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# Notation

Impedance
Reactance
Resonance
Reactive Loads and Power Factor
Complex Power
Three Phase Power
Per-unit System
Symmetrical Components
Fault Calculations
Three Phase Fault Level
Thermal Short-time Rating
Instrument Transformers
Power Factor Correction
Reactors
Harmonic Resonance
Notation
The symbol font is used for some notation and formulae. If the Greek symbols for alpha beta
delta do not
appear here [o | o] the symbol font needs to be installed for correct display of notation and
formulae.
BC
E
f
G
h
I
j
L
P
Q
.susceptancecapacitance.volt
age source
.frequency
.conductance
.h-operator
.current
.j-operator
.inductance
.active power
.reactive power
.[siemens,
F].[volts,
V]
.[hertz, Hz]
.[siemens,
S]
.[1Z120]
.[amps, A]
.[1Z90]
.[henrys, H]
.[watts, W]
.[VAreactiv
e, VArs]
QR
S
t
V
W
X
Y
Z
|
e
.quality
factorresistance.appar
ent power
.time
.voltage drop
.energy
.reactance
.impedance
.phase angle
.angular frequency
.[number][ohms, O].[v
olt-amps, VA]
.[seconds, s]
.[volts, V]
.[joules, J]
.[ohms, O]
.[siemens, S]
.[ohms, O]
.[degrees, ]
Impedance
The impedance Z of a resistance R in series with a reactance X is:
Z = R + jX
Rectangular and polar forms of impedance Z:
Z = R + jX = (R
2
+ X
2
)

Ztan
-1
(X / R) = |Z|Z| = |Z|cos| + j|Z|sin|
Addition of impedances Z1 and Z2:
Z1 + Z2 = (R1 + jX1) + (R2 + jX2) = (R1 + R2) + j(X1 + X2)
Subtraction of impedances Z1 and Z2:
Z1 Z2 = (R1 + jX1) (R2 + jX2) = (R1 R2) + j(X1 X2)
Multiplication of impedances Z1 and Z2:
Z1 * Z2 = |Z1|Z|1 * |Z2|Z|2 = ( |Z1| * |Z2| )Z(|1+ |2)
Division of impedances Z1 and Z2:
Z1 / Z2 = |Z1|Z|1 / |Z2|Z|2 = ( |Z1| / |Z2| )Z(|1 |2)
In summary:
- use the rectangular form for addition and subtraction,
- use the polar form for multiplication and division.
An impedance Z comprising a resistance R in series with a reactance X can be converted to an admittance Y comprising a
conductance G in parallel with a susceptance B:
Y = Z
-1
= 1 / (R + jX) = (R jX) / (R
2
+ X
2
) = R / (R
2
+ X
2
) jX / (R
2
+ X
2
) = G jB
G = R / (R
2
+ X
2
) = R / |Z|
2

B = X / (R
2
+ X
2
) = X / |Z|
2

Using the polar form of impedance Z:
Y = 1 / |Z|Z| = |Z|
-1
Z| = |Y|Z| = |Y|cos| j|Y|sin|
Conversely, an admittance Y comprising a conductance G in parallel with a susceptance B can be converted to an
impedance Z comprising a resistance R in series with a reactance X:
Z = Y
-1
= 1 / (G jB) = (G + jB) / (G
2
+ B
2
) = G / (G
2
+ B
2
) + jB / (G
2
+ B
2
) = R + jX
R = G / (G
2
+ B
2
) = G / |Y|
2

X = B / (G
2
+ B
2
) = B / |Y|
2

Using the polar form of admittance Y:
Z = 1 / |Y|Z| = |Y|
-1
Z| = |Z|Z| = |Z|cos| + j|Z|sin|
The total impedance ZS of impedances Z1, Z2, Z3, connected in series is:
ZS = Z1 + Z1 + Z1 +
The total admittance YP of admittances Y1, Y2, Y3, connected in parallel is:
YP = Y1 + Y1 + Y1 +
In summary:
- use impedances when operating on series circuits,
- use admittances when operating on parallel circuits.
Reactance
Inductive Reactance
The inductive reactance XL of an inductance L at angular frequency e and frequency f is:
XL = eL = 2tfL
For a sinusoidal current i of amplitude I and angular frequency e:
i = I sinet
If sinusoidal current i is passed through an inductance L, the voltage e across the inductance is:
e = L di/dt = eLI coset = XLI coset
The current through an inductance lags the voltage across it by 90.
Capacitive Reactance
The capacitive reactance XC of a capacitance C at angular frequency e and frequency f is:
XC = 1 / eC = 1 / 2tfC
For a sinusoidal voltage v of amplitude V and angular frequency e:
v = V sinet
If sinusoidal voltage v is applied across a capacitance C, the current i through the capacitance is:
i = C dv/dt = eCV coset = V coset / XC
The current through a capacitance leads the voltage across it by 90.
Resonance
Series Resonance
A series circuit comprising an inductance L, a resistance R and a capacitance C has an impedance ZSof:
ZS = R + j(XL XC)
where XL = eL and XC = 1 / eC
At resonance, the imaginary part of ZS is zero:
XC = XL
ZSr = R
er = (1 / LC)

= 2tfr
The quality factor at resonance Qr is:
Qr = erL / R = (L / CR
2
)

= (1 / R )(L / C)

= 1 / erCR
Parallel resonance
A parallel circuit comprising an inductance L with a series resistance R, connected in parallel with a capacitance C, has an
YP = 1 / (R + jXL) + 1 / (- jXC) = (R / (R
2
+ XL
2
)) j(XL / (R
2
+ XL
2
) 1 / XC)
where XL = eL and XC = 1 / eC
At resonance, the imaginary part of YP is zero:
XC = (R
2
+ XL
2
) / XL = XL + R
2
/ XL = XL(1 + R
2
/ XL
2
)
ZPr = YPr
-1
= (R
2
+ XL
2
) / R = XLXC / R = L / CR
er = (1 / LC R
2
/ L
2
)

= 2tfr
The quality factor at resonance Qr is:
Qr = erL / R = (L / CR
2
1)

= (1 / R )(L / C R
2
)

Note that for the same values of L, R and C, the parallel resonance frequency is lower than the series resonance frequency, but if
the ratio R / L is small then the parallel resonance frequency is close to the series resonance frequency.
Reactive Loads and Power Factor
Resistance and Series Reactance
The impedance Z of a reactive load comprising resistance R and series reactance X is:
Z = R + jX = |Z|Z|
Converting to the equivalent admittance Y:
Y = 1 / Z = 1 / (R + jX) = (R jX) / (R
2
+ X
2
) = R / |Z|
2
jX / |Z|
2

When a voltage V (taken as reference) is applied across the reactive load Z, the current I is:
I = VY = V(R / |Z|
2
jX / |Z|
2
) = VR / |Z|
2
jVX / |Z|
2
= IP jIQ
The active current IP and the reactive current IQ are:
IP = VR / |Z|
2
= |I|cos|
IQ = VX / |Z|
2
= |I|sin|
The apparent power S, active power P and reactive power Q are:
S = V|I| = V
2
/ |Z| = |I|
2
|Z|
P = VIP = IP
2
|Z|
2
/ R = V
2
R / |Z|
2
= |I|
2
R
Q = VIQ = IQ
2
|Z|
2
/ X = V
2
X / |Z|
2
= |I|
2
X
The power factor cos| and reactive factor sin| are:
cos| = IP / |I| = P / S = R / |Z|
sin| = IQ / |I| = Q / S = X / |Z|
Resistance and Shunt Reactance
The impedance Z of a reactive load comprising resistance R and shunt reactance X is found from:
1 / Z = 1 / R + 1 / jX
Converting to the equivalent admittance Y comprising conductance G and shunt susceptance B:
Y = 1 / Z = 1 / R j / X = G jB = |Y|Z|
When a voltage V (taken as reference) is applied across the reactive load Y, the current I is:
I = VY = V(G jB) = VG jVB = IP jIQ
The active current IP and the reactive current IQ are:
IP = VG = V / R = |I|cos|
IQ = VB = V / X = |I|sin|
The apparent power S, active power P and reactive power Q are:
S = V|I| = |I|
2
/ |Y| = V
2
|Y|
P = VIP = IP
2
/ G = |I|
2
G / |Y|
2
= V
2
G
Q = VIQ = IQ
2
/ B = |I|
2
B / |Y|
2
= V
2
B
The power factor cos| and reactive factor sin| are:
cos| = IP / |I| = P / S = G / |Y|
sin| = IQ / |I| = Q / S = B / |Y|
Complex Power
When a voltage V causes a current I to flow through a reactive load Z, the complex power S is:
S = VI* where I* is the conjugate of the complex current I.
Z = R + jXL
I = IP jIQ
cos| = R / |Z| (lagging)
I* = IP + jIQ
S = P + jQ
An inductive load is a sink of lagging VArs (a source of leading VArs).
Z = R jXC
I = IP + jIQ
cos| = R / |Z| (leading)
I* = IP jIQ
S = P jQ
A capacitive load is a source of lagging VArs (a sink of leading VArs).
Three Phase Power
For a balanced star connected load with line voltage Vline and line current Iline:
Vstar = Vline / \3
Istar = Iline
Zstar = Vstar / Istar = Vline / \3Iline
Sstar = 3VstarIstar = \3VlineIline = Vline
2
/ Zstar = 3Iline
2
Zstar
For a balanced delta connected load with line voltage Vline and line current Iline:
Vdelta = Vline
Idelta = Iline / \3
Zdelta = Vdelta / Idelta = \3Vline / Iline
Sdelta = 3VdeltaIdelta = \3VlineIline = 3Vline
2
/ Zdelta = Iline
2
Zdelta
The apparent power S, active power P and reactive power Q are related by:
S
2
= P
2
+ Q
2

P = Scos|
Q = Ssin|
where cos| is the power factor and sin| is the reactive factor
Note that for equivalence between balanced star and delta connected loads:
Zdelta = 3Zstar
Per-unit System
For each system parameter, per-unit value is equal to the actual value divided by a base value:
Epu = E / Ebase
Ipu = I / Ibase
Zpu = Z / Zbase
Select rated values as base values, usually rated power in MVA and rated phase voltage in kV:
Sbase = Srated = \3ElineIline
Ebase = Ephase = Eline/ \3
The base values for line current in kA and per-phase star impedance in ohms/phase are:
Ibase = Sbase / 3Ebase ( = Sbase / \3Eline)
Zbase = Ebase / Ibase = 3Ebase
2
/ Sbase ( = Eline
2
/ Sbase)
Note that selecting the base values for any two of Sbase, Ebase, Ibase or Zbase fixes the base values of all four. Note also that Ohms
Law is satisfied by each of the sets of actual, base and per-unit values for voltage, current and impedance.
Transformers
The primary and secondary MVA ratings of a transformer are equal, but the voltages and currents in the primary (subscript 1) and
the secondary (subscript 2) are usually different:
\3E1lineI1line = S = \3E2lineI2line
Converting to base (per-phase star) values:
3E1baseI1base = Sbase = 3E2baseI2base
E1base / E2base = I2base / I1base
Z1base / Z2base = (E1base / E2base)
2

The impedance Z21pu referred to the primary side, equivalent to an impedance Z2pu on the secondary side, is:
Z21pu = Z2pu(E1base / E2base)
2

The impedance Z12pu referred to the secondary side, equivalent to an impedance Z1pu on the primary side, is:
Z12pu = Z1pu(E2base / E1base)
2

Note that per-unit and percentage values are related by:
Zpu = Z% / 100
Symmetrical Components
In any three phase system, the line currents Ia, Ib and Ic may be expressed as the phasor sum of:
- a set of balanced positive phase sequence currents Ia1, Ib1 and Ic1 (phase sequence a-b-c),
- a set of balanced negative phase sequence currents Ia2, Ib2 and Ic2 (phase sequence a-c-b),
- a set of identical zero phase sequence currents Ia0, Ib0 and Ic0 (cophasal, no phase sequence).
The positive, negative and zero sequence currents are calculated from the line currents using:
Ia1 = (Ia + hIb + h
2
Ic) / 3
Ia2 = (Ia + h
2
Ib + hIc) / 3
Ia0 = (Ia + Ib + Ic) / 3
The positive, negative and zero sequence currents are combined to give the line currents using:
Ia = Ia1 + Ia2 + Ia0
Ib = Ib1 + Ib2 + Ib0 = h
2
Ia1 + hIa2 + Ia0
Ic = Ic1 + Ic2 + Ic0 = hIa1 + h
2
Ia2 + Ia0
The residual current Ir is equal to the total zero sequence current:
Ir = Ia0 + Ib0 + Ic0 = 3Ia0 = Ia + Ib + Ic = Ie
which is measured using three current transformers with parallel connected secondaries.
Ie is the earth fault current of the system.
Similarly, for phase-to-earth voltages Vae, Vbe and Vce, the residual voltage Vr is equal to the total zero sequence voltage:
Vr = Va0 + Vb0 + Vc0 = 3Va0 = Vae + Vbe + Vce = 3Vne
which is measured using an earthed-star / open-delta connected voltage transformer.
Vne is the neutral displacement voltage of the system.
The h-operator
The h-operator (1Z120) is the complex cube root of unity:
h = 1 / 2 + j\3 / 2 = 1Z120= 1Z-240
h
2
= 1 / 2 j\3 / 2 = 1Z240= 1Z-120
Some useful properties of h are:
1 + h + h
2
= 0
h + h
2
= 1 = 1Z180
h h
2
= j\3 = \3Z90
h
2
h = j\3 = \3Z-90
Fault Calculations
The different types of short-circuit fault which occur on a power system are:
- single phase to earth,
- double phase,
- double phase to earth,
- three phase,
- three phase to earth.
For each type of short-circuit fault occurring on an unloaded system:
- the first column states the phase voltage and line current conditions at the fault,
- the second column states the phase a sequence current and voltage conditions at the fault,
- the third column provides formulae for the phase a sequence currents at the fault,
- the fourth column provides formulae for the fault current and the resulting line currents.
By convention, the faulted phases are selected for fault symmetry with respect to reference phase a.
I f = fault current
Ie = earth fault current
Ea = normal phase voltage at the fault location
Z1 = positive phase sequence network impedance to the fault
Z2 = negative phase sequence network impedance to the fault
Z0 = zero phase sequence network impedance to the fault
Single phase to earth fault from phase a to earth:
V
a
= 0I
b
=
I
c
= 0
I
f
= I
a
= I
e

I
a1
= I
a2
= I
a0
= I
a
/
3V
a1
+ V
a2
+ V
a0
= 0
I
a1
= E
a
/ (Z
1
+ Z
2
+
Z
0
)I
a2
= I
a1

I
a0
= I
a1

I
f
= 3I
a0
= 3E
a
/ (Z
1
+ Z
2
+ Z
0
) = I
e
I
a
=
I
f
= 3E
a
/ (Z
1
+ Z
2
+ Z
0
)
Double phase fault from phase b to phase c:
V
b
= V
c
I
a
= 0
I
f
= I
b
= I
c

I
a1
+ I
a2
= 0I
a0
= 0
V
a1
= V
a2

I
a1
= E
a
/ (Z
1
+ Z
2
)I
a2
=
I
a1

I
a0
= 0
I
f
= j\3I
a1
= j\3E
a
/ (Z
1
+ Z
2
)I
b
=
I
f
= j\3E
a
/ (Z
1
+ Z
2
)
I
c
= I
f
= j\3E
a
/ (Z
1
+ Z
2
)
Double phase to earth fault from phase b to phase c to earth:
V
b
= V
c
= 0I
a
=
0
I
f
= I
b
+ I
c
= I
e

I
a1
+ I
a2
+ I
a0
=
0V
a1
= V
a2
= V
a0

I
a1
= E
a
/ Z
net
I
a2
=
I
a1
Z
0
/ (Z
2
+ Z
0
)
I
a0
= I
a1
Z
2
/ (Z
2
+ Z
0
)
I
f
= 3I
a0
= 3E
a
Z
2
/ E
zz
= I
e
I
b
= I
f
/ 2
j\3E
a
(Z
2
/ 2 + Z
0
) / E
zz

I
c
= I
f
/ 2 + j\3E
a
(Z
2
/ 2 + Z
0
) / E
zz

Znet = Z1 + Z2Z0 / (Z2 + Z0) and Ezz = Z1Z2 + Z2Z0 + Z0Z1 = (Z2 + Z0)Znet
Three phase (and three phase to earth) fault from phase a to phase b to phase c (to earth):
V
a
= V
b
= V
c
(= 0)I
a
+ I
b
+
I
c
= 0 (= I
e
)
I
f
= I
a
= hI
b
= h
2
I
c

V
a0
= V
a
(=
0)V
a1
= V
a2
= 0
I
a1
= E
a
/ Z
1
I
a2
= 0
I
a0
= 0
I
f
= I
a1
= E
a
/ Z
1
= I
a
I
b
= E
b
/ Z
1

I
c
= E
c
/ Z
1

The values of Z1, Z2 and Z0 are each determined from the respective positive, negative and zero sequence impedance networks by
network reduction to a single impedance.
Note that the single phase fault current is greater than the three phase fault current if Z0 is less than (2Z1 Z2).
Note also that if the system is earthed through an impedance Zn (carrying current 3I0) then an impedance 3Zn (carrying current I0)
must be included in the zero sequence impedance network.
Three Phase Fault Level
The symmetrical three phase short-circuit current Isc of a power system with no-load line and phase voltages Eline and Ephase and
source impedance ZS per-phase star is:
Isc = Ephase / ZS = Eline / \3ZS
The three phase fault level Ssc of the power system is:
Ssc = 3Isc
2
ZS = 3EphaseIsc = 3Ephase
2
/ ZS = Eline
2
/ ZS
Note that if the X / R ratio of the source impedance ZS (comprising resistance RS and reactance XS) is sufficiently large, then ZS ~ XS.
Transformers
If a transformer of rating ST (taken as base) and per-unit impedance ZTpu is fed from a source with unlimited fault level (infinite
busbars), then the per-unit secondary short-circuit current I2pu and fault levelS2pu are:
I2pu = E2pu / ZTpu = 1.0 / ZTpu
S2pu = I2pu = 1.0 / ZTpu
If the source fault level is limited to SS by per-unit source impedance ZSpu (to the same base as ZTpu), then the secondary short-
circuit current I2pu and fault level S2pu are reduced to:
I2pu = E2pu / (ZTpu + ZSpu) = 1.0 / (ZTpu + ZSpu)
S2pu = I2pu = 1.0 / (ZTpu + ZSpu)
where ZSpu = ST / SS

Thermal Short-time Rating
If a conductor which is rated to carry full load current Iload continuously is rated to carry a maximum fault current Ilimit for a time tlimit,
then a lower fault current Ifault can be carried for a longer time tfaultaccording to:
( Ilimit Iload )
2
tlimit = ( Ifault Iload )
2
tfault
Rearranging for Ifault and tfault:
Ifault = ( Ilimit Iload ) ( tlimit / tfault )

tfault = tlimit ( Ilimit Iload )
2
/ ( Ifault Iload )
2

If Iload is small compared with Ilimit and Ifault, then:
Ilimit
2
tlimit ~ Ifault
2
tfault
Ifault ~ Ilimit ( tlimit / tfault )

tfault ~ tlimit ( Ilimit / Ifault )
2

Note that if the current Ifault is reduced by a factor of two, then the time tfault is increased by a factor of four.
Instrument Transformers
Voltage Transformer
For a voltage transformer of voltampere rating S, rated primary voltage VP and rated secondary voltageVS, the maximum secondary
current ISmax, maximum secondary burden conductance GBmax and maximum primary current IPmax are:
ISmax = S / VS
GBmax = ISmax / VS = S / VS
2

IPmax = S / VP = ISmaxVS / VP
Current Transformer
For a measurement current transformer of voltampere rating S, rated primary current IP and rated secondary current IS, the
maximum secondary voltage VSmax, maximum secondary burden resistanceRBmax and maximum primary voltage VPmax are:
VSmax = S / IS
RBmax = VSmax / IS = S / IS
2

VPmax = S / IP = VSmaxIS / IP
For a protection current transformer of voltampere rating S, rated primary current IP, rated secondary current IS and rated accuracy
limit factor F, the rated secondary reference voltage VSF, maximum secondary burden resistance RBmax and equivalent primary
reference voltage VPF are:
VSF = SF / IS
RBmax = VSF / ISF = S / IS
2

VPF = SF / IP = VSFIS / IP
Impedance Measurement
If the primary voltage Vpri and the primary current Ipri are measured at a point in a system, then the primary impedance Zpri at that
point is:
Zpri = Vpri / Ipri
If the measured voltage is the secondary voltage Vsec of a voltage transformer of primary/secondary ratioNV and the measured
current is the secondary current Isec of a current transformer of primary/secondary ratio NI, then the primary impedance Zpri is related
to the secondary impedance Zsec by:
Zpri = Vpri / Ipri = VsecNV / IsecNI = ZsecNV / NI = ZsecNZ
where NZ = NV / NI
If the no-load (source) voltage Epri is also measured at the point, then the source impedance ZTpri to the point is:
ZTpri = (Epri Vpri) / Ipri = (Esec Vsec)NV / IsecNI = ZTsecNV / NI = ZTsecNZ
Power Factor Correction
If an inductive load with an active power demand P has an uncorrected power factor of cos|1 lagging, and is required to have a
corrected power factor of cos|2 lagging, the uncorrected and corrected reactive power demands, Q1 and Q2, are:
Q1 = P tan|1
Q2 = P tan|2
where tan|n = (1 / cos
2
|n 1)

The leading (capacitive) reactive power demand QC which must be connected across the load is:
QC = Q1 Q2 = P (tan|1 tan|2)
The uncorrected and corrected apparent power demands, S1 and S2, are related by:
S1cos|1 = P = S2cos|2
Comparing corrected and uncorrected load currents and apparent power demands:
I2 / I1 = S2 / S1 = cos|1 / cos|2
If the load is required to have a corrected power factor of unity, Q2 is zero and:
QC = Q1 = P tan|1
I2 / I1 = S2 / S1 = cos|1 = P / S1
Shunt Capacitors
For star-connected shunt capacitors each of capacitance Cstar on a three phase system of line voltageVline and frequency f, the
leading reactive power demand QCstar and the leading reactive line current Ilineare:
QCstar = Vline
2
/ XCstar = 2tfCstarVline
2

Iline = QCstar / \3Vline = Vline / \3XCstar
Cstar = QCstar / 2tfVline
2

For delta-connected shunt capacitors each of capacitance Cdelta on a three phase system of line voltageVline and frequency f, the
leading reactive power demand QCdelta and the leading reactive line currentIline are:
QCdelta = 3Vline
2
/ XCdelta = 6tfCdeltaVline
2

Iline = QCdelta / \3Vline = \3Vline / XCdelta
Cdelta = QCdelta / 6tfVline
2

Note that for the same leading reactive power QC:
XCdelta = 3XCstar
Cdelta = Cstar / 3
Series Capacitors
For series line capacitors each of capacitance Cseries carrying line current Iline on a three phase system of frequency f, the voltage
drop Vdrop across each line capacitor and the total leading reactive power demand QCseries of the set of three line capacitors are:
Vdrop = IlineXCseries = Iline / 2tfCseries
QCseries = 3Vdrop
2
/ XCseries = 3VdropIline = 3Iline
2
XCseries = 3Iline
2
/ 2tfCseries
Cseries = 3Iline
2
/ 2tfQCseries
Note that the apparent power rating Srating of the set of three series line capacitors is based on the line voltage Vline and not the
voltage drop Vdrop:
Srating = \3VlineIline
Reactors
Shunt Reactors
For star-connected shunt reactors each of inductance Lstar on a three phase system of line voltage Vlineand frequency f, the lagging
reactive power demand QLstar and the lagging reactive line current Iline are:
QLstar = Vline
2
/ XLstar = Vline
2
/ 2tfLstar
Iline = QLstar / \3Vline = Vline / \3XLstar
Lstar = Vline
2
/ 2tfQLstar
For delta-connected shunt reactors each of inductance Ldelta on a three phase system of line voltageVline and frequency f, the
lagging reactive power demand QLdelta and the lagging reactive line currentIline are:
QLdelta = 3Vline
2
/ XLdelta = 3Vline
2
/ 2tfLdelta
Iline = QLdelta / \3Vline = \3Vline / XLdelta
Ldelta = 3Vline
2
/ 2tfQLdelta
Note that for the same lagging reactive power QL:
XLdelta = 3XLstar
Ldelta = 3Lstar
Series Reactors
For series line reactors each of inductance Lseries carrying line current Iline on a three phase system of frequency f, the voltage
drop Vdrop across each line reactor and the total lagging reactive power demandQLseries of the set of three line reactors are:
Vdrop = IlineXLseries = 2tfLseriesIline
QLseries = 3Vdrop
2
/ XLseries = 3VdropIline = 3Iline
2
XLseries = 6tfLseriesIline
2

Lseries = QLseries / 6tfIline
2

Note that the apparent power rating Srating of the set of three series line reactors is based on the line voltage Vline and not the voltage
drop Vdrop:
Srating = \3VlineIline
Harmonic Resonance
If a node in a power system operating at frequency f has a inductive source reactance XL per phase and has power factor correction
with a capacitive reactance XC per phase, the source inductance L and the correction capacitance C are:
L = XL / e
C = 1 / eXC
where e = 2tf
The series resonance angular frequency er of an inductance L with a capacitance C is:
er = (1 / LC)

= e(XC / XL)

The three phase fault level Ssc at the node for no-load phase voltage E and source impedance Z per-phase star is:
Ssc = 3E
2
/ |Z| = 3E
2
/ |R + jXL|
If the ratio XL / R of the source impedance Z is sufficiently large, |Z| ~ XL so that:
Ssc ~ 3E
2
/ XL
The reactive power rating QC of the power factor correction capacitors for a capacitive reactance XC per phase at phase voltage E is:
QC = 3E
2
/ XC
The harmonic number fr / f of the series resonance of XL with XC is:
fr / f = er / e = (XC / XL)

~ (Ssc / QC)

Note that the ratio XL / XC which results in a harmonic number fr / f is:
XL / XC = 1 / ( fr / f )
2

so for fr / f to be equal to the geometric mean of the third and fifth harmonics:
fr / f = \15 = 3.873
XL / XC = 1 / 15 = 0.067
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