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version of the print textbook. Due to electronic rightsrestri ctions, some third party content may be suppressed. Editorialreview has deemed t hat any suppresed content does not materiallyaffect the overall learning experie nce. The publisher reserves theright to remove content from this title at any ti me if subsequentrights restrictions require it. For valuable information on pric ing, previouseditions, changes to current editions, and alternate format s , please visitwww.cengage.com/higheredto search by ISBN#, author, title, or keyw ordfor materials in your areas of interest.sis Understanding OperatingSystems Sixth Edition Ann McIver McHoesIda M. Flynn Australia Canada Mexico Singapore Spain United Kingdom United States 2011 Course Technology, Cengage LearningALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work cov ered by the copyrightherein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in a ny form or byany means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not lim ited tophotocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, Web distribution,i nformation networks, or information storage and retrieval systems, exceptas perm itted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976

United StatesCopyright Act, without the prior written permission of the publishe r.Library of Congress Control Number: 2010920344 ISBN -13: 978-1-4390-7920-1 ISBN -10: 1-4390-7920-x Course Technology 20 Channel Center StreetBoston, MA 02210USASome of the product names and company names used in this book havebeen used for identification purposes only and may be trademarks orregistered trademarks of their respective manufacturers and sell ers.Any fictional data related to persons, or companies or URLs usedthroughout t his book is intended for instructional purposes only. At thetime this book was p rinted, any such data was fictional and not belongingtoany real persons or compa nies.Course Technology, a part of Cengage Learning, reserves the right to revise thispublication and make changes from time to time in its content without notic e.Cengage Learning is a leading provider of customized learning solutionswith of fice locations around the globe, including Singapore, the UnitedKingdom, Austral ia, Mexico, Brazil and Japan. Locate your local office at: www.cengage.com/global Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada byNelson Education, Ltd. To learn more about Course Technology, visit www.cengage.com/coursetechnology Purchase any of our products at your local college store or at our preferredonli ne store www.CengageBrain.comUnderstanding Operating Systems,Sixth Edition Ann McIver McHoes and Ida M. Flynn Executive Editor: Marie LeeAcquisitions Editor: Amy JollymoreSenior Product Mana ger: Alyssa PrattEditorial Assistant: Zina KresinContent Project Manager: Jennif er FeltriArt Director: Faith BrosnanPrint Buyer: Julio EsperasCover Designer: Ni ght & Day DesignCover Photos: iStockphotoProofreader: Suzanne HuizengaIndexer: A nn McIver McHoesCompositor: Integra Printed in the United States of America1 2 3 4 5 6 7 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 For product information and technology assistance, contact us at Cengage Learning Customer & Sales Support, 1-800-354-9706 For permission to use material from this text or product,submit all requests onl ine at www.cengage.com/permissions Further permissions questions can be e-mailed to permissionrequest@cengage.com Dedicated to an award-winning teacher and a wonderful friend, Ida Moretti Flynn; her love for teaching lives on. AMM Leave a Comment Submit Characters: 400 Operating System Download or Print 2,386 Reads Uploaded by aalocaa Follow TIP Press Ctrl-F to quickly search anywhere in the document. Sections Chapter 1Introducing Operating Systems Introduction What Is an Operating System?

Operating System Software Main Memory Management Cooperation Issues ABrief History of Machine Hardware Types of Operating Systems Brief History of Operating System Development 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s Threads Object-Oriented Design Conclusion Key Terms Interesting Searches Exercises Chapter 2Memory Management: Early Systems Single-User Contiguous Scheme Fixed Partitions Dynamic Partitions Best-Fit Versus First-Fit Allocation Deallocation Case 1: Joining Two Free Blocks Case 2: Joining Three Free Blocks Case 3: Deallocating an Isolated Block Relocatable Dynamic Partitions Chapter 3Memory Management: Virtual Memory Paged Memory Allocation Demand Paging Page Replacement Policies and Concepts First-In First-Out Least Recently Used The Mechanics of Paging The Working Set Segmented Memory Allocation Segmented/Demand Paged Memory Allocation Virtual Memory Cache Memory Chapter 4Processor Management Overview About Multi-Core Technologies Job Scheduling Versus Process Scheduling Process Scheduler Job and Process Status Process Control Blocks PCBs and Queueing Process Scheduling Policies Process Scheduling Algorithms First-Come, First-Served Shortest Job Next Priority Scheduling Shortest Remaining Time Round Robin Multiple-Level Queues Case 1: No Movement Between Queues Case 2: Movement Between Queues Case 3: Variable Time Quantum Per Queue

Case 4: Aging AWord About Interrupts Chapter 5Process Management Deadlock Seven Cases of Deadlock Case 1: Deadlocks on File Requests Case 2: Deadlocks in Databases Case 3: Deadlocks in Dedicated Device Allocation Case 4: Deadlocks in Multiple Device Allocation Case 5: Deadlocks in Spooling Case 6: Deadlocks in a Network Case 7: Deadlocks in Disk Sharing Conditions for Deadlock Modeling Deadlocks Strategies for Handling Deadlocks Starvation Chapter 6Concurrent Processes What Is Parallel Processing? Evolution of Multiprocessors Introduction to Multi-Core Processors Typical Multiprocessing Configurations Master/Slave Configuration Loosely Coupled Configuration Symmetric Configuration Process Synchronization Software Test-and-Set WAITand SIGNAL Semaphores Process Cooperation Producers and Consumers Readers and Writers Concurrent Programming Applications of Concurrent Programming Threads and Concurrent Programming Thread States Thread Control Block Concurrent Programming Languages Java Chapter 7Device Management Types of Devices Sequential Access Storage Media Direct Access Storage Devices Fixed-Head Magnetic Disk Storage Movable-Head Magnetic Disk Storage Optical Disc Storage CD and DVD Technology Blu-ray Disc Technology Flash Memory Storage Magnetic Disk Drive Access Times Fixed-Head Drives Movable-Head Devices Components of the I/O Subsystem Communication Among Devices Management of I/O Requests Device Handler Seek Strategies Search Strategies: Rotational Ordering RAID Level Zero Level One Level Two

Level Three Level Four Level Five Level Six Nested RAID Levels Chapter 8File Management The File Manager Responsibilities of the File Manager Definitions Interacting with the File Manager Typical Volume Configuration Introducing Subdirectories File-Naming Conventions File Organization Record Format Physical File Organization Physical Storage Allocation Contiguous Storage Noncontiguous Storage Indexed Storage Access Methods Sequential Access Direct Access Levels in a File Management System Access Control Verification Module Access Control Matrix The access control matrix Access Control Lists Capability Lists An access control list Data Compression Text Compression Other Compression Schemes Chapter 9Network Organization Concepts Basic Terminology Network Topologies Star Ring Tree Hybrid Network Types Local Area Network Metropolitan Area Network Wide Area Network Wireless Local Area Network Software Design Issues Addressing Conventions Routing Strategies Connection Models Conflict Resolution Transport Protocol Standards OSI Reference Model Chapter 10Management of Network Functions History of Networks DO/S Development NOS Development Important NOS Features Major NOS Functions Chapter 11Security and Ethics Role of the Operating System in Security

System Survivability Levels of Protection Backup and Recovery Security Breaches Unintentional Intrusions Intentional Attacks System Protection Antivirus Software Firewalls Authentication Encryption Password Management Password Construction Password Alternatives Social Engineering Ethics Chapter 12System Management Evaluating an Operating System Cooperation Among Components Role of Memory Management Role of Processor Management Role of Device Management Role of File Management Role of Network Management Measuring System Performance Measurement Tools Feedback Loops Patch Management Patching Fundamentals Software Options Timing the Patch Cycle System Monitoring Accounting Chapter 13UNIX Operating System History The Evolution of UNIX Design Goals Memory Management Process Management Process Table Versus User Table Synchronization Device Management Device Classifications Device Drivers File Management File Naming Conventions Directory Listings Data Structures User Command Interface Script Files Redirection Pipes Filters Additional Commands Chapter 14MS-DOS Operating System Main Memory Allocation Memory Block Allocation Processor Management Interrupt Handlers Filename Conventions

Managing Files User Interface Batch Files Chapter 15Windows Operating Systems Windows Development Early Windows Products Operating Systems for Home and Professional Users Operating Systems for Networks Extensibility Portability Reliability Compatibility Performance User-Mode Features Virtual Memory Implementation Network Management Directory Services Security Management Security Basics Security Terminology Chapter 16Linux Operating System Organization of Process Table Process Synchronization Device Classes Command-Driven Interfaces Graphical User Interfaces System Monitor Service Settings System Logs Keyboard Shortcuts 591 p. Operating System Follow Us! scribd.com/scribd twitter.com/scribd facebook.com/scribd About Press Blog Partners Scribd 101 Web Stuff Support FAQ Developers / API Jobs Terms Copyright Adchoices AdChoices Advertise Privacy Copyright 2012 Scribd Inc. Language: English