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Trigonometry

Angles and their relationship


Angles are measured in many units viz. degrees, minutes, seconds, radians, gradients.
Where 1 degree = 60 minutes, 1 minute = 60 seconds,
radians = 180 = 200

1 radian = 180/ and 1 degree = / 180 radians.


The angle at the centre is of 1 radian

rr

Do you know?
1 radian is the angle
made at the centre by
the

arc

of

length

equal to the radius of

the circle.

Basic Trigonometric Ratios


In a right triangle ABC, if be the angle between AC & BC.
A

If is one of the angle other then right angle, then the side opposite to the angle is perpendicular (P) and the
sides containing the angle are taken as Base ( B) and the hypotenuse (H). In this type of triangles, we can
have six types of ratios. These ratios are called trigonometric ratios.
Sin =

P
B
, Cos =
H
H

Cosec =

H
,
P

Tan =

Sec =

P
B

H
B
, Cot =
B
P

Important Formulae
For any angle :
1.

sin2 + cos2 = 1

2.

1 + tan2 = sec2

3.

1 + cot = cosec

[Note sin2 = (sin )2 and not (sin 2)]


2

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Range of Values of Ratios


If 0 360o, then the values for different trigonometric ratios will be as follows.
1.

1 Sin 1

2.

1 cos 1

Maximum and

3.

tan

Minimum values of sin

4.

cot

5.

Sec -1

&

1 Sec

6.

Cosec 1

&

1 Cosec

TIP

or cos are + 1 and


1 respectively.

Sign of Trigonometric ratios


We divide the angle at a point (i.e. 360) into 4 parts called quadrants. In the first quadrant all the
trigonometric ratios are positive
II

90 180
180 270

0 90
270 360

III

IV

SOME MORE RESULTS:

TIP

T. Ratios
Angles

Sin

Cos

Tan

Cot

Sec

Cosec

90 -

Cos

Sin

Cot

Tan

Cosec

Sec

Sugar: Sin positive

90 +

Cos

Sin

Cot

Tan

Cosec

Sec

To: Tan positive

180 -

Sin

Cos

Tan

Cot

Sec

Cosec

180 +

Sin

Cos

Tan

Cot

Sec

Cosec

270 -

Cos

Sin

Cot

Tan

Cosec

Sec

270 +

Cos

Sin

Cot

Tan

Cosec

Sec

360 -

Sin

Cos

Tan

Cot

Sec

Cosec

360 +

Sin

Cos

Tan

Cot

Sec

Cosec

Add: All positive

Ex.1 Simplify
Sol.

Coffee : Cos positive

tan( 90 o + ) sin( 180 o + ) sec( 270 o + )


.
cos( 270 o ) cos ec (180 o ) cot( 360 o )

tan (90o + ) = cot ,

sin ( 180o + ) = sin

sec (270o + ) = cosec ,

cos (270o ) = sin

cosec (180o ) = cosec ,

cot (360o ) = cot

Given expression =

( cot )( sin )(cos ec )


= 1.
( sin )(cos ec )( cot )

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Ex.2 If cot A =
Sol.

cot A =

3
4

tan A =

3
, find the value of 3 cos A + 4 sin A, where A is in the first quadrant.
4

4
3

Perpendicular 4
=
base
3

Draw a right PQR in which Q = A,

PR = 4, QR = 3

PQ = (PR ) 2 + (QR ) 2
=

( 4 ) 2 + (3 ) 2 =

16 + 9 =

25

PQ = 5 units
cos A =
cos A =

base
Hypotenuse

PR 4
3
=
and sin A =
5
PQ 5

3 cos A + 4 sin A = 3

3 cos A + 4 sin A =

3
4
9 16
+ 4 = +
5
5
5
5

25
= 5.
5

sin 35 o
Ex.3 Find the value of
o
cos 55
Sol.

sin 35 o

cos 55 o

+ cos 55
o

sin 35

+ cos 55

sin 35 o

2 cos 60 o

2 cos 60 o

sin(90o 55o )
cos(90o 35o )
1
=
+
2
o
sin 35
2
cos 55

o
cos 55o

+ sin 35 1
=
cos 55o
sin 35o

Q sin (90 o ) = cos

cos ( 90 o ) = sin

=1+11=1

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Values of trigonometric Ratio for some special angles:

30

45

60

90
1

sin

1/2

1/2

3/2

cos

3/2

1/2

1/2

tan

1/3

(Not defined)

Properties of triangle
Sine Rule
In any triangle ABC if AB, BC, AC be represented by c, a, b respectively

a
b
c
=
=
= 2R
then we have
sin A
sin B
sin C

c
Where R is circum radius =

b
R

abc
4 Area of triangle

Cosine Rule
In a triangle ABC of having sides of any size, we have the following rule;
Cos A =

b2 + c 2 a2
2bc

Cos B =

c 2 + a2 b2
2ac

Cos C =

a2 + b2 c 2
2ab

Area of triangle
Area =
=

1
1
1
bc sin A = ac sin B = ab sin C
2
2
2

S (S a ) (S b ) (S c )

where S = semi perimeter

Ex.4 Solve the equation sec2x 2 tan x = 0


Sol. sec2x 2 tan x = 0
1 + tan2x 2 tan x = 0
tan2x 2 tan x + 1 = 0
(tan x 1)2 = 0
tan x = 1
x = 45o.

{ Q sec2 tan2 = 1}

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