

3

) e R ¬ (a

1

,

a

3

) e R for all a

1

, a

2

, a

3

e A

Example: Let us consider a relation R in the set of all subsets with respect to a

universal set U given by R = {(A, B): A is a subset of B}

Now, if A, B, and C are three sets in R, such that A c B and B c C, then we also

have A c C. Therefore, the relation R is a symmetric relation.

A relation R in a set A is said to be an equivalence relation, if R is altogether

reflexive, symmetric, and transitive.

Example: Let (a, b) and (c, d) be two ordered pairs of numbers such that the

relation between them is given by a + d = b + c. This relation will be an

equivalence relation. Let us prove this.

(a, b) is related to (a, b) since a + b = b + a. Therefore, R is reflexive.

If (a, b) is related to (c, d), then a + d = b + c ¬ c + b = d + a. This shows that

(c, d) is related to (a, b). Hence, R is symmetric.

Let (a, b) is related to (c, d); and (c, d) is related to (e, f), then a + d = b + c and

c + f = d + e. Now, (a + d) + (c + f) = (b + c) + (d + e) ¬ a + f = b + e. This

shows that (a, b) is related to (e, f). Hence, R is transitive.

Since R is reflexive, symmetric, and transitive, R is an equivalence relation.

Given an arbitrary equivalence relation R in an arbitrary set X, R divides X into

mutually disjoint subsets Ai called partitions or subdivisions of X satisfying:

All elements of Ai are related to each other, for all i.

No element of Ai is related to any element of Aj , i ≠ j

Aj = X and Ai · Aj= |, i ≠ j

The subsets Ai are called equivalence classes.

A function f from set X to Y is a specific type of relation in which every element

x of X has one and only one image y in set Y. We write the function f as f: X ÷

Y, where f (x) = y

A function f: X ÷ Y is said to be one-one or injective, if the image of distinct

elements of X under f are distinct. In other words, if x

1

, x

2

e X and f (x

1

) = f (x

2

),

then x

1

= x

2

. If the function f is not one-one, then f is called a many-one

function.

The one-one and many-one functions can be illustrated by the following figures:

A function f: X ÷ Y can be defined as an onto (surjective) function, if ¬ y e Y,

there exists x e X such that f (x) = y.

The onto and many-one (not onto) functions can be illustrated by the following

figures:

A function f: X ÷ Y is said to be bijective, if it is both one-one and onto. A

bijective function can be illustrated by the following figure:

Example: Show that the function f: R ÷ N given by f (x) = x

3

– 1 is bijective.

Solution:

Let x

1

, x

2

e R

For f (x

1

) = f (x

2

), we have

3 3

1 2

3 3

1 2

1 2

1 1 x x

x x

x x

÷ = ÷

¬ =

¬ =

Therefore, f is one-one.

Also, for any y in N, there exists

3

1 y + in R such that

( ) ( )

3

3 3

1 1 1 f y y y + = + ÷ = . Therefore, f is onto.

Since f is both one-one and onto, f is bijective.

Composite function: Let f: A ÷ B and g: B ÷ C be two functions. The

composition of f and g, i.e. gof, is defined as a function from A to C given by gof

(x) = g (f (x)), ¬ x e A

Example: Find gof and fog, if f: R ÷ R and g: R ÷ R are given by f (x) = x

2

–

1 and g (x) = x

3

+ 1.

Solution:

( ) ( ) ( )

( )

( )

( )

2

3

2

6 4 2

2 4 2

1

1 1

1 3 3 1

3 3

gof x g f x

g x

x

x x x

x x x

=

= ÷

= ÷ +

= ÷ ÷ + +

= ÷ +

( ) ( ) ( )

( )

( )

( )

3

2

3

6 3

3 3

1

1 1

2 1 1

2

fog x f g x

f x

x

x x

x x

=

= +

= + ÷

= + + ÷

= +

A function f: X ÷ Y is said to be invertible, if there exists a function g: Y ÷ X

such that gof = I

X

and fog = I

Y

. In this case, g is called inverse of f and is written

as g = f

–1

A function f is invertible, if and only if f is bijective.

Example: Show that f: R

+

{0} ÷ N defined as f (x) = x

3

+ 1 is an invertible

function. Also, find f

–1

.

Solution:

Let x

1

, x

2

e R

+

{0} and f (x

1

) = f (x

2

)

3 3

1 2

3 3

1 2

1 2

1 1 x x

x x

x x

+ = +

¬ =

¬ =

Therefore, f is one-one.

Also, for any y in N, there exists

3

1 y ÷ e R

+

{0} such that

( )

3

1 f y ÷ = y.

f is onto.

Hence, f is bijective.

This shows that, f is invertible.

Let us consider a function g: N ÷ R

+

{0} such that ( )

3

1 g y y = ÷

Now,

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

3 3

3

3

3 3

1 1 1

1 1 1

gof x g f x g x x x

fog y f g y f y y y

= = + = + ÷ =

= = ÷ = ÷ + =

Therefore, we have

( )

{0}

I gof x

+

=

R

and fog (y) = I

N

( ) ( )

1

3

1 f y g y y

÷

= = ÷

A binary operation - on a set A is a function - : A × A ÷ A

An operation - on a set A is commutative, if a - b = b - a ¬a, b e A

An operation - on a set A is associative, if (a - b) - c = a - (b - c) ¬ a, b, c eA

An element e e A is the identity element for binary operation -: A × A ÷ A, if a

- e = a = e × a ¬ a e A

An element a e A is invertible for binary operation -: A × A ÷ A, if there exists

b e A such that a - b = e = b - a, where e is the identity for -. The element b is

called inverse of a and is denoted by a

–1

.

Example: Show that - is a binary operation defined on R – {0} by a - b = ab

Also show that - is both commutative and associative. Find the identity element

of -, if it exists. Find the inverse of a where a e R – {0}, if - is invertible.

Solution:

The operation - is defined for ¬ a, b, c e R.

Therefore, - is a binary operation.

Let a, b, c e R – {0}.

Now, a - b = ab and b - a = ba

Since ab = ba, a - b = b - a

[Real numbers are commutative under multiplication]

Hence, - is commutative.

Now, a - (b - c) = a - (bc) = abc

(a - b) - c = (ab) * c = abc

a - (b - c) = (a - b) - c

Hence, - is associative.

Now, 1 e R – {0} and a - 1 = a × 1 = a and 1 - a = 1 × a = a

Therefore, a - 1 = 1 - a = a

Thus, 1 is the identity element for the binary operation -.

Now, since a e R – {0},

1

{0}

a

e ÷ R [a = 0]

However,

1

1 a

a

× =

Therefore,

1

1

a

a

÷

=

R is an equivalence relation.Now. Example: Let (a. Let (a. d). b). b) is related to (c. (a. Since R is reflexive. R is symmetric. x2 X and f (x1) = f (x2). f). then a + d = b + c and c + f = d + e. then f is called a many-one function. In other words. B. R is reflexive. where f (x) = y A function f: X Y is said to be one-one or injective. for all i. and transitive. This shows that (a. The one-one and many-one functions can be illustrated by the following figures: A function f: X Y can be defined as an onto (surjective) function. i ≠ j Aj = X and Ai Aj= . b) since a + b = b + a. d) is related to (e. Now. No element of Ai is related to any element of Aj . Given an arbitrary equivalence relation R in an arbitrary set X. A relation R in a set A is said to be an equivalence relation. If the function f is not one-one. . A function f from set X to Y is a specific type of relation in which every element x of X has one and only one image y in set Y. if y Y. and transitive. We write the function f as f: X Y. if A. b) is related to (e. symmetric. there exists x X such that f (x) = y. such that A B and B C. Therefore. then x1 = x2. Hence. if R is altogether reflexive. Therefore. and C are three sets in R. R is transitive. if x1. then we also have A C. symmetric. f). the relation R is a symmetric relation. If (a. (a + d) + (c + f) = (b + c) + (d + e) a + f = b + e. Let us prove this. i ≠ j The subsets Ai are called equivalence classes. d) is related to (a. This shows that (c. This relation will be an equivalence relation. then a + d = b + c c + b = d + a. b) is related to (c. d). d) be two ordered pairs of numbers such that the relation between them is given by a + d = b + c. and (c. b) is related to (a. if the image of distinct elements of X under f are distinct. R divides X into mutually disjoint subsets Ai called partitions or subdivisions of X satisfying: All elements of Ai are related to each other. Hence. b) and (c.

Therefore. f is onto. Solution: Let x1. is defined as a function from A to C given by gof (x) = g (f (x)). 3 Since f is both one-one and onto. i. f is bijective. A bijective function can be illustrated by the following figure: Example: Show that the function f: R N given by f (x) = x3 – 1 is bijective.e. gof. x2 R For f (x1) = f (x2). The composition of f and g. there exists f 3 y 1 in R such that 3 y 1 3 y 1 1 y . f is one-one.The onto and many-one (not onto) functions can be illustrated by the following figures: A function f: X Y is said to be bijective. if it is both one-one and onto. x A . we have 3 x13 1 x2 1 3 x13 x2 x1 x2 Therefore. Also. Composite function: Let f: A B and g: B C be two functions. for any y in N.

Also.Example: Find gof and fog. Solution: gof x g f x g x2 1 x2 1 1 x6 1 3x 4 3x 2 1 x 2 x 4 3x 2 3 fog x f g x f x3 1 3 x3 1 1 x 6 2 x3 1 1 x3 x3 2 2 A function f: X Y is said to be invertible. if and only if f is bijective. Also. for any y in N. f is one-one. g is called inverse of f and is written as g = f–1 A function f is invertible. if there exists a function g: Y X such that gof = IX and fog = IY. there exists f is onto. In this case. find f–1. f is bijective. x2 R+ {0} and f (x1) = f (x2) 3 x13 1 x2 1 3 x13 x2 x1 x2 Therefore. Solution: Let x1. Let us consider a function g: N R+ {0} such that g y 3 y 1 Now. . 3 y 1 R+ {0} such that f 3 y 1 = y. This shows that. if f: R R and g: R R are given by f (x) = x2 – 1 and g (x) = x3 + 1. f is invertible. Hence. Example: Show that f: R+ {0} N defined as f (x) = x3 + 1 is an invertible function.

if is invertible. 1 is the identity element for the binary operation . if a e=a=eaaA An element a A is invertible for binary operation : A A A. Now. Now. if (a b) c = a (b c) a. is commutative. c A An element e A is the identity element for binary operation : A A A. a b = b a [Real numbers are commutative under multiplication] Hence. a 1 = 1 a = a Thus. Find the inverse of a where a R – {0}. if there exists b A such that a b = e = b a. b A An operation on a set A is associative. The element b is called inverse of a and is denoted by a–1. Now. we have gof x IR {0} and fog (y) = IN f 1 y g y 3 y 1 A binary operation on a set A is a function : A A A An operation on a set A is commutative. Let a. Therefore. Now. is a binary operation. since a R – {0}. a b = ab and b a = ba Since ab = ba. b. c R. Solution: The operation is defined for a. if it exists. b. 1 R – {0} and a 1 = a 1 = a and 1 a = 1 a = a Therefore.gof x g f x g x3 1 fog y f g y f 3 x 3 3 1 1 x 3 y 1 y 1 1 y 3 Therefore. 1 R {0} a [a 0] . if a b = b a a. c R – {0}. is associative. where e is the identity for . Example: Show that is a binary operation defined on R – {0} by a b = ab Also show that is both commutative and associative. Find the identity element of . a (b c) = a (bc) = abc (a b) c = (ab) * c = abc a (b c) = (a b) c Hence. b.

However. a 1 1 a 1 a . a 1 Therefore.

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