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Nama : Nazlyatul Fizar bt.

No. Kad Pengenalan : 900530-08-6360

Hand Tools Images

Adjustable Spanner




An adjustable spanner, shifting spanner, shifter, crescent wrench or adjustable-

angle head wrench (American English) is a tool which can be used to loosen or
tighten a nut or bolt. It has a "jaw" (the part into which the nut or bolt goes) which is
of adjustable size, which allows for different size nuts and bolts to be handled by the
same spanner. Compare this to the ordinary spanner which has a fixed size. In France
it is called an "English Key" and in Denmark it is called a "Swedish Key".

There are many forms of adjustable spanners, from the taper locking spanners which
needed a hammer to set the movable jaw to the size of the nut, to the modern screw
adjusted spanner.

There is a class of adjustable that automatically adjust to the size of the nut. The most
modern are digital types that use sheets or feelers to set the size, and other simpler
models that use a serrated edge to lock the movable jaw to size.

It is uncertain who invented the adjustable spanner. Some early spanners were
invented by Edwin Beard Budding (1795–1846) using a screw to replace the wedge
that fixed the jaw of a known type of adjustable spanner, and Johan Petter Johansson
of Sweden in 1892 using a screw to adjust and fix the jaw.[1] Monkey wrenches are
another type of adjustable wrench with a long history; the origin of the name is

Proper Use

The movable jaw should be snugly adjusted to the nut or bolt head in order to prevent
rounding. In addition it's important to ensure that the movable jaw is located on the
side towards which the rotation is to be performed. This reduces the risk of
deformation of the movable jaw or the adjusting mechanism, thus avoiding the
increase of backlash.

This type of wrench should never be used on a rounded off nut, as this can overload
the movable jaw. Nor should the wrench be used "end on" in cramped quarters, where
a socket wrench is more appropriate.

A hammer is a tool meant to deliver an impact to an object. The most common uses
are for driving nails, fitting parts, and breaking up objects. Hammers are often
designed for a specific purpose, and vary widely in their shape and structure. Usual
features are a handle and a head, with most of the weight in the head. The basic
design is hand-operated, but there are also many mechanically operated models for
heavier uses.
The hammer is a basic tool of many professions, and can also be used as a weapon.
By analogy, the name hammer has also been used for devices that are designed to
deliver blows, e.g. in the caplock mechanism of firearms.


The use of simple tools dates to about 2,400,000 BCE when various shaped stones
were used to strike wood, bone, or other stones to and break them apart and shape
them. Stones attached to sticks with strips of leather or animal sinew were being used
as hammers by about 30,000 BCE during the middle of the Paleolithic Stone Age. Its
archeological record means it is perhaps the oldest human tool known.

Design and Variations

The essential part of a hammer is the head, a compact solid mass that is able to deliver
the blow to the intended target without itself deforming.

The opposite side of a ball as in the ball-peen hammer and the cow hammer. Some
upholstery hammers have a magnetized appendage, to pick up tacks. In the hatchet the
hammer head is secondary to the cutting edge of the tool.

In recent years the handles have been made of durable plastic or rubber. The hammer
varies at the top, some are larger than others giving a larger surface area to hit
different sized nails and such,

Popular hand-powered variations include:

• carpenter's hammers (used for nailing), such as the framing hammer and the
claw hammer
• upholstery hammer
• construction hammers, including the sledgehammer
• drilling hammer - a lightweight, short handled sledgehammer
• Ball-peen hammer, or mechanic's hammer
• cross-peen hammer, or Warrington hammer
• mallets, including the rubber hammer and dead blow hammer.
• Splitting maul
• stonemason's hammer
• Geologist's hammer or rock pick
• lump hammer, or club hammer
• gavel, used by judges and presiding authorities in general
• Tinner's Hammer
Mechanically-powered hammers often look quite different from the hand tools, but
nevertheless most of them work on the same principle. They include:

• jackhammer
• steam hammer
• trip hammer
• hammer drill, that combines a jackhammer-like mechanism with a drill

In professional framing carpentry, the hammer has almost been completely replaced
by the nail gun. In professional upholstery, its chief competitor is the staple gun.

Tools use in conjuction with hammer.

• Woodsplitting wedge - hit with a sledgehammer for splitting wood.

• Woodsplitting maul - can be hit with a sledgehammer for splitting wood.
• Masonry star drill
• Chisel
• Punch
• Anvil

The physics of hammer

Hammer as a force amplifier

A hammer is basically a force amplifier that works by converting mechanical work

into kinetic energy and back.

In the swing that precedes each blow, a certain amount of kinetic energy gets stored in
the hammer's head, equal to the length D of the swing times the force f produced by
the muscles of the arm and by gravity. When the hammer strikes, the head gets
stopped by an opposite force coming from the target; which is equal and opposite to
the force applied by the head to the target. If the target is a hard and heavy object, or if
it is resting on some sort of anvil, the head can travel only a very short distance d
before stopping. Since the stopping force F times that distance must be equal to the
head's kinetic energy, it follows that F will be much greater than the original driving
force f — roughly, by a factor D/d. In this way, great strength is not needed to produce
a force strong enough to bend steel, or crack the hardest stone.
Effect of the head's mass

The amount of energy delivered to the target by the hammer-blow is equivalent to one
half the mass of the head times the square of the head's speed at the time of impact (

). While the energy delivered to the target increases linearly with mass, it
increases geometrically with the speed (see the effect of the handle, below). High tech
titanium heads are lighter and allow for longer handles, thus increasing velocity and
delivering more energy with less arm fatigue than that of a steel head hammer of the
same weight. As hammers must be used in many circumstances, where the position of
the person using them cannot be taken for granted, trade-offs are made for the sake of
practicality. In areas where one has plenty of room, a long handle with a heavy head
(like a sledge hammer) can deliver the maximum amount of energy to the target. But
clearly, it's unreasonable to use a sledge hammer to drive upholstery tacks. Thus, the
overall design has been modified repeatedly to achieve the optimum utility in a wide
variety of situations.

Effect of the handle

The handle of the hammer helps in several ways. It keeps the user's hands away from
the point of impact. It provides a broad area that is better-suited for gripping by the
hand. Most importantly, it allows the user to maximize the speed of the head on each
blow. The primary constraint on additional handle length is the lack of space in which
to swing the hammer. This is why sledge hammers, largely used in open spaces, can
have handles that are much longer than a standard carpenter's hammer. The second
most important constraint is more subtle. Even without considering the effects of
fatigue, the longer the handle, the harder it is to guide the head of the hammer to its
target at full speed. Most designs are a compromise between practicality and energy
efficiency. Too long a handle: the hammer is inefficient because it delivers force to the
wrong place, off-target. Too short a handle: the hammer is inefficient because it
doesn't deliver enough force, requiring more blows to complete a given task.
Recently, modifications have also been made with respect to the effect of the hammer
on the user. A titanium head has about 3% recoil and can result in greater efficiency
and less fatigue when compared to a steel head with about 27% recoil. Handles made
of shock-absorbing materials or varying angles attempt to make it easier for the user
to continue to wield this age-old device, even as nail guns and other powered drivers
encroach on its traditional field of use.

The screwdriver is a device specifically designed to insert and tighten, or to loosen

and remove, screws. The screwdriver is made up of a head or tip, which engages with
a screw, a mechanism to apply torque by rotating the tip, and some way to position
and support the screwdriver. A typical hand screwdriver comprises an approximately
cylindrical handle of a size and shape to be held by a human hand, and an axial shaft
fixed to the handle, the tip of which is shaped to fit a particular type of screw. The
handle and shaft allow the screwdriver to be positioned and supported and, when
rotated, to apply torque. Screwdrivers are made in a variety of shapes, and the tip can
be rotated manually or by an electric or other motor.

A screw has a head with a contour such that an appropriate screwdriver tip can be
engaged in it in such a way that the application of sufficient torque to the screwdriver
will cause the screw to rotate.


Gunsmiths still refer to a screwdriver as a "turnscrew", under which name it is an

important part of a set of pistols. The name was common in earlier centuries, used by
cabinet makers and shipwrights and perhaps other trades.

The Cabinet-Maker's screwdriver is one of the longest-established handle forms,

somewhat oval or elipsoid in cross section. This is variously attributed to improving
grip or preventing the tool rolling off the bench, but there is no reason to suppose
these are not rationalisations. The shape has been popular for a couple of hundred
years. It is usually associated with a plain head for slotted screws, but has been used
with many head forms.
Types and Variations

There are many types of screw heads, of which the most common are the slotted,
Phillips, PoziDriv/SupaDriv (crosspoint), Robertson, TORX, and Allen (hex).

Screwdrivers come in a large variety of sizes to match those of screws, from tiny
jeweler's screwdrivers up.

If a screwdriver that is not the right size and type for the screw is used, it is likely that
the screw will be damaged in the process of tightening it. This is less important for
PoziDriv and SupaDriv, which are designed specifically to be more tolerant of size
mismatch. When tightening a screw with force, it is important to press the head hard
into the screw, again to avoid damaging the screw.

Some manual screwdrivers have a ratchet action whereby the screwdriver blade is
locked to the handle for clockwise rotation, but uncoupled for counterclockwise
rotation when set for tightening screws; and vice versa for loosening.

Many screwdriver designs have a handle with detachable head (the part of the
screwdriver which engages with the screw), called bits as with drill bits, allowing a
set of one handle and several heads to be used for a variety of screw sizes and types.
This kind of design has allowed the development of electrically powered
screwdrivers, which, as the name suggests, use an electric motor to rotate the bit. In
such cases the terminology for power drills is used, e.g. "shank" or "collet". Some
drills can also be fitted with screwdriver heads.

Manual screw drivers with a spiral ratchet mechanism to turn pressure (linear
motion) into rotational motion also exist, and predate electric screwdrivers. The user
pushes the handle toward the workpiece, causing a pawl in a spiral groove to rotate
the shank and the removable bit. The ratchet can be set to rotate left or right with each
push, or can be locked so that the tool can be used like a conventional screwdriver.
Once very popular, these spiral ratchet drivers, using proprietary bits, have been
largely discontinued by manufacturers such as Stanley, although one can still find
them at vintage tool auctions. Companies such as Lara Specialty Tools now offer a
modernized version that uses standard 1/4-inch hex shank power tool bits. Since a
variety of drill bits are available in this format, it allows the tool to do double duty as
a push drill.
A number of screwdrivers used to remove faulty electronics from a laptop computer

Many modern electrical appliances, if they contain screws at all, use screws with
heads other than the typical slotted or Phillips styles. TORX is one such pattern that
has become very widespread. The main cause of this trend is manufacturing
efficiency: TORX and other types are designed so the driver will not slip out of the
fastener as will a Phillips driver. (Slotted screws are rarely used in mass-produced
devices, since the driver is not inherently centered on the fastener). A
benefit/disadvantage of non-typical fasteners (depending on your point of view) is
that it can be more difficult for users of a device to disassemble it than if more-
common head types were used, but TORX and other drivers are widely available.
Specialized patterns of security screws are also used, such as the Gamebit head style
used in all Nintendo consoles, though drivers for most security heads are, again,
readily available.

While screwdrivers are designed for the above functions, they are commonly also
used as improvised substitutes for pry bars, levers, and hole punches, as well as other

There is no such thing as a "left-handed screwdriver", as the device can easily be

wielded in either hand. To be sent on an errand to find a left-handed screwdriver is
often a test of stupidity, or is used as a metaphor for something useless. The term
"Birmingham screwdriver" is used jokingly in the UK to denote a hammer or

The handle and shaft of screwdrivers have changed considerably over time. The
design is influenced by both purpose and manufacturing requirements. The "Perfect
Handle" screwdriver was first manufactured by HD Smith & Company that operated
from 1850 to 1900. Many manufacturers adopted this handle design world wide. The
"Flat Bladed" screwdriver was another design composed of drop forged steel with
riveted wood handles?

Among slotted screwdrivers, there are a couple of major variations at the blade or bit
end involving the profile of the blade as viewed face-on. The more common type is
sometimes referred to as keystone, where the blade profile is slightly flared before
tapering off at the end. To maximize access in space-restricted applications, the same
edges for the cabinet variety, in contrast, are straight and parallel, meeting the end of
the blade at a right angle.

BLOW Moulding Machines

Laser Cutting

MILLING Machines
Blow Moulding

Blow molding, also known as blow forming, is a manufacturing process by which

hollow plastic parts are formed. In general, there are three main types of blow
molding: extrusion blow molding, injection blow molding, and stretch blow molding.
The blow molding process begins with melting down the plastic and forming it into a
parison or preform. The parison is a tube-like piece of plastic with a hole in one end in
which compressed air can pass through.

The parison is then clamped into a mold and air is pumped into it. The air pressure
then pushes the plastic out to match the mold. Once the plastic has cooled and
hardened the mold opens up and the part is ejected.

Extrusion blow moulding

In extrusion blow molding (EBM), plastic is melted and extruded into a hollow tube
(a parison). This parison is then captured by closing it into a cooled metal mold. Air is
then blown into the parison, inflating it into the shape of the hollow bottle, container
or part. After the plastic has cooled sufficiently, the mold is opened and the part is
ejected. Continuous and Intermittent are two variations of Extrusion Blow Molding.
In Continuous Extrusion Blow Molding the parison is extruded continuously and the
individual parts are cut off by the mold. In Intermittent or Accumulator Method, an
accumulator gathers melted plastic and when the previous mold has cooled and
enough plastic has accumulated, a rod pushes the melted plastic and forms the

EBM processes may be either continuous (constant extrusion of the parison) or

intermittent. Types of EBM equipment may be categorized as follows:

Continuous extrusion equipment

• rotary wheel blow molding systems

• shuttle machinery

Intermittent extrusion machinery

• reciprocating screw machinery

• accumulator head machinery

Examples of parts made by the EBM process include dairy containers, shampoo
bottles, hoses/pipes, and hollow industrial parts such as drums.

Injection blow moulding

The process of injection blow molding (IBM) is used for the production of hollow
glass and plastic objects in large quantities. In the IBM process, the polymer is
injection molded onto a core pin; then the core pin is rotated to a blow molding station
to be inflated and cooled. This is the least-used of the three blow molding processes,
and is typically used to make small medical and single serve bottles. The process is
divided into three steps: injection, blowing and ejection
The injection blow molding machine is based on an extruder barrel and screw
assembly which melts the polymer. The molten polymer is fed into a manifold where
it is injected through nozzles into a hollow, heated preform mold. The preform mold
forms the external shape and is clamped around a mandrel (the core rod) which forms
the internal shape of the preform. The preform consists of a fully formed bottle/jar
neck with a thick tube of polymer attached, which will form the body.

The preform mold opens and the core rod is rotated and clamped into the hollow,
chilled blow mold. The core rod opens and allows compressed air into the preform,
which inflates it to the finished article shape.

After a cooling period the blow mold opens and the core rod is rotated to the ejection
position. The finished article is stripped off the core rod and leak-tested prior to
packing. The preform and blow mold can have many cavities, typically three to
sixteen depending on the article size and the required output. There are three sets of
core rods, which allow concurrent preform injection, blow molding and ejection.

Strecth blow moulding

In the stretch blow molding (SBM) process, the plastic is first molded into a
"preform" using the injection molded process. These preforms are produced with the
necks of the bottles, including threads (the "finish") on one end. These preforms are
packaged, and fed later (after cooling) into an EBM blow molding machine. In the
SBM process, the preforms are heated (typically using infrared heaters) above their
glass transition temperature, then blown using high pressure air into bottles using
metal blow molds. Usually the preform is stretched with a core rod as part of the
process. The stretching of some polymers, such as PET (Polyethylene terephthalate)
results in strain hardening of the resin, allowing the bottles to resist deforming under
the pressures formed by carbonated beverages, which typically approach 60 psi.The
main applications are bottles, jars and other containers.

Advantages of blow molding include: low tool and die cost; fast production rates;
ability to mold complex part; produces recyclable parts

Disadvantages of blow molding include: limited to hollow parts, wall thickness is

hard to control.

History of blow moulding

There has been evidence found suggesting that Egyptians and Babylonians blew
plastic materials, but Enoch Ferngren and William Kopitke were the first verified
people who used the Blow Molding Process. The process principle comes from the
idea of blowing glass. Ferngren and Kopitke produced a blow molding machine and
sold it to Hartford Empire Company in 1937. This was the beginning of the
commercial blow molding process. During the 1940s the variety and amount of
products were still very limited and therefore blow molding did not take off until later.
Once the variety and production rates went up the amount of products created
followed soon there after. In the United States soft drink industry the amount of
plastic containers went from zero in 1977 to ten Billion in 1999. Today even a greater
amount of products are blown and it is expected to keep increasing.
Laser Cutting

Laser cutting is a technology that uses a laser programmed by a computer to cut

materials, which is used in the production line and is typically used for industrial
manufacturing applications. Laser cutting works by directing the output of a high
power laser, by computer, at the material to be cut. The material then either melts,
burns, vaporizes away, or is blown away by a jet of gas, leaving an edge with a high
quality surface finish. Industrial laser cutters are used to cut flat-sheet material as well
as structural and piping materials.

Comparison to mechanical cutting

Advantages of laser cutting over mechanical cutting vary according to the situation,
but two important factors are the lack of physical contact (since there is no cutting
edge which can become contaminated by the material or contaminate the material),
and to some extent precision (since there is no wear on the laser). There is also a
reduced chance of warping the material that is being cut, as laser systems have a small
heat-affected zone. Some materials are also very difficult or impossible to cut by more
traditional means. One of the disadvantages of laser cutting includes the high energy


Both gaseous CO2 and solid-state Nd:YAG lasers are used for cutting, in addition to
welding, drilling, surface treatment, and marking applications.[2]

Common variants of CO2 lasers include fast axial flow, slow axial flow, transverse
flow, and slab.

CO2 lasers are commonly "pumped" by passing a current through the gas mix (DC
Excited) or using radio frequency energy (RF excited). The RF method is newer and
has become more popular. Since DC designs require electrodes inside the cavity, they
can encounter electrode erosion and plating of electrode material on glassware and
optics. Since RF resonators have external electrodes they are not prone to those

In addition to the power source, the type of gas flow can affect performance as well.
In a fast axial flow resonator, the mixture of carbon dioxide, helium and nitrogen is
circulated at high velocity by a turbine or blower. Transverse flow lasers circulate the
gas mix at a lower velocity, requiring a simpler blower. Slab or diffusion cooled
resonators have a static gas field that requires no pressurization or glassware, leading
to savings on replacement turbines and glassware.

Laser cutters usually work much like a milling machine would for working a sheet in
that the laser (equivalent to the mill) enters through the side of the sheet and cuts it
through the axis of the beam. In order to be able to start cutting from somewhere else
than the edge, a pierce is done before every cut. Piercing usually involves a high
power pulsed laser beam which slowly (taking around 5-15 seconds for half-inch
thick stainless steel, for example) makes a hole in the material.

There are many different methods in cutting using lasers, with different types used to
cut different material. Some of the methods are vaporization, melt and blow, melt
blow and burn, thermal stress cracking, scribing, cold cutting and burning stabilized
laser cutting.

Vaporization cutting

In vaporization cutting the focused beam heats the surface of the material to boiling
point and generates a keyhole. The keyhole leads to a sudden increase in absorptivity
quickly deepening the hole. As the hole deepens and the material boils, vapor
generated erodes the molten walls blowing ejecta out and further enlarging the hole.
Non melting material such as wood, carbon and thermoset plastics are usually cut by
this method.

Melt and blow

Melt and blow or fusion cutting uses high pressure gas to blow molten material from
the cutting area, greatly decreasing the power requirement. First the material is heated
to melting point then a gas jet blows the molten material out of the kerf avoiding the
need to raise the temperature of the material any further. Materials cut with this
process are usually metals.

Thermal stress cracking

Brittle materials are particularly sensitive to thermal fracture, a feature exploited in

thermal stress cracking. A beam is focused on the surface causing localized heating
and thermal expansion. This results in a crack that can then be guided by moving the
beam. The crack can be moved in order of m/s. It is usually used in cutting of glass.

Burning stabilized laser gas cutting

Burning stabilized laser cutting is essentially oxygen cutting but with a laser beam as
the ignition source. This process can be used to cut very thick steel plates with
relatively little laser power.
Machine configurations

There are generally three different configurations of industrial laser cutting machines:
Moving material, Hybrid, and Flying Optics systems. These refer to way that the laser
beam is moved over the material to be cut or processed. For all of these, the axes of
motion are typically designated X and Y. axis. If the cutting head may be controlled, it
is designated as the Z-axis.

Moving material lasers have a stationary cutting head and move the material under it.
This method provides a constant distance from the laser generator to the workpiece
and a single point from which to remove cutting effluent. It requires fewer optics, but
requires moving the workpiece.

Hybrid lasers provide a table which moves in one axis (usually the X-axis) and move
the head along the shorter (Y) axis. This results in a more constant beam delivery path
length than a flying optic machine and may permit a simpler beam delivery system.
This can result in reduced power loss in the delivery system and more capacity per
watt than flying optics machines.

Flying optics lasers feature a stationary table and a cutting head (with laser beam) that
moves over the work piece in both of the horizontal dimensions. Flying-optics cutters
keep the workpiece stationary during processing, and often don't require material
clamping. The moving mass is constant, so dynamics aren't affected by varying size
and thickness of workpiece. Flying optics machines are the fastest class of machines,
with higher accelerations and peak velocities than hybrid or moving material systems.

Dual Pallet Flying Optics Laser

Flying optic machines must use some method to take

into account the changing beam length from near field
(close to resonator) cutting to far field (far away from
resonator) cutting. Common methods for controlling this include collimation, adaptive
optics or the use of a constant beam length axis.

The above is written about X-Y systems for cutting flat materials. The same
discussion applies to five and six-axis machines, which permit cutting formed
workpieces. In addition, there are various methods of orienting the laser beam to a
shaped workpiece, maintaining a proper focus distance and nozzle standoff, etc.

Milling machines
A milling machine is a machine tool used for the shaping of metal and other solid
materials. Its basic form is that of a rotating cutter which rotates about the spindle axis
(similar to a drill), and a table to which the workpiece is affixed. In contrast to
drilling, where the drill is moved exclusively along its axis, the milling operation
involves movement of the rotating cutter sideways as well as 'in and out'. The cutter
and workpiece move relative to each other, generating a toolpath along which material
is removed. The movement is precisely controlled, usually with slides and leadscrews
or analogous technology. Often the movement is achieved by moving the table while
the cutter rotates in one place, but regardless of how the parts of the machine slide, the
result that matters is the relative motion between cutter and workpiece. Milling
machines may be manually operated, mechanically automated, or digitally automated
via computer numerical control (CNC).

Milling machines can perform a vast number of operations, some of them with quite
complex toolpaths, such as slot cutting, planing, drilling, diesinking, rebating, routing,
etc. Cutting fluid is often pumped to the cutting site to cool and lubricate the cut, and
to sluice away the resulting swarf

Types of milling machines

There are many ways to classify milling machines, depending on which criteria are
the focus:
Example classification
Criterion Comments
Manual; In the CNC era, a very basic distinction is manual
Mechanically automated via versus CNC.
Control cams; Among manual machines, a worthwhile distinction is
Digitally automated via
NC/CNC non-DRO-equipped versus DRO-equipped

Number of axes (e.g., 3-axis, 4-

axis, or more);
Within this scheme, also:

• Pallet-changing
Control (specifically
versus non-pallet-
among CNC

• Full-auto tool-
changing versus semi-
auto or manual tool-
Spindle axis Vertical versus horizontal; Among vertical mills, "Bridgeport-style" is a whole
orientation Turret versus non-turret class of mills inspired by the Bridgeport original
General-purpose versus
Purpose special-purpose or single-
Toolroom machine versus
Purpose Overlaps with above
production machine
A distinction whose meaning evolved over decades as
technology progressed, and overlaps with other purpose
Purpose "Plain" versus "universal"
classifications above; more historical interest than
Micro, mini, benchtop,
Size standing on floor, large, very
large, gigantic
Line-shaft-drive versus Most line-shaft-drive machines, ubiquitous circa 1880-
individual electric motor drive 1930, have been scrapped by now
Power source
Hand-crank-power versus Hand-cranked not used in industry but suitable for
electric hobbyist micromills

Comparing vertical with horizontal

In the vertical mill the spindle axis is vertically oriented. Milling cutters are held in
the spindle and rotate on its axis. The spindle can generally be extended (or the table
can be raised/lowered, giving the same effect), allowing plunge cuts and drilling.
There are two subcategories of vertical mills: the bedmill and the turret mill. Turret
mills, like the ubiquitous Bridgeport, are generally smaller than bedmills, and are
considered by some to be more versatile. In a turret mill the spindle remains
stationary during cutting operations and the table is moved both perpendicular to and
parallel to the spindle axis to accomplish cutting. In the bedmill, however, the table
moves only perpendicular to the spindle's axis, while the spindle itself moves parallel
to its own axis. Also of note is a lighter machine, called a mill-drill. It is quite popular
with hobbyists, due to its small size and lower price. These are frequently of lower
quality than other types of machines, however.

A horizontal mill has the same sort of x–y table, but the cutters are mounted on a
horizontal arbor across the table. A majority of horizontal mills also feature a +15/-15
degree rotary table that allows milling at shallow angles. While endmills and the other
types of tools available to a vertical mill may be used in a horizontal mill, their real
advantage lies in arbor-mounted cutters, called side and face mills, which have a cross
section rather like a circular saw, but are generally wider and smaller in diameter.
Because the cutters have good support from the arbor, quite heavy cuts can be taken,
enabling rapid material removal rates. These are used to mill grooves and slots. Plain
mills are used to shape flat surfaces. Several cutters may be ganged together on the
arbor to mill a complex shape of slots and planes. Special cutters can also cut grooves,
bevels, radii, or indeed any section desired. These specialty cutters tend to be
expensive. Simplex mills have one spindle, and duplex mills have two. It is also easier
to cut gears on a horizontal mill.
A miniature hobbyist mill plainly showing the basic parts of a mill.

Other milling machine variants and terminology

• Box or column mills are very basic hobbyist bench-mounted milling machines
that feature a head riding up and down on a column or box way.
• Turret or vertical ram mills are more commonly referred to as Bridgeport-type
milling machines. The spindle can be aligned in many different positions for a
very versatile, if somewhat less rigid machine.
• Knee mill or knee-and-column mill refers to any milling machine whose x-y
table rides up and down the column on a vertically adjustable knee. This
includes Bridgeports.
• C-Frame mills are larger, industrial production mills. They feature a knee and
fixed spindle head that is only mobile vertically. They are typically much more
powerful than a turret mill, featuring a separate hydraulic motor for integral
hydraulic power feeds in all directions, and a twenty to fifty horsepower
motor. Backlash eliminators are almost always standard equipment. They use
large NMTB 40 or 50 tooling. The tables on C-frame mills are usually 18" by
68" or larger, to allow multiple parts to be machined at the same time.
• Planer-style mills are large mills built in the same configuration as planers
except with a milling spindle instead of a planing head. This term is growing
dated as planers themselves are largely a thing of the past.
• Bed mill refers to any milling machine where the spindle is on a pendant that
moves up and down to move the cutter into the work. These are generally
more rigid than a knee mill.
• Ram type mill refers to a mill that has a swiveling cutting head mounted on a
sliding ram. The spindle can be oriented either vertically or horizontally, or
anywhere in between. Van Norman specialized in ram type mills through most
of the 20th century, but since the advent of CNC machines ram type mills are
no longer made.
• Jig borers are vertical mills that are built to bore holes, and very light slot or
face milling. They are typically bed mills with a long spindle throw. The beds
are more accurate, and the handwheels are graduated down to .0001" for
precise hole placement.
• Horizontal boring mills are large, accurate bed horizontal mills that
incorporate many features from various machine tools. They are
• predominantly used to create large manufacturing jigs, or to modify large, high
precision parts. They have a spindle stroke of several (usually between four
and six) feet, and many are equipped with a tailstock to perform very long
boring operations without losing accuracy as the bore increases in depth. A
typical bed would have X and Y travel, and be between three and four feet
square with a rotary table or a larger rectangle without said table. The pendant
usually has between four and eight feet in vertical movement. Some mills have
a large (30" or more) integral facing head. Right angle rotary tables and
vertical milling attachments are available to further increase productivity.
• Floor mills have a row of rotary tables, and a horizontal pendant spindle
mounted on a set of tracks that runs parallel to the table row. These mills have
predominantly been converted to CNC, but some can still be found (if one can
even find a used machine available) under manual control. The spindle
carriage moves to each individual table, performs the machining operations,
and moves to the next table while the previous table is being set up for the
next operation. Unlike any other kind of mill, floor mills have floor units that
are entirely movable. A crane will drop massive rotary tables , X-Y tables , and
the like into position for machining, allowing the largest and most complex
custom milling operations to take place.
• Portical mills It has the spindle mounted in a T structure

Computer numerical control

Thin wall milling of aluminum using a water based coolant on the milling cutter

Most CNC milling machines (also called machining centers) are computer controlled
vertical mills with the ability to move the spindle vertically along the Z-axis. This
extra degree of freedom permits their use in diesinking, engraving applications, and
2.5D surfaces such as relief sculptures. When combined with the use of conical tools
or a ball nose cutter, it also significantly improves milling precision without
impacting speed, providing a cost-efficient alternative to most flat-surface hand-
engraving work.
Five-axis machining center with rotating table and computer interface

CNC machines can exist in virtually any of the forms of manual machinery, like
horizontal mills. The most advanced CNC milling-machines, the 5-axis machines, add
two more axes in addition to the three normal axes (XYZ). Horizontal milling
machines also have a C or Q axis, allowing the horizontally mounted workpiece to be
rotated, essentially allowing asymmetric and eccentric turning. The fifth axis (B axis)
controls the tilt of the tool itself. When all of these axes are used in conjunction with
each other, extremely complicated geometries, even organic geometries such as a
human head can be made with relative ease with these machines. But the skill to
program such geometries is beyond that of most operators. Therefore, 5-axis milling
machines are practically always programmed with CAM.

With the declining price of computers, free operating systems such as Linux, and open
source CNC software, the entry price of CNC machines has plummeted. For example,
Sherline, Prazi, and others make desktop CNC milling machines that are affordable by

High speed steel with cobalt endmills used for cutting operations in a milling

Milling machine tooling

There is some degree of standardization of the tooling used with CNC Milling
Machines and to a much lesser degree with manual milling machines.

CNC Milling machines will nearly always use SK (or ISO), CAT, BT or HSK tooling.
SK tooling is the most common in Europe, while CAT tooling, sometimes called V-
Flange Tooling, is the oldest variation and is probably still the most common in the
USA. CAT tooling was invented by Caterpillar Inc. of Peoria, Illinois in order to
standardize the tooling used on their machinery. CAT tooling comes in a range of
sizes designated as CAT-30, CAT-40, CAT-50, etc. The number refers to the
Association for Manufacturing Technology (formerly the National Machine Tool
Builders Association (NMTB)) Taper size of the tool.
CAT-40 Toolholder

An improvement on CAT Tooling is BT Tooling, which looks very similar and can
easily be confused with CAT tooling. Like CAT Tooling, BT Tooling comes in a range
of sizes and uses the same NMTB body taper. However, BT tooling is symmetrical
about the spindle axis, which CAT tooling is not. This gives BT tooling greater
stability and balance at high speeds. One other subtle difference between these two
toolholders is the thread used to hold the pull stud. CAT Tooling is all Imperial thread
and BT Tooling is all Metric thread. Note that this affects the pull stud only, it does
not affect the tool that they can hold, both types of tooling are sold to accept both
Imperial and metric sized tools.

SK and HSK tooling, sometimes called "Hollow Shank Tooling", is much more
common in Europe where it was invented than it is in the United States. It is claimed
that HSK tooling is even better than BT Tooling at high speeds. The holding
mechanism for HSK tooling is placed within the (hollow) body of the tool and, as
spindle speed increases, it expands, gripping the tool more tightly with increasing
spindle speed. There is no pull stud with this type of tooling.

The situation is quite different for manual milling machines — there is little
standardization. Newer and larger manual machines usually use NMTB tooling. This
tooling is somewhat similar to CAT tooling but requires a drawbar within the milling
machine. Furthermore, there are a number of variations with NMTB tooling that make
interchangeability troublesome.
Boring head on Morse Taper Shank

Two other tool holding systems for manual machines are worthy of note: They are the
R8 collet and the Morse Taper #2 collet. Bridgeport Machines of Bridgeport,
Connecticut so dominated the milling machine market for such a long time that their
machine "The Bridgeport" is virtually synonymous with "Manual milling machine."
The bulk of the machines that Bridgeport made from about 1965 onward used an R8
collet system. Prior to that, the bulk of the machines used a Morse Taper #2 collet

As an historical footnote: Bridgeport is now owned by Hardinge Brothers of Elmira,

New York.