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_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Trigonometry

Angles are measured in many units viz. degrees, minutes, seconds, radians, gradients.

Where 1 degree = 60 minutes, 1 minute = 60 seconds,

radians = 180 = 200

The angle at the centre is of 1 radian

rr

Do you know?

1 radian is the angle

made at the centre by

the

arc

of

length

the circle.

In a right triangle ABC, if be the angle between AC & BC.

A

If is one of the angle other then right angle, then the side opposite to the angle is perpendicular (P) and the

sides containing the angle are taken as Base ( B) and the hypotenuse (H). In this type of triangles, we can

have six types of ratios. These ratios are called trigonometric ratios.

Sin =

P

B

, Cos =

H

H

Cosec =

H

,

P

Tan =

Sec =

P

B

H

B

, Cot =

B

P

Important Formulae

For any angle :

1.

sin2 + cos2 = 1

2.

1 + tan2 = sec2

3.

1 + cot = cosec

2

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If 0 360o, then the values for different trigonometric ratios will be as follows.

1.

1 Sin 1

2.

1 cos 1

Maximum and

3.

tan

4.

cot

5.

Sec -1

&

1 Sec

6.

Cosec 1

&

1 Cosec

TIP

1 respectively.

We divide the angle at a point (i.e. 360) into 4 parts called quadrants. In the first quadrant all the

trigonometric ratios are positive

II

90 180

180 270

0 90

270 360

III

IV

TIP

T. Ratios

Angles

Sin

Cos

Tan

Cot

Sec

Cosec

90 -

Cos

Sin

Cot

Tan

Cosec

Sec

90 +

Cos

Sin

Cot

Tan

Cosec

Sec

180 -

Sin

Cos

Tan

Cot

Sec

Cosec

180 +

Sin

Cos

Tan

Cot

Sec

Cosec

270 -

Cos

Sin

Cot

Tan

Cosec

Sec

270 +

Cos

Sin

Cot

Tan

Cosec

Sec

360 -

Sin

Cos

Tan

Cot

Sec

Cosec

360 +

Sin

Cos

Tan

Cot

Sec

Cosec

Ex.1 Simplify

Sol.

.

cos( 270 o ) cos ec (180 o ) cot( 360 o )

Given expression =

= 1.

( sin )(cos ec )( cot )

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Ex.2 If cot A =

Sol.

cot A =

3

4

tan A =

3

, find the value of 3 cos A + 4 sin A, where A is in the first quadrant.

4

4

3

Perpendicular 4

=

base

3

PR = 4, QR = 3

PQ = (PR ) 2 + (QR ) 2

=

( 4 ) 2 + (3 ) 2 =

16 + 9 =

25

PQ = 5 units

cos A =

cos A =

base

Hypotenuse

PR 4

3

=

and sin A =

5

PQ 5

3 cos A + 4 sin A = 3

3 cos A + 4 sin A =

3

4

9 16

+ 4 = +

5

5

5

5

25

= 5.

5

sin 35 o

Ex.3 Find the value of

o

cos 55

Sol.

sin 35 o

cos 55 o

+ cos 55

o

sin 35

+ cos 55

sin 35 o

2 cos 60 o

2 cos 60 o

sin(90o 55o )

cos(90o 35o )

1

=

+

2

o

sin 35

2

cos 55

o

cos 55o

+ sin 35 1

=

cos 55o

sin 35o

cos ( 90 o ) = sin

=1+11=1

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30

45

60

90

1

sin

1/2

1/2

3/2

cos

3/2

1/2

1/2

tan

1/3

(Not defined)

Properties of triangle

Sine Rule

In any triangle ABC if AB, BC, AC be represented by c, a, b respectively

a

b

c

=

=

= 2R

then we have

sin A

sin B

sin C

c

Where R is circum radius =

b

R

abc

4 Area of triangle

Cosine Rule

In a triangle ABC of having sides of any size, we have the following rule;

Cos A =

b2 + c 2 a2

2bc

Cos B =

c 2 + a2 b2

2ac

Cos C =

a2 + b2 c 2

2ab

Area of triangle

Area =

=

1

1

1

bc sin A = ac sin B = ab sin C

2

2

2

S (S a ) (S b ) (S c )

Sol. sec2x 2 tan x = 0

1 + tan2x 2 tan x = 0

tan2x 2 tan x + 1 = 0

(tan x 1)2 = 0

tan x = 1

x = 45o.

{ Q sec2 tan2 = 1}

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

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