Barangay Bayabas, Sablan, Benguet is composed of four ethnic groups which are the Ifugao’s, Ibaloi’s, Kankana-ey’s

and the Ilocano’s. The ibaloys are distributed to the mountain valleys and settlements of the general southern areas of Benguet and their language is variably called “inibaloi” or “nabaloi”. According to (Scheerer, 1905:99) . Ibaloys are known to be hospitable, generous, honest, hardworking, and having a keen sense of humor. They are “fond of society,” always going out and working in the fields in groups. (Moss 1919). They are structured into three general divisions in their society- the “rich”, the “average” and the “poor” (Pungayan 1980). The “poor” man’s household is a nuclear family composed of the husband and wife and their offspring. Occasionally, however, it grows into an extended household (elementary/stem family) with the addition of a widowed parent or a grandparent of one of the spouses. Compared with the poor household, the rich family is composed of from 15-18 individuals including the slaves and servants who live in their master’s house. Average families may further be classified into three general types-the rich-turned-average family, the rich’s family branch and the poor-turned-average family, and the baknang-turned-average family. The Ibaloy society consist of two classes-the wealthy (baknang) and the poor (abitug). Based on the task allocation, the Ibaloys may be classified further into the baknang, pastol, silbi and bagaen. The wealthy exercise authority in almost all aspect of the social, political and economic life of the ibaloi. They serve as host of the canao feast; they sit in the village council to decide on important matters affecting the village headman or chief who “serves as a link between the political organization, the rituals and the economic system”(Tapang 1985;9). The ibaloys are predominantly farmers. With the fertile soil and temperate climate of Benguet, they are able to raise a variety of crops. Another common activity of the rural ibalois is working in the uma or kaingin, an area found on mountain slopes that has been previously cleared of forest growth. The religion of the ibalois is that of polytheism and animism. They do not worship any gods in the form of statues and carvings but they believe in the spirits of ancestors whom they called amed and of a supreme being called kabunyan. The Christian God is called Shivus, who is believed to be the higher supreme being than the indigenous god, kabunyan. The ibalois believe in a number of anitos (spirits) and deities to whom they address their prayers and petitions in an appropriate ceremony(Bagamaspad and Pawid 1985:110). As of 1995, the Ifugao ethnic population in the Cordillera Region was counted at 131,635, majority of which are found of course in , in the various municipalities of Ifugao province. A large number of the Ifugaos have also settled in Baguio city, particularly in Asin where they have settled and found work as woodcarvers. A majority of the population has been converted from the original animistic religion by several religious denominations. Roman Catholic have the largest membership. Although the Ifugaos are considered as one main ethnic group, they are composed of subgroups based partly on the differences of dialects, on the variation of oral traditions and customs, the design and the design and color of the costumes. The three major subgroups are the Ayangan, the Kalanguya and the Tuwali. The term ifugao is derived from the word ipugo which means people of the earth, mortals or human beings as distinguished from the spirits, deities and other supernatural beings. Another but related meaning of the term ipugo is from the hill. In the old days, the ifugao’s made their villages on elevated places. According to the kiangan ifugao mythology ipugo refers to the white rice variety.

or even death to those who disturb their abode. the rich (kadangyan) the poor (kodo). appreciative simple and determined.god of sorcery. The northern kankanaey’s engaged in a variety economic activities like wet farming. Sabangan. ayag. tugun. Rituals are always attended by some offering such as chickens. on the other hand. slash an d burn agriculture. However. The ifugao’s religion is exceedingly complicated.gods and goddesses of plenty. Families who have performed the hagabi are called himmagabi. pigs.god of fortune. the Ilokanos being called stingy and cheap is just treated as a joke or pun among Filipinos and not as a negative regional stereotype. Bakun. Some of the deities or spirits that the people worship include among other like Matungalan. the middle class and the poor. The ancestors spirits are believed to live in village. which is very evident in their marriage traditions. is the “light of the home” who disciplines the children and manages the house finances. the Ilokanos have a strong family tie.and nature’s spirits. causing sickness. The latter are likewise regarded to have human needs like food and clothing. in all family gatherings requiring the butchering of animals. The tagu comprised the ifugao middle class and the lowest social class is the nawotwot. They are also called northern kankanaey’s to distinguish them from southern kankanaey’s who inhabit in the municipalities of Tadian. The exact prayers to be recited by the priest during rituals and the number of animals to be sacrifice clearly specified in Ifugao tradition. .cordilleran’s to refer to the inhabitance of western mountain province. The religion of the northern kankanaeys is the worship of ancestors and nature spirits with whom they need to be on excellent terms in which they are careful not to offend. When they are cold or hungry. Dimapon. especially in rocks or caves while the natures spirits are believe to dwell in mountains. These spirit are souls of the dead (anitos ). Moreover . natures spirits are more frequently malevolent. fishing.The Ilokanos have high respects to their parents.According to Lourdes Dulawan (1997) the traditional ifugao society is composed of three distinct classes the rich or aristocracy. Ifugaos religious belief are expressed in their elaborately develop system of rituals called Baki. they make their demands known by making a member of the family become sick. Of course. A complete ifugao’s religious ritual consists of gonob. Generally speaking there only two social classes among northern kankanaey’s . barter and trade. The Ilokano marriage. They follow the Filipino norm when it comes to family structure wherein the father is the head of the family. or rivers. ancestor spirit are always invited to partake the food ”so that they shall not cause malice to the family” The Ilokanos are known for being hardworking. It is a regional characteristic that their Filipino brethren have grown to understand. carabao’s and some places ducks. Bauko. Manahaot. handicrafts and other cottage industries like pottery and basket cloth and vegetables and fruit growing. rocks. they are also known as stingy or “kuripot”. peace and prosperity. tobal.like all Filipinos. camote farming. trees. The highest rank in the kadangyan class the ultimate status in the ifugao society. Hence. Ancestor spirits are generally good spirits who are invoked for good health. dogs. Mangkayan and Kibungan.The mother. north eastern ilocos sur and northern section of the province of Benguet. The term Kankanaey is a linguistic category use by non. It is polytheism that includes nature and ancestor worship.

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