Mini solar charge controller

Fathima jahana Shrimayi Santhana lakshmi ECE-B

4 to 14. Modern multi-stage charge controllers Most quality charge controller units have what is known as a 3 stage charge cycle that goes like this : 1) BULK: During the Bulk phase of the charge cycle. 3)FLOAT: After the absorption time passes the voltage is lowered to float level (usually 13. .4 to 13. When Bulk level voltage is reached the absorption stage begins.6 volts) while the batteries draw maximum current. the voltage gradually rises to the Bulk level (usually 14. the charge controller regulates the charge to the batteries preventing any over charging. the more voltage the solar cells produce. the excessive voltage could damage the batteries. A charge controller is used to maintain the proper charging voltage on the batteries. The relationship between the current and the voltage during the 3 phases of the charge cycle can be shown visually by the graph below.MINI SOLAR CHARGE CONTROLLER Why a Charge Controller is necessary Since the brighter the sunlight. 2)ABSORPTION: During this phase the voltage is maintained at Bulk voltage level for a specified time (usually an hour) while the current gradually tapers off as the batteries charge up.7 volts) and the batteries draw a small maintenance current until the next cycle. As the input voltage from the solar array rises.

The Power Inverter can also charge the batteries if it is connected to the AC utility grid or in the case of a stand alone system. I would recommend using one of at least this design.MPPT Maximum Power Point Tracking Most multi-stage charge controllers are Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) types.4 volt battery maintaining the full power of the 100 watt solar panel! 100 watts = 12. then your 100 watt solar panel rated at 6 amps at 16.5 volts = 100 watts) will only charge at 6 amps times 12. The Charge Controller is installed between the Solar Panel array and the Batteries where it automatically maintains the charge on the batteries using the 3 stage charge cycle just decribed. . You just lost 25% of your capacity! The MPPT controller compensates for the lower battery voltage by delivering closer to 8 amps into the 12. you won't get the full 100 watts unless the battery is at optimum voltage. if your batteries are low at say 12. The newer Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) controllers are even better. For example: even though your solar panel is rated at 100 watts. With a regular charge controller. The Power/Watts is always equal to Volts times Amps or P=E*I (seeOhm's law for more info). They match the output of the solar panels to the battery voltage to insure maximum charge (amps).4 volts.4 volts times 8 amps = 100 (P=E*I).4 volts or just 75 watts.5 volts (6 amps times 16. your own AC Generator.

the current generated could be increased. there is an 'edge of cloud effect'. the space programme provided the impetus for the development of crystalline silicon solar cells. A good 3 stage 40 amp Charge Controller will run about $140 to $225 depending on features like LCD displays.If you are using four 75 to 80 Watt solar panels. your charge controller should be rated up to 40 amps. the first commercial production of PV modules for terrestrial applications began in 1953 with the introduction of automated PV production plants. It was first observed in 1839 by the French scientist Becquerel who detected that when light was directed onto one side of a simple battery cell. For eight 75 to 80 watt solar panels you would need two 40 amp Charge Controllers to handle the power or you could increase your system voltage to 24 volts and still use just one 40 amp Charge Controller. Due to this phenomenon I have seen my four 6 amp panels (4*6=24) pump out over 32 amps. Even though the solar panels don't normally produce that much current. This is well over their rated 24 amps maximum. In the late 1950s. . PV : Photovoltaic (PV) is a technology that converts sunlight directly into electricity.

as well as acquiring information about the solar insolation in the area (approximations can be made if no data is readily available). However. The figure below shows a typical configurations for an off-grid PV system. If a battery charging system is used then electronic control apparatus will be needed to monitor the system. Solar PV systems While in developed countries there has been a rapid increase in grid connected PV systems. Such systems can often be bought as kits and installed by semi-skilled labour. telecommunications and many other applications. in developing countries the majority of PV systems are stand-alone offgrid systems. The daylight needed is free. For correct sizing of PV systems. with the global demand to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. solar PV is increasingly being used by homes and offices to provide electricity to replace or supplement grid power.6GW globally (2006). PV systems have an important use in areas remote from an electricity grid where they provide power for water pumping. water pumping is a good example -water is pumped during the hours of sunlight and stored for use. often in the form of solar PV roof tiles. All the components other than the PV module are referred to as the balance-of-system (BOS) components. or a battery can be used to store power for use for lighting during the evening. electrified livestock fencing.85watt hours of energy for each kWhm-2 per day of insolation (Hulscher 1994). However. lighting. It is normally assumed that for each Wp of rated power the module should provide 0. Photovoltaic modules provide an independent. PV technology is also gaining popularity as a mainstream form of electricity generation. in remote areas where grid connection is expensive. but the cost of equipment can take many years before receiving any payback. with an installed capacity of over 6. Photo credit: Practical Action. However. vaccine refrigeration. reliable electrical power source at the point of use. Today. making it particularly suited to remote locations. yet this number is a tiny proportion of the vast potential that exists for PV as an energy source. Therefore . The off-grid systems can be used to drive a load directly. Several million solar PV systems are currently in use worldwide.Figure 1: A photovoltaic panel being used in rural Nepal for solar lighting. PV can be the most cost effective power source. the user needs to estimate the demand on the system.

• Easy to maintain . The recurrent costs of operating and maintaining PV systems are small. which can be connected to meet a particular demand.This has been shown to be significantly higher than that of diesel generators.Operation and routine maintenance requirements are simple. • Long life .A solar array comprises individual PV modules.Reliance on imported fuels such as coal and oil is . • National economic benefits .85 x 5 = 850).With no moving parts and all delicate surfaces protected. modules can be expected to provide power for 15 years or more.if we consider a module rated at 200 Wp and the insolation for our site is 5 kWhm2 per day (typical value for tropical regions).In remote areas diesel or kerosene fuel supplies are erratic and often very expensive. Some benefits of photovoltaics: • No fuel requirements . then our system will produce 850Wh per day (that is 200 x 0. • Modular design . • Reliability of PV modules .

. for example.There is no pollution through the use of a PV system nor is there any heat or noise generated which could cause local discomfort.kerosene lamps. PV systems bring great improvements in the domestic environment when they replace other forms of lighting .reduced. • Environmentally benign .

7V/12V 27.8V/24V 12.4V/24V 10. load current Voltage Drop Rated Voltage High Voltage Disconnection Low Voltage Disconnection Low Voltage Reconnection Temperature Compensation Working Temperature Max.Solar Charge Controller Features:  voltage regulation  PWM shunt Battery charging  floating charge  automatic reconnection  automatic selection of voltage (12V/24V)  temperature compensation  Electronic Protections:  overloading protection  short circuit protection  reverse current protection  reverse polarity protection  lightning protection  overcharge protection  overdischarge protection Technical Data at 25℃: Model Max.6V/12V 25.168kg . own consumption Biggest connection terminal Size Weight CMP12.CMP126A 12A <=6A <=12A <140mv <210mv 12V / 24V auto 13.5V/12V 20.5mm² 102x45x107mm 0.2V/24V -3mv/℃/cell -20℃ to +60℃ <=20mA 2.

Few circuits… .

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