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ALATAN TANGAN DAN MESIN
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LASER CUTYING MACHINE
Pliers in the general sense are an ancient and simple invention, no singular point in history or singular
inventer can be credited. Early metal working processes from several millenia BC would have required pliers like devices to handle hot materials in the process of smithing or casting. Development from wooden to bronze pliers like tools would have probably happened sometime prior to 3000 BC. Among the oldest illustrations of pliers are those showing the Greek god Hephaestus in his smithy. Today, pliers intended principally to be used for safely handling hot objects are usually called tongs. The number of different designs of pliers grew with the invention of the different objects which they were used to handle: horse shoes, fasteners, wire, pipes, electrical and electronic components.
The basic design of pliers has changed little since their origins, with the pair of handles, the pivot (often formed by a rivet), and the head section with the gripping jaws or cutting edges forming the three
elements. In distinction to a pair of scissors or shears, the plier's jaws always meet each other at one pivot angle.
Pliers are an instrument that convert a power grip—the curling of the fingers into the palm of the hand— into a precision grip, directing the power of the hand's grip in a precise fashion on to the objects to be gripped. The handles are long relative to the shorter nose of the pliers. The two arms thus act as first class levers with a mechanical advantage, increasing the force applied by the hand's grip and concentrating it on the work piece.
The materials used to make pliers consist mainly of steel alloys with additives such as vanadium or
chromium, to improve alloy strength and prevent corrosion. Often pliers have insulated grips to ensure better handling and prevent electrical conductivity. In some lines of fine work (such as jewellery or musical instrument repair), some specialised pliers feature a layer of comparitively soft metal (such as brass) over the two plates of the head of the pliers to reduce pressure placed on some fine tools or materials. Making entire pliers out of softer metals would be impractical, reducing the strength
required to break or bend them.
Slip joint pliers
Diagonal pliers or side cutters
Lineman's pliers or combination Pincers pliers
Electrical wire stripping and terminal crimping pliers Crimptool for N, R-SMA, TNC connectors for RG174, RG58 and HDF/LMR200 Heavy duty crimping pliers with interchangeable RJ heads.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Screwdriver (disambiguation).
A flathead screwdriver
Other names Classification Types Related
Turnscrew Hand tool See shape chart below Hex key Wrench
The screwdriver is a device specifically designed to insert and tighten, or to loosen and remove,
screws. The screwdriver is made up of a head or tip, which engages with a screw, a mechanism to apply torque by rotating the tip, and some way to position and support the screwdriver. A typical hand screwdriver comprises an approximately cylindrical handle of a size and shape to be held by a human hand, and an axial shaft fixed to the handle, the tip of which is shaped to fit a particular type of screw. The handle and shaft allow the screwdriver to be positioned and supported and, when rotated, to apply torque. Screwdrivers are made in a variety of shapes, and the tip can be rotated manually or by an electric or other motor.
A screw has a head with a contour such that an appropriate screwdriver tip can be engaged in it in such a way that the application of sufficient torque to the screwdriver will cause the screw to rotate.
Stanley Yankee No 130A, spiral or ratchet screwdriver.
A rechargeable battery-powered electric screwdriver from Black & Decker
Gunsmiths still refer to a screwdriver as a "turnscrew", under which name it is an important part of a set of pistols. The name was common in earlier centuries, used by cabinet makers and shipwrights and perhaps other trades. The Cabinet-Maker's screwdriver is one of the longest-established handle forms, somewhat oval or
elipsoid in cross section. This is variously attributed to improving grip or preventing the tool rolling off the bench, but there is no reason to suppose these are not rationalisations. The shape has been popular for a couple of hundred years. It is usually associated with a plain head for slotted screws, but has been used with many head forms.
TYPE OF VARIATION There are many types of screw heads, of which the most common are the slotted, Phillips, PoziDriv/SupaDriv (crosspoint), Robertson, TORX, and Allen (hex). Screwdrivers come in a large variety of sizes to match those of screws, from tiny jeweler's screwdrivers up. If a screwdriver that is not the right size and type for the screw is used, it is likely that the screw will be damaged in the process of tightening it. This is less important for PoziDriv and SupaDriv, which are designed specifically to be more tolerant of size mismatch. When tightening a screw with force, it is important to press the head hard into the screw, again to avoid damaging the screw.
Jeweler's screwdriver set Some manual screwdrivers have a ratchet action whereby the screwdriver blade is locked to the handle for clockwise rotation, but uncoupled for counterclockwise rotation when set for tightening screws; and vice versa for loosening. Many screwdriver designs have a handle with detachable head (the part of the screwdriver which engages with the screw), called bits as with drill bits, allowing a set of one handle and several heads to
be used for a variety of screw sizes and types. This kind of design has allowed the development of electrically powered screwdrivers, which, as the name suggests, use an electric motor to rotate the bit. In such cases the terminology for power drills is used, e.g. "shank" or "collet". Some drills can also be fitted with screwdriver heads. Manual screw drivers with a spiral ratchet mechanism to turn pressure (linear motion) into rotational motion also exist, and predate electric screwdrivers. The user pushes the handle toward the workpiece, causing a pawl in a spiral groove to rotate the shank and the removable bit. The ratchet can be set to rotate left or right with each push, or can be locked so that the tool can be used like a conventional screwdriver. Once very popular, these spiral ratchet drivers, using proprietary bits, have been largely discontinued by manufacturers such as Stanley, although one can still find them at vintage tool auctions. Companies such as Lara Specialty Tools now offer a modernized version that uses standard 1/4-inch hex shank power tool bits. Since a variety of drill bits are available in this format, it allows the tool to do double duty as
a push drill.
A number of screwdrivers used to remove faulty electronics from a laptop computer Many modern electrical appliances, if they contain screws at all, use screws with heads other than the
typical slotted or Phillips styles. TORX is one such pattern that has become very widespread. The main cause of this trend is manufacturing efficiency: TORX and other types are designed so the driver will not slip out of the fastener as will a Phillips driver. (Slotted screws are rarely used in mass-produced devices, since the driver is not inherently centered on the fastener). A benefit/disadvantage of non-typical
fasteners (depending on your point of view) is that it can be more difficult for users of a device to disassemble it than if more-common head types were used, but TORX and other drivers are widely available. Specialized patterns of security screws are also used, such as the Gamebit head style used in all Nintendo consoles, though drivers for most security heads are, again, readily available. While screwdrivers are designed for the above functions, they are commonly also used as improvised substitutes for pry bars, levers, and hole punches, as well as other tools. There is no such thing as a "left-handed screwdriver", as the device can easily be wielded in either hand. To be sent on an errand to find a left-handed screwdriver is often a test of stupidity, or is used as a metaphor for something useless. The term "Birmingham screwdriver" is used jokingly in the UK to denote a hammer or sledgehammer. The handle and shaft of screwdrivers have changed considerably over time. The design is influenced by both purpose and manufacturing requirements. The "Perfect Handle" screwdriver was first manufactured by HD Smith & Company that operated from 1850 to 1900. Many manufacturers adopted this handle design world wide. The "Flat Bladed" screwdriver was another design composed of drop forged steel with riveted wood handles? Among slotted screwdrivers, there are a couple of major variations at the blade or bit end involving the profile of the blade as viewed face-on. The more common type is sometimes referred to as keystone, where the blade profile is slightly flared before tapering off at the end. To maximize access in space-restricted applications, the same edges for the cabinet variety, in contrast, are straight and parallel, meeting the end of the blade at a right angle.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the implement. For the film series, see Saw (franchise). For other uses, see Saw (disambiguation).
A crosscut hand saw about 620 mm long
Cutting Hand saw Back saw Bow saw Circular saw Reciprocating saw Band saw Milling cutter
A saw is a tool that uses a hard blade or wire with an abrasive edge to cut through softer materials. The
cutting edge of a saw is either a serrated blade or an abrasive. A saw may be worked by hand, or powered by steam, water, electric or other power.
In a modern serrated saw, each tooth is bent to a precise angle called its "set". The set of the teeth is determined by the kind of cut the saw is intended to make. For example, a "rip saw" has a tooth set that is similar to the angle used on a chisel. The idea is to have the teeth rip or tear the material apart. Some teeth are usually splayed slightly to each side the blade, so that the cut width (kerf) is wider than the blade itself and the blade does not bind in the cut.
An abrasive saw uses an abrasive disc or band for cutting, rather than a serrated blade. According to Chinese tradition, the saw was invented by Lu Ban. In Greek mythology, Talos, the nephew of Daedalos, invented the saw. In fact, saws date back to prehistory, and likely evolved from Neolithic tools or bone tools. The early ancestors of man, in the Pleistocene era, likely first used a jaw bone of 5 bovid animals as a saw.
TYPE OF SAW BLADES AND THE CUT THEY MAKES
Blade teeth are of two general types: Tool steel or carbide. Carbide is harder and holds a sharp edge much longer. Crosscut In woodworking, a cut made at (or near) a right angle to the direction of the grain of the workpiece. A crosscutder saw is used to make this type of cut. Rip cut In woodworking, a cut made parallel to the direction of the grain of the workpiece. A rip saw is used to make this type of cut. Plytooth A circular saw blade with many small teeth designed for cutting plywood with minimal splintering. Dado blade A special type of circular saw blade used for making wide grooved cuts in wood so the edge of another piece of wood will fit into the groove to make a joint. Dado blades can make different width grooves by addition or removal of chipper blades of various widths between the outer sadaio blades. This first type is called a stacked dado blade. There is another type of dado blade capable of cutting variable width groove. Das. An adjustable dado utilizes a movable locking cam mechanism which causes the blade to wobble sideways more or less. This allows continuously variable groove width from the lower to upper design limits of the dado.
MATERIALS USED FOR SAW
There are several materials used in saws, with each of its own specifications. Brass Mostly used in back saws because of its low price, its flow characteristics that make the material relatively easy to cast, and unlike other types of saw, the forces that take place in back saws are relatively low because of the pulling motion used.
Used in almost every existing kind of saw. Because steel is cheap, easy to shape, and very strong, it has the right properties for most kind of saws. Diamond Used only in saws for the really heavy cutting. It is very expensive and comes in two shapes: ropes and circular saws. Mostly used for cutting concrete and other materials with rock-like structures or in softer materials, such as wood, where the precision and high volume of work justifies the expense of diamond-edged cutting tools. Diamond saws are made by combining powder metal with diamond crystals, which are then heated and pressed into a molding to form the diamond segments.
A milling machine is a machine tool used for the shaping of metal and other solid materials. Its basic form is that of a rotating cutter which rotates about the spindle axis (similar to a drill), and a table to which the workpiece is affixed. In contrast to drilling, where the drill is moved exclusively along its axis, the milling operation involves movement of the rotating cutter sideways as well as 'in and out'. The cutter and workpiece move relative to each other, generating a toolpath along which material is removed. The movement is precisely controlled, usually with slides and
leadscrews or analogous technology. Often the movement is achieved by moving the table while the cutter rotates in one place, but regardless of how the parts of the machine slide, the result that matters is the relative motion between cutter and workpiece. Milling machines may be manually operated, mechanically automated, or digitally automated via computer numerical control (CNC). Milling machines can perform a vast number of operations, some of them with quite complex toolpaths, such as slot cutting, planing, drilling, diesinking, rebating, routing, etc. Cutting fluid is often pumped to the cutting site to cool and lubricate the cut, and to sluice away the resulting swarf.
TYPE OF MILLING MACHINES
There are many ways to classify milling machines, depending on which criteria are the focus:
Criterion Example classification scheme Comments
Manual; In the CNC era, a very basic distinction is manual Mechanically automated via versus CNC. cams; Among manual machines, a worthwhile distinction
Digitally automated via NC/CNC
non-DRO-equipped versus DRO-equipped
Number of axes (e.g., 3axis, 4-axis, or more); Within this scheme, also: Control (specifically among CNC machines)
Pallet-changing versus non-palletchanging Full-auto toolchanging versus semi-auto or manual tool-changing Among vertical mills, "Bridgeport-style" is a whole class of mills inspired by the Bridgeport original
Spindle axis orientation
Vertical versus horizontal; Turret versus non-turret General-purpose versus special-purpose or singlepurpose Toolroom machine versus production machine
Overlaps with above A distinction whose meaning evolved over decades as technology progressed, and overlaps with other purpose classifications above; more historical interest than current
"Plain" versus "universal"
Micro, mini, benchtop, standing on floor, large, very large, gigantic
Power source individual electric motor drive Hand-crank-power versus electric
Most line-shaft-drive machines, ubiquitous circa 1880-1930, have been scrapped by now Hand-cranked not used in industry but suitable for hobbyist micromills
COMPUTER AND NUMERICAL CONTROL
Thin wall milling of aluminum using a water based coolant on the milling cutter
Most CNC milling machines (also called machining centers) are computer controlled vertical mills with the ability to move the spindle vertically along the Z-axis. This extra degree of freedom permits their use in diesinking, engraving applications, and 2.5D surfaces such as relief sculptures. When combined with the use of conical tools or a ball nose cutter, it also significantly improves milling precision without impacting speed, providing a cost-efficient alternative to most flat-surface hand-engraving work.
Five-axis machining center with rotating table and computer interface
CNC machines can exist in virtually any of the forms of manual machinery, like horizontal mills. The most advanced CNC milling-machines, the 5-axis machines, add two more axes in addition to the three normal axes (XYZ). Horizontal milling machines also have a C or Q axis, allowing the horizontally mounted workpiece to be rotated, essentially allowing asymmetric and eccentric turning. The fifth axis (B axis) controls the tilt of the tool itself. When all of these axes are used in conjunction with each other, extremely complicated geometries, even organic geometries such as a human head can be made with relative ease with these machines. But the skill to program such geometries is beyond that of most operators. Therefore, 5-axis milling machines are practically always programmed with CAM. With the declining price of computers, free operating systems such as Linux, and open source CNC software, the entry price of CNC machines has plummeted. For example, Sherline, Prazi, and others make desktop CNC milling machines that are affordable by hobbyists.
High speed steel with cobalt endmills used for cutting operations in a milling machine.
MILLING MACHINE TOOLING
There is some degree of standardization of the tooling used with CNC Milling Machines and to a much lesser degree with manual milling machines.
CNC Milling machines will nearly always use SK (or ISO), CAT, BT or HSK tooling. SK tooling is the most common in Europe, while CAT tooling, sometimes called V-Flange Tooling, is the oldest variation and is probably still the most common in the USA. CAT tooling was invented by Caterpillar Inc. of Peoria, Illinois in order to standardize the
tooling used on their machinery. CAT tooling comes in a range of sizes designated as CAT-30,
CAT-40, CAT-50, etc. The number refers to the Association for Manufacturing Technology (formerly the National Machine Tool Builders Association (NMTB)) Taper size of the tool.
An improvement on CAT Tooling is BT Tooling, which looks very similar and can easily be confused with CAT tooling. Like CAT Tooling, BT Tooling comes in a range of sizes and uses the same NMTB body taper. However, BT tooling is symmetrical about the spindle axis, which CAT tooling is not. This gives BT tooling greater stability and balance at high speeds. One other subtle difference between these two toolholders is the thread used to hold the pull stud. CAT Tooling is all Imperial thread and BT Tooling is all Metric thread. Note that this affects the pull stud only, it does not affect the tool that they can hold, both types of tooling are sold to accept both Imperial and metric sized tools. SK and HSK tooling, sometimes called "Hollow Shank Tooling", is much more common in Europe where it was invented than it is in the United States. It is claimed that HSK tooling is even better than BT Tooling at high speeds. The holding mechanism for HSK tooling is placed within the (hollow) body of the tool and, as spindle speed increases, it expands, gripping the tool more tightly with increasing spindle speed. There is no pull stud with this type of tooling. The situation is quite different for manual milling machines — there is little standardization. Newer and larger manual machines usually use NMTB tooling. This tooling is somewhat similar to CAT tooling but requires a drawbar within the milling machine. Furthermore, there are a number of variations with NMTB tooling that make interchangeability troublesome.
Boring head on Morse Taper Shank
Two other tool holding systems for manual machines are worthy of note: They are the R8 collet and the Morse Taper #2 collet. Bridgeport Machines of Bridgeport, Connecticut so dominated the milling machine market for such a long time that their machine "The Bridgeport" is virtually synonymous with "Manual milling machine." The bulk of the machines that Bridgeport made from about 1965 onward used an R8 collet system. Prior to that, the bulk of the machines used a Morse Taper #2 collet system. As an historical footnote: Bridgeport is now owned by Hardinge Brothers of Elmira, New York.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
CAD design (top) and stainless steel laser-cut part (bottom)
Laser cutting is a technology that uses a laser programmed by a computer to cut materials, which is used in the production line and is typically used for industrial manufacturing applications. Laser cutting works by directing the output of a high power laser, by computer, at the material to be cut. The material then either melts, burns, vaporizes away, or is blown away by a jet of gas, leaving an edge with a high quality surface finish. Industrial laser cutters are used to cut flat-sheet material as well as structural and piping materials.
COMPARISON TO MECHANICAL CUTTING
Advantages of laser cutting over mechanical cutting vary according to the situation, but two important factors are the lack of physical contact (since there is no cutting edge which can become contaminated by the material or contaminate the material), and to some extent precision (since there is no wear on the laser). There is also a reduced chance of warping the material that is being cut, as laser systems have a small heat-affected zone. Some materials are also very difficult or impossible to cut by more traditional means. One of the disadvantages of laser cutting includes the high energy required.
A diffusion cooled resonator Both gaseous CO2 and solid-state Nd:YAG lasers are used for cutting, in addition to welding,
drilling, surface treatment, and marking applications. Common variants of CO2 lasers include fast axial flow, slow axial flow, transverse flow, and slab. CO2 lasers are commonly "pumped" by passing a current through the gas mix (DC Excited) or using radio frequency energy (RF excited). The RF method is newer and has become more popular. Since DC designs require electrodes inside the cavity, they can encounter electrode erosion and plating of electrode material on glassware and optics. Since RF resonators have external electrodes they are not prone to those problems. In addition to the power source, the type of gas flow can affect performance as well. In a fast axial flow resonator, the mixture of carbon dioxide, helium and nitrogen is circulated at high velocity by a turbine or blower. Transverse flow lasers circulate the gas mix at a lower velocity, requiring a simpler blower. Slab or diffusion cooled resonators have a static gas field that requires no pressurization or glassware, leading to savings on replacement turbines and glassware.
Laser cutters usually work much like a milling machine would for working a sheet in that the laser (equivalent to the mill) enters through the side of the sheet and cuts it through the axis of the beam. In order to be able to start cutting from somewhere else than the edge, a pierce is done before every cut. Piercing usually involves a
high power pulsed laser beam which slowly (taking around 5-15 seconds for halfinch thick stainless steel, for example) makes a hole in the material. There are many different methods in cutting using lasers, with different types used to cut different material. Some of the methods are vaporization, melt and blow, melt blow and burn, thermal stress cracking, scribing, cold cutting and burning stabilized laser cutting.
In vaporization cutting the focused beam heats the surface of the material to boiling point and generates a keyhole. The keyhole leads to a sudden increase in absorptivity quickly deepening the hole. As the hole deepens and the material boils, vapor generated erodes the molten walls blowing ejecta out and further enlarging the hole. Non melting material such as wood, carbon and thermoset plastics are usually cut by this method.
MELT AND BLOW
Melt and blow or fusion cutting uses high pressure gas to blow molten material from the cutting area, greatly decreasing the power requirement. First the material is heated to melting point then a gas jet blows the molten material out of the kerf avoiding the need to raise the temperature of the material any further. Materials cut with this process are usually metals.
THERMAL STRESS CRACKING
Brittle materials are particularly sensitive to thermal fracture, a feature exploited in thermal stress cracking. A beam is focused on the surface causing localized heating and thermal expansion. This results in a crack that can then be guided by moving the beam. The crack can be moved in order of m/s. It is usually used in cutting of glass.
There are generally three different configurations of industrial laser cutting machines: Moving material, Hybrid, and Flying Optics systems. These refer to way that the laser beam is moved over the material to be cut or processed. For all of these, the axes of motion are typically designated X and Y. axis. If the cutting head may be controlled, it is designated as the Z-axis. Moving material lasers have a stationary cutting head and move the material under it. This method provides a constant distance from the laser generator to the workpiece and a single point
from which to remove cutting effluent. It requires fewer optics, but requires moving the workpiece. Hybrid lasers provide a table which moves in one axis (usually the X-axis) and move the head along the shorter (Y) axis. This results in a more constant beam delivery path length than a flying optic machine and may permit a simpler beam delivery system. This can result in reduced power loss in the delivery system and more capacity per watt than flying optics machines. Flying optics lasers feature a stationary table and a cutting head (with laser beam) that moves over the work piece in both of the horizontal dimensions. Flying-optics cutters keep the workpiece stationary during processing, and often don't require material clamping. The moving mass is constant, so dynamics aren't affected by varying size and thickness of workpiece. Flying optics machines are the fastest class of machines, with higher accelerations and peak velocities than hybrid or moving material systems
Dual Pallet Flying Optics Laser
Flying optic machines must use some method to take into account the changing beam length from near field (close to resonator) cutting to far field (far away from resonator) cutting. Common methods for controlling this include collimation, adaptive optics or the use of a constant beam length axis. The above is written about X-Y systems for cutting flat materials. The same discussion applies to five and six-axis machines, which permit cutting formed workpieces. In addition, there are various methods of orienting the laser beam to a shaped workpiece, maintaining a proper focus distance and nozzle standoff, etc.
Center lathe with DRO and chuck guard. Size is 460 mm swing x 1000 mm between centers
Metal lathe or metalworking lathe are generic terms for any of a large class of lathes designed for precisely machining relatively hard materials. They were originally designed to machine metals; however, with the advent of plastics and other materials, and with their inherent versatility, they are used in a wide range of applications, and a broad range of materials. In machining jargon, where the larger context is already understood, they are usually simply called lathes, or else referred to by more-specific subtype names (toolroom lathe, turret lathe, etc.). These rigid machine tools remove material from a rotating workpiece via the (typically linear) movements of various cutting tools, such as tool bits and drill bits.
Headstock with legend, numbers and text within the description refer to those in the image
The headstock (H1) houses the main spindle (H4), speed change mechanism (H2,H3), and change gears (H10). The headstock is required to be made as robust as possible due to the cutting forces involved, which can distort a lightly built housing, and induce harmonic vibrations that will transfer through to the workpiece, reducing the quality of the finished workpiece. The main spindle is generally hollow to allow long bars to extend through to the work area, this reduces preparation and waste of material. The spindle then runs in precision bearings and is fitted with some means of attaching work holding devices such as chucks or faceplates. This end of the spindle will also have an included taper, usually morse, to allow the insertion of tapers and centers. On older machines the spindle was directly driven by a flat belt pulley with the lower speeds available by manipulating the bull gear, later machines use a gear box driven by a dedicated electric motor. The fully geared head allows the speed selection to be done entirely through the gearbox.
FEED AND LEED SCREW
The feedscrew (H8) is a long driveshaft that allows a series of gears to drive the carriage mechanisms. These gears are located in the apron of the carriage. Both the feedscrew and leadscrew (H9) are driven by either the change gears (on the quadrant) or an intermediate gearbox known as a quick change gearbox (H6) or Norton gearbox. These intermediate gears allow the correct ratio and direction to be set for cutting threads or worm gears. Tumbler gears (operated by H5) are provided between the spindle and gear train along with a quadrant plate that enables a gear train of the correct ratio and direction to be introduced. This provides a constant relationship between the number of turns the spindle makes, to the number of turns the leadscrew makes. This ratio allows screwthreads to be cut on the workpiece without the aid of a die. The leadscrew will be manufactured to either imperial or metric standards and will require a conversion ratio to be introduced to create thread forms from a different family. To accurately convert from one thread form to the other requires a 127-tooth gear, or on lathes not large enough
to mount one, an approximation may be used. Multiples of 3 and 7 giving a ratio of 63:1 can be used to cut fairly loose threads. This conversion ratio is often built into the quick change gearboxes.
Carriage with legend, numbers and text within the description refer to those in the image
In its simplest form the carriage holds the tool bit and moves it longitudinally (turning) or perpendicularly (facing) under the control of the operator. The operator moves the carriage manually via the handwheel (5a) or automatically by engaging the feedscrew with the carriage feed mechanism (5c), this provides some relief for the operator as the movement of the carriage becomes power assisted. The handwheels (2a, 3b, 5a) on the carriage and its related slides are usually calibrated, both for ease of use and to assist in making reproducible cuts.
(3) The cross-slide stands atop the carriage and has a leadscrew that travels perpendicular to the main spindle axis, this permits facing operations to be performed. This leadscrew can be engaged with the feedscrew (mentioned previously) to provide automated movement to the cross-slide, only one direction can be engaged at a time as an interlock mechanism will shut out the second gear train.
(2) The compound rest (or top slide) is the part of the machine where the tool post is mounted. It provides a smaller amount of movement along its axis via another leadscrew. The compound rest axis can be adjusted independently of the carriage or cross-slide. It is utilized when turning tapers, when screwcutting or to obtain finer feeds than the leadscrew normally permits.
The slide rest can be traced to the fifteenth century, and in the eighteenth century it was used on French ornamental turning lathes. The suite of gun boring mills at the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, in the 1780s by the Verbruggan family also had slide rests. The story has long circulated that Henry Maudslay invented it, but he did not (and never claimed so). The legend that Maudslay invented the slide rest originated with James Nasmyth, who wrote ambiguously about it in his Remarks on the Introduction of the Slide Principle, 1841; later writers misunderstood, and propagated the error. Maudslay did help to disseminate the idea widely. It is highly probable that he saw it when he was working at the Arsenal as a boy. In 1794, whilst he was working for Joseph Bramah, he made one, and when he had his own workshop used it extensively in the lathes he made and sold there. Coupled with the network of engineers he trained, this ensured the slide rest became widely known and copied by other lathe makers, and so diffused throughout British engineering workshops. A practical and versatile screw-cutting lathe incorporating the trio of leadscrew, change gears, and slide rest was Maudslay's most important achievement. The first fully documented, all-metal slide rest lathe was invented by Jacques de Vaucanson around 1751. It was described in the Encyclopédie a long time before Maudslay invented and perfected his version. It is likely that Maudslay was not aware of Vaucanson's work, since his first versions of the slide rest had many errors which were not present in the Vaucanson lathe.
(1) The tool bit is mounted in the toolpost which may be of the American lantern style, traditional 4 sided square style, or in a quick change style such as the multifix arrangement pictured. The advantage of a quick change set-up is to allow an unlimited number of tools to be used (up to the number of holders available) rather than being limited to 1 tool with the lantern style, or 3 to 4 tools with the 4 sided type. Interchangeable tool holders allow the all the tools to be preset to a center height that will not change, even if the holder is removed from the machine.
Tailstock with legend, numbers and text within the description refer to those in the image
The tailstock is a toolholder directly mounted on the spindle axis, opposite the headstock. The spindle (T5) does not rotate but does travel longitudinally under the action of a leadscrew and handwheel (T1). The spindle includes a taper to hold drill bits, centers and other tooling. The tailstock can be positioned along the bed and clamped (T6) in position as required. There is also provision to offset the tailstock (T4) from the spindles axis, this is useful for turning small tapers. The image shows a reduction gear box (T2) between the handwheel and spindle, this is a feature found only in the larger center lathes, where large drills may necessitate the extra leverage.
Types of metal lathes
There are many variants of lathes within the metalworking field. Some variations are not all that obvious, and others are more a niche area. For example, a centering lathe is a dual head machine where the work remains fixed and the heads move towards the workpiece and machine a center drill hole into each end. The resulting workpiece may then be used "between centers" in another operation. The usage of the term metal lathe may also be considered somewhat outdated these days, plastics and other composite materials are in wide use and with appropriate modifications, the same principles and techniques may be applied to their machining as that used for metal.
A toolroom lathe is a lathe optimized for toolroom work. It is essentially just a top-of-the-line center lathe, with all of the best optional features that may be omitted from less expensive models, such as a collet closer, taper attachment, and others. There has also been an implication over the years of selective assembly and extra fitting, with every care taken in the building of a toolroom model to make it the smoothest-running, most-accurate version of the machine that can be built. However, within one brand, the quality difference between a regular model and its corresponding toolroom model depends on the builder and in some cases has been partly
marketing psychology. For name-brand machine tool builders who made only high-quality tools, there wasn't necessarily any lack of quality in the base-model product for the "luxury model" to improve upon. In other cases, especially when comparing different brands, the quality differential between (1) an entry-level center lathe built to compete on price, and (2) a toolroom lathe meant to compete only on quality and not on price, can be objectively demonstrated by measuring TIR, vibration, etc. In any case, because of their fully-ticked-off option list and (real or implied) higher quality, toolroom lathes are more expensive than entry-level center lathes.
Turret lathe and capstan lathe
Turret lathes and capstan lathes are members of a class of lathes that are used for repetitive production of duplicate parts (which by the nature of their cutting process are usually interchangeable). It evolved from earlier lathes with the addition of the turret, which is an indexable toolholder that allows multiple cutting operations to be performed, each with a different cutting tool, in easy, rapid succession, with no need for the operator to perform setup tasks in between (such as installing or uninstalling tools) nor to control the toolpath. (The latter is due to the toolpath's being controlled by the machine, either in jig-like fashion [via the mechanical limits placed on it by the turret's slide and stops] or via IT-directed servomechanisms [on CNC lathes].) There is a tremendous variety of turret lathe and capstan lathe designs, reflecting the variety of work that they do.
A gang-tool lathe is one that has a row of tools set up on its cross-slide, which is long and flat and is similar to a milling machine table. The idea is essentially the same as with turret lathes: to set up multiple tools and then easily index between them for each part-cutting cycle. Instead of being rotary like a turret, the indexable tool group is linear.
Multispindle lathes have more than one spindle and automated control (whether via cams or CNC). They are production machines specializing in high-volume production. The smaller types are usually called screw machines, while the larger variants are usually called automatic chucking machines, automatic chuckers, or simply chuckers. Screw machines usually work from bar stock, while chuckers automatically chuck up individual blanks from a magazine. Typical minimum profitable production lot size on a screw machine is in the thousands of parts due to the large setup time. Once set up, a screw machine can rapidly and efficiently produce thousands of parts on a continuous basis with high accuracy, low cycle time, and very little human intervention. (The latter two points drive down the unit cost per interchangeable part much lower than could be achieved without these machines.) Rotary transfer machines might also be included under the category of multispindle lathes, although they defy traditional classification. They are large, expensive, modular machine tools
with many CNC axes that combine the capabilities of lathes, milling machines, and pallet changers.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_pPnBeZl-_M http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dXgIvQ1GO2E CNC Milling machine Laser cutter
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