2000

'

"I "I" "de "I'.I'HII~·. ·······,..,,·7>·

-

~.:~_"::,..~:: r._·.:,·~· .. "-~.~ ...-, .. --.-----.~-~ ...

..

_

Thank you!

11 upcfJ erchaao

lal5ica1n erwor ka.wc rd 11

ress.corrv

:ij:ll.~m,uMl_o)HI;;~...::E!a~.G!,:.ffi'Ir" f,r~~1~1t;Jw_r, t...I~I .. M,,·i..II
8l1d1~.iI.'·,JII;:':'~[i.QI

CoofJfi.lI.)~~Mf'I.)CoI;;"r,
'iI;!nI!~I;}'o<'!".l.~nPQltllo;omo:.lh~ 1.'C~1;J.1~-O:!I'IiiifIo:.JI1i),],,~sfl'ra_~

"",, .. L"",lhwu...L ..ll!"hl.:n:l.1I1<II1 .. 1.1I.! ~p..p,wr.~.Seth&iJIod:.IDt;o) T~rr<r, C,i1 K~potIL 11m E,y,_)1"I:5, ~TJ' ~"3.(J:hQn'(II;hrtr.I:'.~II ..... n. ,

Networks of networks: a criticall review of formal networlk methods in archaeology through citation network analysis and close readling Tom Brughrnans

DH 2012 Hamburg 17 July 2012

Networks of networks: a crltlcal review of formal network methods in archaeology through dtatiol1l network analysi.s and close reading Tom Brugh mans

.


..
,

••

.

DH 2012 Hamburg 17 July 2012

....-.... IK-"''''~.---.;.<~...".

.

__

,..,..,.,'''_

2000
r :':

rrl--nlr,r)l+r-nlr~11111 ~j
"""N',.::"j"'" .. ~,:;' '?"'.....,..,~

~.;....,~.~.<.-

~L~ .. ........... zv"""'....,._..,.~

-~~m"""":l.~m
future work ~~~-, .

~~rfE(S:5

~r...:.=~~..:

._--_. ~~~.~--

,

.:;-

,~~~~~~--. ---_ ...............

Thank you!
httpJlconnec{,,·dpast.soton,or,ukl ht tp:f I" rcha eolog ic"Inoctwe>rks.word:p
ress.com/

1960
N_rI<'<I'I,"",_, m.tt" •• In .. ,.hllK

1970

o.:.r\.;~[)'L H;,g;~[t,

1'l1:le...'nl1)l;k.JIJKh:Joedo:!.l:Jl p_ i!:I Ch.:;.r~, R,I. f!Ii.9_ N~[WMII.Il.M1y!l1S Il'lII!iMJg'lph~ P".[i:1iil~l"n)I..,rm~k.5

KI!'I"dJI,~.I~13

K~I.O:G..g71.l.I..lj:I.Il\-amlln.lrNgfl 1I1oii11i.,R.'I'1.1!r.'1.S'l-:lL:i.l"'-,'I'ImIIH..,;.I'-"~J.!J~ild(' '!:'.. na.....!.r.,M,L'~ n,.. ~l:n!n~h....r""....10 'I'ioH

"'"".I"""'"'J_ .... lar
~rrh,~~ A~"D_'

(arM1dS.U 1~.4AI' fLli'V.'I!,1 UWI,-;rn;Iry '~I..J 19:r1J ~n;_II:!;i:I~ITj.,....;ll

~~~afl'~!~:!l~,~t

~n"!~~I;""'i'Vl~l.., 11fII"'__ .. lYmn~

I~~~~~~,,~,~·,~·;;
.ndh'.., ..... ~ _y ..!IwN" ..h'kllIl'l'l ..,. .. ' tl.LrIt:H.ti ~.:E.ol~~"",.,"""61ary ~ .......

~..IQI-H1mNpoI~lnOl:~~_l1~'f.PJ).'-17. 'm.I!Um!"'i~I1'JIIlIt!t"S®!NfIlsI.Irm..At!o;,_

Ytr.''''''0'1<!'""icrr-

L'Wf,,6.1'i7il..PocrLii,lf,,1.,,[i""~ "'Kt>Jo!d~~I·pp.i"!l-31!1.

.. 'nldjlar~fi....,,~,ldt.;ndlh" I'.JPU.MI r.fhiv.ary;. Wood p (l)flQPfu,l darlnt;llilgn.

dwtllJ.D!Tlfnl aroemnam..: ~1I00.t1z;)[lllnln fre5Tl.n.L Un'-'1I!flH~IIIYIIl"""IBI~J 5a.dllll~ ... a,b..II"I,pp.2'5.2J.~ cn~l~ C. 1~fD.I'6.~:h"""'ldu.ul"f(llhdqy.

1980

t..t.r'Illltll Cd]ill

r;;~n"Wli.l:er."".1W. "'I\~IW:oiI.~I[1I1

Tht-~i:r~h

"r_~lIdn:" ~.11~1.K<2D".n]..

N!I:W(Ir"kth~al)'

~1.A.l';a"'I;,l.llrb;.:In!l~IIoI'l(;l~·o!!l!:M'1,1r(Im!nk'1:f r~~Dli~,S."I'lJIIL"·H,

.• ~htm:l11i.'l

~t-r..., ....~. 1';G!.'. ~J.'Iphl~':I'['Indlho! .:",11.1.1';lItkJ1.n:f,13:l),f'FIo13-'i1.

or.l.4'i""'!1~I(.;:.'''c,rr''C~I~l'\I~J

Data and Method

i<u·LT1.t!oU~I~CI"£lloo'JO_d:lsr..-~...;,~t"",*.~lrtiI~~~~1f\

1990

P.'" Dd!,~

.....

dL,.~<lI_"""'''<LI'''''''<'''''l'~''''''''''O:~
.. ~um~~"'l.$."",.&)'I.S>.

"__."""nk

~91.11oK"<~~~IiI·;;o.!C.k

ZUbN:4'I.(.B.\1'I.l~M.:.':~IIrt,an~fI'6d_a..l"
~eT15:.:a

... m~(lI'!rGIINI1G" -e"11O"YolIi;

ij~~pt!.: !iil

~~

ImIT1Pfd1SIGIIiC.:!ndhl!l:(I11(

~r~nt.P.

.... .::r,al!3lbfGrfn(~IG;htB«Alnlmc(C,"6Q;lo.l .. PIl'..ss-ts,

~l.:.:tn,o.,mQJtc.'.'S!i!1

~.J.1"'I.~IlI!!~ilinBIjJ!I;~~b""'k.limG"'n. YflinoCrm~n.~. -t f,wj;t. tr. '~5i4, ~lJmlt n~twi1f1i IstYliS; P!C'Ih'i"Jl' ."d.-ppll ..... lanL.-I;.mh'ld~-I;.IImh~I ... LIlfI ..... llt!l'Pr •• "

5c~i:[,.j.1!1t7.:s.:..:J"lIt

n~~r·k"lllYtysk:

.. h"ll"d~

lMId-=5:.tII~. InIl'J!I,¥o:rrlti Iii foI.ntl",1'n

r::'';III!.~It• .::. 1'ii.B.W!;:.rkl"'..:tlll~.tagjl' IMI!;U.llJ_ "'illrGIi:ML:i_H.1!1!i11.~11JI" ... tw.:.rioE.t.t.hj,...,.ml~t.ltLpp.""","l,

d~lI~mIQl:,]I! I:1r'bl~

2000

~.b.Ii

• .I.... ~L '" Alba-.:, I!. ..

_J_

!tii.rt<'1:1Co

N'oC~L:s.:IcMC,.Wij!i4J.~I.IIII<~S12. ,.,ljLI;;,1.lr J~D.2001.;:lt!'IJtII5m"y.<l1I?I+ .... ~dll;,i~{~LI;11i1SI

JL,I~:?:::~!= ljfi~~~~=r
BoCn:;~.~.!, U......;~.R ..... 1.l.J!;(t:ne-.H.[;J.G.2alJ.[O"V"65y.11~ms~n<I ~,,or..-riQu"""'Ii'll'l;f.r~1 ~r<:hl~os:J ::·'l!Jn~n!,j,"'ln.<"<.o;p,j~,git:iIIfII<I"""""J II.ot'f.Ci.;S,mllKr.r.J.2007.r:IIIV..;Adil>lM:~

=~i:n~~:~~~~(~·l~,d~l,od.Ifd'iI~ ih.~"":iJ, ..

.'....',.,.., ""''''''"'''''''"'l

~~~~~~~j~::~=~5~

th.'I~(~~.T·:!:.~1R.2IlIlS.Jorr.kVllry.S213:11Il

"""-". ~~"2J'''''''0''''1''''''"(J "'=-''::~ ~

BI'.fiI!!TYn:o. T.211ID.CI:6rnIr.;JUl'fillc-l',IoI.;:h]oall.gil..i."ffl") CtrJlll'lrd.F,l.lJlo.5!ro1~ 1-111<.1.1'. s EI'Iyll>roidY,'rI. Xl11.,lt"J.lrTllII a,•. Htlllll~II'Alidltl!!lllfdTlIiII~ry KII.lpp.o!ll.C..IDll.~r..cM"lmlll-.,'I1U1't-

Concl,

':I.'I ..!IC=

~:p~~.~!!~-:~~~.1_";'-llltfu-rJ,MlTh1i
l.l;:m1. ~Dnru::c:".IJ[(Urr-<!fIft :ka~J·"'I;·r,llJIiII~p..";¥Il1,1~.:!I;~~~a'~n~",,,a"lI; ~tIIl)I..II.LDi'1dl>l1t:s..8L f:.ahll!r.T.A.2D12.carll~~.;n:!l~Il. tJlu~n5.T.,;n;;:.r~Il'll!l.n'I!"'I'I!11

fun

1960

IMoreno, J.Il .. 1960. The sociometry

reader. Glencoe III.: The Free Press.

(1- rk - D ._.. 196·8 . An a.yea- -I a r c.aeoogy . - -Ih- - - 1-a ..e, _ L ... -I ·ti
Haggett, P.& Chorley, R.J. 1969. Network Analysis in Geography Kendall, D. 1969. Pacific Journal of mathematics Kendall, D.G. 1971. Maps from marriages Hiorns, R.W. 1971. Statistical studies in migration Granovetter, IM.S. 197.3. The strength oifWeak Ties. American journal of Sociology. 78(5), pp.1360-1380. Doran, J.E..& Hodson, F.R 1975. Mathematics and Computers in Archaeology. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press. Terrell, J. 1976. Island biogeography and man in Melanesia. Archaeology and physical anth ropollogy in Oceania, 11(1), pp.1-17. Terrell, J. 1977. Human biogeography in the Solomon Islands. Fieldiana
1\
nn

11_Lin

Clarke, D.L. 1968. Analytical archaeology Haggett, P.& Chorley, R.J. 1969. Network Analysis in Geography Kendall, D. 1969. Pacific journal of mathematics Kendall, D.G. 1971. Maps from marriages iHiorns, R.W. 1971. Statistical studies in migration Granovetter. IM.S. 1973. The Stlrength oifWeak Ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78(5), pp.1360~1380. Doran, J.E. & Hodson, F.R. 1975. Mathematics and Computers in Archaeology. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press. Terrell, j. 1976. Island biogeography and mall in Melanesia. Archaeology and physical anthropology in Oceania, 11(1), pp.1-17. Terrell, J. 1977. Human biogeography in the Solomon Islands. Fieldiana -.. 1IIII'6,8( 1). pp.11-47. Terrell, J. 1977..Geographic systems and human diversity in the North Solomons. World archaeology, 9(1), pp.62aI81. Irwin-Wililiams, C. 1977. A. network model for the analysis of Prehistoric trade in T. K. Earle et al. eds., Exchange systems in Prehistory. New York: Academic Press Irwin, G. 1978. Pots and entrepots: a study of settlement .frade and the development of economic specialization in Papuan prehistory. World Archaeology, 9(3}, pp.299-319.

1980

Freeman, L. 1979. Centrality in social networksconceptual Social Networks. 1(3), pp.21.S~239. Orton, C. 1980. Mathematics in archaeology. London: Collins.

clarification.

Glranovetter, M. 1983. The strength of weak ties: A network theory revisited. Sociological theory, 1(1), pp.201-.233. Shuchat, A. 1984. Matrix and network models in Archaeology. Mathematics

••••••

,.

".~,

_

~,

,

..

,~

••

_

_

r

I_'

'I"'. __

".,_,,,},_"

__

•••

_"

••

_1"

'_ • .,

..

K. Earle et al. eds., Exchange systems in Prehistory. New York: Academic Press

Irwin, G. 1978. Pots and entrepots: a study of settlement, trade and the development of economic specialization in Papuan prehistory. World Archaeology, 9(3), pp.299-319.

1980

Freeman, L. 11979. entrallity in social networks conceptual clarification. C

Social Networks, 1(3), p'p.215-239.
Orton, C. 1980. Mathematics in archaeology. London: Collins.

Granovetter,

M. 1983. The strength of weak ties: A netwerktheory

revisited ..Sociological theory. 1(1). pp.201-233.
Shuchat, A. 1984. Matrix and network models in Archaeology. Magazine, 57(1), pp.3~14. Mathematics

Rothman, M. 1987. Graph theory and the interpretation data. Paleorlent, 13(2), pp.73-91.

of regional survey

1990

Hunt, T.L. 11988.Graph theoretic network models for Lapita exchange: a triial application in P. V. Kirch et al. eds., Archaeology of the Lapita cultural complex: a critical review. Seattle: Thomas Burke Memorial Washiington State Museum Reseilrch Reports no. 5, pp. 135.3155..

Zubrow, E.B.W. 1990 ..Modelling and prediction with geographic information systems: a demographic example from prehistoric and historic New York Peregrine; P. 1991. A Graph-Theoretic American Antiquity, 56(1 ),.pp.66-7S. Approach to the Evolution of Cahokia.

Scott, JI.1991. Social network analysis.a

handbook.

London.

.• -_

..•.

'-"r

, .•••.

-

-

.•.

_.

-'r"

-. '--'.J

_... -

_.. -

.. ,._-.

r'

----.-

.. - ..

-0'-'

.-.

-_.

'-J

data. Paleorient, 13(2)1 IPp.73-91.
Hunt, T.L. 1988. Graph theoretic network models for Lapita exchange: a trial application in P. V. Kirch et al. eds., Archaeology of the Lapita cultural complex: a critical review. Seattle: Thomas Burke Memorial Wasllington State Museum Research Reports no, 5, pp. 135.3155.

Zubrow, E,S.W. 1990. Modelling and prediction Peregrine, P. 1991. A Graph-Theoretic American Antiquity, 56(1), pp.66-7S.

with geographic

information

systems: a demographic example from prehistoric and historlc New York
Approach to the Evolution of Cahokia.

Scott,

J. 1991. Social

network analysis: a handbook. london.

Wasserman, S. & Faust, K. 1994. Social network analysis: methods and applications, Cambridge: Cambridge Univ,ersity Press.

Scott,J. 1997. Social networkanalysis:
Gamble, C. 1998. World Archaeology

a handbook. London: Sage.

Watts, O.J. & Strogatz, S.H. 1998. Collective dynamics of small-world

2000
I
I

networks. Nature, 393(6684), pp.440-2. Barabasi, A.-L. & Albert, IR.1999. Emergence of Scaling in Random Networks. Science, 286(5439)" pp.509-512.
Broodbank, C. 2000 ..An island archaeology of the early Cyclades Jenkins, D. 2001. Etlhnohistory, 48(4} Mackie, Q. 2001. Settlement archaeology in a fjordland archipelago Swanson, S. 2003. American antiquity, 68(4) Bentley, IR.A. & Maschner, H.D.G. 2003. Complex systems and archaeology Bentley, IR.A.& Shennan, S.J.2003. American Antiquity. 68(3)

I

I I II

I

i

II II. I

Carrington, P.J ..•Scott, J..&: Wassermlan, S. 2005. Models and methods in social
II1ptwnl"'lc ;:Iin;alvc:.ic::_ (";:Iimhl"'irh,.p • Npw Ynl"'lc~ (";amhrirlop

~~nivp.l"'c;:itv Pnu;,c:_

scott.]. 1997. Sc:u::ial network analysis: a handbook. London: Sage.
Gamble. C. 1998. World Archaeology

2000

Watts, D.J. & Strogatz, S.H. 11998.Collective dynamics of small-world networks. Nature. 393(6684)" pp.440-2. Barabasi. A.-L. & A~bert, R. 1999. Emergence of Scaling in Random Networks. Science. 286(5439), pp.509'-512.
Broodbank, C. 2000. An island archaeology of the early Cyclades Jenkins, D. 2001. Ethnohistory, 48(4) Mackie, Q. 2001. Settlement archaeology in a ijordlland archipelago Swanson, S. 2003. American antiquity, 68(4} B@ntley, R.A. & Maschnsr, H.D.G. 2003. Complex systems and archaeology Bentley, RA & Shennan, S,J.2003. American Antiquity, 68(3)

carrlngten. P.JI scett.]. & Wasserman. S. 2005 ..Models and methods in social •• network analysis. Cambridge; New York: Cambriidge University Press. Bentl R., Lake, M. & Shennan, S. 200S.Journal of Archaeological Science, 32(9)
Knappett, C. 2006. Cambridge Archaeollogical Journal, 16(02) Graham, S. 2006. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology, 19(1) Graham, S. 2006. EX FIGLINIS lsaksen, L 2007. Digital discovery Brantiing, S. 2007. Digital discovery Earl, G. & Keay, S. 2007. Digital discovery lsaksen, IL.2008. Digital Medievalist Coward, F. & Gamble, C. 200S. Big brains, small worlds Collar, A.C.F. 2008. Religious innovation Graham, S. 2009. The space between Evans pett, C & Rivers, R. 2009. Complexity Perspectives Brughrnans, T. 2010, Oxford Journal of Archaeology, Coward, F. 2010. Small worlds 29(3) Method and Theory

Sindbcek 2007. Norwegian

Archaeological

Review

Sindbzek, S.M. 2007. Antiquity, 81(311)
Pouncett.}, & Lock, G. 2007. Digital discovery Lock, G. & Pou ncett, j. 2007. Digital discovery Knappett, c., Evans, T. & Rivers, R. 2008. Antiquity, 82(318) Mizoguchi, K. 2009. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology Munson, & Macri, 2009. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology Schich, Hidalgo, Lehmann, & Park, 2009. BollettirlO di archeologia

Sindb",k, S.M. 2009. Estonian

20

Ajaa

in Innovation.

Hart, J.P. & Engelbrecht, W. 2011. Journal of Archaeological knappett, C. 2011, Meaning in miniature Knappett, c., Evans, T. & Rivers, R. 2011. Antiquity, 85(329} Phillips, S.C 2011. Networked glass Sclhich, M. & Coscia, M. 2011. IExploring Co-Occurrence scott.], & Carrington, P.J. 20111. The SAGE handbook of

social I network

analysts. L.ondon: Sage.
Kohler, TA 2012. Complex systems and archaeology

Brughmans, 1. 2012. Facebooking the Past

9

8

7

6

rr-

5

4

3

.._
,...--

2

-

.- .r-

c-

1

o

II

I

I

I

I

Sindbcek 2007. Norwegian Archaeological Review Sindbzek, S.M. 2007. Antiquity, 81 (311) Pouncett, J. & Lock, G. 2007. Digital discovery

scott.]. 1997. Sc:u::ial network analysis: a handbook. London: Sage.
Gamble. C. 1998. World Archaeology

2000

Watts, D.J. & Strogatz, S.H. 11998.Collective dynamics of small-world networks. Nature. 393(6684)" pp.440-2. Barabasi. A.-L. & A~bert, R. 1999. Emergence of Scaling in Random Networks. Science. 286(5439), pp.509'-512.
Broodbank, C. 2000. An island archaeology of the early Cyclades Jenkins, D. 2001. Ethnohistory, 48(4) Mackie, Q. 2001. Settlement archaeology in a ijordlland archipelago Swanson, S. 2003. American antiquity, 68(4} B@ntley, R.A. & Maschnsr, H.D.G. 2003. Complex systems and archaeology Bentley, RA & Shennan, S,J.2003. American Antiquity, 68(3)

carrlngten. P.JI scett.]. & Wasserman. S. 2005 ..Models and methods in social •• network analysis. Cambridge; New York: Cambriidge University Press. Bentl R., Lake, M. & Shennan, S. 200S.Journal of Archaeological Science, 32(9)
Knappett, C. 2006. Cambridge Archaeollogical Journal, 16(02) Graham, S. 2006. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology, 19(1) Graham, S. 2006. EX FIGLINIS lsaksen, L 2007. Digital discovery Brantiing, S. 2007. Digital discovery Earl, G. & Keay, S. 2007. Digital discovery lsaksen, IL.2008. Digital Medievalist Coward, F. & Gamble, C. 200S. Big brains, small worlds Collar, A.C.F. 2008. Religious innovation Graham, S. 2009. The space between Evans pett, C & Rivers, R. 2009. Complexity Perspectives Brughrnans, T. 2010, Oxford Journal of Archaeology, Coward, F. 2010. Small worlds 29(3) Method and Theory

Sindbcek 2007. Norwegian

Archaeological

Review

Sindbzek, S.M. 2007. Antiquity, 81(311)
Pouncett.}, & Lock, G. 2007. Digital discovery Lock, G. & Pou ncett, j. 2007. Digital discovery Knappett, c., Evans, T. & Rivers, R. 2008. Antiquity, 82(318) Mizoguchi, K. 2009. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology Munson, & Macri, 2009. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology Schich, Hidalgo, Lehmann, & Park, 2009. BollettirlO di archeologia

Sindb",k, S.M. 2009. Estonian

20

Ajaa

in Innovation.

Hart, J.P. & Engelbrecht, W. 2011. Journal of Archaeological knappett, C. 2011, Meaning in miniature Knappett, c., Evans, T. & Rivers, R. 2011. Antiquity, 85(329} Phillips, S.C 2011. Networked glass Sclhich, M. & Coscia, M. 2011. IExploring Co-Occurrence scott.], & Carrington, P.J. 20111. The SAGE handbook of

social I network

analysts. L.ondon: Sage.
Kohler, TA 2012. Complex systems and archaeology

Brughmans, 1. 2012. Facebooking the Past

Summary close reading
-Archaeologlcal applications of graph theory were not influential at all to

more recent archaeological network studies - The potential of social network analysis techniques was explored (largely theoretically) in the 1970's (e.g. through Irwin-Williams' model) - Sociall network analysis and social physics have by far been the most influential research traditions, yet only a very limited range of models and techniques have been expllored by archaeologists • Tendency towards a standardised explanation of attested network structure

Research questions citation network analysis

11) an the intuitive results drawn from a dose reading be quantitatively C expressed and vallidated using citation network analysis? 2) Can a network analysis provide new insights of the citation behaviour wIthin the limited bibliographic corpus of the close reading? 3) Does a citation network anallysis aillow one to usefully c:ontextualise a close reading within a larger and multi-disciplinary corpus of Iliterature?

1960
N_rI<.aI,"",_, m.I~In .. r.hllK

1970

o.:.r\.;~[)'L H;,g;~[t, K~I,~.I~13

1'l1:le...'nl1)l;k.JIJKh:Joedo:!.l:Jl p_ i!:I Ch.:;.r~, R,I. f!Ii.9_ N~[WMII.Il.M1y!l1S Il'lII!iMJg'lph~ P".[i:1iil~l"n)I..,rm~k.5

K~I.O:G..g71.l.I..lj:I.Il\-amlln.lrNgfl 1I1oii11i.,R.'I'1.1!r.'1.S'l-:lL:i.l"'-,'I'ImIIH..,;.I'-"~J.!J~ild(' '!:'.. na.....!.r.,M,L'~ n,.. ~l:n!n~h....r""....10 'I'ioH

"'"".I"""'"'J_ .... lar
~rrh,~~ A~"D_'

(arM1dS.U 1~.4AI' fLli'V.'I!,1 UWI,-;rn;Iry '~I..J 19:r1J ~n;_II:!;i:I~ITj.,....;ll

~~~afl'~!~:!l~,~t

~n"!~~I;""'i'Vl~l.., 11fII"'__ .. lYmn~

I~~~~~~,,~,~·,~·;;
.ndh'.., ..... ~ _y ..!IwN" ..h'kllIl'l'l ..,. .. ' tl.LrIt:H.ti dwtllJ.D!Tlfnl ~.:E.ol~~"",.,"""61ary aroemnam..: ~1I00.t1z;)[lllnln ~ .......

~..IQI-H1mNpoI~lnOl:~~_l1~'f.PJ).'-17. 'm.I!Um!"'i~I1'JIIlIt!t"S®!NfIlsI.Irm..At!o;,_

Ytr.''''''0'1<!'""icrrWood

L'Wf,,6.1'i7il..PocrLii,lf,,1.,,[i""~ "'Kt>Jo!d~~I·pp.i"!l-31!1.

.. 'nldjlar~fi....,,~,ldt.;ndlh" I'.JPU.MI r«tiv.ary;. p

1980

fre5Tl.n.L Un'-'1I!flH~IIIYIIl"""IBI~J 5a.dllll~ ... arb..II"I,pp.2'5.2J.~ cn~l~ C. 1~fD.I'6.~:h"""'ldu.ul"f(llhdqy.

(l)flQPfu,l darlnt;llilgn.

t..t.r'Illltll Cd]ill

r;;~n"Wli.l:er."".1W. "'I\~IW:oiI.~I[1I1

Tht-~i:r~h

"r_~lIdn:"

N!I:W(Ir"kth~al)'

~.11~1.K<2D".n]..
.•~htm:l11i.'l

~1.A.l';a"'I;,l.llrb;.:In!l~IIoI'l(;l~·o!!l!:M'1,1r(Im!nk'1:f r~~Dli~,S."I'lJIIL"·H,

~t-r..., ....~. 1';G!.'. ~J.'Iphl~':I'['Indlho! .:",11.1.l';lItkrI-rt:f,13:l),f'FIo13-'i1.

or.l.4'i""~Orr"C~I~l'\I~J

Data and Method
"__."""nk

i<u·LT1.t!oU~I~CI"£lloo'JO_d:lsr..-~...l~t"",*.~lrtiI~~~~1f\

1990

P.'" Dd!,~

.....

dL,.~<lI_"""'''<LI'''''''<'''''l'~''''''''''O:~
.. ~um~~"'l.$."",.&)'I.S>.

~91.11oK"<~~~IiI·;;o.!C.k

ZUbN:4'I.(.B.\1'I.l~M.:.':~IIrt,an~fI'6d_a..l"
~eT15:.:a

... m~(lI'!rGIINI1G" -e"11O"YolIi;

ij~~pt!.: !iil

~~

ImIT1Pfd1SIGIIiC.:!ndhl!l:(I11(

~r~nt.P.

.... .::r,al!3lbfGrfn(~IG;htB«Alnlmc(C,"6Q;lo.l .. PIl'..ss-ts,

~l.:.:tn,o.,mQJtc.'.'S!i!1

~.J.1"'I.~IlI!!~ilinBIjJ!I;~~b""'k.limG"'n. YflinoCrm~n.~. -t f,wj;t. tr. '~5i4, ~lJmlt n~twi1f1i IstYliS; P!C'ih~1' ."d.-ppll ..... lanL.-I;.mhrld~-I;.IImh~I ... LIlfI ..... llt!l'Pr •• "

5c~i:[,.j.1!1t7.:s.:..:J"lIt

n~~r·k"llrYtysk:

.. h"ll"d~

lMId-=5:.tllt. ln1~rltl foI.ntl",1'n

r::'';III!.~It• .::. 1'ii.B.W!;:.rkl"'..:tlll~.tagjl' IMI!;U.llJ_ "'illrGIi:ML:i_H.1!1!i11.~J1JI" ... tw.:.rioE.t.t.hj,...,.ml~t.ltLpp.""","l, d~lI~mIQl:,]I! I:1r'bl~lii

2000

~.b.Ii

• .I.... ~L '" "'1.... -.:,I!. .. _J_!tii.rt<'1:1Co

N'1I!~L:s.:IcMC,.Wij!i4J.~I.IIII<~S12. ,.,ljLI;;,1.lr .... ~dll;,i~{~LI;11i1SI J~D.2001.;:lt!'IJtII5m"y.<l1I?I+

JL,I~:?:::~!= ljfi~~~~=r
BoCn:;~.~.!, U......;~.R ..... 1.l.J!;(t:ne-.H.[;J.G.2alJ.[O"V"65y.11~ms~n<I ~,,or..-riQu"""'Ii'll'l;f.r~1 ~r<:hl~os:J ::·'l!Jn~n!,j,"'ln.<"<.o;p,j~,git:iIIfII<I"""""J II.ot'f.Ci.;S,mllKr.r.J.2007.r:IIIV..;Adil>lM:~

=~i:n~~:~~~~(~·'~,d~',od.'fd'il~ ih.~"":iJ, ..

.'....',.,.., ""''''''"'''''''"'l

~~~~~~~j~::~=~5~

th.'I~(~~.T·:!:.~1R.2IlIlS.Jorr.kVllry.S213:11Il

"""-". ~~"2J'''''''0''''1''''''"(J "'=-''::~ ~

BI'.fiI!!TYn:o. T.211ID.CI:6rnIr.;JUl'fillc-l',IoI.;:h]oall.gil..i."ffl") CtrJlll'lrd.F,l.lJlo.5!ro1~ 1-111<.1.1'. s EI'Iyll>roidY,'rI. Xl11.,lt"J.lrTllII a,•. Htlllll~II'Alidltl!!lllfdTlIiII~ry KII.lpp.o!ll.C..IDll.~r..cM"lmlll-.,'I1U1't-

Concl,

':I.'I ..!IC=

~:p~~.~!!~-:~~~.1_";'-llltfu-rJ,MlTh1i
l.l;:m1. ~Dnru::c:".IJ[(Urr-<!fIft :ka~J·"'I;·r,llJIiII~p..";¥Il1,1~.:!I;~~~a'~n~",,,a"lI; ~tIIl)I..II.LDi'1dl>l1t:s..8L f:.ahll!r.T.A.2D12.carll~~.;n:!l~Il. tJlu~n5.T.,;n;;:.r~Il'll!l.n'I!"'I'I!11

fun

leary

.hernatlcs

31 survey
I application in !view. Seattle: >, IPP- 13503155.

Data and Method
I~tor.~,·~",,,,
1.......... ,· .....

..--<o!c~""'"i1

,;,,-..,

]I.,..,- •

.,,-o'!

................

1)0

•._i.:.-':=~;o:;::'!".='

~....-~~.~ -:..~:.~~\~~~
~.~--.,..;:::-:-:

...

!!~~!:!==': ~'-.'i".-..:"--:-::

_. __~ ~"':"-":"_J::."=::~

~ -~.:~;'~~

~F.~~~_---~.'.

'iforrnatlon ewYork

~--'-"--.. . ---, -_ ......
,... ..... '.'".
n .. ,~,

....... n.... ~....
"M

~"'iGr'

. ,_....
~

.,~ ,

.,.
., "

',",

.,

."

_.-

"'. C"]! .

'-~-:.I:;~.~~r

-:.~ !.•.... '. .,..~
~.".
'

..

.'

...
.......

,

. ..... ::: : ~
..

':'I'l: <'""""MI

01',"". 1'>TOO1MI1'ron1l'l11l ..,..~fIIJ:'lPJbIo.I.r.r.
•• _

~I«..!oI~~~~

~~~*",~

_.iC-I" ..II ...........

of Cahokia.
:;::-.::::r,.::!-:;-;.,." ....,..,
''''' ......... ,,1''' ..... 1'''''''"''--

::::"j~ .;r~=~ .
"' __ '''lfr.ll~o)o'':

_. _ --~ -....... ...............,. .............
I!-"""',",""""

"".11'1_
--.,

.... 0..:."......,.

:hods

.age,
-world
fcm

70 ego's network-related
Bentley RA. 2001,

archaeological publications
ISAKSEN L, 20.08, APPl NETWORK ANALAN, JIMENIEZ 0,2002, V4 0095219'15258

Bentley RA, 2000, FRACTALS, V8, P2.27, 0011 0.11421S02118348X00000263

J ARCHAEOL

METHOD TH, V8, P35, 001 10.1 023/A:l BENTLi:Y

jenkins 0, 2.001, ETHNOHIISTORY, V48, P655, 00110.1215/00141801-48-4-655
CONT THlEMES ARCHAIEOL, V3, P90 soc netw TEMP keay s, 2006, inscriptions Knappett knappett knappett

Bentley RA, 20.0.3"AM ANTI Q U lTV, V68, P459, DOl 10..230.7/355710.4

RA.

2003, COMPLEX SYSTEMS ARCH, P·l

BENTLEY RA, 2003, COMPLEX SYSTEMS ARCH, P27 BEN1LEY RA, 2003, COMPlEX SYSTEMS ARCH, P75 BENTLi:Y RA. 2003, COMPLEX SYSTEMS ARCH, P9 bentley Bentley Ira, 200S,j arch science

KNAPIPETI C, 2005, EMPORIA AEGEANS E

w., V25,

P175

C, 2008, ANTIQUITY, V82, P1009
(, 2011, arch lnt TEM P (,2012, regional network TEMP

TEMP
TEMP

RA, 2005, SCIENCE, V309, P877, 001 10.1126Iscience.309.5736.877
bintlliff branting

KNAPIPETI C, EXCAVATING MIND kohler ta, 2012, cornpl sys TIEMP lock

ii, 20.0.3, struc past

s, 2007, using an urban TEMIP BRAUN DP, 1982, AM A'NTIQU~TY, V47, P504, 001102307/280232
brughmans brughmans t, 2010,

g,

2007, net

an

TEMP arch

rnackie q, 2001, settlement

TEMP

ox]

arch TEMIP

MASCHNER HOG, .2003, COMPLEX SYSTEMS ARCH, P47

t, 2012, farsbooklng the past TEMIP
2010., phil

rncglade J, 2003, map not ten TEM P K, 2009, J ANTH ROPOL AR(HA!EOL, V28, P14 munson jl, 2009,j anth arch TEM P PEREGRINE P, 1991,.AM ANllIQUllY, V56, P66, 00110.2307/280973
Mizoguchi MILIICIC B, 1993, ETHNOLOGY, V32, P375, 001110.230713773459

cochrane ee,
Coward

trnas r s b TEMP

collar a, 2007, med hist rev TEMIP

F, 2008, PHI LOS T R SOC B, V363, P1969, 001 10.1 098/rseb.2008.0004 coward f, 2010, small worlds TEMIP
earl

g, 2007,

urban conn TEMP

pouncett
rautman

j, 2007,

vecto r based

TEM P TtMP

earl g, 20.11, camp meth TEMP
EVANS T, 20.09, METH SEIR,V7, P451, 001 110..10.071978-1-40.20-9663-1_18 Gamble C, 1998, WORLD ARCHAEOL, V29, P426 GAMBlE C, 1999, PALEOLITHIC SOC EURO OXlFORD BAR INT SEIR,V1486 GRAHAM 5, 2006,J MEDITERRANEAN ARCH, V19, P45, DOI10.1558/jmea.2006.19.1.45 GlRAHAM 5,2006, GRAHAM S, 2009, MERCATOR IPLACIDISSIM, P27 grove Hamilton MJ, 2007,

ae, 1993, am antiquity

ROTHMAN 1M,1987, PALEORIENT, V13, P73, 001 10.3406/paleo.1987A430

sattta d], 1983, am antiquity
Sell ich Ill, 2009, network

rEM P

:5ANTlEY RS, 1991, ANCIENT ROAD NETWORK, P198

subject TEIMP
TEMP P119

schich Ill, 20111, exploring Slndbaek

schuchat a, 1984, math mag TEMP
SM, 20.07, ANTIQUITY, Vat
S, 2003, am antiquity

rn,

20.11,

ianthr

arch TEMP

HAGE P,1985, AM ANTHROIPOL, V88, P108

slndbaek sm, 2007, nON arch revTEMIP

P R SOC B, V274,

P2195. DOll0.1098/rspb.2007.0564 2011, northern hartjp, iroquoian TEMlP 2012, effects of geo TEMP gift TEMP

swanson

TEMP

hartjp,

terrell j, 2010, ann hum gen TEMP terrell je, 201 Q,.llanguage TEM P wellnder s, 1984, world arch HMP Weilis PS, 2o.05,J ARCHAEOL RES, V13, P4!9, 001 1 0.W07/s1 0814-005-08W-y ZUBROW EBW,. 1990, INTERPRETING SPACE G, P307

hill rna, 200.9, benefit HUNIT

n, 1988,

BURKE MUSEUM RES REP, V5, P135

IRWIN GJ, 1978, WORLD ARCHAEOL, V9, P299 IRWINWILLIAIMS C, 1977, EXCHANGE SYSTEMS PiRE,P141 isaksen I, 2007, neil: anal trans TEMP

IExtract blbllographlc data from Web of Knowledge (WOK)
WEB OF KNOWLEDGE9.!
Go iol mobilOislia

I DISCQVERYSTARTS HERE
Sign In

I

Marked Us! (O)

I

My EndNote Web

I

My ResearcherlD

I

My cnanon Aler

Sea.roh

Searc~ Hlistory

COMPOUnd Mark.ed List. [0)

All Databases Search
In ( Topic

Example; oil spill" meditermneal'l ( AND

I;) ~~~~~~~~~~

(~D '$)

=-__~~~~~

Example: O'Brian C· OR OBlian C·

~

In

( Author [Pubiication Name 't)

,Example: Cancer'" OR. Journal of Cancer R.esearchand Clinics' Oncology
Add Another Fle'ld n

__~~ __~ __~~~~~~
Se.mines must be!~ Eingll!sh

~

In

q.

Cunel!l1 Umlts: ITo save these permanently, sig'n In or reglster_) 8-- T1mespan

e

I'A---:-II;-Y-ea-r-s-----,--~ From ( 1950 ::) to

I
:

o

I 2012

I CdefalJl! Is ail years)

IE" Adjust yOllr 5eil~chseHtng;s

1fI- AdJust YOllr results ,seHLngs

... Of

manually

3'0 ego's on WOK 40 extracted manually
FN VR PT AU Thomson Reute!rs We:bor KnoDJ;J ledge Lei J Swonson ~ S
i C communit cot t on Mtwor!:.s,
/>,

TI Docum.ent t ng preh tstor p.gRlmv~. po Lity

AF Swanson, S

COSle study

in the

SO AMERICAN ANTIQUITY

LA Engl ish DT Article ID SOUTHWEST; SYSTEHS AB Hilltop featulres reported around the site of P.g9..~j-,!!~., the pot tt tcct center of CI prehistoric cl!lmpLex pe l H·Y tn northwest ,Pl),i.~ huahu.CI. M.exico. .. have been interpreted as III JT.tr.;~;;,~.\9n9.ljn9. etaork by u crohoeoloqtete , n If these hilltop plaitformfeatures runct.tcnse as such CI communication syste1m, it provides important tnrornct ton for our tnterpretot ton a reg icno L i nte:grot 1101'1 OInd .t...OMr9£Umtp.I. the f.IjIHYiJ..O.i.'§!R9.U.1;.y.. Tlh is PQper reports the resu L S!it.~9.~.\~•• ts SlthiJJMR~.i. 1'1 the Cl :r.tr!!i1. and Cl
suosequent H!§'~9.~!~. jn~.~r.'i.:t~j..tHJj~~y. or'lolySis, which tleterFnir'le,Q. tMt (] series of hi lltop IPI.Clltform:s in the region I,!€re Idee] ly sttuoted for f.ir.~;;,§.t.9ng.Un9. purposes , I dt scuss the need for 'lmpnementing tests for

~.t1r.

C1

!.i!~.;;~.\9n~.Una on systeml ,lortzono Stote; !!Q.t~",1Dept fJ:ft~r.C2~QJ., Tempe,
S (reprint author). Arizona

}.rlt.'1r.'t:j_~t~J.U.tV. (!lid tests j_!l~.E!!r.'t:j.J!j,~j..U.tV., !lnd then 1

for) determining the signif teenee of that [a the P.clRyjJlJ§!. 801::10):)0 It t.teo L Ju·s9.!Hf;9ilif!.o. [Clnd 'integrat ten,
cons il der some imphcail;,'[ons

RP Swanson,

State

CR WHALEN ME, 20E:11, (,ASAS GRAN DES I TS HI WINDES rc, 2.0613, t:REA,T HOIUSE £gtm!-!~.u", P39 FISH PR, 19991, CASAS GRAN[lES WORLD, P27 LEBLANC SA, 1~P;19, IPREtHSTIIRIC ~ARFARE LEKSnN SH, 19;99, GASAS GRAIN DES \\IORLD, P8:4 ~.~~.~ftf.~.':!~ CF, 1999" CASAS GRAI'lDES WQRL.D, P54 SCHAAFSMA p. 1999, CASAS !BRANDE'SWORLD. P164 WHALEN ME, 19;99, t'!;SAS GR.II'NDES WORLD, P54 SWANSON S, 19,97; TIHESIS U OKLAHOMA NO Wholen ME, 19%, A'MANil'IQI!JITV. 1161, P732, 001 Hll.23e17l282fI14

UO.i:t..

AZ 85:283 !.IS'!' Dept ~.'lt.~r.QI?QJ.,Tempe., AZ 65283 US:.'"

Making a citation network

A

B

c

Ego,-network

..

70 ego's 2,234 cited publications 575 of these extracted from WOK citatlon data unavailable for 1,6,60 publications in total 33,520 pulblications and 42,911 '9 citations dataset cleaned manually

Three networks
Bigger picture Ego-network Archaeology

Nodes
Aires

33,590 42,919 2

2,304 4,875 1 2,304 1 19

70
133

Loops Largest weakly connected component Weaklly connected components Depth of network Maximum lnputdegree Maximum outputdegree

33,498
2 19

0 60 3 8
8

48
1,237

46

21

-

xl

orr

What does a cltatlon mean?

• lnfluence through publication • Does not reveal the nature of the citatlon (positive/negative, present/absent) Data critique • Strong bias towards indexed journals • Biased Iby my own knowledge of archaeological applkations

Other networks
Authorship
Evolution
.~ • .J.1•

(53)

Dynamics (37)

:{~

.);.:t- Wr;..,·h.,i.~-.·. ;--+""-r E_\ --"r ~

Modell (34) Newman, Dunbar, MEJ (2S)

~~~i~(~-.?-

~!::.:::~~~i{;~~:~~::
-~;..:.:""~::'''t-If;'_~ ~f::-~~.:,;tI( .:... ~
.:_.: -/ y'-~.:j{:~~;;.., -~~~

:!?:~~ ~~ ~~~.~,,~ ..~~,

..;J nternet

IRIM (18)

(23) --Complex networks

(22)

Bentley, RA (16) Barabasi, AL (16) Networks lapita (8) analysts (8) (7) (12)

_:""'-f_
'!' .~.

!~'~'!' 't' ':, I' ~ r-"~' 't ........ r: .:: t ~:-".!- ~- -!-,.-:~.'.":'" ~.~-""<'~,-++'" -.~".!';-..::--.~ .. ~-.1 .... -- ..:

~r~~ .... .... •. ..·f~lf- ':f'.i~.' · ·~·~

:l'"&''' ~1t~·

Watts, DJ ('11)

~.;/lf)~~~;~·;~~~i~j~~~~ ;i~~&~i\
t:~ F-:~~~~¥~·h 'T_'-·,+\r·_ ~~ ',,_+-; ~ ....'....a-'"~l:..:.~:~~u!':..:..u:~~~:.:.~,: :.Jii

~·~.:~~i~--.~ ~~.:~ ..:...~ ' ..

Social network

Cultural transmission

:T{-=-.::I'~_i~i_'~:..:. ~i'~"l'r::'"=l';X ~~-: T~!;I:,r:.;_~~ ~ -!i-l~ri:~~; ..~~~~i~i.~.....;,~~~t "1"

.!.i:~~':.,;,..;.;.:_~-=-.:.J..I~:~~~..:.!.:t:...:J.:..:.u::~!

journals

Subject category
Anthropology Archaeology American Antiquity (44) Multidlsclpllnary Sociology (59) Ecology (40) Biology (40) (204) Anthropology Archaeology (204) (139)

n39}
sciences (96)

Science & technology - other topics (96)

PNAS USA (31)
Science (29) Nature (26)

Physics (61 )
Sociology (59)

J

Anthropological Archaeology (22)

Citation networks are acyclic
There are no closed loops of directed edges

webpage 1

publication 2005

webpoge 2

publication 1995 webpoge 3 publication 1985

• Visual and chronological • Outdegree • Indegree • External citations • Clloseness centrality

exploration

• Betweenness centrality • Hubs • Authorities • Domain • Citation Weights • Cocitation • Bibliographic coupling

Software

Cytoscape
http://www .c:ytoscape. 0 rg/

IPajek
http://pajlek.i mfm .si/doku .php

leary

.hernatlcs

31 survey
I application in !view. Seattle: >, IPP- 13503155.

Data and Method
I~tor.~,·~",,,,
1.......... ,· .....

..--<o!c~""'"i1

,;,,-..,

]I.,..,- •

.,,-o'!

...............

1)0

•._i.:.-':=~;o:;::'!".='

~....-~~.~ -:..~:.~~\~~~
~.~--.,..;:::-:-:

...

!!~~!:!==': ~'-.'i".-..:"--:-::

_. __~ ~"':"-":"_J::."=::~

~ -~.:~;'~~

~F.~~~_---~.'.

'iforrnatlon ewYork

~--'-"--.. . ---, -_ ......
,... ..... '.'".
n .. ,~,

....... n.... ~....
"M

~"'iGr'

. ,_....
~

.,~ ,

.,.
., "

',",

.,

."

_.-

"'. C"]! .

'-~-:.I:;~.~~r

-:.~ !.•.... '. .,..~
~.".
'

..

.'

...
.......

,

. ..... ::: : ~
..

':'I'l: <'""""MI

01',"". 1'>TOO1MI1'ron1l'l11l ..,..~fIIJ:'lPJbIo.I.r.r.
•• _

~I«..!oI~~~~

~~~*",~

_.iC-I" ..II ...........

of Cahokia.
:;::-.::::r,.::!-:;-;.,." ....,..,
''''' ......... ,,1''' ..... 1'''''''"''--

::::"j~ .;r~=~ .
"' __ '''lfr.ll~o)o'':

_. _ --~ -....... ...............,. .............
I!-"""',",""""

"".11'1_
--.,

.... 0..:."......,.

:hods

.age,
-world
fcm

....-.... IK-"''''~.---.;.<~...".

.

__

,..,..,.,'''_

2000
r :':

rrl--nlr,r)l+r-nlr~11111 ~j
"""N',.::"j"'" .. ~,:;' '?"'.....,..,~

~.;....,~.~.<.-

~L~ .. ........... zv"""'....,._..,.~

-~~m"""":l.~m
future work ~~~-, .

~~rfE(S:5

~r...:.=~~..:

._--_. ~~~.~--

,

.:;-

,~~~~~~--. ---_ ...............

Thank you!
httpJlconnec{,,·dpast.soton,or,ukl ht tp:f I" rcha eolog ic"Inoctwe>rks.word:p
ress.com/

The' Bigger Picture
~~ -~ -]
~-~"":::T
'~~

::-='.---:-:-'::=~
-'.

;

The Bigger. Picture
~==:-:~::..~ ~ u:":=:';
_. J

,,",.!I!'!«l .. ~ ...... ~

-------UJII IIr.'I <Ii

'_~1'''~

.......

:0(1 ilL

a

'- ... .. ,--.,_ ...... ~ ... . ......... .._......,.." - ...-y--

;

..

"

.,

__

__

~........___ ...

-..' .....

-.....b ....~F'IN5.~[
._,.· ... 1I.1tmRf<!.lI;.l .. · .. I!:I ...... ~I~.~'I'IJ[Mv.~I ·>ITOIIU;:'-':;']'!:'" ·1:iXL~[I,I.IIt2.DlfI"WIo.)tI~"T>.:ot{I·1I'I ~\'-. .. ~.L ..... ,I"!!I1 :.IiI'?M.:.IlIol;L.H..~~I, ~;.;r,:,_FI"o'IooIaIKffl

.!:i'_'I!',......,.~~13'
.Qo;IeI~I~I~I""'-"l.;Il .... ~!I."l'

· ....... B .... AltI.1!rM.-;a,:Io\l~~...:·_,I"'"'
·Zpt:r.K.I~hlN"HiIIIlh ,".!i!r~ ..... ',." • .::<:DI .. ...... _...l!I.lllIIII

... -~r.IHI.:p!"l

o..!'IH)[I~)l'_... ·~-.w.:I:.:.cno,""'''''''III-'';1
·tto:W>lII~oJI:..lltJ.l'IJ~oJ"'l'-""II:eI ·KITJ;:!;~I~~ITI'II.I:a.-uIll;;,;r

....

,I~

u"I'",mnr ... '~~_-''q''fI~''III.l-:il
r'_;jrojoJl.!!.

--n ...... ·r...,....... ~-.....,.......,.'T"n_

.................. __ ................

._

.........

_-....

r.lUlUIOI.I:H)'I!:I!I._...-...{1' .... I Q."'~ ....'i"iI,F'If!':ioFn"LrTT , 'I!i< ... IMr.~·L~'I1" -;u,-."D,1-.1fMVLo. ...

... T1{t~;,

".HL

Archaeology ego-networks
---=-~~, -:
.=u.= ....... ;
.!.!!,~ ... r:

:2_:':"

I

Archaeology ego-networks
,-~.-.-..~- ... _ _ .. .... ..-... .......... .... _-~_.....
.......

__

.. _

"....

.... .. .., I. " ..
......, .LJolIII "

..._r .......•• '

I

I

"',~"""'...rJ.I( ~"""'''' .... _L............... _ ...m.:-. """., .... ,..-_,r.i:U.I.,._,...
__ LJo>%'.~_ .... (oho-.::-.1:r

"l 5' ,., 0:1

~IP::

1~.loI!I

"!!.!J."I""""

.. ,"'

"_.. .
....

'Io'l. ... llo:OO.

I•• ,.,.·"._ ....... _",. _

L~"""""'__ n............. ' IffiIJIE'iII""'..
'4JI:'T1I!.'..:..

I_

'jl1!Pl
0;. ~~

·:5oJt'rI'!:l1JllIGIlolrrii:HIIlru~I~1.!:!
.,.,;t..~~..J[I(II@IoI:n~MI~"oiIlt.,~"A-.:!I:i

·t.:I'it.u"1I.o!t~~I.!I~lolrril~" .r_D.pI. :;;:I[.!I~..,.~UIlUo!:S

~""~-S~-~~-."'P.l.!e-o""~
~~
""~[!NoI"

.c

\

,

~~:,)·1
.,"ij·;:T

-=

- -j

Archaeological Applications
, ......

...... --....

_..-.__~, ~ _.~._

__ ..
~ _,

_ • ....... ....... • 11 ..

.LI~ UR .LI~ I

r::I , ..

,

.,. •

... " III

.
Input domain

U .. .. .... ............... _____ · ,_ _

"•

,_ ..

,

.. .,0'
.....
",

':., .:

.•

".___,.

i Oil

...

:

..

.~ .'"
..

:...;

~

~

...

iil~~f~ ,ti~]~;~
. ...".-.", . , ~....,.,-..,..,.,,"...,......, ........."......,._..-.._ "'.... ,....., . . -.._~_,--~-

'BiJlil[lirllllhik tlJJ..lplJ~

;g,lri[l~t~j!t.it';IJIoIr"ir-.;

."""'...,......_"....,._-.,-.,..._...,.."..~

_, .. __ _----......... -..--~ .....
.."."".:..

~

...

....... ...__-.-.---' ..... ........................ .... .........

.....

.

0':', ., •. _"."

.:.., ...:."_ •• ,, :

,

Bigger picture

Ego-network

Archaeology

N,odes

Arcs Loops Largest weakly connected component Wea,kly connected components

33,590 42,919

2,304

70
133

487S ,
-

2
33,498 2
19

1
2,304 1 19

0 60
3
8

De'pth of network Maximum lnputdegree Maximum outputdegree

48
1,237

46 345

8
21

,

,........ ,-'

I rwi n-Williams

1977

1990

2000
-----,--.....

/---\

'-_)

-~-------.

Input domain
The number of all other vertices that can connect to one vertex by a path

o
11

1 2 3

Input domain

Irwin-Williams

1977

---

-------(jj)

Cocitation
Two papers are said to be cocited if they are both cited by the, same third paper.

3

A

B

A

IB

Bibliographic coupling
Two papers are said to be bibliographically coupled if they cite the same other paper.
A B

A

B

3

Cocitation networlk
LlCIC B, 1993, ETHNOLOGY,

\a" ae, am
r>.

V3,2, P375, 001 10.2307/377'3459

1993,

""'O"ityTEMF

I rna, 2009, b€!n!;lfit ,gift TEMP

,)ai1la

dj, 1983, am antiquity TEMI

ITY, V56, P66, DOll0.2307f280973

ement arch TEMP -4UI2U··9611:)3-~ 18 D" 2001, ETHNOHISiOIRY, 0 V48, P655. 00[[ 10.1215/001418

,V19, P45, DO[ 10.1558/jmea,2006.19.1,45
ANAL AN, V4 jl, 2009, j anth arch TEMP

language

TEMP

worlds iEMP

e ee, 2010, phil trnas r s b TEMP

Cocitation network
(" lucie 8,1993, ETHNOLOGY, V32, P375" 00110,2307/3773459

\an

ae,

1993,

am antiquityTEMP

(dailta

dj, 1sas.em antiquity TIEM

lTV, V56, P66, DOl 10.2307/280973 . , 001 10.1 098/rspb.2007.0564

11l'I'i!f~~~'

, 2010, ox j arch TEMP nappett C, 2008, ANTIQUITY, V82, P1009 006, J MEDITERRANEAN ARCH, V19, P45, DOI110.1558fjmea,,2006.19.1.45 nson jl, .2009, j anth arch TEMP

Bibliographic coupling
__ -n..:n",,,,,/1 F, 2008, PHILOS T R SOC B, V363, P1969, DOI10,1098/rstb.2008,0004
1r~~~~~~~T~EMP q, 2001, settlement arch TEMP

Jenkins

0, 20(]1, ETHNOHISTORY,

V48, P655, 001 1

PEREGRINE P2195,

P, 1991, AM ANTIQUITY,

V56, P66, 00110

001 10_1098frspb_2007Q564

hem iroquoian

TEMP

munson GRAHAM S, 2006, SYSTEMS ARCH, P9

jl, 2009, j anth arch TEMP ARCH, V19, P45, DOl 10_1558!jmea_2006,19 ,1.45

J

MEDITERRANEAN

RA, 2003, COMPLEX

ntlsy RA., 2001, J ARCHAEOL

METHOD

TH, V8,. P35, 001 10, 1023!A:1 009521915258

Size of vertices

Betweenness

Bibliographic coupling
wayJl F, 2008, PHILOS T R SOC B, V363, P1969, 001 10,1 098/rstrb.2008.0004 Ifl'mll~~IJjj~'~a1!!nl!tt1~J~a~~T~EM P Ipmackie q, 2001, settlement arch TEMP saitta dj, 1983, am antiqu TEMP

bentle,y ra, 2005, j arch science TEMP p"'......... -'-'''07, urban conn TEMP ;Jenkins 0,2001, ETHNOHISTORY, V48, P655, 0011

"

93, ETHNOLOGY, V32, P375, 001 10.230713773459 ROTHMAN M, 1987, PALEORIENIT, V13, P73, 00110 KNAPPETT

.PEREGRINE P, 1991, AM ANTIQUlITY, V56, P66, 00110

branting S, 2007, using an urban TEMP terrell j, 2010, ann hum gen TEMP

.?lR~ffi~.0,

munson jl, 2009, j anth arch TEMP COM PLEX SYSTEMS AIRCH._P27 rflcgla d J, 2003, map no ten TEMP e \ 'GRAHAM S, 2006, J MEDITERRANEAN ARCH, V19, P4l5, DOll0.1558/jmea.2006.19,1.4l5 'BENTLEY RA, 2003, COMPLEX SYSTEMS ARCH, P9

entley RA, 2001, J ARCHAEOL METHOD TH, V8, P35, DOI10.1023/A:1009521915258

Size of vertices

Betweenness

Conclusions
Intuition confirmed: • Many network-related ideas and techniques have been around in the discipline since the 1970/5 • There was a boom in applications in the last decade • New applications were hardly influenced by older ones • Archaeological network analysts did not seem to have been aware of the diverse range of existing applications in their field • Recently published reviews point this out most clearly The academic contexts of the publications clearly plays an important part in the diffusion of network ideas and techniques
Ii

But where did the new applications get their ideas and techniques from?

Archaeological Applications
, ......

...... --....

_..-.__~, ~ _.~._

__ ..
~ _,

_ • ....... ....... • 11 ..

.LI~ UR .LI~ I

r::I , ..

,

.,. •

... " III

.
Input domain

U .. .. .... ............... _____ · ,_ _

"•

,_ ..

,

.. .,0'
.....
",

':., .:

.•

".___,.

i Oil

...

:

..

.~ .'"
..

:...;

~

~

...

iil~~f~ ,ti~]~;~
. ...".-.", . , ~....,.,-..,..,.,,"...,......, ........."......,._..-.._ "'.... ,....., . . -.._~_,--~-

'BiJlil[lirllllhik tlJJ..lplJ~

;g,lri[l~t~j!t.it';IJIoIr"ir-.;

."""'...,......_"....,._-.,-.,..._...,.."..~

_, .. __ _----......... -..--~ .....
.."."".:..

~

...

....... ...__-.-.---' ..... ........................ .... .........

.....

.

0':', ., •. _"."

.:.., ...:."_ •• ,, :

,

Archaeology ego-networks
,-~.-.-..~- ... _ _ .. .... ..-... .......... .... _-~_.....
.......

__

.. _

"....

.... .. .., I. " ..
......, .LJolIII "

..._r .......•• '

I

I

"',~"""'...rJ.I( ~"""'''' .... _L............... _ ...m.:-. """., .... ,..-_,r.i:U.I.,._,...
__ LJo>%'.~_ .... (oho-.::-.1:r

"l 5' ,., 0:1

~IP::

1~.loI!I

"!!.!J."I""""

.. ,"'

"_.. .
....

'Io'l. ... llo:OO.

I•• ,.,.·"._ ....... _",. _

L~"""""'__ n............. ' IffiIJIE'iII""'..
'4JI:'T1I!.'..:..

I_

'jl1!Pl
0;. ~~

·:5oJt'rI'!:l1JllIGIlolrrii:HIIlru~I~1.!:!
.,.,;t..~~..J[I(II@IoI:n~MI~"oiIlt.,~"A-.:!I:i

·t.:I'it.u"1I.o!t~~I.!I~lolrril~" .r_D.pI. :;;:I[.!I~..,.~UIlUo!:S

~""~-S~-~~-."'P.l.!e-o""~
~~
""~[!NoI"

.c

\

,

~~:,)·1
.,"ij·;:T

-=

- -j

Bigger picture

Ego-network

Archaeology

Nodes Arcs Loops Largest weakly connected component Weakly connected components Depth of network Maximum lnputdegree Maximum outputdegree

33,590

.2,304 4,875

70
133

42,919

2
33,498

1
.2,30.4

2
19
48 11,237

1
19

46
345

0 60 3 8 8
21

1854 1884

1925

1960

Indegree
~

.

, ,

..
"m

IW~==============~.~-------------------------------------••
••
,~~========================~ •• ============================

•• • • •••


1110

Ext,ernal citations
indegree Barabasi AL, 1999, SCIENCE Watts OJ, 1998, NATURE WASSERMAN 5, 1994, SOCIAL NETWORK Albert R, 1999, NATURE BlOYD R, 1985, CULTURE EVOLUTIONARY Albert R, 2002, REV MOD' PHYS GRANOVIET.MS,1973, AM j SOCIOl First archaeologists and historians DUNNEll Ref 1978, AM ANTIQUITY FLAN N ERY KV, 1972, AN N U REV ECOL SYS PADGETT JF, 1993, AM J SOCIOt

46 46
40

WOK 6,392

6 071
I

Scholar 12,545 14,873 12,140

34 34

1,.413 5,152

2,938
4,016

29
25

9,304

131

239

0

616

293

880

Input domain

Input domai

ZIPF GK, 1949, HUMAN BEHAV PRINCIIPL ( 33) WASSERMAN S, 1994, SOCIAL NETWORK (1 2) KO'CHEN M, 11989, SMALL WORLD (128) ERDOS P, 1960, PUBL MATH I HUNG, (125) MITCHELlJC, 1969, SOCIAL NETWORKS UIRBt\ (125) Watts DJ, 1998, NATURE, (12S) Huberman BA, 1998, SCIIENICE, (122) Albert R, 11999, NATURE, (121) CROW EL, 1988, LOGNORMAL DISTRIBUTI (121) Huberman BA, 1999, INATURE, (120) RODRIGUIEZITURBE 1,1997, FRACTAL RIVER (120)

Cocitation

Bibliographic coupling

Conclusions
• Some publications particularly lnfluentlal to archaeological applications AND in other disciplines • Large number of publications influential in physics and ,SNA were not influential to archaeologists. • Disciplinary communities start to appear But this is still an archaeological network

Archaeology ego-networks
,-~.-.-..~- ... _ _ .. .... ..-... .......... .... _-~_.....
.......

__

.. _

"....

.... .. .., I. " ..
......, .LJolIII "

..._r .......•• '

I

I

"',~"""'...rJ.I( ~"""'''' .... _L............... _ ...m.:-. """., .... ,..-_,r.i:U.I.,._,...
__ LJo>%'.~_ .... (oho-.::-.1:r

"l 5' ,., 0:1

~IP::

1~.loI!I

"!!.!J."I""""

.. ,"'

"_.. .
....

'Io'l. ... llo:OO.

I•• ,.,.·"._ ....... _",. _

L~"""""'__ n............. ' IffiIJIE'iII""'..
'4JI:'T1I!.'..:..

I_

'jl1!Pl
0;. ~~

·:5oJt'rI'!:l1JllIGIlolrrii:HIIlru~I~1.!:!
.,.,;t..~~..J[I(II@IoI:n~MI~"oiIlt.,~"A-.:!I:i

·t.:I'it.u"1I.o!t~~I.!I~lolrril~" .r_D.pI. :;;:I[.!I~..,.~UIlUo!:S

~""~-S~-~~-."'P.l.!e-o""~
~~
""~[!NoI"

.c

\

,

~~:,)·1
.,"ij·;:T

-=

- -j

The Bigger. Picture
~==:-:~::..~ ~ u:":=:';
_. J

,,",.!I!'!«l .. ~ ...... ~

-------UJII IIr.'I <Ii

'_~1'''~

.......

:0(1 ilL

a

'- ... .. ,--.,_ ...... ~ ... . ......... .._......,.." - ...-y--

;

..

"

.,

__

__

~........___ ...

-..' .....

-.....b ....~F'IN5.~[
._,.· ... 1I.1tmRf<!.lI;.l .. · .. I!:I ...... ~I~.~'I'IJ[Mv.~I ·>ITOIIU;:'-':;']'!:'" ·1:iXL~[I,I.IIt2.DlfI"WIo.)tI~"T>.:ot{I·1I'I ~\'-. .. ~.L ..... ,I"!!I1 :.IiI'?M.:.IlIol;L.H..~~I, ~;.;r,:,_FI"o'IooIaIKffl

.!:i'_'I!',......,.~~13'
.Qo;IeI~I~I~I""'-"l.;Il .... ~!I."l'

· ....... B .... AltI.1!rM.-;a,:Io\l~~...:·_,I"'"'
·Zpt:r.K.I~hlN"HiIIIlh ,".!i!r~ ..... ',." • .::<:DI .. ...... _...l!I.lllIIII

... -~r.IHI.:p!"l

o..!'IH)[I~)l'_... ·~-.w.:I:.:.cno,""'''''''III-'';1
·tto:W>lII~oJI:..lltJ.l'IJ~oJ"'l'-""II:eI ·KITJ;:!;~I~~ITI'II.I:a.-uIll;;,;r

....

,I~

u"I'",mnr ... '~~_-''q''fI~''III.l-:il
r'_;jrojoJl.!!.

--n ...... ·r...,....... ~-.....,.......,.'T"n_

.................. __ ................

._

.........

_-....

r.lUlUIOI.I:H)'I!:I!I._...-...{1' .... I Q."'~ ....'i"iI,F'If!':ioFn"LrTT , 'I!i< ... IMr.~·L~'I1" -;u,-."D,1-.1fMVLo. ...

... T1{t~;,

".HL

Archaeology ego-networks
---=-~~, -:
.=u.= ....... ;
.!.!!,~ ... r:

:2_:':"

I

Bigger picture

Ego-netwolrk

Archaeology

Nodes
Arcs Loops Largest weakly connected Weakly connected component

33,590 42,919

2,304 4,875

70
133

2
33,498

1
2,304

components

Depth of network

2 19

1 19

0 60 3
8 8 21

Maximum inputdegree Maximum outputdegree

48
1,237

46
345

Hubs and authorities
Papers that are cited by many other papers are cailled authorities; papers that cite many other documents are called hubs.

A vertex is a good hub if it points to many good authorities.
A vertex is a good authority if it is pointed to by good hubs.
O~_ __.

hubs

authorities

(Kleinberg 1999, Fig. 2)

Batagelj, V. 2003. Efficient Algorithms Kleinberg, J.M. 1999. Authoritative

for Citation Network Analysis. Arxiv preprint environment

cs/0309023. pp.1-27.

sources in a hyperlinked

Journal of the ACM UACM), 46(S}, pp.604a632.

Hubs
Paczuski 1M, 19'96, PHYS REV E Sornette D, 1998, PHYSICA A CROSS Me, 1993, REV MOD PHYS Frette V, 1996, NATU RE Cohen I, 1999, FRACTAL

Auth

0 riti

es

BAlK P, 1991, SCI AM MANDELBRO'T SB, 1983, FRACTAL CARLSON JM, 1990, PIHYS REV LETT BAlK P, 1987, PHYS REV LETT Sornette D, 1998, PHYSICA A

Domain
• • • • • • • • • MILGRAM 5, 119'67, PSYCHOL TODAY, V1, P61 (182) MITCHELLJC, 1969, SOCIAL NETWORKS URBA(151) ROGERS IEM, 1962, DIFFUSION liN NOVAT'ION (141) WASSERMAN 5, 1994, SOCIAL NETWORK ANAL (140) ZJPF GK, 1949, HUMAN BEHAV PRINCIIPL (139) HARVEY IPH, 1991, COMP METHOD EVOILUTIIO (136) TRAVERS J, 1969, SOCIIOME'TRY, V32, P42,5 (136) HOMANS Ge, 1950, HUIMIAN GROUIP (135) PETERS RH, 1983, ECOLOGICAL IMPLICATI (135)

• IBias towards physics • Older publications influential to physicists alre prominent • Archaeo .oglsts working in plhysics tradition stand out

The Bigger. Picture
~==:-:~::..~ ~ u:":=:';
_. J

,,",.!I!'!«l .. ~ ...... ~

-------UJII IIr.'I <Ii

'_~1'''~

.......

:0(1 ilL

a

'- ... .. ,--.,_ ...... ~ ... . ......... .._......,.." - ...-y--

;

..

"

.,

__

__

~........___ ...

-..' .....

-.....b ....~F'IN5.~[
._,.· ... 1I.1tmRf<!.lI;.l .. · .. I!:I ...... ~I~.~'I'IJ[Mv.~I ·>ITOIIU;:'-':;']'!:'" ·1:iXL~[I,I.IIt2.DlfI"WIo.)tI~"T>.:ot{I·1I'I ~\'-. .. ~.L ..... ,I"!!I1 :.IiI'?M.:.IlIol;L.H..~~I, ~;.;r,:,_FI"o'IooIaIKffl

.!:i'_'I!',......,.~~13'
.Qo;IeI~I~I~I""'-"l.;Il .... ~!I."l'

· ....... B .... AltI.1!rM.-;a,:Io\l~~...:·_,I"'"'
·Zpt:r.K.I~hlN"HiIIIlh ,".!i!r~ ..... ',." • .::<:DI .. ...... _...l!I.lllIIII

... -~r.IHI.:p!"l

o..!'IH)[I~)l'_... ·~-.w.:I:.:.cno,""'''''''III-'';1
·tto:W>lII~oJI:..lltJ.l'IJ~oJ"'l'-""II:eI ·KITJ;:!;~I~~ITI'II.I:a.-uIll;;,;r

....

,I~

u"I'",mnr ... '~~_-''q''fI~''III.l-:il
r'_;jrojoJl.!!.

--n ...... ·r...,....... ~-.....,.......,.'T"n_

.................. __ ................

._

.........

_-....

r.lUlUIOI.I:H)'I!:I!I._...-...{1' .... I Q."'~ ....'i"iI,F'If!':ioFn"LrTT , 'I!i< ... IMr.~·L~'I1" -;u,-."D,1-.1fMVLo. ...

... T1{t~;,

".HL

Archaeology ego-networks
---=-~~, -:
.=u.= ....... ;
.!.!!,~ ... r:

:2_:':"

I

The' Bigger Picture
~~ -~ -]
~-~"":::T
'~~

::-='.---:-:-'::=~
-'.

;

....-.... IK-"''''~.---.;.<~...".

.

__

,..,..,.,'''_

2000
r :':

rrl--nlr,r)l+r-nlr~11111 ~j
"""N',.::"j"'" .. ~,:;' '?"'.....,..,~

~.;....,~.~.<.-

~L~ .. ........... zv"""'....,._..,.~

-~~m"""":l.~m
future work ~~~-, .

~~rfE(S:5

~r...:.=~~..:

._--_. ~~~.~--

,

.:;-

,~~~~~~--. ---_ ...............

Thank you!
httpJlconnec{,,·dpast.soton,or,ukl ht tp:f I" rcha eolog ic"Inoctwe>rks.word:p
ress.com/

Conclusions and future work
Citation anill:ysis .lIowed to:

• Confirm

!I1<11 <lnd, new arcih<!eologiC<!! i!pp!!c<!tion~ ol'd
inlluencing archaeologists

emerged independently , Identify the key publications

• Identify key publlcatlons in other dlscjplines with [potential applications in archaeology , Hint of thee~i;;tence' of acadEmic CommLinities with slrnllar citation behaviour • Explore evolving citation behaviour of archaeologists

• Suggest ponentiilily fruitful future research avenue;

1) Most useful for tracing matn p..ths ofintluence, Close readin g expla Ins h ow a nd why pub IIcatl om were'infiuelntial, 2) WOK exdudes a lot of data, Some disciplines are over/underrepresented.

Citation analysis allowed to: • Confirm that old and new archaeologicall applications emerged independently • ldentify the key publications influencing archaeologists • ldentify key publications in other disciplines with potential applications in archaeology • IHint of the existence of academic communities with similar citation behaviour • IExplore evolving citation behaviour of archaeologists • Suggest potentially fruitful future research avenues

Limitations: 1) Most useful for tracing malin paths of influence. Close reading explains how and why publlications were influential.
2) WOK excludes a lot of data.

Some disciplines are over/underrepresented.

Thanlk you!
http://
(0 nne

(ted past. sata n.a(. u kl networks. wo rd p

http://archaeological ress.com/

Join the Networks Network! Special thanks to Nicole Beale, Graeme Earl, Simon Keay, Leif Isaksen, Marco Buchler, Matteo Romanello, Cat Cooper, Iza Romanowska, Anna Coillar, Fiona Coward, jeroen Poblome, the Networks Network, Johannes Preiserkapeller, the social systems modelling group.jason Noble, Seth Buillock, John Terrell, Carl Knappett, Tim Evans, Ray Rivers, Ethan Cochrane, Geoff Irwin,

ADHO

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.