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Nouns identify the subjects we are referring to such as: names of places, persons, things, or ideas.

The subject(s) can be expressed through the use of common nouns, proper nouns, or pronouns. 1) Noun – represents the name of a place, a person, a thing, or an idea. a) Common Noun – refers to any place, person, thing, idea, etc. Examples: car girl city religion mood b) Proper Noun – refers to a particular place, person, thing, idea, etc. Examples: sedan Jane Spokane Christianity depression 2) Pronoun - can take the place of a noun. Examples: · What caused the damage? · As the whale was released back into the ocean, it immediately joined its pod. · Sally washed her car and let it dry before she drove it home. 3) Case Personal Pronouns – refers to the form that a pronoun takes in its relationship to the other words in the sentence. There are three types of cases: a) Nominative Examples: · he · she · they · we · I · it · (He) (she) (they) (we) (I) (you) will support this fundraiser. · (He) (she) (they) (we) (I) (you) agreed to organize (it). ** Note: When referring to the first person, the word “ I ” is always capitalized, even in mid sentence.

b) Possessive Examples: · his · hers · its · their/theirs · our/ours · my/mine · your/yours

· That house is (hers) (his) (theirs) (ours) (mine) (yours). · It is (her) (his) (their) (our) (my) (your) house. c) Objective Examples: · him · her · them · us · me · Tom asked (him) (her) (them) (us) (me) to arrive early. 4) Compound Personal Pronoun- is used for action when turned back on the subject (reflexive use) and for emphasis (intensive use). Examples: · himself · herself · themselves · ourselves · myself · yourself · yourselves · itself a) Reflexive use Examples: · She talked herself into going to the concert. · You could injure yourselves if you don’t hold on tightly. b) Intensive use Examples: · The manager himself made those long distant calls · She herself will pay for all those expenses. 5) Relative Pronoun – Modifies a noun or pronoun occurring in the sentence and connects it to the rest of the sentence. Examples: · that · which · what · who plus derivatives: · whose · whosoever · whom · whomever · The position that she wanted has been offered to someone else. · A container, which held toxic chemicals, exploded in the warehouse today. · They hired John Adams, who has had twenty years sales experience. · What he would have preferred, is the corner office space. · We are offering computer training for whoever needs it.

6) Interrogative Pronoun – is used in asking a question. Examples: · which · what · who plus derivatives: · whose · whom · whomever · Who was at the meeting? · With whom was that report left? · Which customer made this payment? · What did that customer buy? 7) Infinitive Pronoun – frequently refers to number and gender. Examples: · any · either · neither · all · both · each · some · several · everyone · one · someone · none NOUNS :Rules Related to the Correct use of NOUNS :1) A proper noun becomes a common noun when it is used in the plural form, or when an article is placed before it. Eg:- There are five Gandhis in our College. Kalidas is the Shakespeare of India 2) A collective noun takes a singular Verb when the whole group is considered as one unit. Eg:- The committee consists of Five Members. The family living next door has come from Madras. 3) If we refer to the members of the committee or family separately, the collective noun takes a plural verb, but it (the collective noun) remains singular in form. eg:- The committee have taken their seats. 4)An abstract noun can also be used in the sense of a collective noun. When an abstract noun is used as a collective noun it takes a plural verb. eg:- Youth are the pillars of the nation. 5) When a material Noun denotes a mass of matter, it is not used in the plural form. eg:- Their House is built of bricks and stones. (Incorrect) Their house is built of brick and stone. (Correct) Rules Related to the Correct use of NOUNS :6) Some nouns have the same form for the plural as well as for the singular. The following are some nouns that belong to this category. Sheep,Species, Deer, Aircraft, OffSpring, Yoke, Space Craft, Salmon etc.

7) Some nouns are used in the singular only. The following are some nouns that belong to this category. Advice, Corn, Grain, Justice, Clothing, Information, Poetry, Scenery, Machinery, Hair etc. Some nouns are apparently plural in form but are singular in use. News, Economics, Physics, Measles, Mumps, Ethics. Note :- Summons is singular and summonses is plural. 9)When a plural noun denotes a specific amount, length, weight, quantity etc. considered as a whole, the verb must be in the singular form. Eg:- Ten Thousand rupees is a large amount. Six Kilometers is not a long distance for a runner like you. 10) Inanimate Objects (Lifeless Objects) which are remarkable for beauty, gentleness, Gracefulness, tenderness, weakness and so on, are treated as feminine gender. Eg:- the moon, the earth, the Spring, Virtue, Peace, charity,fame, nature, Hope,truth,victory, defeat, Modesty, liberty etc. 11) Inanimate things which are known for strength,courage,violence,superiority, and so forth, are treated as masculine. Eg:- the sun, the death, Summer, winter, war, anger, Fear,Thunder etc. 12) The possessive Case of nouns is formed when we put 's to the noun (apostrophe s). Eg:- The Girl's Dress. The Boy's Pen. b) The possessive case is used with the nouns of living things but not with the inanimate objects. Eg:- Table's Leg. (Incorrect) Leg of the Table. (Correct) c) The possessive is used with the names of personified objects. Eg:- Death's icy hands. 13) When the noun is plural, and ends in s; the possessive case is formed by adding only an apostrophe (After s) Eg:- Girls' hostel. Birds' nests. 14) When the noun is plural but does not end in s, the possessive case is formed by adding 's. Eg:- Men's Club , Children's Park, Women's Day 15)When a noun or a title consists of several words, the possessive case is formed by adding 's to the last word.

eg:. eg.Eg:. 19) If the last syllable of a singular noun ends in '-s' or '-ce' and the noun is followed by the word ''sake''. Eg:.a) To introduce a sentence It is not certain that the president will come. The King of Bhutan's visit to India. 16) When two or more proper nouns are joined by 'and'. RULES FOR USE OF PRONOUNS :1) Some important uses of "it" are given with examples.What a beautiful book it is! h) To introduce a that clause.Amar and Kumar's house is really beautiful.It is decided to declare a holiday today. has saved the lives of many people. the possessive case will be formed by adding 's to the last noun.Penicillin. Eg:. Flemming's discovery. Eg:. for conscience' sake. Commander-in-chief's Office.It rains.The Prime Minister of India's Speech. d) In sentences showing distance.It was you who began the quarrel with us. for Jesus' sake. f) To introduce a phrase. . is very Intelligent.Sister-in-law's house. eg:. the possessive case of the noun will be formed by adding (') only. Mohan. 17) When there are two nouns in apposition. the possessive case will be formed by adding 's to the second noun. eg:. Eg:. Eg:. b) To give emphasis to the noun or pronoun that follows.It is not far to walk e) In sentences indicating time..for goodness' sake. the professor's son. and a common possession is meant. eg:. eg:. c) As an indefinite nominative of an impersonal verb. for justice' sake. g) In exclamatory sentences. 1 The possessive case of a compound noun will be formed by adding 's to the last word.It is ten O' clock now.

. Eg:.Let us fight it (the issue) out. Eg:. eg:. 7) When a singular noun and a plural noun are combined by or. The personal pronouns. You and he are in the wrong and will be punished. .ours.. Eg:.I.hers. i) As a sort of object in order to avoid repetition. the pronoun must be in singular number. it must be in the nominative case. the sequence of the personal pronouns should be as follows. 6) When a personal pronoun is connected by a conjunction with some other word in the objective Clothes are for you and me.yours. he and I. 4) When two singular nouns joined by and denote the same person or thing..Your' Sincerely (Wrong) Yours Sincerely (Correct) 9) When a personal pronoun is used as a complement to the verb to be.or. third person and first person.theirs and its. Eg:.nor. Eg:.Every Student and every teacher took his/her seat.are written without apostrophe. Eg:. 3) While expressing a positive idea or praise. 5) When two singular nouns are by 'and' .It is said that smoking is injurious to health.It was he. Eg:. and are preceded by each and every. RULES FOR USE OF PRONOUNS :2) While confessing a fault(or expressing a negative idea) the sequence of the personal pronouns should be as follows.You. either.. will get an award for the good work we have done. the singular noun usually comes first in the sentence. Eg:. Second person next and third person last. Sequence:Second person.Either the manager or his subordinates failed in their duty in sending the official message. Sequence:First person first.. neither. the pronoun used for them must be singular in number. it must be in the objective or accusative case.The accounts officer and treasurer should be careful in his work of keeping accounts. The definite article the is placed before the first noun. and the pronoun must be in the plural number.. who could solve the problem easily.

whom and whose are generally used for persons. 16) Uses of WHICH :Which is used in the following ways: 1) For infants.The student (whom is omitted) you wanted to punish is absent today. who is my daughter and whom you met in the library yesterday. 2) As a substitute for a singular noun already mentioned. Eg:. This is the dog which my friend brought from the kennel's club. small animals. gender and person. the pronoun that follows one should be one's ( not his/her) Eg:.1) Sarita is the student who got an award. left for mumbai in the morning. Eg:. This is the radio that i brought yesterday. Let her submit the records in time. Whom is used in the objective case.10) A pronoun should be used in the objective case in a sentence beginning with let. Eg:.Let him go to his office immediately.This is the girl that failed in the exam. Eg:. Eg:.He was said to be drunk. ( Correct ) 12) A relative pronoun must always be placed as near its antecedent as possible. it must be mentioned twice. Eg:.Which of these television sets do you want to purchase? 3) To refer to a sentence. it must always agree with its antecedent in number. Whose is used in the possessive case. . Eg:. 17) Uses of THAT :That is used in the following ways : 1) For persons.This is the manager who abused the clerk. 14) The pronouns who. Also.One should do his duty. the relative pronoun in the objective case is omitted. Eg:. once for each verb. ( Wrong ) One should do one's duty.This is the baby which was lost in the theatre. one in the nominative and the other in the objective. which was not true. 15) When the relative pronoun is in different cases. 3) This is the student whose certificates are lost. Who is used in the nominative case. and objects.The girl. lifeless things and small animals in the singular or in the plural number. Eg:. 2) When selection is expressed. 13) Generally. 11) One can be used to talk about people in general. 2) They are thieves whom the police caught.

Eg:.Eg:. 20) Each can come in three different positions in a sentence. 2) The choice between A and An wholly depends on the pronunciation of the word. ( Wrong ) The weather of Hyderabad is far better than that of chennai ( Correct ) 3) After a noun phrase used as direct object. everyone. Eg:. the pronunciation of which starts with a vowel sound. everybody. 1) Each of the students got a prize.Those four countries always disagree with one another. Eg:. 3) 'An' is used before the word.Give me bananas which are fresh ones. Eg:. ( Negative meaning ) Either Mahesh or Mohan is expected to get a prize. 2) One another is used for more than two persons or things. Eg:. (initial) 2) The students got a prize each. (middle) 21) ONE is used in the following ways : 1) For people in general.The weather of Hyderabad is far better than Chennai. 4) The indefinite article 'a' is used before . the pronoun of the masculine or feminine gender should be used according to the context.Everyone of the boys got his hall ticket. 22) As regards anybody.I vividly remember the night that she came. Eg:.These two students love each other. One must not be proud of oneself. ( Positive meaning ) 19) Uses of each other and one another 1) Each other is used for two persons or things or places etc. (end) 3) The students were each given a prize. An ) ii) The Definite Article ( The ) 1) A or An is used before a singular countable noun. etc.One must try to do One's duty. ARTICLES :There are two types of articles: i) The Indefinite Articles ( A.Neither Mahesh nor Mohan is intelligent. 2) In place of a noun previously mentioned. Eg:. 1 'Either' and 'neither' are used in speaking of two persons or places or things etc.

a) a word beginning with a letter which has a consonant sound. etc. an honest man. the first letter of which has a vowel sound. make a noise. a European. an information etc. Eg.m. a pen. (wrong) c) names of meals : Let us have dinner (correct ) Let us have a dinner (incorrect) Note:. etc. Eg:. Eg:. an egg.a Mr. 4) In certain phrases: a cold. c) an abbreviation.He is an actor. 2) A or An is used in the following ways: Before the word 'most' when it is used in the sense of very or much or exceedingly. It was an accident.A.Bose. an umbrella. a apple. Eg:. b) a word that begins with a letter (like O) with the sound like 'wa'. 3) With a noun complement.An indefinite article can be used before names of meals when these are preceded by an adjective.a book. a million etc.P./Miss/Mrs. Eg:. 5) The indefinite article 'an' is used before: a) a word beginning with a letter which has a vowel sound. .Sreedhar is a most intelligent student This is a most unfortunate event. an X-mas gift M. an hour.L. a One-eye man etc. a universities. a thousand.a One-rupee note. a pain.. c) a word beginning with 'u' or 'eu' giving the consonant sound 'yu'. a heir. She is a good dancer. Bose. Eg:. + name Eg:. a fever etc. RULES REGARDING USE OF ARTICLES :6) 'A' can be used before Mr. on an average. Eg:. b) a word beginning with 'h' but the pronunciation of which starts with a vowel sound. 7) Before a proper noun to make it a common noun. (Wrong) b) Uncountable nouns : an advice. an M. 1) A or An is not used before : a) Plural nouns : a books. a dinners etc. 5) With certain numbers : a hundred.Com.a university. This includes names of professions.She gave me a good breakfast at 8 a. make an effort. Eg:. Eg:. make a mistake. etc. an M.

Eg:. the Spanish. prison etc.S. a good many. Eg:.poor. the equator etc. Eg:. 13) With nouns which refer to the things which is unique. THE is used in the following ways :11) Before a noun denoting a hospital. Eg:.the sun. temple.Michael is the tallest boy in the class. He is rather a fool to take such decisions. Amaresh is a shakespeare.He has gone to the hospital to visit a friend. 16) The is used before certain adjectives to give a plural meaning. a few.deaf. in certain structures. 12) Before an adjective in the superlative degree.The tiger is a ferocious animal. school. 19) Before a noun when special emphasis is needed. 10) In certain expressions of quantity. Eg:. Eg:. rather.Eg:. quite etc.The gold you have brought from the U. Before certain uncountable nouns preceded by nouns + of Eg:. Eg:. a good deal of. a bit of news. 14) Before an abstract noun or a material if it is used with an adjunct ( a qualifying clause) Eg:. the Burmese etc. 15) Before a singular countable noun which picks out one individual.This is the novel i am talking about.dead. the moon. a little etc.a lot of. .Mohan is a Newton. a drop of water etc. Eg:. the sky.a piece of advice. the Chinese. a couple. college. Eg:. If its purpose or use is not referred to or say if used not in its primary purpose. the object etc as representative of a class.sick. 9) After the words many. millionth etc.A is of good quality.Many a friend of mine is attending the party. Eg:. The second ranker is my son. 1 Before 'Only' and original numbers. Such a show cannot be arranged now. a great many. such as first.All the students of the first year are invited .the Dutch. such.healthy. second.blind etc. the rich = rich people the poor = poor people 17) With certain adjectives indicating nationality.

the better. the cooler you feel. The more. The BJP etc.the U. the U. Eg:. Eg:. when the selection of one out of only two persons.The Congress. the West Asia 2 Before some proper nouns consisting of adjectives and noun or noun + of + noun. Eg:. Eg:. places or things is meant. Eg:.A. which Reddy do you want? I want the Reddy who signed the letter. the Bible. 23) In special comparatives. place or thing is meant. ..I talked to the principal yesterday. 22) before the adjective in the superlative degree of the comparison. the Red Fort etc.R.the north of India.the Taj Mahal. the Quran.She is the most intelligent of all the candidates in the exam.south etc. Eg:.At last the father in him prevailed and excused him.the Mahabharat. Eg:. 25) Before the proper names of certain well-known or sacred books.S.. Eg:.Rajani can play the piano very well. the more you spend. 29) The + singular noun + clause or phrase can be used to distinguish one person from another of the same name. 32) Before the names of the historical or public buildings. Eg:. the U. Eg:.the State bank of India. 21) Before an adjective in the comparative degree. when these are used as nouns. the National Museum. 24) Before Musical instruments. the Middle East.K etc 27) Before the words like north. Eg:. 30) Before the names of political parties. 31) When it is clear from the context that a particular person. The higher you go.Nalini is the more beautiful of the two girls in the class. 26) Before the names of certain countries each of which is a union of smaller units.20) Before a common noun to give it the meaning of an abstract noun. Eg:.We have two Reddys.The more you earn. the Ramayana. Eg:.A. the Gita.

1948 etc.Father is very angry today. . in general sense. 37) Usually before proper nouns and before abstract nouns used in general sense. Eg:. Magazines etc. 38 ) Before the words .Oceans. ) Eg:. 42) Before the names of meals. Man is mortal Gold is precious metal. 34) The is used before groups of Islands and the names of certain countries. Eg:. Eg:. Eg:.Hyderabad is the capital of Andhra Pradesh.Historians study old monuments for research purposes. THE is omitted in the following cases :41) Before plural nouns used in general sense.33) Before the names of rivers. Honesty is the best policy. Eg:.seas. Camels are useful animals in deserts.In general woman is kind-hearted.30 p. Chains of Mountains. the Statesman etc. Eg:.the 23 October. THE is omitted in the following cases :36) Before a common noun is used in the widest sense and before the material nouns. the West indies. the Arabian sea. the Himalayas. Eg:. Eg:. Eg:. Eg:. mother. 39) Before predicative nouns denoting a position that is normally held at one time by one person only.The gold we use in India is all imported. the Yemen. uncle. the Sudan etc.the krishna.THE may be used with a material noun if it is used with an adjunct which makes it definite. the Deccan Chronicle. the Thar. aunt. Lets have dinner at 9. Newspapers. the Indian Ocean. deserts.00 p.m. (Note :. Sincerity pays dividends.m. etc.Kiran was elected chairman of the committee.Members are requested to pay their subscriptions in time.the Andamans.Mr. 40) Before plural nouns which are used to denote a class. He became principal of our college in 1996.I had lunch at 2. 35) Before the dates of months.father.

sea. He has gone to the market. Eg:. 46) When two or more connected nouns refer to the same person or thing. the article is placed before the first noun only. if two nouns refer to the same person or thing.He is a better teacher than administrator. We go to university for higher studies. The English and the French have fought various wars. 43) Before common nouns used in pairs.) Eg:. => He has gone to the place where there is a market. 44) 'The' is not used before the words . temple. 47) In expressing a comparison. . Eg:.(Note:.He has a black and white coat. Articles are omitted in the following cases :48 ) English = > the English Language the English = > the English people Eg:.The chief accounts officer and financial adviser is supposed to certify your documents. => He has gone to make purchases. 51) The article 'the' is omitted before the nouns in the phrases below.THE can be used when meals are preceded by an adjective or a clause or phrase particularising them. His proposals for a new international airport never saw the light of the say. He invite me to lunch/tea/dinner.we speak English at home. The articles A. 49) He has gone to market. Eg:. prison. not necessarily to make purchases.We go to bed to sleep We go to hospital as doctors. the article is used before the first adjective only. When these places are visited or used for their primary purpose. Both husband and wife are supposed to take part in this competition. college etc.I see light at the end of the tunnel.court. Eg:.He worked day and night to prepare for the civil service exam.bed. article 'a' is used before the first noun only.The dinner given by our colony association yesterday was not properly arranged. school. 50) To see light => to look at light To see the light => to be born Eg:. university. AN and THE can be used as follows in some cases :45) When two or more adjectives qualify the same noun. Eg:. hospital.

. [ Not anything else] Correct: She wants to take just one class. Eg:. She writes neatly. almost.Wrong: I have told him often not to come late. Eg:. nearly. it usually follows it.She is reading very Fast.Other adverbs like only are : just. scarcely. Note :. .She has only three dollars with her. 3) When a verb consists of an auxiliary and a main verb.Only she gave me this book. sometimes.The word 'enough' is always placed after the word it modifies. but some generalisations can be made. Eg:. He says he often visits my place. Why don't you speak loud enough to be heard. Correct: That building costs nearly sixty thousand rupees. Note :.The Cuckoo sings quite sweetly.) RULES REGARDING USE OF ADVERBS :1) In order to make our meaning clear. Correct: We have only four hours to finish the paper. The horse runs very quickly. the adverb which qualifies is placed between the auxiliary and the main verb. generally. hardly. She is very intelligent girl. (i. He often says he visits my place. an adverb must be placed as near as possible to the word it modifies. [ Not even second] Wrong: That building nearly costs sixty thousand rupees. rarely. ( and nothing else ) I solved only two papers. Adverbs of frequency:always. Wrong : We only have four hours to finish this paper. for which rules cannot be given. 5) The word 'only' should be placed before the word it is intended to modify. Correct: I have often told him not to come late. the adverb usually comes before it. usually.e. Do no speak so fast. Wrong: She just wants to take one class. 4) When an adverb modifies an adjective or another adverb. she and nobody else) She only told me the truth. never. (Note:.She sang melodiously. an adjective or another adverb in a given sentence. occasionally etc. Eg:.Usually the adverbs end with -ly. (Correct) I only solved two papers. Eg:.ADVERBS :An adverb is a word which modifies a verb. Eg:. ( Incorrect ) RULES REGARDING USE OF ADVERBS :6) POSITION OF ADVERBS :The position of adverbs is often determined by shades of meaning. ever. often. RULES REGARDING USE OF ADVERBS :2) When an adverb modifies an intransitive verb.

Eg:. Eg:. Then the verb and subject are inverted as in a question. No sooner is followed by than not when or then. ii. Eg:. Eg.He works hard to make both ends meet. please meet me. He is never punctual. He often visits the U.I shall never forget his help. He will always behave properly. In negative sentences the adverb of frequency follows not. the adverb is usually placed between the subject and the verb.I can scarcely hear you.. am. not often found. .Hardly and Scarcely are followed by when not than. He refused to do the work quickly. was. Eg:. Correct: He wanted to read the directions carefully. HARDLY. preferably before the verb it modifies. -> When the verb is some form of 'to be' ( is. are ) the adverb follows the verb: They are always late. b) Hardly when used as an adverb means scarcely. (Very Very important) c) Scarce as an adjective means 'not plentiful'. hard to find. (S-V becomes V-S here) 7) USE OF HARD.I never saw such an accident. They ae not often late. Hardly (scarcely) had he reached the station.-> If the verb is in the simple tense form. It conveys a negative meaning. when the train left. 8 ) SPLIT INFINITIVE :The infinitive is to+ the simple form of the verb (V). They have scarcely enough money to look after their children. "Never' is sometimes placed at the beginning to emphasise it. the adverb is usually placed after the auxiliary: Eg:. If you are ever in trouble. Do not put an adverb between to and verb. Wrong: He wanted to carefully read the directions.S. Scarcely as an adverb is almost synonymous with 'hardly'.He always goes to college on foot. Coal has become scarce in England. His brother never takes alcohol. Never did i see such an accident. If the verb is a compound one. They have decided to repeat the experiments carefully. Note:. It usually follows the verb.Does he often go fishing? Has he ever travelled by air? At times 'often' may be placed at the end to emphasise it.he does not see his friend often. This is mainly confined to negative statements and questions. barely. SCARCE. SCARCELY:a) Hard as an adveb means 'diligently'. as he lives in a remote village. In Interrogative sentences the adverb of frequency follows the subject immediately: Eg:. i.

along with others. the verb needs to be singular Examples: 1. Eg:. So whenever words such as 'team'. along with his attendants. separated from the subject and the verb by commas on either side. A box of apples is on the table (not 'are') Related to what we said in an earlier point about the usage of phrases in a sentence. separated using commas or brackets: 1. the introductory phrase modifies the subject of the main clause. when there is a division in the group. then the verb agrees with the subject only (and not the noun or pronoun in the phrase). The family is the primary unit (not 'are the primary unit') 3.'I shall do this if he agrees' is correct (not 'I shall do this if he will agree') 1. Note:. In both these sentences.'She said that the sun rises in the east' (not 'rose in the east') 3. and his team.9) DANGLING MODIFIER :The subject of the main clause must be same sa the understood subject of the introductory phrase. Collective nouns: Collective nouns are singular. Mr. is receiving presents (not ‘are receiving . If a sentence contains a phrase.'I shall meet him if he comes' is correct. 'box of apples' etc are used. Universal Truths For 'Universal Truths' sentences are always in the present tense. 'cluster of grapes'. Nalini injured her leg. 'cabinet'. In other words. Examples: The jury are divided in opinion (not 'is') 2. I was taken to the circus by my mother. 'group'. the present indefinite tense needs to be used. The Committee. The team is in the field (not 'are in the field') 5. 'family'. Examples: 1. Wrong: When only a baby. Examples: 1. The family is important (not 'are') 4. we use the plural form. is meeting tomorrow 2. is coming tomorrow Exception However. Use of 'Will and Shall' 'Will' and 'shall' cannot be used twice in the same sentence. Vijay ) ii) Travelling to bombay.i) Looking at his watch.'He always speaks the truth' 4.'He always praises you' (not 'he is always praising you') 2. GRAMMAR TIPS :1. the subject of the introductory phrase and the subject of the main clause are same. Correct: When only a child. Habitual action For habitual action. The Committee is meeting tomorrow (not 'are meeting tomorrow') 2. to indicate the division. For example: The politician. ('I shall meet him if he shall/ will come' is not) 2. Example: 1. Vijay got up and left. Vijay ) Who got up and left? ( Mr. The Chairman. Who looked at his watch? ( Mr.Both these sentences are right. 'Committee'.'He said that the earth is round' (not 'was round') 2. my mother took me to the circus.

3. take his/ her number (not ‘take their number’) However. is happy (not ‘are happy’) The king. some nouns are always plural. . Examples: Ten Rupees is kept on the table (not ‘are’) Civics is an interesting subject (not ‘are an interesting subject’) Mathematics is useful (not ‘are’) 4. These apply to nouns dealing with currency." It does not mean the same as "because of. as well as his team. Correct: The game was postponed because of rain. there is one exception: The pronoun ‘none’ can take both singular or plural forms. subjects etc. ‘jeans’. Some words always are used with singular verbs. These are: Everyone Someone No one One of Somebody Everybody Each Each one Either Anybody Anyone ‘Many a’ Some examples: Everybody was outside (not ‘everybody were outside’) Each one must do his duty (not ‘their duty’) Someone is outside (not ‘someone are outside’) Everybody was making noise (not ‘were making noise’) No one was capable of this (not ‘were capable’) Either answer is correct (not ‘are correct’) Everybody respects him (not ‘respect him’) Many a game was won by sheer luck (not ‘were’) One of the boys was destined to succeed (not ‘were’) He is one of those who appear correct (not ‘appears’) If anyone calls. These include nouns such as ‘scissors’. depending on the particular context." It should be used only if it can be substituted with "caused by. ‘trousers’ etc The scissors have become blunt (not ‘has become’) The trousers are made of cotton (not ‘is made of cotton’) GRAMMAR TIPS :Using Due To :Due to means "caused by." Incorrect: The game was postponed due to rain. ‘shorts’. along with his ministers. Always singular Some nouns are always singular. is outside (not ‘are outside’) 2. Always Plural Similarly.presents) The captain.

When using standard English. do not. out. "when we have one plural subject in the sentence. Subject-Verb Agreement When singular subjects are connected using the words 'or' or 'nor'. Incorrect: It don't matter anymore. The correct way of writing the sentence would be "either A or B has drunk this" or "neither A nor B has drunk this" This is because both A and B are singular However. and it. a singular verb should be used after that. Ram and Shyam are playing outside 2. Correct: Grandfather doesn't see too well. when there is a singular and a plural subject in the same sentence connected with 'or' or 'nor'. So. . For example: 1. Examples: 1. Correct: He wants to get out of the contract. "Neither Ram nor his friends are playing" and 2. the verb agrees with the closest noun or pronoun. complete the sentence by including the words left out of such expressions as want in or want down. Incorrect: He wants out of the contract.". she. the correct sentences are: 1. 'Either he or is brothers are going out' 4. However. GRAMMAR TIPS:1. Incorrect: Grandfather don't see too well. It is incorrect to say "either A or B have drunk this" or "neither A nor B have drunk this". Correct: His glasses don't help him much.Correct: The game's postponement was due to rain. up. He and his friends are playing cricket Want Plus Directional Adverbs or Prepositions The verb want is not supposed to be followed by an adverb or preposition indicating direction such as in. Doesn't or Don't? :Doesn't. or does is used with the third person singular--words like he. 'Either his brothers or he is going out' 2. Correct: It doesn't matter anymore. Don't. when the subject of a sentence has two or more nouns or pronouns connected by the word 'and'. "Neither Ram's friends nor Ram is playing" 3. or do is used for other subjects. Related to the rule above. off or down. does not. then we always use a plural verb. the verb agrees with the nearest subject (noun or pronoun). The wordy expression due to the fact that should be replaced by because or since.

Incorrect: The coffee tasted well this morning. . (Went takes no auxiliary verb. taste. have. Well is normally an adverb. or one of their contractions. Using That. (healthy) Gone or Went? Gone is the past participle of to go. was. It may be used with descriptive linking verbs like look. Used as the verb of a sentence. In modern speech.) Correct: They have gone to the movies. or be to describe the subject. Correct: I do not feel very well. Correct: The pitcher is looking good today. feel. are. That normally refers to things but it may refer to a class or type of person. It never takes an auxiliary verb. (Gone needs an auxiliary verb.) Correct: You could have gone with them. Good or Well? Good is an adjective. Correct: They are gone to the movies. Correct: He pitches well. Correct: The coffee tasted good this morning. am. which. Well as an adjective means "healthy. which refers only to things. it must always be preceded by an auxiliary verb such as has. Correct: The cat wants to come in. Incorrect: You could have went with them. were. and who when used as relative pronouns each has a distinct function. Incorrect: They gone to the movies." Incorrect: He pitches good. Who (or its forms whom and whose) refers only to people. be. and Who as Relative Pronouns :That. Correct: They went to the movies. sound. Incorrect: I do not feel very good. It describes nouns or pronouns. had. Went is the past tense of to go. Which. It describes verbs (sometimes adjectives) and is used with most other verbs. is.Incorrect: The cat wants in.

Examples: That is a book which I need for the class.) Uninterested means "not interested. which). not showing any interest. Who is the subject or predicate nominative.) .) Who and Whom :Who and whom correspond to he and him." Who's is a contraction of who is or who has. them. occasionally. These are the books that I need for the class. They are the type of people who would lie to their mothers. Whom is the object. (That is OK here because it is a class or type. they end with m: whom. They are the type of people that would lie to their mothers. Incorrect: Who's department do you work for? Correct: Whose department do you work for? Correct: Who's coming to visit tomorrow? Disinterested or Uninterested? Disinterested means "impartial" or "not taking sides. This same pattern applies when you add the suffix -ever or -soever: Correct: Whoever dies with the most toys wins." (In other words." (In other words. It means "belonging to whom or which. (Subject) Correct: He gave that ticket to whoever asked for one. him. (Subject of asked) Correct: Pick whomever I tell you to. When all three are in the objective case.) Correct: A good referee should be disinterested. He is the man who will be teaching the class. Notice the apostrophe replacing the missing letters. (He does not take sides. not having a personal interest at stake. Correct: Who are you? (Subject) Correct: Whom do you see? (Direct object) Correct: Whom did you give it to? (Object of preposition to) Correct: Who did that? (Subject) It may help you to recall that who follows the same pattern as he and they. (Direct object) Whose or Who's? Whose is the possessive form of who (or.

Incorrect: He was disinterested in Jill's hobby.) Supposed To and Used To :The common expressions supposed to meaning "meant to" or "intended to" and used to meaning "formerly" are frequently misspelled or misunderstood." (In other words. Correct: We are supposed to meet at seven. Writers sometimes drop the final d because of the t sound which follows it.) Incorrect: He was disinterested in Jill's hobby. Both expression are normally in the Passive Voice. This means that the verb is the past participle so it ends with an -ed. (He shows no interest. not showing any interest.) Correct: A good referee should be disinterested. Incorrect: We are suppose to meet at seven. not having a personal interest at stake." (In other words. Correct: He was uninterested in Jill's hobby. Both expression are normally in the Passive Voice. This means that the verb is the past participle so it ends with an -ed. Correct: We are supposed to meet at seven. . Correct: I used to read every Hardy Boys book I could find. Incorrect: I use to read every Hardy Boys book I could find.) Uninterested means "not interested. Incorrect: I use to read every Hardy Boys book I could find.) Supposed To and Used To :The common expressions supposed to meaning "meant to" or "intended to" and used to meaning "formerly" are frequently misspelled or misunderstood. Incorrect: We are suppose to meet at seven. Correct: He was uninterested in Jill's hobby. (He does not take sides. Writers sometimes drop the final d because of the t sound which follows it. Disinterested or Uninterested? Disinterested means "impartial" or "not taking sides. (He shows no interest.

(Phrase is a group of words depicting one meaning). It needs the support of the first part of the sentence. is usual should be used. 3.) 1) She is a beautiful girl. (A Clause is a group of words with a subject and a predicate. Let us see this sentence. She is a girl can stand alone but who is beautiful cannot stand alone. Now let us first begin with a sentence. Now this subordinate clause says something more about the noun ‘girl’ in the Main Clause. A word that says something more about a noun is an Adjective and so a clause that says something more is known as an Adjective Clause. Emails are often written in a much formal way than is usual in writing. Now see this sentence.) Look at the 3rd sentence carefully. When something is compared to a subgroup to which it belongs. She is a girl—Main Clause Who is beautiful—Subordinate Clause. For example: 1. He is nicer than usual 2. usual is fine. In this sentence ‘beautiful’ is an adjective. 3) She is a girl who is beautiful. . b) Raja likes movies that are directed by Manirathnam. Some more examples of sentences with this Clause. 4. Usual vs Is Usual When something is compared to itself. He is faster than is usual for any human being. The second part of the sentence needs the support of the first part. In this sentence ‘who is beautiful’ is a Clause. She is a girl /who is beautiful. Ram is faster than usual today. c) The stone which shines the most is the diamond.Correct: I used to read every Hardy Boys book I could find. 2) She is a girl of great beauty. a) The man who is fat is my grandfather. In this sentence ‘of great beauty’ is an adjective phrase. Now we shall divide this sentence into 2 parts. The result is.(Sentence is a group of words which make sense. I hope you have tried to understand the concept of the Clause Analysis.

" and "to a lesser extent. Successful completion of Grammar course is not easy and requires more planning and preparation than is usual for normal course completion ." "Phase" is a noun or verb having to do with an aspect of something. but that's not how people use the term. A humanoid is not quite human.5. 6." "They're going to phase in the new accounting procedures gradually. 7. since it rained heavily yesterday. "infact" is not a word." 4) IN THE FACT THAT/BY THE FACT THAT The correct phrase is "by the fact that. . The sun looks less brightly than usual to-day." not "in the fact that. 7) FAZE/PHASE "Faze" means to embarrass or disturb." meaning someone who chooses to live abroad. it is a common misspelling of "expatriate. The gravel was damper than usual. ." While we're at it. but you can't ever express that. In technical terms. but is almost always used in the negative sense. Today I was busier than usual at work." The standard expression is "far be it from me" (may this possibility be far away from me). Few Common Mistakes :1) EXPATRIOT/EXPATRIATE An expatriot would be somebody who used to be a patriot. "express" is a transitive verb and requires an object. 9. but it is exceptional because of its high-powered engine . The new sports car is heavier than is usual for a performance automobile. Instead. I checked this article more carefully than usual for grammatical errors. and should not be used as a noun." "Extend" is a verb only. 2) EXPRESSES THAT/SAYS THAT "In her letter Jane expresses that she is getting irritated with me for not writing" should be corrected to "In her letter Jane says that. as in "the fact that the overhead projector bulb was burned out didn't faze her. It's "to a great extent. " You can express an idea or a thought. 6) FAR BE IT FOR ME/FAR BE IT FROM ME The mangled expression "far be it for me" is probably influenced by a similar saying: "it's not for me to say. 10. 11. "in fact" is always a twoword phrase. 8. 3) EXTEND/EXTENT People often write "to a great extend" or "to a lesser extend. 5) Interesting point :The "oid" ending in English is normally added to a word to indicate that an item is not the real thing. "He's just going through a temperamental phase. There was a higher ratio of comedy to drama than is usual in a one hour show." FIANCE/FIANCEE .

Your fiance is the man you plan to marry..'The movie had started before I reached' -. Two actions both in past This is an important type of question that appears in entrance exams." 10) FEARFUL/FEARSOME To be "fearful" is to be afraid. Phrases that go together There are certain phrases that always go together. These cannot be used in any other form. Remember that someone who is fierce is fearsome rather than fearful. For Example: -." Feelings for are always positive feelings. feelings about something or someone can be either positive or negative: "I've got a bad feeling about this. -. use the plural form. (not 'if he was here') 3. they are also coming (not 'besides you and I) .'I reached there before he came' is wrong. the past perfect tense needs to be used. while expressing wishes or desires. your fiancee is the woman you plan to marry. Plural form for wishes/ desires Another important type of question/ rule of grammar from the test perspective is. then which tense should you use for both? The answer is that for the one that occurred earlier. In contrast. Some such phrases are: --'Else' is always followed by 'but' --'No sooner' is always followed by 'than' --'Too' is always used with 'to' --'Hardly/ Scarcely' must be followed by 'when' --'The same' is always followed by 'That' --'Although' is always followed by 'yet' --'I' is followed by 'he' (not 'him') --'You' can be followed by 'him' and 'me' Examples: --It is nothing else but fraud --No sooner had he come than I met him (not 'no sooner had he come when I met him') --He was too big to fit through the hole (you cannot just say 'he is too big' or 'too good') --Hardly had he come when I met him --This is the same person that came yesterday (not 'who came yesterday) --Although he was aging. yet he was a good fielder --Besides you and me.. The correct sentence is therefore 'I had reached there before he came'." the message is "I'm falling in love with you. If there are two actions that both occurred in the past. To be "fearsome" is to cause fear in others. Examples: --'I wish I were a king' --'I wish I were a bird' --'He acted as if he were a king' --'He behaves as though he were my boss' --If he were here.The game had commenced before I switched on the TV 2. the past perfect tense should be used. 9) FEELINGS FOR/FEELINGS ABOUT When someone says "I'm developing feelings for you. Why? Because for the earlier action (your reaching there). Some Rules of GRAMMAR :1.

These are simply variant spellings of the same word. This whole phrase. They were driving to work together. . He's going to quit in August. or telling when or where or under what conditions something happened. Durham is in Windham County. on. use whichever sounds better to you. My brother is coming on Monday. This is a big step towards the project's completion. Prepositions of Place: at. followed by a pronoun or noun (called the object of the preposition). He started the job in 1971. Prepositions are nearly always combined with other words in structures called prepositional phrases. Windham County is in Connecticut. a word like "in" or "after" is rather meaningless and hard to define in mere words. The train is due at 12:15 p. but they tend to be built the same: a preposition followed by a determiner and an adjective or two. acting as an adjective or an adverb. Toward and towards are also helpful prepositions to express movement. a season. takes on a modifying role. etc. We're having a party on the Fourth of July. and in We use at for specific addresses. in turn. locating something in time and space." you invariably use your hands to show how something is situated in relationship to something else. counties. She's going to the dentist's office this morning. Grammar English lives at 55 Boretz Road in Durham. We're moving toward the light.--Along with you and me. For instance. In itself. Her house is on Boretz Road. a month. states. Prepositional phrases can be made up of a million different words. We use in for nonspecific times during a day. modifying a noun. It's too cold in winter to run outside. We use on to designate names of streets. and continents).m. countries. He's going to quit in August. And we use in for the names of land-areas (towns. they are also coming (not along with you and I) --I agree to you and him (not 'you' and 'he') PREPOSITIONS :A preposition describes a relationship between other words in a sentence. Prepositions of Time: at. She likes to jog in the morning. She lives in Durham. We use on to designate days and dates. and in We use at to designate specific times. on. or a year. avenues. Prepositions of Movement: to and No Preposition We use to in order to express movement toward a place. when you do try to define a preposition like "in" or "between" or "on.

but we must be especially careful not to use them in formal. The children were interested in and disgusted by the movie. Idiomatic Expressions with Prepositions -->agree to a proposal. The word that is joined to the verb is then called a particle. with other people Unnecessary Prepositions In everyday speech. inside. He held his breath for seven minutes. on a street. Please refer to the brief section we have prepared on phrasal verbs for an explanation. The female was both attracted ((by)) and distracted by the male's dance. months. with a person. days. You can wear that outfit in summer and ((in)) winter. with a person. The British and Irish have been quarreling for seven centuries. He threw the book out ((of)) the window. She met ((up with)) the new coach in the hallway. uptown. She's been sitting in the waiting room since two-thirty. the preposition does not have to be used twice. using prepositions where they are not necessary.With the words home. It was clear that this player could both contribute to and learn from every game he . in a house or city. outside. academic prose. when the idiomatic use of phrases calls for different prepositions. They both went outside. It would be a good idea to eliminate these words altogether. minutes. downtown. The words in the braces should not be used. Prepositions of Time: for and since We use for when we measure time (seconds. with to show differences (sometimes similarities) -->correspond to a thing. [or use "in"] Where did they go ((to))? Put the lamp in back of the couch. we must be careful not to omit one of them. on a price. years). with a person -->live at an address. However. we use no preposition. He's worked here since 1970. we fall into some bad habits. The words in the braces should not be used. upstairs. Grandma went upstairs Grandpa went home. in principle -->argue about a matter. A combination of verb and preposition is called a phrasal verb. She wouldn't let the cat inside ((of)) the house. We use since with a specific date or time. hours. downstairs. The book fell off ((of)) the desk. She's lived there for seven years. with a person -->differ from an unlike thing. for or against a proposition -->compare to to show likenesses. [use "behind" instead] Where is your college ((at))? Prepositions in Parallel Form When two words or phrases are used in parallel and require the same preposition to be idiomatically correct.

WHICH vs THAT Both of the words introduce clauses.What is a clause???A clause is something which has a subject and a predicate. As no comma is used. therefore.Here. * Somebody has left her purse.A Subject??A subject is something about which a sentence talks of.THAT is used. Some examples1)The guitar that was used by Jimi Hendrix is up for sale.We use THAT where a comma is not used and we use WHICH when comma(s) are used. someone. THAT introduces a essential clause whereas WHICH introduces a nonessential clause.THAT is the correct usage. Comma is there.Here. My brother is a nutritionist. * Everyone has done his or her homework. * Some indefinite pronouns — such as all. nobody are always singular and.we are talking about the particular guitar used by Jimi. which I purchased two years ago.which is a Fender. plural subjects need plural verbs. was stolen. He was fascinated by and enamored of this beguiling woman. everyone. My sisters are mathematicians.Hence WHICH is used. The guitar of Jimi Hendrix. Essential clauses do not have commas associated with them while nonessential clauses are associated with commas.A predicate is something which consists of a verb and its constituents that talk about the subject. some — are singular or plural depending on what they're referring to. Subject-Verb Agreement ( Important Topic ) :Basic Principle: Singular subjects need singular verbs. Finally. no example combining the twoThe bat that was in lying in my garage. In the above sentence. The indefinite pronouns anyone. So back to the start.played.So it is an essential clause and hence.the clause 'which is a Fender' is non-essential as without it provides an information which is not compulsory. (Is the thing referred to countable or not?) Be careful choosing . 1.Sehwag is the subject and went home is the predicate. Kindly analyze the above sentence carefully. require singular verbs.The difference lies in what type of clauses they introduce up for we use WHICH. Sehwag went home.This is a good way to remember the difference.

there is one indefinite pronoun. SUBJECT VERB AGREEMENT :4. The phrase introduced by as well as or along with will modify the earlier word (mayor in this case). to two things. In informal writing. is always singular and requires a singular verb. therefore. Whether the subject comes . Some indefinite pronouns are particularly troublesome Everyone and everybody (listed above. "Everybody is here. as well as. thus confusing the verb choice. too.a verb to accompany such pronouns. the word their precludes the use of the singular verb. in a sense. * Neither of the two traffic lights is working. none. (Writers generally think of none as meaning not any and will choose a plural verb. 3. SUBJECT VERB AGREEMENT :2. also) certainly feel like more than one person and. Each is often followed by a prepositional phrase ending in a plural word (Each of the cars). * Some of the water is gone. Phrases such as together with. Each. * The mayor and his brothers are going to jail. students are sometimes tempted to use a plural verb with them. Each of the students is responsible for doing his or her work in the library. it often doesn't matter whether you use a singular or a plural verb — unless something else in the sentence determines its number." 5. Don't let the word "students" confuse you. neither and either sometimes take a plural verb when these pronouns are followed by a prepositional phrase beginning with of. the subject is each and each is always singular — Each is responsible. This is particularly true of interrogative constructions: "Have either of you two clowns read the assignment?" "Are either of you taking this seriously?" Burchfield calls this "a clash between notional and actual agreement. * Some of the beads are missing.The conjunction or does not conjoin (as and does): when nor or or is used the subject closer to the verb determines the number of the verb. as in "None of the food is fresh.") * None of you claims responsibility for this incident? * None of you claim responsibility for this incident? * None of the students have done their homework. * Everyone has finished his or her homework. The pronouns neither and either are singular and require singular verbs even though they seem to be referring. * You would always say. that can be either singular or plural. On the other hand. though." This means that the word is singular and nothing will change that. we want a singular verb. but it does not compound the subjects (as the word and would do). They are always singular." but when something else makes us regard none as meaning not one. (In this last example. * Which shirt do you want for Christmas? * Either is fine with me. as in "None of the engines are working. and along with are not the same as and. * The mayor as well as his brothers is going to prison.

. On the other hand. * A pair of plaid trousers is in the closet. * My glasses were on the bed. The words there and here are never subjects. Other verbs do not add s-endings. 9. 6. pants. 8. The mayor. * Here are two apples. He loves and she loves and they love_ and . to have several political lives. who has been convicted along with his four brothers on four counts of various crimes but who also seems. * The news from the front is bad. Sometimes modifiers will get betwen a subject and its verb. Consult the section on the Plural Forms of Nouns and the section on Collective Nouns for additional help. the proximity determines the number. it is probably a good idea to put the plural subject closer to the verb whenever that is possible. * Our thanks go to the workers who supported the union. Sometimes nouns take weird forms and can fool us into thinking they're plural when they're really singular and vice-versa. The Connecticut Sun are hoping that new talent … . Some words end in -s and appear to be plural but are really singular and require singular verbs. she. * Either my father or my brothers are going to sell the house. * There are two reasons [plural subject] for this. the subject follows the verb but still determines the number of the verb. singular subjects (he. With these constructions (called expletive constructions). * Measles is a dangerous disease for pregnant women. * The average worker's earnings have gone up dramatically. * Are either my brothers or my father responsible? * Is either my father or my brothers responsible? Because a sentence like "Neither my brothers nor my father is going to sell the house" sounds peculiar. Words such as glasses. some words ending in -s refer to a single thing but are nonetheless plural and require a plural verb. . SUBJECT VERB AGREEMENT :7. . but these modifiers must not confuse the agreement between the subject and its verb. like a cat. * My assets were wiped out in the depression. pliers. * My pants were torn. See the section on plurals for help with this problem. it and anything those words can stand for) have s-endings. The names of sports teams that do not end in "s" will take a plural verb: the Miami Heat have been looking … . * There is no reason for this. * Neither my brothers nor my father is going to sell the house. 10. is finally going to jail. Verbs in the present tense for third-person. and scissors are regarded as plural (and require plural verbs) unless they're preceded the phrase pair of (in which case the word pair becomes the subject). .before or after the verb doesn't matter.

So it is a direct object. Two and two is four. a part of.We can say that SUBJECT is the doer of the action and OBJECT is the noun that is receiving the action in the sentence. Two-fifths of the vineyard was destroyed by fire. more. If your sentence compounds a positive and a negative subject and one is plural.SUBJECT VERB AGREEMENT :11. Forty percent of the students are in favor of changing the policy. a percentage of.This type of object is the answer to the question WHAT? I drove the car. the verb should agree with the positive subject. a majority of are sometimes singular and sometimes plural. A large percentage of the older population is voting against her. when all. Forty percent of the student body is in favor of changing the policy. Main Clause ) :Conditional sentences :The conditional sentences are sometimes confusing for learners of English.[ Here.This type answers the questions TO WHOM?/FOR WHOM? I gave him a punch. most and some act as subjects. at the beginning or at the end of the conditional sentence)? .HIM is the indirect object and punch is the direct object. * It was the speaker. any. 2)Indirect Object. Four times four divided by two is eight. of course. * It is not the faculty members but the president who decides this issue. [ Here. SUBJECT Vs OBJECT In the simplest terms. Two-fifths of the troops were lost in the battle. Fractional expressions such as half of. 12. the other singular.g. The expression "more than one" (oddly enough) takes a singular verb: "More than one student has tried this." * * * * * * * * Some of the voters are still angry. not his ideas.SUBJECT is the performer or doer of a certain action while OBJECT is something/someone on which the verb is acting upon. depending on the meaning. Watch out: 1) Which type of the conditional sentences is used? 2) Where is the if-clause (e.The two types of OBJECT cases we need to remember are1)Direct Object. (The same is true.The question "I drove WHAT?" is answered by CAR. * The department members but not the chair have decided not to teach on Valentine's Day. that has provoked the students to riot.) Sums and products of mathematical processes are expressed as singular and require singular verbs.] Conditional Sentences in English ( If Clause.

I would have passed the Exam. can catch a movie. Eg:. III) I would have passed the exam. I will/am going to spend it.Special Types and Structures :If-clauses can be. if i study. a) Clause . Real Condition :-> If i have money. Modal Verbs :Main Clauses with real conditional tenses can have modal verbs. we can catch a movie. -> If i had money.medial c) Clause . II) If I studied. if you like.( if-clause at the end ) I) I will pass the exam. Types :Aside from the typical I.If i have money. II) I would pass the exam.Future ( or Modal + infinitive ) II) Simple Past ---. conditionals can be divided in to real and unreal Examples :a) If you like. b) We.III structure . I will pass the Exam. I) Condition possible to fulfill II) Condition in theory possible to fulfill III) Condition not possible to fulfill (too late) Form :Type ---.There are three types of If. I spent it. Examples :. I can spend it. if i had studied.Would + have + Past Participle Examples :. Unreal Condition :-> If i had had money.Will . . -> If i had money. III) If I had studied.II. I would have spent it. I would pass the Exam. I would spend it. c) We can catch a movie. -> If i had money. I would spend it. if i Studied. if you like.If clause ---.main Clause I) Simple Present ---.Would + infinitive III) Past Perfect ---. You can use could and might instead of would in unreal conditional clauses.Clauses.initial b) Clause . I spend it.( if-clause at the beginning ) I) If I study. Conditional Sentences . -> If i have money.

I could spend it. look out = beware! be careful! Look out! That car is going to hit you! get on = be good friends My dad and my brother don’t get on. ( I would possibly spend it ) Mixed Conditionals :Past --> Present If i had taken an aspirin. 2) Some phrasal verbs need an object. 3) Some phrasal verbs contain three words and an object.Eg:. make up = become friends again after an argument The kids often fight but they always make up afterwards. she could have done this trip to Hawaii. turn right. take off = leave the ground The plane took off on time. . I would have planned a trip to Switzerland. Police are looking into it. Present --> Future If i were you. Future --> Past If I weren't flying to Detroit. prepare. Future --> Present If I were taking this exam next week. ( I would be able to spend it ) If i had money. look after someone / something = take care of someone / something Please can you look after our cats while we’re on holiday? see to something = do. arrange. I would be spending my vacation in Seattle. get on / off something = exit transport Get off the bus at the next stop. look into something = investigate There has been a burglary at the school. Present --> Past If she had enough money. I would be in then. I might spend it. get to = arrive at When you get to the end of the street. organise Don’t worry about dinner. break down = stop working (for vehicles) Our car broke down on the way home from Scotland. I’ll see to it. The meaning of phrasal verbs is often completely different from the meaning of the verb alone. They are often used. Past --> Future If I had known that you are going to come by tomorrow. especially in informal spoken English. I wouldn't have a headache now. Form: 1) Some phrasal verbs never use an object. I would be high-strung.If i had money. get up = get out of bed I get up at seven o’clock every morning. Inseparable phrasal verbs Use: Phrasal verbs consist of a verb and one or more prepositions.

look up to someone = respect someone I look up to my teachers.'s' added to a noun indicates the plural form but 's' added to a verb indicates the third person singular. Exception :a) If a subject consisting of two singular nouns connected by and refers to the same . Rule 2 :Ensure the verb agrees with the true subject and not with an intervening plural object of a preposition or any other intervening plural. (Plural) Singular antecedents are referred to by singular pronouns (animal-->its) and plural antecedents are referents of plural pronouns (animals-->their). Exception :. Rule 3 :Subjects joined by and are usually plural and take plural verbs. Chocolates is the object of preposition of) His experience as teacher to boys and girls gives him understanding. Sony and Sanjay are going to Chennai today. She favours the move. Note:.You were very helpful during my exams. look forward to something = be excited about (a future event) I’m looking forward to the party. The box of Nestle's chocolates is missing. Even an animal has its own territory. make a pronoun agree in number with its antecedent. The list of spare parts was long. (Singular) Even animals have their own territory. His typewriter and my audio were stolen. get on with someone = be good friends with someone I don’t get on with Karen. referring to one person. (Singular) The lists of spare parts were long. (Plural) Singular Subjects take Singular verbs (list-->was). Eg:. put up with something = tolerate I can’t put up with that noise any longer! Agreement Problems ( Subject and Verb ) Rule 1 :Make a verb agree in number with its subject. and plural subjects take plural verbs(lists-->were). get on with something = continue doing something Please be quiet and get on with your work. The prices of the new model vary from town to town. (Here the true subject is box and not Nestle's chocolates. They favour the expansion of the school.A plural verb is always required after you even when it is used in singular.

physics.. Neither the prices nor the quality has changed. as well as. Mrs. statistics and politics ) are considered singular. Paul. My best friend and advisor has changed his mind again. Cornflakes and milk is our sunday breakfast. Either October or November is a good vacation month. a plural verb. Each man and boy is expected to meet his obligation. Rule 6 :If the subject consists of two singular words connected by or. Not only the headmaster but also the teachers are in favor of the expansion of the school. every or many a. Neither the buyer nor the salesmen are in favor of the system.. either... is sold. The decoration of the room.measles. a singular verb is used. the subject is singular and requires a singular verb. . Here the subject is treated as singular because both qualities are found in one person. together with. Sunita or Neetu has the swimming nomics and so on. News is travelling faster than ever before. Neither the salesmen nor the buyer is in favor of the system. Physics has fascinated my hostel mate for months. when referring to an organised body of knowledge and plural when referring to individual facts. either. Neither the radio nor the television was in working order..nor.or. b) When two subjects connected by and are preceded by each. Neither our accounts Department nor our Head office has a record of the transaction. is most pleasing. Rule 4 :Words like with. not only. such as news.. along with. a singular verb is required. is going to the theater. neither. along with the cabinet. a singular verb is used. Our chief competitor. as well as ourselves..electronics. etc. usually take singular verbs. Every shirt. Neither the quality nor the prices have changed. neither. the verb agrees with the nearer part of the subject. Not only the teachers but also the headmaster is in favor of the expansion of the school.mumps. including..or.. Some nouns ending in -ics ( Such as athletics. if plural.but also.tactics. qualities or activities. Rule 5 :If the subject is made up of both singular and plural words connected by or. The television. besides. do not affect the number of verb. is obliged to increase prices.nor. nor. in addition to. including the carpets and furniture. Rule 7 :Nouns that are plural in form but singular in meaning. If the subject is singular. tie and coat is marked for reduction sale. with her son and daughter.person or thing..

The committee has agreed to submit its report on friday. That Rs 1.. council. committee. The following rules govern the form of verb to be used with a collective now. audience. Ten rupees seems too much for the job. . The committee were not in agreement on the action to be taken.g.credentials. Rule 9 :Plural verbs are required for many nouns that have no singular form. Rule 13 :When nouns expressing periods of time. such as proceeds. e. Three months is too long a time to wait. The proceedings of the magic show are to be given to the fund for soldiers' welfare. The reason for his failure was excessive absences.00. animals or things. amounts of money. Yes. or Quantities are considered as a single unit.. even crying. company.police. The audience were cheering and laughing.remains. the verb should be singular. Collective Nouns :. society. Rule 10 :When the group acts as a unit. singular verbs are used. Rule 11 :When the members of the group are thought of as acting separately. cabinet etc.A collective noun is a word that represents a group of persons. The goods are being dispatched today by goods train. 5 metres is ample for a suit. The Board of directors meets once in a month.Athletics provide good recreation.ashes. Mudra and corporation have retained the goodwill of their customers. (ie. The number of board members is very small.premises etc. The firm is one of the most reputed in the country. Excessive absences were the reason for his failure. Mumbai. Various games ) Athletics is required of every student. The majority has made its decision. (ie. not with its complement. The oil Corporation is located at Nariman Point. The plural form emphasizes the individual personnel making up the company. The team are arguing over who should be the captain. army.the verb should be plural. board. according to their meaning. department. Rule 12 :Company names may be either singular or plural. Participation in games ) Rule 8 :A linking verb usually agrees with its subject.goods.000 was an inheritance from my father.

alphabet. b) Use a plural verb when a plural noun follows the of. There are twenty-six alphabets in English. the verb is chosen as follows: a) In simple form one of or one of the. However. a part of.He is one of those managers who favour increasing the staff. A number of our staff are going on leave. The cattle are grazing near the canal. the relative pronoun who is the subject and must agree with its antecedent those. A majority of 3400 indicates his popularity in the Constituency. Eg:. These poultry are ready for sale.Rule 14 :After such expressions as one-half of. The number of orders still to be executed is estimated at nearly a hundred. two-thirds of. The majority of our staff members live in villages. b) The sentences containing phrases one of those who or one of the things that. favour agrees with those. those is the plural object of the preposition of. Rule 16:In sentences containing the words one of. are always used in the plural sense and take a plural verb. For example. Eg:. a majority of. Two-thirds of our workers live in the suburbs. a singular verb is used. a) Use a Singular verb if a singular noun follows the of. a plural verb is required. Rule 17 :Certain Collective nouns. whereas the expression a numberhas a plural meaning and takes plural verb. cattle.One of the reasons for his demotion is his carelessness. a singular verb is used. Mr Verma is the only one of our officers who is accompanying me. Two-thirds of the mailing list has been typed. He is one of our employees who are always alert. poultry. Here. Ramesh is the only one of our employees who is always alert. Rule 18 :- . One of the pens is missing from my desk. Eg:. The number of board members is very small. Eg:. Rule 15:The expression the number has a singular meaning and requires a singular verb. when only precedes one of/one of those. though singular in form.A part of the office is closed.Part of the walls are to be painted. A number of board members were absent. Mr Verma is one of our Officers who are accompanying me. offspring etc. gentry. In the phrase one of those who. In the subordinate clause who favour.

mischief. Note:. Each of them does have political ambitions. but more of these shirts are due. The scenery of kasauli is beautiful. I have sold all the furniture that was useless.A plural sense is often expressed by using some other suitable word before the above nouns. used as pronouns or as adjectives. Some of the books seem too old. For example :He gave me many pieces of advice. Rule 20 :All. These are not used in the plural sense and do not take on plural verbs.Certain nouns are always used in singular and followed by singular verbs. bread. advice. Rule 21 :The titles of books or magazines are considered singular and take singular verbs. The members each feel their responsibility. All the reports have been typed. scenery. They have purchased many plots of land. abuse. more. most. poetry etc. furniture. Rule 19 :The words each. any. Each employee is responsible for clearing his desk in the evening. They each have their own problem. some may be singular or plural depending on the meaning and take verbs accordingly. All the typing has been finished. Neither boy is eligible for selection. Is there any information in this regard? All the machinery is old. I have brought many items of furniture. the verb should be plural. 'The two faces of Indira Gandhi' is a best seller. Neither of the boys is eligible for taking the examination. The Hindustan Times still has wide circulation. Exception : If a parenthetical each follows a plural noun or pronoun. are always singular and require singular verbs. everybody. issue. Rule 22 :The following words and their compounds are always singular and require a singular verb. body (anybody.either and neither. nobody. My luggage is lying at the bus stand. somebody) .every. Her hair has turned grey now. Ten each of these books are required. land. information. machinery. Some of the food is not good. For example hair. Most of the goods have been sold. business. luggage. Most of the stock has been sold.

while. everyone. she had no idea about the plans. This is the only one of the local papers that prints a weekly horoscope. the final s is not added. ( Negative not is followed ) He needs to be worried. I cannot solve it unless you tell me its method. ( Negative not is not followed ) However. they would have reached home. Everyone is required to clear his dues. something ) one (anyone. nothing. In present tense. He dare not do it again.after. someone.before : When these words are used in the subordinate clause with reference to some future event. . we will go to Ludhiana. which.till. does not have courage) She dare not come to me. Rule 26 :Doubt that/ doubt whether : Doubt that is used in negative sentences and doubt whether in positive sentences.thing (anything. Nobody knows the trouble I have seen. We do not doubt that he will be fully cured. No one is entitled to have his debts cancelled. does not have courage to come to me) However. Until she was informed officially. (incorrect) When you come to me. if it is not followed by a negative word(not) or used in the sense of challenge. Measles is among the diseases that are curable. Rule 23 :A relative pronoun (who. that) used as a subject takes a singular or plural verb to accord with its antecedent. no one ) Something is wrong with him these days. Rule 27 :Need/Needs : As a regular verb. I doubt whether our country is really free. with third person singular. regular forms should not be confused. (incorrect) Before the rain stops. everything. they would have reached home. (Correct) When you will come to me. (Correct) Rule 25:until/unless : Mistakes are generally committed in using these words. Everybody in the office has tickets. (ie. Until means time before and unless shows condition and means if not. when followed by a negative. (ie. Before the rain would stop. I doubt whether the news is true. they are not followed by a verb in the future tense. we will go to Ludhiana. He need not worry. I do not doubt that he will succeed. need means require. Rule 24 :When.

b) From indicates point of time with all other tenses. he and I should try to visit Sri Lanka.When pronouns having different persons are used. if him sounds right use whom. She has been ill since last friday. If he sounds right use who. It was he whom we chose to be our captain. however. then the third person (he or she) and last of all the first person (I). Wait here until I come. She dare not to disobey me. It should. not be confused when used as a normal verb: I dare. . day. Rule 31 :You. a) Since indicates point of time with present perfect or perfect continuous tense. ( not me and you ) Rule 32 :Who and whom : To determine correct usage of who or whom. Rule 28 :Since/from/for : Both since and from imply a point of time ( definite time.s is to be added. While I am sitting here. she dares. Rule 29 :As long as/while/until : As long as and while are used to express the duration of an action. (not I. She dares to insult me. Rule 30 :On/Over : On suggests contact with something. He commenced work from 30th january. we dare. I have not seen him for a long time. cover the beginning of the sentence. You. you and he ) It is between you and me. I :. inserting he or him. where as until is used to express the time before an action takes place. including who or whom and read what is left. sunita dares. c) For indicates period of time with present perfect or perfect continuous tense. Keep the umbrella over your head. Place this cap on the table. Keep this book on the table. date etc. Over suggests at higher position without actual contact. ) and for implies period of time. you can work on it. As long as you remain in the office. they dare. the second person (you) should come first. For examples : I have done nothing since yesterday. he dares. you will get no rest. but She dares to disobey me. he/she. She will go to school from today.

reach. accompany. resemble. so use who ) Rule 33 :Prepositions are not required after such words as: attack. However... (Correct) It is difficult to say that whether he will succeed.(We chose him to be captain. (incorrect) It is difficult to say whether he will succeed. (incorrect) He could not explain why he was late. recommend etc. ( not for the book ) One should not fear death. so use whom ) It was he who we thought would win the prize. what. (correct ) He could no explain that why he was late. c) Do not use because and reason of together. discuss. as to can be used. (incorrect) Nothing can be said when he is expected to arrive. He resigned because of ill-health. Men work so that they may earn living. (modifies resigned) b) To express a cause or a reason use because of and to express a purpose use in order that or so that. why. (Correct) Problems in Conjunctions :Conjunctions are words used to join Both. The reason why he missed his class was because he overslept. which. fear.and Either. shirk. whether. (Correct) In the above sentences that is not required... pervade. whose. ( not on the enemy ) She resembles her mother. violate. ( not with or to her mother ) I have ordered the book. Nothing can be said that when he is expected to arrive. emphasize. ( not from death ) You can request him.. resist. where. when.. (We thought he would win the prize. request. (modifies resigned) She resigned on account of ill-health.. (incorrect) The reason why he missed his class was that he overslept. sentences and clauses together. ( not request to ) Rule 34 :Do not use that with words like how. Rule 35 :Because of/on account of/so that/in order that : a) Because of and on account of introduce adverbial phrases and should modify verbs..or Neither. whom. etc. Note the following conjunctions : As Soon.. For example: He could not explain as to why he was late. precede. They attacked the enemy.nor . join. He missed his class because he overslept.

... This generator is inexpensive. a helping verb must be used before the subject (eg:... yet it is rude of but also of murder..before or when Though.. a concession ) it is followed by yet and not by but.does. It may also mean use of unnecessary adjectives or words that needlessly make the sentence a sort of re-statement by using unwanted words.did etc ) Scarcely did she hear the news when she began to cry. Though he is known to me. Though he is my relative. Though she disallowed me. noiseless and it is easily operated.nor.. I shall not spare him. etc.... a condition contrary to fact. Also. (incorrect) I have written to both their branch office and Head Office.. Not only was he accused of theft. No sooner did the doctor came than she died. Though he might not have recognised me. nouns by nouns.Lest. b) When though is used with a verb in an indicative mood ( expressing a fact or making a statement ) a comma is used in place of yet.or.but also Hardly. (Correct) He would neither study at home nor would he go to school.. (incorrect) This generator is inexpensive... a wish.but also etc ) should be followed by elements in parallel form.. (Correct) Avoid Redundancies :Redundancy refers to the use of more words than necessary to make a statement.when or before Rule 1:When a negative co-relative is used in the beginning of a sentence. No sooner did she heard the news than she wept.. (correct) This course is challenging and an inspiration. yet I will go to her. These type of errors are often seen in written english communication and are not desirable in grammatically correct sentences. subordinate clauses by subordinate clauses.or Scarcely... neither. Note that no sooner is followed by than and not then or when.. Notice below that the words in brackets contribute nothing to the meaning. Avoid such . not only. noiseless and easily operated..yet a) When though is used with a verb in the subjective mood (expressing doubt.yet Whether.should Not only. Express Parallel Ideas in Parallel form ( Parallelism ) :a) Adjectives should be paralleled by adjectives. (incorrect) He would neither study at home nor go to school.. Rule 2:Though. (Correct) b) Correlative conjunctions (either.... (incorrect) This course is challenging and inspiring.. (incorrect) She is proficient not only in desk work but also in marketing (Correct) I have written both to their branch office and Head Office. Redundancy is moderate formality and is restricted almost completely to indicating an excess caused by tautology : redundant phrases like 'essential requisite' or 'fundamental basis'. She is not only proficient in desk work but also in marketing. I shall not favour him.

I just love your bike. 'nothing more than'. 'by' or 'next to' Eg:. 'scarcely' Just can mean 'only'. It is often used to add a stronger. (=very soon after lunch.Besides aerobics. Thanks. it's starting to rain. Eg:.? can make a request seem less demanding. 'scarcely'. Eg:. besides.. I don't like this dress. besides usually goes at the beginning of the clause. Eg:.I'll be down in a minute-I am just completing my lunch. . 'there's no other word for it'.it's too expensive Usage of 'JUST' :1)Time 'Just' often emphasizes the idea of 'at this moment' or 'close to the present'. Could/Can I Just. Harry has just phoned.wordiness or redundancy in your written communication : (important or basic) essentials in (the city of) Ludhiana Co-operated (together) as a (usual) rule (true) facts blue (in colour) small (in size) ten (in number) Beside and Besides :Beside is a preposition meaning 'at the side of'. Eg:... 'just before'.and 'as well'.) 2)'Only'. There was only just enough light to read by.Complete dinner set for just Rs 500/-. with the sense of 'simply'. That's just what I wanted to know.I saw him just after lunch. and 'just when'. I just want somebody to stay with him.You are just amazing. just suggests closeness to the time in question. Could I just use your bicycle? 3)Exactly What is the time by your watch?--It's just 2 o'clock. Eg:. In expressions such as 'just after'. I have to do crunches and push ups.It's too late to go out now. 'in any case'. In this case.Why is the cat sitting beside the chair? Besides is used when we add new information to what is already known. Besides. Eg:. 4)Emphasizer Just can emphasize other words and expressions. Besides can also be used as a discourse marker meaning 'also'. more conclusive argument to what has gone before.

. whether is used.Whether and if :1) Indirect questions Whether and if both introduce indirect questions. Eg:. Eg:-The number of people has increased. Eg:.Three hundred persons were at the party However. IF is used for a conditional idea. Whether is used for an alternative or possibility.Let me know if you'll be coming means that I want to hear from you only if you're coming. "number" can take a singular or a plural form. whether is preferred in two part question with or.We discussed whether we should close the café. when preceded by an article and followed by preposition "of". Eg:. whether is preferred. Alternatively Let me know whether you'll be coming means that I want to hear from you about your plans one way or the other.Whether I’ll have time I’m not sure at the moment. . The expression 'the number of . TAKE 2: Whether is correct when we discuss two options (whether to get chocolate or strawberry ice cream) If is correct for more than two options (if she should get ice cream or a cookie). while 'a number of . A number of people have gone.I’m not sure whether/if I’ll have time. Eg:. Eg:-Greater than 500.More than 1000 fish. Correct: Her client didn’t tell her whether he had sent his payment yet. GREATER THAN VS MORE THAN Greater than is appropriate when describing numbers alone. NONE VS NO ONE . 2. More than should be used when describing the numbers of objects or when making comparisons. Eg:.' is plural. I asked whether/if she had any mails for me. 3. . .The Board Of Directors have not decided whether they will invest or not. Eg:.' is singular. 4)If indirect question is fronted.. 2) After verbs that are more common in formal style. A number of my friends are going to the beach this weekend. The following sentences are both correct: The number of bad movies showing this summer is unbelievable. "number" is singular and the verb that follows "number" will be conjugated singular or plural depending on whether there is a definite or indefinite article in front. 1)A NUMBER VS THE NUMBER As a stand-alone word and as a collective noun. 3)In formal style. Incorrect: Her client didn’t tell her if he had sent his payment yet. Eg:.

Who's is a contraction of who is and who has. No one is always singular Whose and Who's Whose is a possessive word meaning 'of whom/ which'.Good is an adjective and it can only modify nouns and pronouns. AMONG VS BETWEEN between for two things among for more than two.' or 'I feel good'[emphasis added]. the) Meaning: to have an impact on something or someone. If it's something you're going to do.None can be singular or plural. Example: Repairing the radio took a great amount of work.(incorrect) I scored well on my spelling test. affect vs effect: Affect is usually a verb (action) ." If it's something you've already done. act upon. 3) Do you know anybody who's going to America in the next few days? 4) I have got a friend who's never been to Delhi Good or Well? Good and well are often misused. Eg:. AMOUNT VS NUMBER Amount should be used to refer to quantities that cannot be counted or cannot be expressed in terms of a single number. (incorrect) The new car runs well. . use "affect. For example: The noise outside affected my performance. IT’S VS ITS It's with an apostrophe means it is its without an apostrophe means belonging to it. use "effect.effect is usually a noun (thing).It can modify verbs . Meaning: to influence. Well is an adverb .Mainly it is used in posing questions and relative clauses. adjectives and other adverbs.I scored good on my spelling test.(correct) The exception is verbs of sensation in phrases such as 'The pie smells good. or change something or someone." To affect something or someone.(correct) The new car runs good. To have an effect on something or someone !Note: effect is followed by the preposition on and preceded by an article (an. For example: His smile had a strange effect on me. USAGE: 1) Whose is that pen? (NOT Who's is that pen?) 2) It was a decision whose importance was not realized at that time.

” the subject will always be placed after the verb.) Subjects and verbs must agree in number. Example: The dog. Example: A large number of deer ate the corn. (incorrect) The Titanic sank in the Sea.Here are the papers you requested. (correct) Most Unique Opportunity. (incorrect) The Higher we go. (correct) Rich should be kind to poor. who is chewing on my jeans. (correct) .) When sentences start with “there” or “here. 1. (incorrect) Unique opportunity. (correct) Do you know to dance? (incorrect) Do you know how to dance? (correct) Have you bought some apples? (incorrect) Have you bought any apples? (correct) No less than 50 persons killed. (correct) She quickly did the job. The dogs growl when they are angry.) Don’t get confused by the words that come between the subject and verb. 4. (incorrect) It is very hot day. Cooler we feel. they do not affect agreement. Example: The dog growls when he is angry.Number is used for quantities that can be counted. (incorrect) She did the job quickly.) Prepositional phrases between the subject and verb usually do not affect agreement Example: The colors of the rainbow are beautiful. (incorrect) No fewer than 50 persons killed. This is the cornerstone rule that forms the background of the concept. 3. the Cooler we feel. so care needs to be taken to identify it correctly. A list of a few common errors that we make in English Language :The Titanic drowned in the sea. Example: There is a problem with the balance sheet. 2. (incorrect) One must do one's duty. (correct) Higher we go. (correct) It is much hot day. (correct) One must do his duty. is usually very good. (incorrect) The Rich should be kind to the poor.

(incorrect) Word for word translation is not necessary. (incorrect) He lives in a boarding room. (correct) The number of people are small. (correct) I don't know the English alphabets. (correct) A good play of football. (correct) No space in this compartment. (correct) My state of health. (correct) You are wiser than old. (correct) Two third of the book. (correct) He lives in a boarding. (correct) They were counting on me helping them. (correct) The series of lectures were boring. (incorrect) No room in this compartment.The climate of Goa is better than Nagpur. (incorrect) This drawing is perfect than the other one. (incorrect) I don't know the English alphabet. (incorrect) The number of people is small. (incorrect) He behaves as if he were a king. (incorrect) Two thirds of the book. (incorrect) Excuse my being late. (correct) My litter sister goes to the school by bus. (correct) He rarely goes out. (incorrect) The climate of Goa is better than that of Nagpur. (correct) Excuse me being late. (incorrect) He admitted that he was in the wrong. (incorrect) May i take leave of you. (correct) This drawing is more perfect than the other one. (correct) May I take your leave. (correct) Many a man were here. (incorrect) A good game of football. does he? (correct) He admitted that he was in wrong. (incorrect) My little sister goes to school by bus. (correct) . (incorrect) The series of lectures was boring. (correct) Word by word translation is not necessary. (incorrect) Many a man was here. (correct) He behaves as if he was a king. (incorrect) They were counting on my helping them. (incorrect) You are more wise than old. doesn't he? (incorrect) He rarely goes out. (incorrect) The state of my health.

Put pen on paper. (correct) . (incorrect) Put pen to paper.