Project report

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Project report

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You are on page 1of 68

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements

for the award of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

by

ATHRESH.S

Reg No. 2826112

PRITHVI.P

Reg No. 2826146

THOMSON MANOJ.B

Reg No. 2826161

SARASWATHY.K

Reg No. 2826153

DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING

SATHYABAMA UNIVERSITY

(Established under section 3 of UGC Act, 1956)

JEPPIAAR NAGAR, RAJIV GANDHI ROAD,

CHENNAI 600 119.

MARCH-2012

DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that this Project Report is the bonafide work of Mr. ATHRESH.S

Reg. No: 2826112 who carried out the project entitled DESIGN AND WEIGHT

OPTIMIZATION OF HELICOPTER SKID TUBE USING FEA under our

supervision from November 2011 to March 2012.

Internal Guide External Guide

Mr. T.SELVAKUMARAN Mr. A.T.Rao

Assistant professor, Dept of Aeronautical Chief Manager,

Sathyabama University Stress Group, RWR&DC

Chennai. HAL, Bangalore.

Head of the department

(Dr. B.S.M. Augustine)

Submitted for viva voce examination held on 23

rd

March 2012

Internal examiner External examiner

DECLARATION

I Athresh.S hereby declare that the Project Report entitled DESIGN AND

WEIGHT OPTIMIZATION OF HELICOPTER SKID TUBE USING FEA is done by

me under the guidance of Mr.T.Selvakumaran and Mr.A.T.Rao at Hindustan

Aeronautics Limited (HAL), Bangalore is submitted in partial fulfillment of the

requirements for the award of the degree in BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING.

DATE: 23

rd

March 2012

PLACE: Chennai SIGNATURE OF THE CANDIDATE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We express our profound gratitude and heart-felt thanks for motivating and

inspiring us to pursue the Engineering degree with lot of zeal and confidence,

helping us to express our creative visions and ideas throughout the whole

time-frame of the course. And also for providing us with a wonderful opportunity to

perform our final year academic project in prestigious organization HINDUSTAN

AERONAUTICS LIMITED (Bangalore) to the following Prime visionaries of our

university:

Chancellor : Col.DR. JEPPIAAR, M.A.B.L, Ph.D.

Directors :Thiru.N.Marie Johnson, B.E., M.B.A.,Ph.D.

:Tmt.Mariazeena Johnson, B.E., M.B.A., Ph.D.

Dean : DR.B.Sheela Rani, Ph.D.

(PG studies & Research)

Dean : DR.T.Sasiprabha, Ph.D.,

(Publications & Conferences)

Registrar : DR.S.S.Rau, M.B.A., and Ph.D.

Controller of Examination : DR.K.V.Narayanan, M.E., Ph.D.

Head of the Department : DR.B.S.M AUGUSTINE, M.E., Ph.D.

It is with immense pleasure, we express our regards and profound gratitude to

Mr.A.T.Rao, chief Manager, Stress Group and RWR& DC (HAL) for his kind

gesture in accepting our request to guide and assist us in under taking this project

work successfully.

Our sincere regards for the help and guidance rendered by Mr R.Ravindranath,

HOFG, Stress Group, RWR & DC (HAL) throughout the course of this project.

We also extend our sincere thanks to Mr.K.S.Narayana Rao, Technical

consultant RWR &DC, (HAL) for directing us to do the project work in RWR &

DC.

We are very thankful to our respectable guide Mr.T.SelvaKumaran, Assistant

Professor, Department of Aeronautical Engineering, for his valuable

suggestions and assistance regarding our project work.

CHAPTER

NO.

TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE NO.

ABSTRACT (i)

LIST OF FIGURES (ii)

1. INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 HAL COMPANY PROFILE 1

1.2 ROTARY WING RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT CENTRE 3

1.3 HELICOPTER LANDING GEAR 5

2. SCOPE OF THE PROJECT 7

2.1 CHARACTERISTICS & FUNCTIONS OF SKID TUBE 7

2.2 SKID TYPE ADVANCED LIGHT HELICOPTER 8

2.3 UPCOMING SKID BASED LUH 10

2.4 SKID TUBE MATERIAL- AL 7075 11

3. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 13

3.1 ANALYSIS METHODS 13

3.2 STEPS INVOLVED IN FEA 15

3.3 ADVANTAGES & LIMITATIONS OF FEA 17

3.4 LINEAR ANALYSIS- FEA 18

4. INTRODUCTION TO NASTRAN/PATRAN PACKAGE 21

4.1 COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL WITH FEA 21

5. ANALYSIS OF ACCURACY OF THE NASTRAN/PATRAN 23

5.1 CANTILEVER WITH CIRCULAR CROSS SECTION

UNDER POINT LOAD

23

5.2 BUCKLING OF BEAM (BOTH ENDS HINGED) 26

5.3 RESULTS & SUMMARY 29

5.4 OBSERVATION 29

6. STRESS ANALYSIS OF SKID TUBE OF A HELICOPTER 30

6.1 LOAD CASES 30

6.2 SKID TUBE ANALYSIS 31

7. WEIGHT OPTIMIZATION ANALYSIS & STUDY 44

7.1 WEIGHT OPTIMIZATION SIMULATIONS 44

7.2 COMPARISON & OBSERVATIONS OF ALL

SIMULATIONS (2D) RESULTS

54

8. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 55

9. CONCLUSION 56

10. BIBLIOGRAPHY / REFERENCES 57

ABSTRACT

Rotary wing aircrafts are used extensively in both civil and military missions on a

regular basis. Generally these aircraft consists of two kinds of landing gears.

1. Oleo-strut landing gear with wheels

2. Skid landing gear

The oleo-strut landing gears offer the

advantages of initial taxing and take-off.

They have additional design

complexities. Skid landing gears on the

other hand offers simplicity in design

and reduction in empty weight. Skid

landing gears make more sense, offer

greater ease and needs very little

maintenance. One of the significant

drawbacks is ground handling which is a

difficult process. Skid landing gears

have a unique way of being

crashworthy.

Fig 1: Skid tube model

Design significance:

To present a landing gear skid tube of the rotary wing aircraft that is more ease of

use practically in all kinds of environments and simultaneously offering better

strength, crashworthiness. Generally skid tubes are fabricated from metal alloys

such as aluminium 7075.

I. Optimize the weight of the skid tubes.

II. Evaluate the reliability and performance parameters based on different

kinds of stress-strain behaviour patterns exhibited and deformations.

III. To minimize the gross weight (W

G

) and empty weight (W

E

) of the skid tubes

by using FEA packages and also matching it with necessary hand

calculations.

IV. Considering different load cases.

(i)

LIST OF FIGURES

FIG

NO.

NAME OF THE FIGURES PAGE NO.

1.

Skid tube model

(i)

2.

Mi-28 with wheel type landing gear

5

3.

Sarang with skid type landing gear

6

4.

Dhruv (ALH) helicopter for Indian Air Force

8

5.

HAL - features of LUH

10

6.

7075 (T6) - Alloy used in the skid tube

11

7.

Linear analysis stress strain curve

18

8.

Cantilever beam

23

9.

Deflection for 5.1

25

10.

Maximum bending stress for 5.1

25

11.

Buckling of beam

26

12.

FEA results of beam under buckling

28

13.

Helicopter skid tube with defining length

30

14.

Ref. Image of loading conditions (2D) for load case B

31

15.

FE model of the skid tube with constant thickness, 3.4 mm

32

16.

General loading diagram

33

17.

Deflection (1D) for simulation (1) - case A

35

(ii)

18.

Maximum Bending stress (1D) for simulation (1) case A

35

19.

Deflection (2D) for simulation (1) case A

35

20.

Maximum Bending stress (2D) for simulation (1) case A

36

21.

Maximum Bending stress (2D) for simulation (1) case B

38

22.

Deflection (2D) for simulation (1) case B

38

23.

Skid tube with constant thickness, 4mm

39

24.

Deflection (1D) for simulation (2) case A

41

25.

Maximum Bending stress (1D) for simulation (2) case A

41

26.

Deflection (2D) for simulation (2) case A

41

27.

Maximum Bending stress (2D) for simulation (2) case A

42

28.

Maximum Bending stress (1D) for simulation (2) case B

43

29.

Maximum Bending stress (2D) for simulation (2) case B

43

30.

Skid tube with variable thickness (simulation 3)

44

31.

Maximum Bending stress (1D) for simulation (3) case A

45

32.

Deflection (1D) for simulation (3) case A

46

33.

Maximum Bending stress (2D) for simulation (3) case A

46

34.

Deflection (2D) for simulation (3) case A

46

35.

Maximum Bending stress (1D) for simulation (3) case B

47

36.

Deflection (1D) for simulation (3) case B

47

37.

Maximum Bending stress (2D) for simulation (3) case B

48

38.

Deflection (2D) for simulation (3) case B

48

(iii)

39.

Skid tube with variable thickness (simulation 4)

49

40.

Maximum Bending stress (1D) for simulation (4) - case A

50

41.

Deflection (1D) for simulation (4) - case A

51

42.

Maximum Bending stress (2D) for simulation (4) - case A

51

43.

Deflection (2D) for simulation (4) - case A

51

44.

Maximum Bending stress (1D) for simulation (4) - case B

52

45.

Deflection (1D) for simulation (4) - case B

52

46.

Maximum Bending stress (2D) for simulation (4) - case B

53

47.

Deflection (2D) for simulation (4) - case B

53

48.

Graph for strength to weight

55

(iv)

Page | 1

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 HAL - COMPANY PROFILE:

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) was established on 1

st

October 1964.

The merger of Hindustan Aircraft Limited with Aeronautics India Limited and

Aircraft Manufacturing Depot, Kanpur formed the company.

The company traces its roots by the innovating efforts of an industrialist with

an extraordinary vision, the late Seth Walchand Hirachand, who set up

Hindustan Aircraft Limited at Bangalore in association with the erstwhile princely

State of Mysore in December 1940. The Government of India became a

shareholder in March 1941 and took over the management in 1942.

Today HAL has 19 Productions Units and 10 Research and Design Centres

in 8 locations in India. The company has an impressive track record 15 types of

aircrafts/ Helicopters manufactured with in-house R&D and 14 types produced

under license. HAL has manufactured over 3646 Aircraft/ Helicopters, 4096

engines and overhauled over 9447 aircraft and 29886 engines.

HAL has won seven international & National Awards for achievements in R&D,

Technology, Managerial Performance, Exports, Energy Conversation, Quality and

Fulfillment of Social Responsibilities.

HAL was awarded the INTERNATIONAL GOLD MEDAL AWARD for

Corporate Achievement in Quality and Efficiency at the International

Summit (Global Rating Leaders 2003), London, UK by M/s Global Rating

and UK in conjunction with the International Information and Marketing

Centre (IIMC).

HAL was presented the international- ARCH OF EUROPE Award in Gold

Category in recognition for its commitment to Quality, Leadership,

Technology and Innovation.

Page | 2

At the National level, HAL won the GOLD TROPHY for excellence in

Public Sector Management, instituted by the Standing Conference of

Public Enterprises (SCOPE)

Some of the prestigious Awards received during last 4 years are:

Conferred NAVARATNA status by the Government of India on 22

nd

June

2007

Raksha Mantris Awards for excellence for the years 2006-07, 2007-08 and

2008-09

1.1.1 COMPANYS MISSION:

To become a globally competitive aerospace industry while working as an

instrument for achieving self-reliance in design, manufacture and maintenance of

aerospace defence equipment and diversifying to related areas, managing the

business on commercial lines in a climate of growing professional competence

1.1.2 HELICOPTER COMPLEX:

RWRDC ( Rotary wing research & development centre )

HELICOPTER MFG DIVISION

HELICOPTER MRO

COMPOSITE MFG DIVISION

BARRACKPORE DIVISION

1.1.3 CURRENT PROJECTS:

ADVANCED LIGHT HELICOPTER (ALH)

LIGHT COMBAT HELICOPTER (LCH)

LIGHT UTILITY HELICOPTER (LUH)

Page | 3

1.2 ROTARY WING REASEARCH & DEVELOPMENT CENTRE:

RWR & DC undertakes full range of design tasks for civil and military

helicopters. It has extensive facilities for design and development, testing and

analysis of structure/ transmission system/ integration of engine/ avionics as well

as accessories.

RWR & DC is the nodal agency for successful design and development of

Dhruv Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) for wide range of military and civil

applications. Ongoing projects include weapon system integration on ALH and

development of Light Combat Helicopter (LCH).

1.2.1 STRESS GROUP IN RWR&DC:

A helicopter has to satisfy several functions of several disciplines. One of

the functionaries is stress analysis group. The job is to ensure that the component

must be light and yet strong enough and reliable. So to carry out the same, the

stress group works. The activities of the stress group are as follows:

Application of modern analytical tools to perform stress computations.

Synthesis of results with feedback data obtained from ground and flight

testing incorporating these improvements in to the component design.

1.2.2 FUNCTIONS OF STRESS GROUP:

Design co-ordination:

Assisting the designer in preparing the layouts regard to dimensioning, material

selection in the preparing the layouts regarding to dimensioning, material

selection in the preliminary design stages and optimization of the

structure/component in the final steps.

Page | 4

Test lab and ground test co-ordination:

To ensure the accuracy of the analytical calculations, the stress group must

have the interaction with the TEST LAB to obtain the information on the base

allowable design stresses.

Equivalent material substitution regarding strength and stiffness

reconsiderations.

Component test plan/ program, test order preparation, follows up of ground

test activity and synthesis of post test data results.

Flight testing co-ordination:

Flight monitoring i.e. identification of parameters to be measured and

synthesis of post flight test results.

Manufacturing and production co-ordination:

Analysis of snags, suggestion of reworks and repair schemes on deviations

of course, which are within the acceptable limits.

Interaction with certification agencies:

Continuous interaction with the certification agencies for compliance of

design requirements.

1.3 HELICOPTER LANDING GEAR:

1.3.1 CLASSIFICATION OF LANDING GEAR:

Landing gear for helicopter is mainly of two types. They are skid type

&wheel type landing gear. Skid type landing gear is simple lighter from weight

point of view, involving lesser maintenance and cheaper but is difficult for ground

handling since separate ground handling system is needed and difficult to cater for

higher crashworthiness. Wheel type landing gear is complex and heavier from

weight point of view this requires more maintenance & costlier but it can be used

for easy maneuvering on ground. It is used to cater for higher crashworthiness

requirements.

1.3.1.1 Wheel type landing gear:

Wheel type landing gear depending upon the number of landing gear

per helicopter and location of installati

a) Tricycle nose wheel type is the one in which one main landing gear is installed

in the front and two landing gears are installed at the rear of the CG.

b) Tail wheel type is the one in which two main landing gears are installed in the

front and one landing gear

c) Quadricycle type is the one which has two landing gears installed in the front

and two in the rear of the CG of the helicopter.

Fig.2: Mi-

HELICOPTER LANDING GEAR:

CLASSIFICATION OF LANDING GEAR:

Landing gear for helicopter is mainly of two types. They are skid type

&wheel type landing gear. Skid type landing gear is simple lighter from weight

point of view, involving lesser maintenance and cheaper but is difficult for ground

ince separate ground handling system is needed and difficult to cater for

higher crashworthiness. Wheel type landing gear is complex and heavier from

weight point of view this requires more maintenance & costlier but it can be used

ground. It is used to cater for higher crashworthiness

Wheel type landing gear:

Wheel type landing gear depending upon the number of landing gear

per helicopter and location of installation can be classified as follows:

cle nose wheel type is the one in which one main landing gear is installed

in the front and two landing gears are installed at the rear of the CG.

Tail wheel type is the one in which two main landing gears are installed in the

front and one landing gear installed at the rear of the CG.

Quadricycle type is the one which has two landing gears installed in the front

and two in the rear of the CG of the helicopter.

: Mi-28 having wheel type landing gear

Page | 5

Landing gear for helicopter is mainly of two types. They are skid type

&wheel type landing gear. Skid type landing gear is simple lighter from weight

point of view, involving lesser maintenance and cheaper but is difficult for ground

ince separate ground handling system is needed and difficult to cater for

higher crashworthiness. Wheel type landing gear is complex and heavier from

weight point of view this requires more maintenance & costlier but it can be used

ground. It is used to cater for higher crashworthiness

Wheel type landing gear depending upon the number of landing gear

cle nose wheel type is the one in which one main landing gear is installed

in the front and two landing gears are installed at the rear of the CG.

Tail wheel type is the one in which two main landing gears are installed in the

Quadricycle type is the one which has two landing gears installed in the front

1.3.1.2 Skid type landing gear:

Skid tube landing

rear cross tube and two skid tubes. The cross tubes are attached to the structure

outside the structural envelop, which has distinct advantage of easy installation of

cross tubes and ease of maintenance.

Fig.3: Sarang having skid type landing gear

The skid tubes are curved in the front portion and have end caps at the rear

end. Replaceable wear plates are attached to the bottom of skid tubes by screws

to avoid damage to the skids.

The cross tube is attac

shoe consists of a sleeve which receives the end of the cross tube, a curved

bracket which rests on the skid tube and a gusset which connects the sleeve and

the curved bracket. The front cross tube, the rea

are made up of an aluminium alloy. The shoe connecting the cross tubes and the

skid is made up of steel.

Size of the cross tube and skid tube is arrived at based on the landing

velocities stipulated in standards like

DEFSTAN 00970 etc. energy is absorbed by deflection of both cross tubes .which

are supported at the structural brackets. Energy absorbing capability is evaluated

by static and drop tests of cross tubes. The ski

installing ground handling wheel system for towing the helicopter.

Certification requirements specify a set of landing conditions for which the

undercarriage has to be designed. The loads arising out of critical landing

like vertical landing, forward drag landing, side drag landing & single skid landing

needs to be considered during the design stage.

Skid type landing gear:

Skid tube landing gear system consists of a forward cross tube, a

rear cross tube and two skid tubes. The cross tubes are attached to the structure

outside the structural envelop, which has distinct advantage of easy installation of

cross tubes and ease of maintenance.

: Sarang having skid type landing gear

The skid tubes are curved in the front portion and have end caps at the rear

end. Replaceable wear plates are attached to the bottom of skid tubes by screws

to avoid damage to the skids.

The cross tube is attached to skid tubes by means of skid shoe. The skid

shoe consists of a sleeve which receives the end of the cross tube, a curved

bracket which rests on the skid tube and a gusset which connects the sleeve and

The front cross tube, the rear cross tube and the skid tubes

are made up of an aluminium alloy. The shoe connecting the cross tubes and the

Size of the cross tube and skid tube is arrived at based on the landing

velocities stipulated in standards like federal aviation regulations (FAR 29), AR 56,

DEFSTAN 00970 etc. energy is absorbed by deflection of both cross tubes .which

are supported at the structural brackets. Energy absorbing capability is evaluated

by static and drop tests of cross tubes. The skid landing gear has a provision for

installing ground handling wheel system for towing the helicopter.

Certification requirements specify a set of landing conditions for which the

undercarriage has to be designed. The loads arising out of critical landing

like vertical landing, forward drag landing, side drag landing & single skid landing

needs to be considered during the design stage.

Page | 6

gear system consists of a forward cross tube, a

rear cross tube and two skid tubes. The cross tubes are attached to the structure

outside the structural envelop, which has distinct advantage of easy installation of

The skid tubes are curved in the front portion and have end caps at the rear

end. Replaceable wear plates are attached to the bottom of skid tubes by screws

hed to skid tubes by means of skid shoe. The skid

shoe consists of a sleeve which receives the end of the cross tube, a curved

bracket which rests on the skid tube and a gusset which connects the sleeve and

r cross tube and the skid tubes

are made up of an aluminium alloy. The shoe connecting the cross tubes and the

Size of the cross tube and skid tube is arrived at based on the landing

federal aviation regulations (FAR 29), AR 56,

DEFSTAN 00970 etc. energy is absorbed by deflection of both cross tubes .which

are supported at the structural brackets. Energy absorbing capability is evaluated

d landing gear has a provision for

Certification requirements specify a set of landing conditions for which the

undercarriage has to be designed. The loads arising out of critical landing cases

like vertical landing, forward drag landing, side drag landing & single skid landing

Page | 7

2. SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

The weight optimization of the skid tube for the upcoming LUH is a vital part

of the on-going research work which is to develop all new light weight Helicopter.

The skid tube though being small component of the helicopter has a greater

prominence attached to it due to its functions and characteristics.

Reduction in the weight of the skid tube also results in the reduction of

overall weight of the skid landing gear which is significant for Light utility

Helicopter. A Finite Element Analysis of skid tube is done using Patran/Nastran

Package.

This project will give insight and a uniform approach to the weight reduction

process of skid tube. A whole lot of new ideas and required key basic inputs will

also emerge for further weight optimization of skid tube by the end of this project.

2.1 CHARACTERISTICS & FUNCTIONS OF SKID TUBE:

Skid tubes are basically used in landing the helicopter when a helicopter

lands. The skid tube is the first part of the helicopter that touches the ground but

the main aim for the usage of skid tube is that it doesnt deform or deflect at the

time of landing instead the skid tube transfers the load to the cross tube which

intern deflect in such a way the skid tube does not damage itself during landing.

The front end bending portion of the skid tube is used for many functional

purposes such as to toe the helicopter. It acts as a towing hook it is used during

the maintenance ground work of the helicopter. The significant function of the

bending portion is to prevent the damage of skid tubes during the landing of the

helicopter using single skid landing with forward velocity and during angle landing.

The skid tube has provision for the attachment of cross tubes. The length

of both skid tubes of the helicopter and its thickness are same whereas forward

cross tube dimensions are slightly different from the aft cross tube of helicopter.

2.2 SKID TYPE ADVANCED LIGHT HELICOPTER:

The Dhruv (Pole Star

Aeronautics Limited (HAL). It is a multi

for both military and civil operators. The Dhruv is suitable for utility and ground

attack roles. A number of variants exist. Current military operators of the HAL

Dhruv are India, Bolivia, Burma, Israel, Maldives and Nepal. It is also being

considered by Chile and Peru.

Development of the HAL Dhruv, previously known as the Advanced Light

Helicopter (ALH), began in 1984, however progress was slow. First prototype

made its maiden flight in 1992. Because of delays, constructional issues, lack of

funding and political reasons, production of the Dhruv began only in 2000 and 75

helicopters were delivered to Indian armed forces by 2007. Its estimated

requirements include 120 helicopters for the army, 120 for the navy and 60 for the

air force.

Fig.4: Dhruv (ALH)

The HAL Dhruv has a conventional design. About two

made from composite materials. Cockpit section of the fuselage is made of Kevlar

and carbon-fibre. The Dhruv is capable to fly at very high altitude

crucial requirement considering India's terrain. In generally it is a low

high-performance helicopter

stub wings to carry up to eight anti

rocket pods for 68-mm or 70

can carry four anti-ship missiles or two torpedoes

SKID TYPE ADVANCED LIGHT HELICOPTER:

Pole Star) light utility helicopter was developed by Hindustan

Aeronautics Limited (HAL). It is a multi-role and multi-mission helicopter, intended

litary and civil operators. The Dhruv is suitable for utility and ground

attack roles. A number of variants exist. Current military operators of the HAL

Dhruv are India, Bolivia, Burma, Israel, Maldives and Nepal. It is also being

eru.

Development of the HAL Dhruv, previously known as the Advanced Light

Helicopter (ALH), began in 1984, however progress was slow. First prototype

made its maiden flight in 1992. Because of delays, constructional issues, lack of

reasons, production of the Dhruv began only in 2000 and 75

helicopters were delivered to Indian armed forces by 2007. Its estimated

requirements include 120 helicopters for the army, 120 for the navy and 60 for the

: Dhruv (ALH) helicopter for Indian air force

The HAL Dhruv has a conventional design. About two-thirds of its weight is

made from composite materials. Cockpit section of the fuselage is made of Kevlar

fibre. The Dhruv is capable to fly at very high altitudes, what is a

crucial requirement considering India's terrain. In generally it is a low

performance helicopter. Helicopters supplied to Indian army are fitted with

stub wings to carry up to eight anti-tank missiles, four air-to-air missiles an

mm or 70-mm unoperated rockets. Naval variant of the Dhruv

ship missiles or two torpedoes.

Page | 8

) light utility helicopter was developed by Hindustan

mission helicopter, intended

litary and civil operators. The Dhruv is suitable for utility and ground

attack roles. A number of variants exist. Current military operators of the HAL

Dhruv are India, Bolivia, Burma, Israel, Maldives and Nepal. It is also being

Development of the HAL Dhruv, previously known as the Advanced Light

Helicopter (ALH), began in 1984, however progress was slow. First prototype

made its maiden flight in 1992. Because of delays, constructional issues, lack of

reasons, production of the Dhruv began only in 2000 and 75

helicopters were delivered to Indian armed forces by 2007. Its estimated

requirements include 120 helicopters for the army, 120 for the navy and 60 for the

thirds of its weight is

made from composite materials. Cockpit section of the fuselage is made of Kevlar

s, what is a

crucial requirement considering India's terrain. In generally it is a low-cost and

Helicopters supplied to Indian army are fitted with

air missiles and four

mm unoperated rockets. Naval variant of the Dhruv

Page | 9

Some helicopters are completed with a gun turret, fitted with the M621 20-

mm cannon. The WSI or Weapon System Integrated versions of the Indian army

will be fitted with the Nag anti-tank missiles. These missiles are currently under

development. The Nag has imaging infrared guidance and a range of 4 km.

Cabin of the HAL Dhruv can accommodate 12 - 14 troops. In the air

ambulance configuration it can carry four stretchers and two medical attendants.

Prototype helicopter was fitted with two Turbomeca TM 333-2B2 turbo shaft

engines, developing 990 shaft horsepower each. Countermeasures of the Dhruv

can include radar and missile detectors, infrared jammer, and chaff and flare

dispensers.

Page | 10

2.3 THE UPCOMING SKID BASED LIGHT UTILITY HELICOPTER:

Fig.5: HAL features of Light Utility Helicopter

2.3.1 Roles of LUH:

Reconnaissance and surveillance.

Carry small body of troops.

Scout.

Casualty evacuation.

Airborne forward air controller.

2.3.2 Performance:

Maximum speed 250 kmph

Rate of climb 7.5 m/s

Range/Payload @ S.L 350 km / 500 kg

Service ceiling 6.5 km

Page | 11

2.4 SKID TUBE MATERIAL ALUMINIUM 7075:

Aluminium 7075 is an aluminium alloy, with zinc as the primary alloying

element. It is strong, with strength comparable to many steels, and has good

fatigue strength and average machinability. 7075 aluminium alloy's composition

roughly includes 5.6-6.1% zinc, 2.1-2.5% magnesium, 1.2-1.6% copper, and less

than half a percent of silicon, iron, manganese, titanium, chromium, and other

metals. It is commonly produced in several heat temper grades, 7075-O, 7075-

T6, and 7075-T651.

7075 tech sheet T6 temper 7075 is the alloy which is commonly used in the

manufacture of the skid tubes. 7075 tech sheet T6 temper 7075 has an ultimate

tensile strength of 74 - 78,000 psi (510 - 538 MPa) and yield strength of at least 63

- 69,000 psi (434-476 MPa). It has failure elongation of 5-8%

Fig.6: 7075-T6-the alloy used in the skid tube

2.4.1 Corrosion resistance:

Alloy 7075 has been thoroughly evaluated for corrosion resistance of

atmospheric weathering, stress-corrosion cracking and exfoliation in all currently

available tempers. These values have been used as a standard for comparison in

the development of more recent high strength aerospace alloys. Within the 7XXX

series of alloys, resistance to general corrosion attack, SCC and exfoliation

improves significantly in the overage tempers (T7 type) compared with peak

strength tempers (T6).

Page | 12

Generally, the T76 type temper is considered the exfoliation resistant

temper, while the T73 type temper is considered the SCC resistant temper. It

should be noted that T73 is as resistant to exfoliation as T76, but at lower strength

levels. For applications where good surface appearance is required or in corrosive

environments, alcald 7075 sheet and plate products are recommended.

2.4.2 Mechanical properties of Aluminium 7075:

Description Value

Young's modulus (MPa) 70000 72000

Shear modulus (MPa) 27500 28000

Tensile strength (MPa) 480 530

Elongation (%) 2 8

Yield strength (MPa) 350 450

Density (kg/mm

3

) 0.000002810

Page | 13

3. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

The structural analysis involves evaluation of following things,

Displacement at certain points

Stress Distribution

Natural Frequencies

Critical buckling loads

Vibrations

Pressure, Velocity and Temperature distribution

Crack growth, Residual strength and fatigue life

3.1 ANALYSIS METHODS:

There are three different approaches to achieve the above mentioned

objectives:

Experimental methods.

Analytical methods

Approximate or Numerical methods.

3.1.1 EXPERIMENTAL METHODS:

In this type prototypes can be used. If we want to change the dimensions of

the prototype, we have to disassemble the entire prototype and reassemble it and

then testing should be carried out. It needs man power and materials. So, fits time

consuming and costly process.

3.1.2 ANALYTICAL METHODS or THEORITICAL METHODS:

In these methods, problems are expressed by mathematical differential

equations. It gives quick and closed form solutions. It is used only for simple

geometries and idealized support and loading conditions.

Page | 14

3.1.3 NUMERICAL METHODS:

Analytical solutions can be obtained only for certain simplified situations.

For problems involving complex material properties and boundary conditions, the

engineer prefers numerical methods that give approximate but acceptable

solutions. The following three methods are under numerical solutions:

Functional Approximation

Finite Difference Method (FDM)

Finite Element Method (FEM)

3.1.3.1 Functional Approximation method:

The classical methods such as Rayleigh- Ritz methods (variation approach)

and Galarkin methods (weight residual method) are based on functional

approximation but vary in their procedure for evaluating the unknown

parameters.

Rayleigh Ritz method is useful for solving complex structural problems,

encountered in finite element analysis.

Weighted Residual method is useful for non-structural problems.

3.1.3.2 Finite Difference Method (FDM):

Finite difference method is useful for solving heat transfer fluid mechanics

and structural mechanics problems. It is applicable to any phenomenon for

which differential equation along with the boundary conditions is available. It

works well for two dimensional regions with boundaries parallel to the co-

ordinate axes.

The starting point in the finite difference method is that the differential

equation must be known before hand. After that, the region is subdivided

into a convenient number of divisions. The differential equation is applied

successfully at various points of the subdivided region, a set of

simultaneous equations are generated which upon solving leads to the

approximate solution of the problem.

This method is difficult to use when regions have curved or irregular

boundaries and its difficult to write general computer programs.

Page | 15

3.1.3.3 FINITE ELEMENT METHOD (FEM):

In this method a body or structure in which analysis to be carried out is

subdivided into smaller elements of finite dimensions called finite elements.

Then the body is considered as assemblage of these elements connected

at a finite number of joints called Nodes or Nodal points. The properties of

each type of finite element is obtained and assembled together and solved

as whole to get the solution.

Finite element method is used to solve physical problems involving

complicated geometrics, loading and material properties which cannot be

solved by analytical method. This method is extensively used in the field of

structural mechanics, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, mass transfer, electric

and magnetic field problems.

3.2 STEPS INVOLVED IN FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS:

The basis of finite element analysis is the representation of the body or

structure by an assemblage of sub-division called finite elements. These elements

are considered interconnected at joints which are called nodes or nodal points.

The finite element analysis involves the following steps in finite element

formulation and solution to an engineering problem.

i) Discretize and select the element types:

The above step involves dividing the body into an equivalent system of finite

elements with the associated nodes and choosing the most appropriate element

type to model most closely the actual physical behaviors. The elements must be

made small enough to give better results.

ii) Select an interpolation or displacement model:

The above step involves choosing a displacement model or function within

each element. The function is defined within the element using the nodal values of

the element. The functions are usually expressed in polynomials of order linear,

quadratic and cubic, etc. However, trigonometric series can also be used.

Page | 16

iii) Define the strain-displacement and stress-strain relations:

This involves derivation of stresses and strains using strain-displacement

and stress-strain relations.

iv) Derive the element stiffness matrix and equilibrium equations of element:

In this step, the stiffness matrix and equilibrium equations for one, two or

three dimensional elements are obtained based on either, direct equilibrium

method, or work or energy methods or weighted residual methods.

K = Bt D B dV

v) Assemble the element equilibrium equations to obtain the global

equilibrium equations and imposition of boundary conditions:

This step involves the individual element equations in step 4 to be added

together using a method of superposition to obtain the global equation for the

whole body. To remove singularity (determinant of stiffness matrix leads to zero)

problem, we must impose certain boundary conditions so that the body remains in

equilibrium instead of moving as a rigid body.

[K] {u} = {F}

vi) Solve for the unknown generalized displacements:

In this step, we solve for unknown displacements in global equilibrium

equations by using elimination such as Gauss method or an iterative method.

vii) Solve for the element strains and stresses:

The quantities of strains and stresses in each element can be obtained by

using the relationships between strain-displacement and between strain-stress.

They are directly expressed in terms of displacements determined in step 6.

{} = [B] {u} & {} = E [B] {u}

3.2.1 FLOWCHART OF FINITE ELEMENT

3.3 ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF FEA

3.3.1 Advantages:

FEA can easily handle complex geometry.

FEA can handle complex analysis like vibration, heat transfer, fluid dynamics,

transient and non-linear type of problems and so on.

FEA can handle complex loading like node based loading, element based

loads, time or frequency dependent loading, etc.

FEA can handle complex restraints

analyzed.

FEA can analyze bodies comprised of non homogenous and non i

materials.

Special material and geometric effects can be

CREATE GEOMETRY

ASSIGN MATERIAL PROPERTIES

FINITE ELEMENT MESHING

CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

CREATE LOAD CASE

ANALYSIS USING NASTRAN SOLVER

CHART OF FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS:

DVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF FEA:

can easily handle complex geometry.

can handle complex analysis like vibration, heat transfer, fluid dynamics,

linear type of problems and so on.

can handle complex loading like node based loading, element based

loads, time or frequency dependent loading, etc.

can handle complex restraints-indeterminate structures can be

can analyze bodies comprised of non homogenous and non i

Special material and geometric effects can be modeled and handled.

CREATE GEOMETRY

ASSIGN MATERIAL PROPERTIES

FINITE ELEMENT MESHING

CREATE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

CREATE LOAD CASE

ANALYSIS USING NASTRAN SOLVER

READ RESULTS

POST PROCESSING

Page | 17

can handle complex analysis like vibration, heat transfer, fluid dynamics,

can handle complex loading like node based loading, element based

indeterminate structures can be

can analyze bodies comprised of non homogenous and non isotropic

and handled.

3.3.2 Limitations:

An approximate solution.

An element dependent solution.

Element density affects the solution, i.e., the element size should be adjusted

to capture gradients. Susceptible to user introduced

A specific numerical result is obtained for a specific problem. A general closed

form solution that permit

various parameters is not produced and is applied to an approximation of the

mathematical model of a system.

A powerful computer and reliable

3.4 LINEAR ANALYSIS FEA

Fig.7: Linear analysis

Linear means a straight line variation

straight line (y=mx) passing through origin.E Elastic Modulus is slope of the

curve and is a constant. In real life after crossing yield point material follows non

linear curve but software follows straight line .Component brake into two separate

pieces after crossing ultimate stress but software based analysis never show

failure in this fashion .It shows single unbroken part only with red colour zone at

the location of failure .Analyst has to conclude whether the component is safe or

fail by comparing the Maximum

material.

An approximate solution.

An element dependent solution.

Element density affects the solution, i.e., the element size should be adjusted

to capture gradients. Susceptible to user introduced modeling errors.

A specific numerical result is obtained for a specific problem. A general closed

form solution that permit one to examine system response to changes in

various parameters is not produced and is applied to an approximation of the

mathematical model of a system.

A powerful computer and reliable FEA software are essential.

FEA:

Linear analysis- Stress strain curve

Linear means a straight line variation. The Hookes law is an equation of

) passing through origin.E Elastic Modulus is slope of the

curve and is a constant. In real life after crossing yield point material follows non

linear curve but software follows straight line .Component brake into two separate

mate stress but software based analysis never show

failure in this fashion .It shows single unbroken part only with red colour zone at

the location of failure .Analyst has to conclude whether the component is safe or

Maximum Stress value with yield or ultimate stress of

Page | 18

Element density affects the solution, i.e., the element size should be adjusted

errors.

A specific numerical result is obtained for a specific problem. A general closed

one to examine system response to changes in

various parameters is not produced and is applied to an approximation of the

. The Hookes law is an equation of

) passing through origin.E Elastic Modulus is slope of the

curve and is a constant. In real life after crossing yield point material follows non

linear curve but software follows straight line .Component brake into two separate

mate stress but software based analysis never show

failure in this fashion .It shows single unbroken part only with red colour zone at

the location of failure .Analyst has to conclude whether the component is safe or

lue with yield or ultimate stress of

Page | 19

3.4.1 Static analysis:

There are two conditions for static analysis

i. No variation of force with respect to time (dead weight),dF/dt = 0

ii. Equilibrium conditions

3.4.2 Stress-Strain Curve:

A Uniaxial Tensile Test is used to derive the material property known as

Youngs Modulus or the Modulus of Elasticity. Stress is calculated by dividing the

load by the cross sectional area of the test specimen. Strain is calculated by

dividing the change in length by the original length.

Every material will respond to the applied force in different ways generating

different curves. The slope of the curve at any given point is the Modulus of

Elasticity of the material. In the elastic region, the slope is generally linear, so the

Modulus of Elasticity remains constant.

3.4.3 Assumptions and Limitations of Linear Static Analysis:

A number of important assumptions and limitations are inherent in linear

static analysis. As a finite element analyst, you are responsible for ensuring that

these restrictions are understood and accounted for. Failure to do so will result in

an analysis that on the surface appears credible, but in reality is not faithful to the

structures physical behaviour. Restrictions on linear static analysis are

summarized as follows:

LINEAR ELASTIC MATERIAL: Our material is assumed to be homogeneous

and isotropic. We are restricted to material in which stress is directly

proportional to strain (linear) and to loads that do not take the material beyond

its permanent yield point (the material remains elastic). In addition, we assume

that the unloaded structure is free of initial or residual stress.

Page | 20

SMALL DISPLACEMENTS: We are restricted to the small displacement

assumptions used in the formulation of governing equations for linear beam,

plate, shell, and solid behaviour and in MD Nastran element development. In

practice, these assumptions mean lateral plate deflections substantially smaller

than the thickness of the plate and beam deflections substantially less than the

smallest dimension of the beams cross section. Violating linear analysis

restrictions on small displacements quickly leads to grossly inaccurate

displacement results-large displacements require nonlinear analysis methods

SLOWLY APPLIED LOADS: In linear static analysis our structure is in static

equilibrium. Loads must be slowly applied, which means that they induce no

dynamic effects. Some types of loads, such as impact loads, violate this

restriction in an obvious way. Some loads are not as obvious. Suppose that

you place a brick on the surface of a cantilever beam and then release the

brick quickly. The resulting maximum deflection will be greater than the final

static equilibrium position. Although impact is not involved, dynamic effects

occur. Therefore, slowly applied can, for our purposes, be taken to mean a

load that does not result in significant dynamic behaviour.

Page | 21

4. INTRODUCTION TO NASTRAN / PATRAN PACKAGE

Patran (processors) and NASTRAN (solver) are FEA tools that are used to

solve all kinds of structural models. Basic exercise problems related to structural

elements have been solved using the software to get acquainted with and for

hands-on experience on the package.

About Patran:

Geometry creation tools for efficient FE modeling

CAD clean-up tools to eliminate or minimize manual effort

FE solver support to reduce input deck editing

Post-processing and reporting tools for easy results evaluation

Scripting for pre/post processing automation

Compatible with Unigraphics, CATIA V5 and PRO-E drawings

About Nastran:

Structural solutions

High performance FEA for fast results

Multi discipline optimization

4.1 COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL WITH FEA:

Primary objective in solving an engineering problem is to get required unknown

field variables which describe the behavior of the entire body. This objective can

be attained either by using conventional or by means of modern numerical

technique FE method.

Page | 22

4.1.1 Conventional method:

Trial functions are assumed to describe exact field variables over entire

solution domain satisfying the boundary conditions.

Procedure involves algebraic work with mathematical expressions formed of

the basis of solid mechanics and yields appropriate results.

Procedure will become cumbersome and the complexity increases with

size, type of structure consists of geometrical/material non linearity and

complicated boundary conditions.

Commonly used methods are POTENTIAL ENERGY, RITZ and

GALERKINS METHODS.

4.1.2 FE Analysis:

Formulation of solution involves choosing shape function to define field

variables at each constituent unit called elements with grid points. Boundary

conditions can be implemented after the formulation.

Information regarding the structure as a whole or at individual levels can be

obtained.

Algebraic work corresponding to the solid mechanics is programmed in a

systematic manner and formulated in the form of shape/geometry of

structure. Unlike in conventional method user need not work with the

algebra but to deal with the geometry.

Yields approximate results which may deviate with a minimum percentage

error from exact values.

Ability to consider alternate loading and boundary conditions for the same

geometry.

Fast automatic calculations, simultaneous display and interpretation of

results.

Page | 23

5. ANALYSIS OF ACCURACY OF THE NASTRAN/PATRAN

5.1 CANTILEVER WITH CIRCULAR CROSS SECTION UNDER POINT LOAD:

5.1.1 CONVENTIONAL METHOD:

Fig.8: Cantilever beam

The load and moment are applied at the free end of the beam and the other

end is fixed.

Load, P = 1000 N

Length, L = 100 mm

Diameter, D = 50 mm

Youngs Modulus, E = 70000 N/

2

Moment of inertia, I =

64

(

4

) (ref 7)

=

64

(

4

)

= 306640.625

4

Deflection,

max

=

PL

3

3 EI

( ref 7)

=

1000 (100)

3

3 (70000)(306640.625)

max

= 0.015 mm

Page | 24

Bending Equation,

M

I

=

o

Y

=

E

R

(ref 7)

M

= PL (ref 7)

= 1000 (100)

= 100000 N-mm

y = D/2 = 50 / 2 = 25 mm (ref 7)

=

M Y

I

(ref 7)

=

(100000) (25)

12.5664

Note: Here

=

x

.In this problem there are no

y

and

xy.

Hence bending stress is

equal to principal stress (both major and minor) in magnitude.

5.1.2 FE ANALYSIS:

FE idealization: Total diameter of 50 mm circular cross section is idealized

with (3d- tetra) TET 10 elements.

Geometrical properties: Diameter, Area, M.I (moment of inertia) of cross

section is provided with PBAR card.

Material properties : Youngs modulus and shear modulus (G) of aluminium

are provided with MAT1 card.

Boundary conditions: Fixed at one end by constraining all the

displacements.

Loading at the other end: Only vertical load, P = 1000 N.

= 8.152 N/mm

2

Fig.9

Fig.10: Maximum stress

Result:

Methods

Analytical

FEA

9: Deflection, at the free end

: Maximum stress, at the free end

Deflection,

(mm)

Max. Bending stress,

(N/

2

)

0.015 8.152

0.017 8.15

Page | 25

stress,

Page | 26

5.2 BUCKLING OF A BEAM (BOTH ENDS HINGED):

5.2.1 CONVENTIONAL METHOD:

Fig.11: Buckling of beam

Material used: Steel

Crippling load, P

cr

=

2

E I

L

2

(ref 7)

Length of the column, L = 200 mm

Diameter of the column, d = 10 mm

Youngs modulus, E = 2.1 10

5

N/mm

2

Moment of Inertia, I = (/64) d

4

(ref 7)

= (/64) 10

4

= 490.87

4

P

cr

=

2

EI

L

2

(ref 7)

=

2

(2.1)(10)

S

(490.87)

200

2

Allowable Critical buckling load,

P

cr

= 25.3 kN

Page | 27

5.2.2 FE ANALYSIS:

5.2.2.1 Linear buckling analysis:

In NASTRAN, a structure defined for static analysis can also be run for

buckling also. This solution gives results firstly with static results and can be

estimated by multiplying the applied load by lowest Eigen value (fundamental

buckling mode).

Critical buckling load, Pcr =

lowest

x P

applied

In buckling analysis, the stiffness matrix of structure (K) in static analysis is

extended to include interaction between the in-plane forces and lateral bending by

introducing additional elements K

ij

. Linear buckling analysis ignores the effect of

structural imperfections on the behaviour of the structure under load and yields a

buckling load for a perfect structure which is always higher than the buckling load,

which is found in tests on real structures.

5.2.2.2 Buckling FE analysis:

FE idealization: Total length of 200mm is idealized with CBAR elements

Geometrical properties: Diameter, Area, M.I (moment of inertia) of cross

section is provided with PBAR card.

Material properties: Youngs modulus and shear modulus (G) of steel are

provided with MAT1 card.

Boundary conditions: Hinged Hinged condition: FOUR Degrees of

Freedom were constrained.

Loading: A compressive Force of 1000 N is applied axially through Force

card.

Fig.12: FE

Lowest Eigen value from FE

FEA Critical buckling load,

FEA results of beam under buckling

Lowest Eigen value from FEA results = 25.317

Critical buckling load,

c

= 25.317 (1000)

= 25317 N

Page | 28

Page | 29

5.3 RESULTS AND SUMMARY OF EXERCISE PROBLEMS:

5.3.1 STRESS ANALYSIS ON A CIRCULAR CANTILEVER BEAM:

S.NO DESCRIPTION CONVENTIONAL

METHOD

FE METHOD

1) Displacement due to

point load, (mm)

0.015 0.017

2) Maximum bending

stress, (N/mm

2

)

8.152

8.15

5.3.2 BUCKLING OF A BEAM (BOTH ENDS HINGED):

S.NO DESCRIPTION CONVENTIONAL

METHOD

FE METHOD

1) Crippling load,

c

(kN) 25.4 25.317

5.4 OBSERVATION:

It is observed that the example results on structural elements are similar in

both analytical method and FEA. Hence by using FE package the accuracy of the

expected results are good and the procedure is fast.

6. STRESS ANALYSIS OF SKID TUBE OF A HELICOPTER

The skid landing gear system components of LUH are designed to

withstand the limit as well as reserve landing loads as specified in FAR 29.501.

The gear in its most critically deflected position for the landin

considered and the ground reactions rationally distributed along the bottom of skid

tube.

Structural yielding of elastic spring members under limit load is acceptable.

The design maximum weight, CG and the load factor is determined as per F

29.471 through 29.475. Design ultimate load is estimated by the drop test with the

rotor disc 1.5 times (or less) that used in limit drop case and drop height 1.5 times

of that specified in FAR 29.725.

6.1 LOAD CASES:

The undercarriage system skid tube component of a helicopter has been

analyzed using FEA packages Patran/Nastran. The analysis of the skid tube has

been carried out by varying the thickness of the circular cross section FOR

OPTIMIZATION. The skid tube has been analyzed for different LOAD CASES as

PER AIRWORTHIENESS REQUIREMENTS as follows:

When a helicopter lands, the load is always concentrated between the

span of the cross tube joints in the skid tube.

A. Load applied is applied on length (2210.25 mm) of the skid tube.

B. Load applied is only on 33.3

the skid tube.

Fig.13: Helicopter skid tube with defining length

STRESS ANALYSIS OF SKID TUBE OF A HELICOPTER

The skid landing gear system components of LUH are designed to

withstand the limit as well as reserve landing loads as specified in FAR 29.501.

The gear in its most critically deflected position for the landing condition is

considered and the ground reactions rationally distributed along the bottom of skid

Structural yielding of elastic spring members under limit load is acceptable.

The design maximum weight, CG and the load factor is determined as per F

29.471 through 29.475. Design ultimate load is estimated by the drop test with the

rotor disc 1.5 times (or less) that used in limit drop case and drop height 1.5 times

of that specified in FAR 29.725.

The undercarriage system skid tube component of a helicopter has been

packages Patran/Nastran. The analysis of the skid tube has

been carried out by varying the thickness of the circular cross section FOR

OPTIMIZATION. The skid tube has been analyzed for different LOAD CASES as

PER AIRWORTHIENESS REQUIREMENTS as follows:

When a helicopter lands, the load is always concentrated between the

span of the cross tube joints in the skid tube.

Load applied is applied on length (2210.25 mm) of the skid tube.

Load applied is only on 33.3% of the length (2210.25 mm) i.e. 73

: Helicopter skid tube with defining length

Page | 30

STRESS ANALYSIS OF SKID TUBE OF A HELICOPTER

The skid landing gear system components of LUH are designed to

withstand the limit as well as reserve landing loads as specified in FAR 29.501.

g condition is

considered and the ground reactions rationally distributed along the bottom of skid

Structural yielding of elastic spring members under limit load is acceptable.

The design maximum weight, CG and the load factor is determined as per FAR

29.471 through 29.475. Design ultimate load is estimated by the drop test with the

rotor disc 1.5 times (or less) that used in limit drop case and drop height 1.5 times

The undercarriage system skid tube component of a helicopter has been

packages Patran/Nastran. The analysis of the skid tube has

been carried out by varying the thickness of the circular cross section FOR

OPTIMIZATION. The skid tube has been analyzed for different LOAD CASES as

When a helicopter lands, the load is always concentrated between the

Load applied is applied on length (2210.25 mm) of the skid tube.

i.e. 736 mm of

6.1.1 Reference image of boundary & loading conditions (2D)

for load case B:

Fig.14: Load applied is only on 33.3 % of the

The simulated loads are given in the table below:

Landing velocity FWD CG

Fwd C/T

Reserve landing

3.12 m/s

19716 N

Total load considered (FWD C/T) =

6.2 SKID TUBE ANALYSIS:

Skid tube 1D FE model and

elements and 2D quad elements. Initially

stress and deflection are estimated. FE results from two models are also obtained

for the same loading and compared.

6.1.1 Reference image of boundary & loading conditions (2D)

oad applied is only on 33.3 % of the total length i.e. 736 mm

simulated loads are given in the table below:

FWD CG AFT CG

Fwd C/T Aft C/T Fwd C/T

19716 N 19898 N 31724.5 N

Total load considered (FWD C/T) = 31724.5 N

6.2 SKID TUBE ANALYSIS:

Skid tube 1D FE model and 2D FE model are created using 1D

elements and 2D quad elements. Initially, by analytical approach critical bending

stress and deflection are estimated. FE results from two models are also obtained

for the same loading and compared.

Page | 31

total length i.e. 736 mm

(ref 1)

Aft C/T

__

2D FE model are created using 1D beam

by analytical approach critical bending

stress and deflection are estimated. FE results from two models are also obtained

Skid tube has been analyzed for both the load cases (load cases

under two simulations which differ in thickness as follows:

6.2.1. SIMULATION (1)

thickness 3.4 mm for load case

6.2.2. SIMULATION (1

thickness 3.4 mm for load case

6.2.3. SIMULATION (2)

thickness 4 mm for load case

6.2.4. SIMULATION (2)

thickness 4 mm for load case

6.2.1 SIMULATION 1- case A:

Fig.15: FE model of the

6.2.1.1 Analytical solution:

Load concentration span,

L

Thickness, t

Total load applied, P

(Vertical loading in Z

Outer diameter, D

Inner diameter, d

Skid tube has been analyzed for both the load cases (load cases

ch differ in thickness as follows:

SIMULATION (1) - case A: Analysis of the skid tube of constant

hickness 3.4 mm for load case-A

(1) - case B: Analysis of the skid tube of constant

thickness 3.4 mm for load case-B

SIMULATION (2) - case A: Analysis of the skid tube of constant

thickness 4 mm for load case-A

SIMULATION (2) - case B: Analysis of the skid tube of constant

thickness 4 mm for load case-B

case A:

FE model of the Skid tube with constant thickness, 3.4 mm

Analytical solution:

Load concentration span, 2210.25 mm

Thickness, t 3.4 mm

Total load applied, P

(Vertical loading in Z-axis)

31724.5 N

Outer diameter, D 90 mm

Inner diameter, d 83.2 mm

Page | 32

Skid tube has been analyzed for both the load cases (load cases-A & B)

Analysis of the skid tube of constant

Analysis of the skid tube of constant

lysis of the skid tube of constant

Analysis of the skid tube of constant

3.4 mm

Page | 33

Mass of the skid tube,

Mass = volume density (ref 7)

= (

2

r

2

) L

= 3.14 (4

2

41.6

2

) (3172) (0.000002810)

Mass = 8.24 kg

Moment of inertia, I =

64

(D

4

d

4

) (ref 7)

=

64

(90

4

83.2

4

)

w =

Ioad

Icngth

(ref 7)

=

31724.5

2210.25

w = 14.3533 N/mm

Fig.16: General load diagram

I = 868042.86 mm

4

Page | 34

M

A

=

W L

2

12

; M

B

=

W L

2

12

(ref 7)

=

(14.3533) (2210.25)

2

12

M

A

= 5.8432 1

6

N mm

M

B

= - 5.8432 1

6

N mm

M

C

=

W L

2

24

(ref 7)

=

(14.3533) (2210.25)

2

24

N

C

= 2.921 1

6

N mm

Maximum bending stress, =

M

A

Y

I

(ref 7)

=

(5.8432) (10

6

) (45)

868042.86

= 302 N/ mm

2

Deflection, =

W L

4

384 E I

(ref 8)

=

(14.3533) (2210.25)

4

(384) (70000) (868042.86)

= 14 mm

Page | 35

6.2.1.2 FEA solution:

Fig.17: Deflection (1D)

Fig.18: Maximum bending stresses (1D)

Fig.19: Deflection (2D)

Page | 36

Fig.20: Maximum bending stresses (2D)

6.2.1.3 Comparison of RESULTS in simulation 1-case A:

Solutions Deflection,

(mm)

Max. Bending stress,

(N/

2

)

Analytical 14 302

FEA (1D) 15 266

FEA (2D) 18 307

6.2.2 SIMULATION 1- case B:

Load applied is only on 33.3 % of the total length (2210.25 mm) i.e. 736 mm of the

skid tube.

Thickness, t 3.4 mm

Total Length, L 2210.25 mm

Page | 37

6.2.2.1 Analytical solution:

Using Macaulays method,

b = (0.333) (2210.25)

= 736 mm

a =

L-b

2

(ref 7)

=

2210.25-736

2

a = 737.125 mm

w =

31724.5

736

= 43.103 N/ mm

N

A

= w

12 b L

2

- 8 (L-a)

3

+ (L-b)

3

48 L

(ref 7)

N

B

= w

12 b L

2

- 8 (L-a)

3

+ (L-b)

3

48 L

(ref 7)

M

A

= 43.103

(12)(736)(2210.25)

2

- 8 (2210.25-737.125)

3

+ (2210.25-736)

3

(48)(2210.25)

N

A

= 8438486.943 N mm

N

B

= 8438486.943 N mm

=

M

A

Y

I

(ref 7)

=

(8438486.943) (45)

868042.86

= 437 N/ mm

2

Page | 38

6.2.2.2 FEA solution:

Fig.21: Maximum bending stresses (1D)

Fig.22: Maximum bending stresses (2D)

6.2.2.3 Comparison of RESULTS in simulation 1-case B:

Solutions Max. Bending stress,

(N/

2

)

Analytical 437

FEA (1D) 387

FEA (2D) 411

6.2.3 SIMULATION 2 case A

Fig.23: Skid tube with constant thickness,

Length, L

Thickness, t

Total load applied, P

(Vertical loading in Z

Outer diameter, D

Inner diameter, d

6.2.3.1 Analytical solution:

Mass of the skid tube,

Mass = volume

= (

2

= 3.14 (

Mass = 9.62 kg

case A:

d tube with constant thickness, 4 mm

Length, L 2210.25 mm

Thickness, t 4 mm

Total load applied, P

(Vertical loading in Z-axis)

31724.5 N

Outer diameter, D 90 mm

Inner diameter, d 82 mm

Analytical solution:

volume density

2

r

2

) L

= 3.14 (4

2

41

2

) (3172) (0.000002810)

2 kg

Page | 39

(ref 7)

Page | 40

Moment of Inertia, I =

n

64

(

4

4

) (ref 7)

=

n

64

(9

4

82

4

)

I = 1000768.24

4

From simulation- 1,

w = 14.3533 N/ mm

N

A

= 5.8423 1

6

N

B

= - 5.8423 1

6

N

C

= 2.921 1

6

N mm

=

M

A

Y

I

(ref 7)

=

(.842S) (1)

6

(4)

1768.24

Deflection, =

W L

4

384 E I

(ref 8)

=

(14.3533)(2210.25)

4

(384) (70000) (1000768.24)

= 262 N /

2

= 12.7 mm

Page | 41

FEA solution:

Fig.24: Deflection (1D)

Fig.25: Maximum bending stresses (1D)

Fig.26: Deflection (2D)

Page | 42

Fig.27: Maximum bending stresses (2D)

Result:

Solution Deflection,

(mm)

Maximum bending

stress,

(N/

2

)

Analytical 12.7 262

FEA (1D) 13.6 252

FEA (2D) 15.7 261

6.2.4 SIMULATION (2) case B:

Load applied is only on 33.3 % of the length i.e. 736 mm of the skid tube.

6.2.4.1 Analytical solution:

Thickness = 4mm; from sub case-1, N

A

= 8438486.943 N/mm

N

C

= M

A

+

w b L

4

w b

2

8

(ref 7)

= 8438486.943 +

(14.3533) (736) (2210.25)

4

14.3533 (736)

2

8

N

C

= 3.573 1

6

N/ mm

=

(8.4384) 10

6

(45)

1000768.24

= 379.43 N/mm

2

Page | 43

6.2.4.2 FEA solution:

Fig.28: Maximum bending stresses (1D)

Fig.29: Maximum bending stresses (2D)

Result:

Solutions Max. Bending stress,

(N/

2

)

Analytical 379

FEA (1D) 359

FEA (2D) 351

Page | 44

7. WEIGHT OPTIMIZATION ANALYSIS & STUDY

7.1 WEIGHT OPTIMIZATION SIMULATIONS:

Weight optimization is done considering the stress concentrated area in the skid

tube. Thickness has been varied in the same skid tube giving greater thickness to

the more stress concentrated area to reduce the overall weight of the skid tube.

The weight optimization is done for both the load cases (load cases A & B) under

two simulations.

7.1.1 SIMULATION (3) case A:

Analysis of the skid tube of variable thickness 3-4 mm for load case-A.

Fig.30: Skid tube with variable thickness

Mass of the skid tube,

Mass = volume density (ref 7)

= (

2

r

2

) L

1

= 3.14 (4

2

41

2

) (860.5) (0.000002810)

m

1

= 2.61 kg

Mass = volume density

= (

2

r

2

) L

2

= 3.14 (4

2

42

2

) (1105.125) (0.000002810)

m

2

= 2.55 kg

Page | 45

Mass = volume density

= (

2

r

2

) L

3

= 3.14 (4

2

41

2

) (1206.375) (0.000002810)

m

3

= 3.66 kg

Total mass of the tube = m

1

+ m

2

+m

3

= 2.61 + 2.55 + 3.66

= 8.82 kg

Margin of safety (MOS):

Design safety factor, DSF = 1.5

Fitting factor, F

F

= 1.15

MOS =

o

uIt

F

F

o

vs

DSF

1 (ref 7)

=

450

(1.15)(255)(1.5)

1

Fig.31: Maximum bending stresses (1D)

MOS = 0.02

Page | 46

Fig.32: Deflection (1D)

Fig.33: Maximum bending stresses (2D)

Fig.34: Deflection (2D)

Page | 47

Result:

Solutions Deflection,

(mm)

Max. Bending stress,

(N/

2

)

MOS

FEA (1D) 14.8 259 0.02

FEA (2D) 16.4 255 0.02

7.1.2 SIMULATION (3) case B:

Analysis of the skid tube of variable thickness 3-4 mm for load case-B

Load applied is only on 33.3 % of the length i.e. 736 mm of the skid tube.

Fig.35: Maximum bending stresses (1D)

Fig.36: Deflection (1D)

Page | 48

Fig.37: Maximum bending stresses (2D)

Fig.38: Deflection (2D)

Result:

Solutions Deflection,

(mm)

Max. Bending stress,

(N/

2

)

FEA (1D) 27 394

FEA (2D) 30 381

Page | 49

7.1.3 SIMULATION (4) case A:

Analysis of the skid tube of variable thickness 3-4 mm for load case-A

Fig.39: Skid tube with variable thickness

Mass of the skid tube,

Mass = volume density (ref 7)

= (

2

r

2

) L

1

= 3.14 (4

2

42

2

) (608) (0.000002810)

m

1

= 1.4 kg

Mass = volume density

= (

2

r

2

) L

2

= 3.14 (4

2

41

2

) (252.5) (0.000002810)

m

2

= 0.77 kg = m

4

Mass = volume density

= (

2

r

2

) L

3

Page | 50

= 3.14 (4

2

42

2

) (1105.125) (0.000002810)

m

3

= 2.55 kg

Mass = volume density

= (

2

r

2

) L

5

= 3.14 (4

2

42

2

) (953) (0.000002810)

m

5

= 2.19 kg

Total mass = m

1

+ m

2

+ m

3

+ m

4

+ m

5

= 7.68 kg

Margin of safety (MOS):

Design safety factor, DSF = 1.5

Fitting factor, F

F

= 1.15

MOS =

o

uIt

F

F

o

vs

DSF

1 (ref 7)

=

450

(1.15) (253)(1.5)

1

Fig.40: Maximum bending stresses (1D)

MOS = 0.03

Page | 51

Fig.41: Deflection (1D)

Fig.42: Maximum bending stresses (2D)

Fig.43: Deflection (2D)

Page | 52

Result:

Solutions Deflection,

(mm)

Max. Bending stress,

(N/

2

)

MOS

FEA (1D) 15.2 256 0.03

FEA (2D) 16.4 253 0.03

7.1.4 SIMULATION (4) case B:

Analysis of the skid tube of variable thickness 3-4 mm for load case-B

Load applied is only on 33.3 % of the length i.e. 736 mm of the skid tube.

Fig.44: Maximum bending stresses (1D)

Fig.45: Deflection (1D)

Page | 53

Fig.46: Maximum bending stresses (2D)

Fig.47: Deflection (2D)

Result:

Solutions Deflection,

(mm)

Max. Bending stress,

(N/

2

)

FEA (1D) 28.8 399

FEA (2D) 29.4 402

Page | 54

7.2 COMPARISON & OBSERVATIONS OF RESULTS:

7.2.1 COMPARISON AND OBSERVATIONS OF RESULTS OF SIMULATIONS

(2D) FOR LOAD CASE-A:

S.No Simulation for

load cases-A

(N/

2

)

(mm)

MOS Mass

(kg)

1 Simulation -1

(t = 3.4 mm)

307 18 0.07 8.24

2 Simulation-2

(t= 4 mm)

261 15.7 0.25 9.62

3 Simulation-3

(t= 3-4 mm)

255 16.4 0.02 8.82

4 Simulation-4

(t= 3-4 mm)

253 16.4 0.03 7.68

7.2.2 COMPARISON AND OBSERVATIONS OF RESULTS OF SIMULATIONS

(2D) FOR LOAD CASE-B:

S.No Simulation for

load case-B

(N/

2

)

(mm)

MOS Mass

(kg)

1 Simulation- 1 411 30.2 0.45 8.24

2 Simulation- 2 351 26.1 0.70 9.62

3 Simulation- 3 381 30.4 0.02 8.82

4 Simulation- 4 402 29.4 0.03 7.68

Margin of safety (MOS) is acceptable in simulation 3 & 4, the stress levels

are within the allowable maximum stress for the material concerned.

Weight saving = simulation (2) simulation (4) = 1.94 kg

Page | 55

8. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

When simulation-2 is compared with weight optimization cases we can

clearly observe that maximum bending stress in simulation 3 & 4 are

approximately same. Therefore, we can say that stress concentration levels in the

weight optimization simulations which have variable cross-section is same as the

stress concentration levels in simulation-2 which has uniform cross-section of 4

mm thickness resulting in the reduction of gross weight (W

g

) and empty weight

(W

c

) of the skid tubes.

S.

No.

Simulations for

both the load

cases A & B

Mass

(kg)

Weight saving

(simulation 2 simulation x)

(Kg)

1 Simulation -1

(t = 3.4 mm)

8.24 1.38

2 Simulation -2

(t = 4 mm)

9.62

(Reference)

__

3 Simulation -3

(t = 3-4 mm)

8.82 0.8

4 Simulation -4

(t = 3-4 mm)

7.68 1.94

The graph below gives a clear view of reduction in weight without compromising its

yield strength for the suggested simulation (simulation 4).

Fig.48: Graph of strength to weight

Page | 56

9. CONCLUSION

The weight optimization of skid tube of a helicopter has been achieved by

varying the thickness of skid tube cross-sections considerably. At first a FEA

analysis has been performed for skid tube of constant thickness cross-sections

and the results have been validated by conventional method.

The following observations have been made:

i. The increase in thickness directly reduces the stresses and deflections

across the skid tube (ref- simulation 1 & 2).

ii. The stress concentration is more at the joints of cross-tube with skid

tube.

iii. The increase in thickness directly reflects in the increase of over all

weight of the skid tube (ref- simulation-2).

To reduce the overall weight without decreasing the structural strength of the

skid tube has been achieved.

The weight optimization is demonstrated in the simulation 3 & 4 where variable

thickness for different span lengths of the skid tube has been applied in such a

way that the thickness has been increased only at joints where the cross-tube

meets the skid tube so as to reduce the overall stress concentration in the skid

tube especially at the joint sections. At the same time the thickness has been

decreased considerably at the other spans of the skid tube which results in

significant weight reduction of the skid tube.

FE analysis has given a good insight for the better understanding of structural

components behaviour due to different loading cases in lesser time.

And there is still lot of scope for further weight optimization of skid tube by

using different materials.

Hands-on experience to practical working environments has been gained by

working under the RWR & DC STRESS GROUP DIVISION of HAL

organisation.

Page | 57

10. BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. HAL, RWR & DC, LUH reports & data sheets.

2. Gatlin Clifford I., Goebel Donald E. and Larsen Stuart E., Analysis of

Helicopter Structural Crashworthiness. Volume 1. Mathematical Simulation

and Experimental Verification for Helicopter Crashworthiness, JAN 1971.

3. Crist David and Symes L. H, Helicopter Landing Gear Design and Test

Criteria Investigation, AUG 1981.

4. Louis S. Brown, Sr., Vehicle skid assembly, OCT, 25, 1994.

5. James Liautaud, Cantilever helicopter skid tube JUNE, 8, 1993.

6. DR.R.K.Bansal, Strength of Materials.

7. DR.Sadhu Singh, Strength of Materials.

8. Wayne Johnson, Theory of helicopter.

9. http://www.awc.org/pdf/DA6-BeamFormulas.pdf

10. http://www.aviastar.org

11. www.helis.com

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