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with data loaded to the drum. The drum was a metal cylinder coated w ith recordable ferromagnetic material. The drum also had a row of read-write hea ds that wrote and then read the recorded data. Magnetic core memory (ferrite-core memory) is another early form of computer mem ory. Magnetic ceramic rings called cores, stored information using the polarity of a magnetic field. Semiconductor memory is computer memory we are all familiar with, computer memor y on a intergrated circuit or chip. Referered to as random-access memory or RAM, it allowed data to be accessed randomly, not just in the sequence it was record ed. Dynamic random access memory (DRAM) is the most common kind of random access mem ory (RAM) for personal computers. The data the DRAM chip holds has to be periodi caly refreshed. Static random access memory or SRAM doesn't need to be refreshed . Timeline of Computer Memory 1834 Charles Babbage begins build his "Analytical Engine", precursor to the computer. It uses read-only memory in the form of punch cards. 1932 Gustav Tauschek invents drum memory in Austria. 1936 Konrad Zuse applies for a patent for his mechanical memory to be used in his com puter. This computer memory is based on sliding metal parts. 1939 Helmut Schreyer invents a prototype memory using neon lamps. 1942 The Atanasoff-Berry Computer has 60 50-bit words of memory in the form of capaci tors mounted on two revolving drums. For secondary memory it uses punch cards. 1947 Frederick Viehe of Los Angeles, applies for a patent for an invention that uses magnetic core memory. Magnetic drum memory is independently invented by several people. • An Wang An Wang invented the magnetic pulse controlling device, the principle upon which magnetic core memory is based. • Kenneth Olsen Kenneth Olsen invented vital computer components, best known for "Magnetic Core Memory" Patent No. 3,161,861 and as being the cofounder of Digital Equipment Cor poration. • Jay Forrester Jay Forrester was a pioneer in early digital computer development and invented r andom-access, coincident-current magnetic storage. 1949 Jay Forrester conceives the idea of magnetic core memory as it is to become comm only used, with a grid of wires used to address the cores. The first practical f orm manifests in 1952-53 and renders obsolete previous types of computer memory. 1950 Ferranti Ltd. completes the first commercial computer with 256 40-bit words of m ain memory and 16K words of drum memory. Only eight were sold. 1951 Jay Forrester files a patent for matrix core memory. 1952 The EDVAC computer is completed with 1024 44-bit words of ultrasonic memory. A c ore memory module is added to the ENIAC computer. 1955 An Wang was issued U.S. patent #2,708,722 with 34 claims for magnetic memory cor
Step 1: You will need • An anti-static wrist strap • An electrical screwdriver • Memory Modules Step 2: Static electricity Static electricity can seriously damage the components inside a computer.286 to IBM's Robert Dennard for a one-transistor DRAM cell. patent for a "memory system for a multichip digital comput er". tempor arily. Later in the same year. Step 4: Getting into the tower To get into the tower you will have to remove the panel which is on the right ha .387. 1971 Intel releases the 1101 chip. 1966 Hewlett-Packard releases their HP2116A real-time computer with 8K of memory. DRAM will become the standard memory chip for personal computers repla cing magnetic core memory. for short term use by the CPU. 1984 Apple Computers releases the Macintosh personal compututer. RAM stands for Random Access Memory. 1974 Intel receives a U. To avo id this you must ensure you are grounded when operating inside your computer. and co mes as modules in predefined amounts. Step 3: Memory The memory is also known as the RAM. On e way to do this is to purchase an anti-static wrist strap which you should wear at all times. Bob Marsh manufacturers th e first Processor Technology's 4 kB memory boards for the Altair. The wrist-strap plugs into an electrical socket which will automa tically discharge the static electricity in your body. 1970 Intel releases the 1103 chip. Each module that is installed on your computer needs to have the same amount of memory as the others. The one-megabyte memory chip is developed. It is the first comp uter that came with 128KB of memory. The newly formed Intel starts sell a semiconductor chip with 2. 1968 USPTO grants patent 3. Intel soon switch to being notable designers of computer microprocess ors. the largest memory ch ip todate. 1975 Personal consumer computer Altair released. The memory chips store information. a 256-bit programmable memory. and the 1701 chip. The hard disk stores information "permanently" for long term use. The computer's RAM memory is an entirely different thing from the hard disk "mem ory". RAM is used to store information for files that are actually being used by the CPU at any given time. Computers How to upgrade my pc memory Enlarge This VideoJug film is designed to show you how to increase the amount o f memory (RAM) in your computer. the first generally available DRAM memory chip.000 bits of memory. a 256-byte erasable read-only memory (EROM). it uses Intel's 8-bit 8080 processor and includes 1 KB of memory.S.e. 1969 Intel begin as chip designers and produce a 1 KB RAM chip. So follow this simple guide and install more me mory in your computer. DRAM stands for Dynamic RAM (Random Access Memory) or Dynamic Random Acces s Memory.
Step 5: Where memory is located Memory is found directly on the motherboard and usually in one. two or four slot s. They will only fit one way. Our tests.nd side when viewing the tower from the back. PCs that had more than enough RAM when they were new often hav e trouble keeping up with the demands of the latest programs after a few years. To see how a RAM upgrade is done. How to Upgrade Your PC's RAM Follow our step-by-step guide to installing memory. If you're planning to upgrade your PC to Windows Vista. Below. or anyone regularly working with digital vi deo or other large graphics files. check out our companion video. it's forced to swap the overflow data on and off of the hard d rive. Press Ctrl-Alt-Del (Vista users will have to click Start Task Manager) and click the Performance ta b. 2007 5:00 pm Adding RAM is often the most cost-effective upgrade you can make to speed up a s luggish computer. New operating systems almost always call for more memory. By Kirk Steers. Power users who simultaneously run lots of demanding applications. too. ran one-third faster when we upgraded from 512MB of RAM to 1GB. but for a mo re comfortable experience we recommend 2GB of RAM. How do I know if I need more RAM? Check your PC's RAM usage by opening Windows Task Manager. we'll tell you how to diagnose a memory shortage and what to do about it. Step 6: Install the memory Push the memory in to the slots. Open this side of computer case by removing the screws at the back of the tower which are holding it in place. What kind of RAM works on my PC? . The slots are identifiable by the clips at each end which are used for fasten ing the modules. whic h involve working with images and using Nero Express to burn CDs. will want at least 2GB. The n simply slide the panel off. you can still get away with 1GB. PCWorld Feb 27. Step 7: Getting going Once you have refitted the side panel all you have to do is switch on your compu ter and it should automatically detect the new memory. and clips should lo ck on to the memory module when correctly attached. If the figure next to 'Available' (or 'Free' in Vista) under 'Physical Memory ' hovers around zero and your PC seems sluggish. which can significantly slow performance. When a computer r uns short of RAM. How much RAM do I need? The average Windows XP user should be satisfied with 1GB of RAM. you need more RAM.
but most motherboards accept only one type of RAM. Documentation: Some motherboards require module pairs to be placed in specific b anks. Touching the top edge of the module. 6. 3. you may find installing the RA M modules easier if you lay the case on its side. turn your system off and unplug it. Reassemble your PC. and DDR3. The module will pop up slightly and should be easy to pull out. and carefully remove that panel. Unplug your PC and open its case. Newer technologies off er faster performance. 4. Carefully p ush the top of the module downward until the clips pop into place to secure it. DDR2. Always hold a RAM module by pinching the edges of the modul e. at least touch a metal fauce t. Paying a few dollars more to buy RAM from a reliable manufacturer like Crucial o r Kingston is usually worthwhile. DRAM-Dynamic Random Access Memory . Again. so adding two 512MB modules instead of one 1GB module may be be tter. gently push the piece down into the socket. (Do this by pressing the key indicated in the on-screen prompt. Line up the notch at the bottom of the memory stick with th e corresponding bump in the memory socket. Take the new RAM modules out of their static-free envelope and place them on top of the envelope.RAM comes in many flavors. look for an access panel on the bottom of the machine secured by on e or two screws. the latches at either end should ris e and lock. open the case. open the latches at each end of the RAM socket by gentl y pushing them down. power it up. If you're upgrading the RAM on a notebook. gently push down on the clips on ei ther side of the RAM socket. Check your PC's documentation to identify the proper RAM sockets to fill. check your documentation. and checking whether the machine recognizes th e new memory. Consult your documentation before starting the up grade. Your local computer store should have one for less than $15. and watch the screen during boot-up to confi rm that the system recognizes the new RAM. try restarting the PC. RAM dealers such as Crucial and Kingston offer handy online to ols for identifying the right RAM for many PCs and motherboards. Position it so that you can comfortably rea ch into the case's interior. If you have a tower. or pairs of RAM sockets. and reseat the RAM modules. taking care t o line up the notch in the memory module with the key in its socket. Notebook users should face toward the bottom of the memory socket. Gently press each latch toward the edge of the RAM module to confirm that it is completely closed. 7. or even your computer's case before touching the inside of your PC or a ny component. To install a module. 5. avoid touching the chips or circuitry on the face. as RAM quality isn't the place to save a few b ucks. By Kirk Steers. 2. If you don't have a grounding strap. How to Upgrade Your PC's RAM Follow our step-by-step guide to installing memory. If it doesn't. exit the setup program. pipe. What do I need to add more RAM? Tools: You'll need an antistatic wrist strap for grounding yourself. such as power cables or plastic panels used to channel air flow over the motherboard. 2007 5:00 pm How do I install RAM? 1. including DDR. Protect your PC's delicate circuits from static electricity by properly groun ding yourself. of ten F1 or Del. If you need to remove an existing module. PCWorld Feb 27. which you must install in pairs for maxi mum performance.) If the new memory isn't recognized. Check your PC's manual to find out what type of RAM modules you need and how they have to be installed. Rem ove any obstructions. Most PCs being upgraded today use dual-channel memory. entering the CMOS setup program.
FPM RAM FPM RAM. This article tells a little about each RAM type. Most 486 and Pentium based systems from 1995 and earlier use FPM Memory.Types of RAM: How to Identify and their Specifications by Bryce Whitty There are many different types of RAM which have appeared over the years and it is often difficult knowing the difference between them both performance wise and visually identifying them. FPM RAM . wha t it looks like and how it performs. which stands for Ã¢â‚¬Å“Fast Page Mode RAMÃ¢â‚¬Â is a type of Dynamic RAM (DRAM). T from the capability of memory being able to access data that is on the same page and can be done with less latency.
which stands for Ã¢â‚¬Å“Extended Data Out RAMÃ¢â‚¬Â came out in 1995 as a new type able for Pentium based systems. Most early Penitum based systems use EDO. Most Pentium or Celeron systems purchased in 1999 have SDRAM. Beginning in 1996 most Intel based chipsets bega n to support SDRAM which made it a popular choice for new systems in 2001. DDRRAM has become mainstream in the graphics card market and has become the memory standard. SDRAM is capable of running at 133MHz which is about three times faster than FPM RAM and twice as fast as EDO RAM. EDO is a modified form of FPM RAM which is commo nly referred to as Ã¢â‚¬Å“Hyper Page ModeÃ¢â‚¬Â . unlike FPM RAM. Extended Data Out refers to fact that the d ers on the memory module are not switched off when the memory controller removes the column address to begin the next cycle.EDO RAM EDO RAM. which is short for Synchronous DRAM is a type of DRAM that runs in synch ronization with the memory bus. which stands for Ã¢â‚¬Å“Double Data RateÃ¢â‚¬Â which is a type of SDRAM and appeare market around 2001 but didn’t catch on until about 2001 when the mainstream mother boards started supporting it. DDR RAM . SD RAM DDR RAM DDR RAM. The difference between SDRAM and DDR RAM is that i nstead of doubling the clock rate it transfers data twice per clock cycle which effectively doubles the data rate. EDO RAM SDRAM SDRAM .
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