MB0048 – Operations Research

(Book ID: B1301)

Assignment

Submitted by: Kusumlata Ahuja Roll No: 52115243

MB0048 – Operations Research - 4 Credits (Book ID: B1301)
Set - 1
Q1. A toy company manufactures two types of dolls, a basic version doll-A and a deluxe version doll-B. Each doll of type B takes twice as long to produce as one of type A, and the company would have time to make maximum of 1000 per day. The supply of plastic is sufficient to produce 1000 dolls per day (both A & B combined). The deluxe version requires a fancy dress of which there are only 500 per day available. If the company makes a profit of Rs 3.00 and Rs 5.. per doll, respectively on doll A and B, then how many of each doll should be produced per day in order to maximize the total profit. Formulate this problem. Answer: Formulation: Let X1 and X2 be the number of dolls produced per day of type A and B, respectively. Let the A require t hrs. So that the doll B require 2t hrs. So the total time to manufacture X1 and X2 dolls should not exceed 2000t hrs. Therefore, tX1 + 2tX2 ≤ 2000t Other constraints are simple. Then the linear programming problem becomes: Maximize p = 3 X1 + 5 X2 Subject to restrictions, X1 + 2X2 ≤ 2000 (Time constraint) X1 + X2 ≤ 1500 (Plastic constraint) X2 ≤ 600 (Dress constraint) And non-negatively restrictions X1, X2 ≥ 0 Q2. What are the advantages of Linear programming techniques? Answer: Advantages of Linear Programming techniques 1. The linear programming technique helps to make the best possible use of available productive resources (such as time, labor, machines etc.) 2. It improves the quality of decisions. The individual who makes use of linear programming methods becomes more objective than subjective. 3. It also helps in providing better tools for adjustment to meet changing conditions. 4. In a production process, bottle necks may occur. For example, in a factory some machines may be in great demand while others may lie idle for some time. A significant advantage of linear programming is highlighting of such bottle necks. 5. Most business problems involve constraints like raw materials availability, market demand etc. which must be taken into consideration. Just we can produce so many units of product does not mean that they can be sold. Linear programming can handle such situation also. Q3. Solve the following Assignment Problem Operations M1 M2 M3 O1 10 15 12 O2 9 10 9 O3 15 16 16

M4 11 12 17

Solution: Since the number of rows are less than number of columns, adding a dummy row and applying Hungarian method,

Operations O1 O2 O3 O4

M1 10 9 15 0

M2 15 10 16 0

Row reduction matrix M3 M4 12 11 9 12 16 17 0 0

Operations O1 O2 O3 O4

M1 [0] X 1 X

Optimum assignment solution M2 M3 M4 5 2 1 1 [0] 3 [0] X x x X [0]

Hungarian Method leads to multiple solutions. Selecting (03, M2) arbitrarily. O1 – M1 10 O2 – M3 09 O3 – M2 16 O4 – M4 00 ------------------------TOTAL 35 Therefore, the optimum assignment schedule is O1 – M1, O2 – M3, O3 – M2 AND O4 – M4. Q4. What is integer programming? Answer: If the unknown variables are all required to be integers, then the problem is called an integer progrmming (IP) or integer linear programming (ILP) problem. In contrast to linear programming, which can be solved efficiently in the worst case, integer programming problems are in many practical situations (those with bounded variables) NP-hard (non deterministic polynomial-time hard), in computational complexity theory, is a class of problems that are, informally, "at least as hard as the hardest problems in NP"). 0-1 integer programming or binary integer programming (BIP) is the special case of integer programming where variables are required to be 0 or 1 (rather than arbitrary integers). This problem is also classified as NP-hard, and in fact the decision version was one of Karp’s 21 NP-complete problems. If only some of the unknown variables are required to be integers, then the problem is called a mixed integer programming (MIP) problem. These are generally also NP-hard. There are however some important subclasses of IP and MIP problems that are efficiently solvable, most notably problems where the constraint matrix is totally uni-modular and the right-hand sides of the constraints are integers. Advanced algorithms for solving integer linear programs include: • Cutting –plane method • Branch and bound • Branch and cut • Branch and price • if the problem has some extra structure, it may be possible to apply delayed column generation. Such integer-programming algorithms are discussed by Padberg and in Beasley. Q5. Explain the different steps involved in simulation methodologies? Answer: The methodology developed for simulation process consists of the following seven steps: Step 1: Identify and clearly define the problem. Step 2: List the statement of objectives of the problem. Step 3: Formulate the variables that influence the situation and an extract or probabilistic

description of their possible values or states. Step 4: Obtain a consistent set of values (or states) for the variables, i.e., a sample of probabilistic variables, random sampling technique maybe used. Step 5: Use the sample obtained in step 2 to calculate the values of the decision criterion, by actually following the relationships among the variables for each of the alternative decisions. Step 6: Repeat steps 2 and 3 until a sufficient number of samples are available. Step 7: Tabulate the various values of the decision criterion and choose the best policy. Q6. Write down the basic difference between PERT & CPM. Answer: Though there are no essential differences between PERT and CPM as both of them share in common the determination of a critical path. Both are based on the network representation of activities and their scheduling that determines the most critical activities to be controlled so as to meet the completion date of the project. PERT (Program Evaluation and CPM (Critical Path Method) Review Technique) 1)PERT is a probabilistic tool used 1)CPM is a deterministic tool, with with three only single Estimating the duration for completion of estimate of duration activities. 2)This tool is basically a tool for 2) CPM also allows and explicit planning estimate of and control of time. costs in addition to time, therefore CPM can control both time and cost. 3)PERT is more suitable for R&D 3)CPM is best suited for routine and related those projects where the project is performed for projects where time and cost estimates can the first time and the estimate of duration be accurately calculated are uncertain. 4)The probability factor i major in 4) The deterministic factor is more PERT so values or so outcomes may not be exact. outcomes are generally accurate and realistic.

MB0048 – Operations Research - 4 Credits (Book ID: B1138)
Set - 2
Q1. What is a model in OR? Discuss different models available in OR. Answer: A model is an idealized representation or abstraction of a real-life system. The objective of a model is to identify significant factors that affect the real-life system and their interrelationships. A model aids the decision-making process as it provides a simplified description of complexities and uncertainties of a problem in a logical structure. The most significant advantage of a model is that it does not interfere with the real-life system. A broad classification of OR models You can broadly classify OR models into the following types: a. Physical Models include all form of diagrams, graphs and charts. They are designed to tackle specific problems. They bring out significant factors and interrelationships in pictorial form to facilitate analysis. There are two types of physical models: a) Iconic models b) Analog models Iconic models are primarily images of objects or systems, represented on a smaller scale. These models can simulate the actual performance of a product. Analog models are small physical systems having characteristics similar to the objects they represent, such as toys. b. Mathematical or Symbolic Models employ a set of mathematical symbols to represent the decision variable of the system. The variables are related by mathematical systems. Some examples of mathematical models are allocation, sequencing, and replacement models. c. By nature of Environment: Models can be further classified as follows: a) Deterministic model in which everything is defined and the results are certain, such as an EOQ model. b) Probabilistic Models in which the input and output variables follow a defined probability distribution, such as the Games Theory. d. By the extent of Generality Models can be further classified as follows: a) General Models are the models which you can apply in general to any problem. For example: Linear programming. b) Specific Models on the other hand are models that you can apply only under specific conditions. For example: You can use the sales response curve or equation as a function of only in the marketing function. Q2. Write dual of Max Z = 4X1 + 5X2 Subject to: 3X1 + X2 ≤ 15 X1 + 2X2 ≤ 10 5X1 + 2X2 ≤ 20 X1, X2 ≥ 0 Solution: Min W = 15Y1 + 10Y2 + 20Y3 Subject to 3Y1 + Y2 + 5Y3 ≥ 4 Y1 + 2Y2 + 2Y3 ≥ 5 Y1, Y2, Y3 ≥ 0