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1

Teaching and learning module Additional mathematics form 5

CHAPTER 8 NAME:…………………………………………………. FORM :…………………………………………………

Date received : ……………………………… Date completed …………………………. Marks of the Topical Test : ……………………………..

Prepared by : Additional Mathematics Department Sek Men Sains Muzaffar Syah Melaka For Internal Circulations Only

Formulae

a)

P (X = r) =

n

Cr p r q n − r , p + q = 1

b) c) d)

Mean µ = np

σ = npq x−µ z= σ

Dapatkan Tips dan bimbingan percuma di mathgayapos.blogspot.com

Hence if X is a binomial random variable. If X represents a random variable which has a binomial distribution then it can be expressed as: X ~ Bi ( n. n Here. Understand and use the concept of binomial distribution. Obtaining 3 is defined as a success and is denoted by S . 3..maths-catch. The possible outcomes are listed in the table below. x = 0. 1..1. X ~ Bi ( n. Dapatkan Tips dan bimbingan percuma di mathgayapos..com .1.. 1. is replaced by 1 − p. x = 0..variance and standard deviation of a binomial distribution. 1. the probability of failure.4 Determine mean . p . then X is a binomial variable. Obtaining a 3 will represent a success and all other values will represent a failure... It has relevance and importance in many real-life everyday applications. Consider the experiment where a fair dice is rolled four times. 3.5 Solve problems involving binomial distributions. q. Using the shorthand notation. n x n− x P ( X =x ) = C x p q .. X ~ Bi ( n.. The probability of success. 2.2 Determine the probability of an event in a binomial distribution. particularly once the number of trials increases. 2. equals 4 and the probability.. ) p We will now determine the probability of a 3 appearing uppermost 0.blogspot. This procedure for determining the individual probabilities can become tedious. p ) becomes 6 1 X ~ Bi (4. p ) Translated into words. each of the following characteristics must be satisfied. 1. n independent trials must be conducted. and the trials conducted are known as Bernoulli trials They were named in honour of the Swiss mathematician Jakob Bernoulli (1654–1705). 1. The formula may also be written as n x n− x P ( X =x ) = C x p (1 − p ) . is fixed for each trial. The die is rolled four times so the number of trials. and 4 times.2.com 2 Students will be able to: 1. n That is: x = the occurrence of the successful outcome. If X represents the number of times a 3 appears uppermost. its probability is defined as follows. of obtaining a 3 is equal to 1 .Kertas Soalan Ramalan www. p ) means that X follows a binomial distribution with parameters n (the number of trials) and p (the probability of success). The binomial distribution is an example of a particular type of discrete probability distribution.. n. The binomial distribution may be referred to as a Bernoulli distribution . success and failure. p. For a trial to be defined as a Bernoulli trial. Only two possible outcomes must exist for each trial — that is.2. All other numbers are defined as a failure and are denoted by F. 1.1 List all possible values of a discrete variable.3 Plot binomial distribution graphs 1.

we would expect that the sum of the probabilities is 1. what is the probability that the selected from the production line.3 }. What is the marksman is successful on all 8 shots.. Therefore.com . To Pass the test.2866 ] Exercise 1 a) Based on past records. 1. A sample of 6 eggs is selected at random.0595 ] b) In a quick test.2 Kertas Soalan Ramalan www.1 1. Determine the probability of an event in a binomial distribution. for the above example: Pr(X = x) = Pr(X = 0) + Pr(X = 1) + Pr(X = 2) + Pr(X = 3) + Pr(X = 4) = 1.[ answer 0. 30% of the eggs produced in a farm can be classified as grade A. A random variable is a quantity whose value cannot be predicted but is determined by the outcomes of an experiment 2.com 3 625 500 150 20 1 = 1 + + + + 1296 1296 1296 1296 1296 1.Since this is a probability distribution. If Y represents the number of times of getting tails in the three tosses. Example 1 a) If X represents the number of married women in a group of five women.blogspot. A random variable with a countable number of possible outcomes is call discrete random variable Example A fair dice is rolled three times and the number of times of getting the number “4” is recorded . list all possible values of X b) If A represents the number of boys of a family of four children. If the defective. If X represent the number of correct answer obtained by Ali list all possible values of X Probability Of An Event In A Binomial Distribution Example 1 a) From past records. it is found that 8% of the b) From previous experience. If the candidate decides to guess the answer for all question. The possible outcomes of X are X = { 0.2. A) Discrete random variables 1.0584 ] Dapatkan Tips dan bimbingan percuma di mathgayapos. 0 Understand and use the concept of binomial distribution. a candidate has to answer 10 multiplechoice questions where each question has 4 possible responses with only one correct answer. { answer 0. Let X be the number of times of getting the number 4. one must obtain at least 5 correct answer. List all possible values of a discrete variable.4305] exactly one of the light bulbs is defective? [ answer 0.maths-catch. list all possible values of A c) b) If B represents the number of rainy days in a particular of week B list all possible values of B Exercise 1 a) If X represent the number of days that sally is late for school in a five-day week b) A fair coin is tossed three times. A sample of 5 light bulbs is randomly marksman fires 8 times. what is the probability that the candidate that the candidate just passes the test . a marksman is found to light bulbs produced by a manufacturer are have a 90% success rate of scoring a bulls eye. list all possible values of Y c) Ali attempts to answer all the ten multiple-choice question. X is a discrete random variable. Thus. Find the probability that only 4 eggs can be classified as grade A [ answer 0.

3) and has the following probability distribution. Example 2 a) A recent survey shows that 40% of the residents in town A have fixed deposit accounts. X. Hence. ). If we refer to the example of 1 obtaining a 3 when rolling a die four times we note that X ~ B (4.maths-catch. X. determine the probability distribution of X . Dapatkan Tips dan bimbingan percuma di mathgayapos.blogspot. Plot the graph of the distribution of X Solution Homework Text book Page 199Exercise 8. The probability 6 distribution of the random variable. X is noted Determine the probability of all the events in the distribution and hence draw the graph of the distribution Solution : Example 2 a) A fair coin is tossed three times. 0. A sample of 3 resident is selected at random and the number of resident who have fixed deposit accounts.com 4 Homework Text book Page 199Exercise 8. variance and the standard deviation The random variable.1 No 9 – 11 Mean. If X represents the number of times heads obtained in the three tosses.com .Kertas Soalan Ramalan www. is given in the table and graph below.1 No 3 – 8 GRAPHS OF THE BINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION We will now consider the graph of a binomial distribution. (like other distributions) it is very useful to know the expected value (mean). Variance And Standard Deviation Of The Binomial Distribution When working with the binomial probability distribution. is such that X ∼ B (8.

com .blogspot.Kertas Soalan Ramalan www.com 5 Mean : Dapatkan Tips dan bimbingan percuma di mathgayapos.maths-catch.

n. Find: a the expected number of heads b the variance for the number of heads c the standard deviation for the number of heads. the lengths of battery lives. Find (a) the probability of success. Homework Text book Page 199Exercise 8.com . 5. the diameters of steel cans. A binomial random variable has a mean of 10 and a variance of 5.Kertas Soalan Ramalan www.1 No 9 – 11 The Normal Distributions The normal distribution is an important tool when dealing with the probability distribution of a continuous random variable.maths-catch. Dapatkan Tips dan bimbingan percuma di mathgayapos. Mathematical Methods examination results. etc.blogspot. Six out of every 10 cars manufactured are white. Find: a the expected number of white cars b the variance for the number of white cars c the standard deviation for the number of white cars. Twenty cars are randomly selected. the intelligence quotient of children in a particular age group. p (b) the number of trials. The frequency curve of the normal distribution is characterised by the symmetrical bell shape called the normal distribution curve or normal curve The normal curve fairly realistically models many observed frequency distributions such as heights and weights of infants.com 6 4 A fair coin is tossed 10 times.

8 ) b) P ( Z ≤ 2.6406 Ans– 1.025 e) 0. find the value of each of the following [ Jb a) 0. Find the value of b such that Dapatkan Tips dan bimbingan percuma di mathgayapos.maths-catch.4] b) P ( Z < a ) = 0.36 ] Example 5 : Z is a random variable having the standard normal distribution.1. If Z is a standard normal variable.0.15 Example 5 : Z is a random variable having the standard normal distribution. σ 2 it is written as X ~ N ( µ .2119 b) 0.1841 d) P ( Z ≥ a ) = 0.04 ] [ Ans –0.7) P (-0.96) c) P ( -0.3 ) d) P (0.93 ≤ Z ≤ 1.com .5 < Z < 1.6987 d) 0.8185 c) 0.8508 c) P ( Z ≤ a ) = 0.0968 a) P( Z ≥ 0. Z values are also known as standard score Example 4.com 7 .12 ) .7704 e) P (Z > . σ ) .24 ≤ Z ≤ 0.9] [Ans 0.61) Exercise 4 If Z is a standard normal variable.3239 c) P (Z ≤ . The standard normal distribution is written as X ~ N (0.5) b) P (-2 < Z < 1) d) P (Z ≥ 1.blogspot. µ and 2 Kertas Soalan Ramalan www.3446 [Ans 0.9834 c) 0.13 d) 0. Find the value of a such that P(Z>a)= 0.2417 b) 0.74 ) a) P(0.8 ≤ Z ≤ 1. find the value of each of the following [ Answer a) 0. and variance.1673 e) 0.If X is a continuous random variable which follows a normal distribution with mean.

944 1) X has a normal distribution with a mean of 40 and 2) Determine the x – value for each of the following a standard deviation of 8.8238 [Ans – 0.875 b) a) x = 14.5 b) x = 28 Dapatkan Tips dan bimbingan percuma di mathgayapos. Convert the following xz – values for a normal distribution with µ = 16 and values to z.2 No 2-3 Standardising A Normal Distribution Each normal distribution has its own values of µ and σ .125 b) z = 0. Subsequently.77] b) P ( Z < b) = 0. σ . Z ( z – value ).0.45] d) P ( Z ≥ b) = 0. a random variable X ( x.6141 [Ans – 0. the probability can be determined using the standard normal distribution.73] b) P ( Z < b ) = 0.12 ] Kertas Soalan Ramalan www. Example 6 a [ answer 1) a) 3 b) – 0. µ and standard deviation.2.25 b) x = 10.8686 [ jAns 1.blogspot.29 ] Homework Text book Page 208 Exercise 8.value can be converted to a z – value by using the formula Z= X −µ the random variable ( x – value) of the normal distribution with mean.15 b) z = .93 ] P(Z>b = 0.com .58 ] c) P ( Z ≤ b ) = 0.com 8 d) P ( Z ≥ b ) = 0.23] c) P ( Z ≤ b ) = 0.2206 [Ans 0.P(Z>b)= 0.values a) z = 2.0418 [Ans 1.maths-catch. An x.5 b) 4 2) a) 19.6736 [ Ans 0.281 [ Ans .To simplify the process of determining the probability. Convert the following xz – values for a normal distribution with µ = 30 and 5 values to z.472 a) x = 64 b) x = 33 σ where X is σ =3 Exercise6 a [ answer 1) a) – 0.values a) z = .1093 [ jAns –1.5 b) 15 1) X has a normal distribution with a mean of 16 and 2) Determine the x – value for each of the following a standard deviation of 3 .value ) in any normal distribution can be converted into a standardised variable.3 a) x = 14.

05 cm .8 kg.561) Answer a) i) 0.9452 ii) 3.8k ( ans 0.0 kg ii) the value of m if 60 % of the water-melon from the orchard have a mass more than m kg. Find a) the probability that a baby chosen at random from the hospital has a mass of not more than 3.com .3085) a) more than 19 cm b) less than 18.5 kg.9 cm and 19.maths-catch.0735 Dapatkan Tips dan bimbingan percuma di mathgayapos. standard deviation of 0.79691 b) i) 0. 1 The mass of water-melons produced from an orchard follows a normal distribution with the mean of 3. and find probability that the mass of the loaf of bread chosen is the probability that the length of the selected pencil is a) at most 414 g (Ans 0.7 b) more than 405 g ( Ans 0.4 cm c) between 409g and 430g 9 ( Ans 0.9 Kertas Soalan Ramalan www.2936 ii) 0.2kg and a standard deviation of 0. A pencil is randomly A loaf of bread is chosen at random from the bakery . Find the selected from the factory.blogspot. in set notation. ( 6 m ) 2 The mass of babies born in a maternity hospital follows a normal distribution with a mean of 3.com Represent Probability Of An Event Using Set Notation and Determine the probability of an event Example 7 b) Exercise 7 a) The lengths of pencils produced by a certain factory The mass of a loaf bread baked by a bakery is normally are normally distributed with a mean of 19 cm and a distributed with a mean of 420g and a standard deviation of 12g.6179) Problems Involving Normal Distributions.1 kg and a standard deviation of 0.8092) b) the value of a if 75% of the babies born in the hospital have a mass of more than a kg ( ans 2. Write.8994) c) between 18. Find (i) the probability that a water-melon chosen randomly from the orchard has a mass of not more than 4.

0222 .4090 .02107 2 .0475 .02175 .0202 .0582 .02248 .0104 .0 82 .0307 .2877 .8 3.0 0.0764 .0681 .3264 .2 2.03233 .4522 .0455 .02657 .02205 .02212 .02131 .4325 .0 434 3 3 .2776 .0485 .0 104 .0329 .1357 .0 789 .02714 .3 1.1 1.03121 .1914 .03641 .1922 .02639 .02554 .4 3.02144 .03598 .2148 .2709 .02776 .3897 .0188 .0351 .02734 .0721 .1112 .1660 .0 92 .0 990 2 Kertas Soalan Ramalan www.02181 .3372 .0 78 .4443 .0154 .0119 .2236 .2946 .2483 .03126 .2810 .0606 .0 914 .03224 .6 2.2 0.4761 .0116 .1867 .4 .1977 .02264 .03280 .7 2.03538 .02199 .03501 2 2 3.2546 .0437 4 4 3 .03216 .0113 .2090 .03260 .STANDARD NORMAL DISTRIBUTION: Table Values Represent AREA to the LEFT of the Z score.4404 .1515 .2843 .03142 .0 72 .0559 .03131 .0174 .0294 .1 2.0418 .0439 4 4 .0838 .blogspot.0537 .03178 .1075 .2389 .1841 .03687 .2296 .3300 .1003 .0 100 .8 2.0179 .6 3.1190 .0 88 .0594 .02523 .2 1.3 .4286 .2611 .4840 .0655 .0808 .03136 .02755 .02100 2 2 2 1 1 1 0 0 3 2.1056 .0495 .02219 .0 85 .0 964 2 .0 54 .0 466 3 .3745 .4681 .0 64 .0708 .02539 .0433 4 1 1 1 0 3.0217 .4052 .3085 .03172 .0143 .02187 .3 0.2743 .03270 .0250 .1131 .03519 .1492 .2327 .0158 .0'427 .02193 .1469 .3707 .0901 .02280 .2981 .1170 .4168 .0436 4 4 .0 889 2 2 3 .02480 .0694 .6 1.0793 .0125 .9 3.1562 .0446 .03153 .4129 .02289 .02298 . Kebarangkalian Hujung Atas Q(z) Bagi Taburan Normal N(0.03193 .3859 .2061 .3632 .1314 .4880 .0 483 3 .0505 .03117 .4013 .3409 .7 0.2005 .02114 2 .0 67 .0150 .02154 .0 2.02326 .0268 .0233 .02820 .0 419 .03577 .1 .0 357 .0 866 2 .1587 .0139 .03325 .3520 .1685 .5 0.4 1.1611 .2643 .1 0.03390 .0344 .02164 .0446 4 3 .0170 .4207 .9 .0885 .03376 .03557 .03711 3 3 2 2 3.03736 .02695 .02336 .0 874 3 3 2 .0122 .03159 .03664 .com .7 1.02233 .2206 .02169 .02676 .0 379 .02604 .3974 .1271 .03349 .0166 .0212 .03147 .0228 .4247 .0262 .0951 .0450 .0 845 3 .03762 .03185 .0968 .4364 .1020 .0301 .4562 .0102 .1210 .03404 .8 1.2266 .0132 .0427 .0375 .2119 .0 968 3 2 .0 3.0183 .02256 .0 1.5 2.2033 .0934 .0 62 .0548 .2912 .1736 .9 1.02494 .0207 .0823 .0442 4 Dapatkan Tips dan bimbingan percuma di mathgayapos.0444 4 3 4 .1151 .0359 .0 415 .0401 .03208 .0 466 .1230 .2578 .5 1.0571 .02240 .0869 .0136 .2 .0239 .0 108 .02798 .1423 .3192 .8 0.0436 .0441 4 4 .02317 .0281 .03112 .0322 .0630 .9 2.0192 .0618 .0 453 .1) z 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 SUBTRACT 0.1335 .03242 .7 3.02621 .0409 .1251 .03619 .0516 .03165 .1949 .03251 .4483 .0918 .0 935 3 2 .5000 .02587 .1038 .02149 .3156 .0129 .0392 .3483 .02111 2 .1762 .02570 .4641 .02122 .0 368 .5 3.0643 .3557 .4920 .0448 4 3 .0526 .3 .0 52 .03337 .0434 4 4 .1894 .0162 .0 96 .2358 .03302 .3594 .0256 .02347 .02226 .2514 .0287 .0 69 .0735 .4960 .0 440 .1788 .02118 2 .3121 .2177 .3015 .0 57 .1401 .03200 .3783 .02135 .3228 .3936 .3336 .0985 .0107 .02159 .1711 .0 59 .0668 .4 0.0146 .02307 .com 10 6 7 8 9 .0 391 .3669 .0336 .0778 .02139 .0465 .0274 .02126 .1093 .6 0.3446 .02272 .03291 .0 842 2 2 2 2.03313 .2676 .3821 .0853 .02508 .4721 .4801 .1539 .1379 .0244 .0384 .1446 .0749 .4602 .0 939 2 .0197 .0110 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 6 5 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 5 4 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 6 6 5 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 12 12 12 11 11 10 10 9 8 8 7 6 6 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 8 7 6 6 5 3 3 2 1 1 9 8 7 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 16 16 15 15 14 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 6 5 4 4 3 2 2 2 1 1 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 2 13 11 10 9 8 6 5 4 3 2 20 20 19 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 4 3 2 2 2 1 13 12 11 9 8 6 5 4 2 2 16 14 12 11 9 8 7 5 4 2 24 24 23 22 22 20 19 18 16 15 14 12 11 10 8 7 6 5 4 4 3 2 2 2 15 14 13 11 9 7 6 4 3 2 19 17 15 13 11 10 8 6 4 3 28 28 27 26 25 24 23 21 19 18 16 14 13 11 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 2 18 16 15 13 11 8 7 5 3 3 22 20 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 32 32 31 30 29 27 26 24 22 20 19 16 15 13 11 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 20 18 17 15 12 9 8 6 4 3 25 22 20 18 15 13 10 8 6 4 36 36 35 34 32 31 29 27 25 23 21 18 17 14 13 11 9 8 6 5 4 4 3 2 23 21 19 17 14 10 9 6 4 4 28 25 22 20 17 14 12 9 7 5 .maths-catch.03362 .0 75 .2451 .0 904 .0 816 3 .02104 2 .1292 .0 402 .1635 .0 450 .0314 .2420 .3050 .0367 .

Pakej Soalan Ramalan Matematik UPSR PMR & SPM
www.maths-catch.com

Pakej Soalan Ramalan Matematik UPSR PMR & SPM

www.maths-catch.com

www.maths-catch.com

An Akaike Criterion based on Kullback Symmetric Divergence in the Presence of Incomplete-Data - 2007.pdf

by José Santos Flores Laureano

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