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**Jerzy Weyman July 14-18, 2010
**

Abstract. These are the lectures given by the author during the summer school on tensor decompositions in Norway in June 2010.

Content

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

§1. Root systems and simple Lie algebras §2. Gradings on simple Lie algebras related to simple roots §3. Kac’s classiﬁcation of representations with ﬁnitely many orbits. Examples involving tensors and

exterior powers

§4. Vinberg method of classifying orbits, statements of the results §5. Vinberg method in practice. Working out of concrete examples §6. Deﬁning ideals and syzygies §7. Applications References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Introduction The irreducible representations of the reductive groups with ﬁnitely many orbits were classiﬁed by Kac in [K80]. They were divided into classes II, III and IV. All of these classes are related to gradings of the root systems, and to the corresponding θ groups. The representations of type II are parametrized by a pair (Xn , αk ) where Xn is a Dynkin diagram with a distinguished node x ∈ Xn . This data deﬁnes a grading g = ⊕s i=−s gi

The author was partially supported by NSF grant DMS-0600229 Typeset by AMS-TEX

1

2

JERZY WEYMAN

of a simple algebra g of type Xn such that the Cartan subalgebra h is contained in g0 and the root space gβ is contained in gi where i is the coeﬃcient of the simple root α corresponding to the node x in the expression for β as a linear combination of simple roots. The representation corresponding to (Xn , x) is the g1 with the action of the group G0 × C∗ where G0 is the adjoint group corresponding to g0 and C∗ is the copy of C∗ that occurs in maximal torus of G (the adjoint group corresponding to g) but not in maximal torus of G0 . The orbit closures for the representations of type II were described in two ways by Vinberg in [V75], [V87]. The ﬁrst description states that the orbits are the irreducible components of the intersections of the nilpotent orbits in g with the graded piece g1 . In the second paper Vinberg gave a more precise description in terms of some graded subalgebras of the graded algebra g = ⊕gi In these notes we give the introduction to these methods. We use mainly the examples of triple tensor products and third exterior powers. The notes are organized as follows. In section 1 we discuss root systems and simple Lie algebras. Section 2 introduces representations related to gradings on simple Lie algebras related to a choice of a simple root. Section 3 we state Kac’s theorem and interpret special cases of triple tensor products and third exterior powers. In section 4 we expose the Vinberg method from [V87] that classﬁes orbits in representations with ﬁnitely many orbits. In section 5 we work out some examples. In the following sections we give information about singularities and deﬁning ideals of the orbit closures. We brieﬂy describe the geometric method of calculating syzygies and give examples of its use. We give some comments on how one should be able to calculate resolutions of all the coordinate rings of orbit closures.

§1. Simple Lie algebras and root systems We recall the Cartan classiﬁcation of simple Lie algebra and corresponding root systems. For a simple Lie algebra g we have the root decomposition g = h ⊕ ⊕α∈Φ gα where Φ is the associated root system. The simple Lie algebra g has also a symmetric bilinear non-degenerate form (, ) : g × g → C given by the formula (X, Y ) = T r(ad(X)ad(Y )). Deﬁnition 1.1. Let V be an Euclidean space over R with a scalar product (, ). A root system Φ is by deﬁnition a ﬁnite collection of vectors in V such that a) If α ∈ Φ then the only multiples of α in Φ are ±α,

GEOMETRY OF ORBIT CLOSURES

3

b) The values of α, β := 2(α, β) (α, α)

are in Z for α, β in Φ. c) If α ∈ Φ and σα is a reﬂection in the hyperplane orthogonal to α then σα (Φ) = Φ. d) Φ spans V . If Φ1 and Φ2 are two root systems in the Euclidean spaces V1 , V2 , then Φ1 ∪ Φ2 is a root system in the orthogonal direct sum V1 ⊕ V2 . A root system is irreducible if it cannot be decomposed into a direct sum of two root systems. In every root systems one can choose a basis ∆ = {α1 , . . . , αl } of simple roots which have the following property. The root system Φ decomposes Φ = Φ+ ∪ Φ− where positive roots can be written as nonnegative linear combinations of vectors in the basis, and negative roots, as non-positive linear combinations. Example 1.2. The root system if type An . V = {(a1 , . . . , an+1 ) ∈ Rn+1 | a1 + . . . + an+1 = 0} Φ = {±( i − ∆={

1 j)

| 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n + 1}. −

3, . . .

−

2, 2

,

n

−

n+1 }.

**Corresponding Lie algebra is sln+1 . Example 1.3. The root system if type Bn . V = Rn Φ = {±( i ± ∆={
**

1 j)

| 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n, ± i , 1 ≤ i ≤ n}. −

3, . . .

−

2, 2

,

n−1

−

n , n }.

**Corresponding Lie algebra is so2n+1 . Example 1.4. The root system if type Cn . V = Rn Φ = {±( i ± ∆={
**

1 j)

| 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n, ±2 i , 1 ≤ i ≤ n}. −

3, . . .

−

2, 2

,

n−1

−

n , 2 n }.

Corresponding Lie algebra is sp2n .

For classical groups most of them have very concrete descriptions. . i g = sln+1 . 1 ≤ i ≤ n − 1. 1 − 2. . 4 − 5. i Cn+1 . V = Rn Φ = {±( i ± ∆={ 1 j) | 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n}. V (ωn ) = spin(2n + 1). The root system if type E6 .. Finally we mention that the basic representations of the Lie algebra corresponding to Φ (or the corresponding simply connected group) are the fundamental representations. 8 ). . The fundamental representations V (ωi ) are basic in that all others can be obtained from them as summands of tensor products. g = so2n+1 . V (ωi ) = C2n+1 .6. 3. 3 1 ∆={ ( 2 − − . 2 − − 4. To every root system Φ we associate its Dynkin diagram which is a graph whose nodes are the simple roots and the nodes αi and αj are joined by αi . ..4 JERZY WEYMAN Example 1. − n . n−1 − 2.j for all simple roots αj . Example 1. n−1 + n }.5. 1 ≤ j ≤ . Example 1. − + 8 ). with ± 2 ± 1 3 ± 2 4 ± 5 − 7 6 − 7 + even number of minus signs}. αj αj . They correspond to fundamental weights ωi deﬁned via ωi (αj ) = δi.8. V (ωi ) = Example 1.7. 4 + 5 }. 2 − 3. The root system if type Dn . V = Rn Φ = {±( i ± 1 ± (± 2 1 j) | 1 ≤ i < j ≤ 5. Corresponding Lie algebra is so2n . αi edges. .

. . en . e1 }. . Let F be an orthogonal space of dimension 2n with a non-degenerate quadratic form (. v) + (u. . . Choose a hyperbolic basis {e1 . en . v ∈ F. ). 2 Find the root decomposition of so(2n + 1) and identify it with the set F. 3. ). Let F be an orthogonal space of dimension 2n+1 with a non-degenerate quadratic form (. ϕ(v)) = 0 ∀u. . e1 }. . 1 ≤ i ≤ n.10. (I) (i) The diagram of V is obtained from Φ by joining the black node with the vertex (I) (I) ωj with λj edges. The orthogonal ¯ ¯ Lie algebra so2n+1 consists of endomorphisms ϕ of F such that (ϕ(u). The main point is that (forgetting a few exceptions that will be listed) a representaton V has ﬁnitely many G-orbits if and only if the diagram of V is a Dynkin diagram. 1. . . 2. . 2 Find the root decomposition of so(2n) and identify it with the set F. en . . . e0 . . . v ∈ F. Let the Dynkin diagram of G have several connected components Φi . v) + (u. . . V (ωn−1 ) = spin+ (2n). . en . We will not need the description of spinor and half-spinor representations here. en . To a representation V of a reductive group G (like a triple tensor product or an exterior power) we can associate its diagram by choosing a black node (corresponding to a representation) and the white nodes corresponding to a Dynkin diagram of the group G. .9. . v ∈ F. ϕ(v)) = 0 ∀u. . 1 ≤ i ≤ n − 2. Choose a hyperbolic basis {e1 . Then the representation V is the tensor product ⊗i V (λ(i) ) where λ(i) = j λj ωj . v) + (u. g = so2n . . Find the root decomposition of sp(2n) and identify it with the set S2 F .GEOMETRY OF ORBIT CLOSURES 5 Example 1. C / i 2n C2n . V (ωn ) = spin− (2n). The sym¯ ¯ plectic Lie algebra sp2n consists of endomorphisms ϕ of F such that (ϕ(u). Let F be an symplectic space of dimension 2n with a non-degenerate skewsymmetric form (. V (ωi ) = Example 1. i i−2 g = sp2n . . e1 }. Choose a hyperbolic basis {e1 . The orthogonal Lie ¯ ¯ algebra so2n consists of endomorphisms ϕ of F such that (ϕ(u). V (ωi ) = C2n . . ϕ(v)) = 0 ∀u. ). . en . Exercises for section 1. .

On the level of Lie algebras this corresponds to a Z-grading g = ⊕i∈Z gi . the weight of ei is − i . In each case we exhibit only gi for i ≥ 0 because we always have g−i = g∗ . Denoting by l the Levi factor g0 we have l = l ⊕ z(l) where l denotes the Lie algebra associated to Xn with the omitted node x. i In each case we exhibit the restriction of the Killing form of g to g1 . By construction the representations of type II correspond to the Dynkin diagrams Xn with distinguished nodes. Notice that in each case the bracket gi × gj → gi+j has to be G0 -equivariant. . 2 with even number of negative coordinates.grading on Φ by letting the degree of a root β be equal to the coeﬃcient of α when we write β as a linear combination of simple roots. • k = 1. The representation in question is V = V (ω4 . dim(X) = 16. Let α be a corresponding simple root in the root system Φ corresponding to Xn . The Cartan subalgebra h is ¯ the subspace of vectors of weight zero in g. 1 . 6. 2 2 2 2 The weights of X are vectors in 5 dimensional space.6 JERZY WEYMAN Hint. 1 . with coordinates equal to ± 1 . 1 . The representations of type II and θ groups Let Xn be a Dynkin diagram and let g be the corresponding simple Lie algebra. G) × C∗ where (G. Let us distinguish a node x ∈ Xn . Here ω4 = ( 2 . We look at all possible grading of Lie algebra of type E6 . Let us look at some interesting examples of these gradings. A representation of type II is the representation of G0 on g1 . The choice of α determines a Z. D5 ) is a half-spinor rep1 resentation for the group G = Spin(10). 1 ). G) is a connected semisimple group with the Dynkin diagram Xn \ x. So in each case we get a model of Lie algebra of type E6 in terms of classical Lie algebras and their representations. We deﬁne the group G0 := (G. so it i determined up to a non-zero scalar. The weight of ei is i . §2.

We denote the tensor ea ⊗ fi ∧ fj by [a. g2 = C2 ⊗ C5 . g1 = 3 C6 . 1. 3. G = GL(F ). the triple product A1 × A1 × A1 is not possible because there are no three subsets I. The graded Lie algebra of type E6 is g(E6 ) = g−2 ⊕ g−1 ⊕ g0 ⊕ g1 ⊕ g2 with g0 = C ⊕ sl(6). . E = C2 . 5} of even cardinality where the sign of the component is negative. [J]) = 2 − #({I \ J} ∪ {J \ I}). . j} ∩ {k. V = E ⊗ 2 F . . Let {e1 .GEOMETRY OF ORBIT CLOSURES 7 We label the weight vectors in g1 by [I] where I is the subset of {1. 0. 4. ij]. 2. g2 = 6 C6 . e2 } be a basis of E. ij]. 2 Thus possible scalar products are only 2. So the possible root systems we can get are A1 × A1 and A1 . ) on g restricted to g1 is given by the formula 1 ([I]. The invariant scalar product on g restricted to g1 is ([a. The invariant scalar product on g restricted to g1 is ([I]. f5 } be a basis of F . 5. [J]) = δ − 1 where δ = #(I ∩ J). We label the corresponding weight vector by [I] where I is a cardinality 3 subset of {1. . The weights of g1 are i + j + k for 1 ≤ i < j < k ≤ 6. 2 2 4 . V = 3 F . 2. l}). g1 = C2 ⊗ C5 . The invariant scalar product (. K with cardinalities of three symmetric diﬀerences being 4. 4. kl]) = δ − 1 where δ = #({a} ∩ {b}) + #({i. J. 3. F = C5 . Indeed. This means we get • k = 2. • k = 3. 6}. 5. G = SL(E) × SL(F ) × C∗ The graded Lie algebra of type E6 is g(E6 ) = g−2 ⊕ g−1 ⊕ g0 ⊕ g1 ⊕ g2 with g0 = C ⊕ sl(2) ⊕ sl(5). [b. The graded Lie algebra of type E6 is g(E6 ) = g−1 ⊕ g0 ⊕ g1 with g0 = C ⊕ so(10). {f1 . F = C6 .

c) Consider the irreducible representation Vω of g with the highest weight ω = i mi ωi . E = C2 . The graded Lie algebra of type E6 is g(E6 ) = g−3 ⊕ g−2 ⊕ g−1 ⊕ g0 ⊕ g1 ⊕ g2 ⊕ g3 with g0 = C ⊕ sl(2) ⊕ sl(3) ⊕ sl(3). j The numbers mi can be read from the Bourbaki tables. 3 3 3 3 g3 = S2. i where we write ωi = j mi αj . f3 }. Let us describe the restriction Vl . We have ω(xi0 ) = i 2 2 2 mi ωi (xi0 ) = i mi ( mi αj )xi0 = j i mi mi0 . and let x = i0 . F = H = C3 . u]. . Deﬁne the elements xi ∈ h by setting αj (xi ) = δi. Then 1. This will give us the markings on all the nodes except i0 . To determine the marking at the node i0 we need to describe the action of z(l).1. Denote the α1 . b) For a representation V of g we get the weights of the restriction V |l by applying the induced epimorphism h∗ → h(l )∗ whose kernel is xi0 . Proposition. αn the simple roots. We label ea ⊗ fi ⊗ hu by [a. [b. H respectively. The invariant scalar product on g restricted to g1 is ([a. h3 } bases of F . h2 . i. j. Let {e1 .1 C2 ⊗ C ⊗ C . v]) = δ − 1 where δ = #({a} ∩ {b}) + #({i} ∩ {j}) + #({u} ∩ {v}). This is done as follows. g1 = C2 ⊗ C3 ⊗ C3 . V = E ⊗F ⊗H. i. . Let e ∈ g1 be a . . {h1 . It is wortwhile exhibiting explicitly the center z(l). G = SL(E)×SL(F )×SL(H)×C∗ .8 JERZY WEYMAN • k = 4. a) We have z(l) = Cxi0 . e2 } be a basis of E.j . u]. We want to label every irreducible representation in this restriction by the labeling of the Dynkin diagram Xn with the marked node i0 . We use b) to determine the weights of (Vω )l and identify the highest weights. j Vinberg in [V75] gave a description of the G0 -orbits in the representations of type II in terms of conjugacy classes of nilpotent elements in g. f2 . and {f1 . . and then expressing i0 by means of other i by modifying the wieght by a multiple of xi0 . g2 = C2 ⊗ C3 ⊗ C3 .

1. Let us remark that for Lie algebras of classical types. and for types Bn .GEOMETRY OF ORBIT CLOSURES 9 nilpotent element in g. The sets Ci (e) are clearly G0 -stable. see section 8 in [CM93]). Exercises for section 2. One must be careful because sometimes l is equal to g. In section 4 we describe more precise method from second Vinberg paper [V87]. This means we will be needing the classiﬁcation of nilpotent orbits in simple Lie algebras. They are characterized by their associated parabolic subgroups (as their Dynkin characteristics are eve. α2 ) ﬁnd the models of corresponding Lie algebras. Theorem 1. . For (E7 . 8. ∪ Cn(e) (e). 1.2 Theorem. The result is . Here we recall that the nilpotent orbit of an element e in a simple Lie algebra g is characterized by the smallest Levi subalgebra l containing e.2. Vinberg’s result shows that these are precisely the G0 -orbits in g1 . There are. Dn . This theorem is not easy to use because it is not very explicit. Dn these are orbits corresponding to the partitions with diﬀerent parts. [BC76b]. then this orbit is denoted by the Dynkin diagram of l (but there might be diﬀerent ways in which the root system R(l) sits as a subroot system of R(g). Cn . Cn .3. 1 ≤ i ≤ n(e). makes the connection between the orbits in g1 and the nilpotent orbits in g. 2. for type An the only distinguished nilpotent orbits are the principal ones.2. Consider the irreducible components of the intersection of the conjugacy class of e in g C(e) ∩ g1 = C1 (e) ∪ .4 of [CM93]. A good account of this theory is the book [CM93]. This was obtained by Bala and Carter in the papers [BC76a]. §3. Kac’s classification of representations with finitely many orbits The representations of reductive groups with ﬁnitely many orbits were classiﬁed by Kac in [K80] and [DK85]. of [CM93].4. If the element e is a principal element in l. For exceptional Lie algebras the distinguished orbits can be read oﬀ the tables ins ection 8. Identify the groups G0 and the representations g1 for the gradings of An . α2 ) and E8 . for all choices of the conjugacy classes C(e) and all i. . These are called the distinguished nilpotent orbits and are described in sections 8. however the nonprincipal nilpotent orbits that are not contained in a smaller reductive Lie algebra l. 8. The G0 -orbits of the action of G0 on g1 are the components Ci (e). Bn . E7 and E8 related to simple roots.

1.2. g1 = C3 ⊗ C3 ⊗ C3 . Thy have a Cartan subspace h which is the slice representation. The Weyl group W := N (h)/Z(h) acts on h as a reﬂection group generated by psedoreﬂections. ˜ Example 3. The visible representations g1 have analogous properties to the adjoint representations. The natural map Sym(g∗ )G → Sym(h∗ )W 1 is an isomorphism. Vinberg proves only existence of h and identiﬁes W using Sheppard-Todd table and the knowledge of degrees of invariants. Then there is a grading on g by Z/ak Z where g0 is a subalgebra ˜ corresponding to Xn \ αk and g1 is given by the same recipy as for the cases in previous section. We have 2 2 2 g0 = sl3 × sl3 × sl3 . The order of θ is 3. n ≥ 6. Both rings are polynomial rings. A very important class of visible representations is related to ﬁnite order automorphisms of the root systems classiﬁed by Kac. b) H = SL(2) × SL(3) × SL(n) × C∗ operating on C2 ⊗ C3 ⊗ Cn . Let H be a reductive group operating on an irreducible representation with ﬁnitely many orbits. g2 = C3 ⊗ C3 ⊗ C3 . A representation V of G is visible if there are ﬁnitely many G-orbits in the null-cone N (V ) of V . Deﬁnition 3. c) H = SL(2) × Spin(7). Then the pair (H. The nullcone N (V ) of a representation V of G is the set of v ∈ V for which f (v) = 0 for every G-invariant function f ∈ Sym(V ∗ ).1. α4 ). V ) is on the following list a) H = G0 . In fact Kac classiﬁes a more general class of representations. .10 JERZY WEYMAN Theorem 3. V = C2 ⊗ V (ω3 ). Let us consider the case (E6 . The nullcone N (V ) of a representation V of G is the set of v ∈ V for which f (v) = 0 for every G-invariant function f ∈ Sym(V ∗ ). It would be very interesting to ﬁnd the direct and explicit proofs of these results. so-called visible representations. Vinberg proves the analogue of Chevalley Theorem. V = g1 where g = ⊕i∈Z g1 is a grading on a simple Lie algebra g related to a simple root αk . ˜ Let Xn be an extended Dynkin graph corresponding to the Dynkin graph Xn . ˜ Alternative description os that the Kac-Moody Lie algebra g has a grading ˜ ˜ g = ⊕i∈Z gi ˜ and the components gi are periodic with period ak . ˜ Let xk be a node in Xn . Let ak be the coeﬃcient of the isotropic root of the graph ˜ Xn at the vertex xk .

Do the same for the case (E7 .2. Z0 (x) is Z(x)∩G0 . g3 = S2. Determine the graded components gk for the case (E7 . A reductive graded Lie algebra s of g is complete if it is not a proper graded Lie subalgebra of any regular reductive Z-graded Lie algebra of the same rank. We denote R(g) the set of roots of a reductive Lie algebra g. It deﬁnes the grading g = ⊕i∈Z gi where gi is the span of the roots which. αk ) be one of the representations on our list. All Lie algebras g we will consider will be Lie algebras of some algebraic group G. (2) z0 (e) = 0. The component g0 contains in addition a Cartan subalgebra. (3) dimg0 = dimg1 . In the sequel Z(x) denotes the centalizer of an element x ∈ G. Let us ﬁx a nonzero nilpotent element e ∈ ga .GEOMETRY OF ORBIT CLOSURES 11 Exercises for section 3. N (x) denotes the normalizer of an element x ∈ G. A Z-graded Lie algebra g is locally ﬂat if one of the following equivalent conditions is satisﬁed. Answer: g0 = sl2 × sl4 × sl4 . e] = ϕ(u)e . N0 (x) is N (x) ∩ G0 . written as a combination of simple roots. 2 2 2 3 3 g2 = C ⊗ 2 C ⊗ 4 C . z. Deﬁnition 4. g1 = C2 ⊗ C4 ⊗ C4 . Similarly. for e a point in general position in g1 : (1) The subgroup Z0 (e) is ﬁnite.1. §4. Let (Xn . z0 denote corresponding Lie algebras. Let us choose some maximal trous H in N0 (e). Deﬁnition 4. and Π(g) denotes the set of simple roots. G0 denotes the connected component of the subgroup of G corresponding to g0 . ˜ 1. The gothic letters. The Vinberg method for classifying orbits. Let g = ⊕i∈Z gi be a graded reductive Lie algebra.1 C ⊗ 4 2 C ⊗ 4 C4 . have αk with coeﬃcient i. α4 ). We will be dealing with the graded Lie subalgebras s = ⊕i∈Z si . A graded Lie subalgebra s of g is regular if it is normalized by a maximal torus in g0 . Its Lie algebra h is the accompanying torus of the element e. We denote ϕ the character of the torus H deﬁned by the condition [u. ˜ 2. α5 ). In order to state Vinberg Theorem we need some deﬁnitions.

f (−α) = −f (α) ∀α ∈ R(s). The Z-graded subalgebra s is standard if it is normalized by t. Moreover.4. Theorem 4. The support s of the nilpotent element e ∈ ga is the commutant of g(h. The map f has to be additive. i. Let s be a standard semisimple Z-graded subalgebra of g. ϕ) considered as a Z graded Lie algebra. ϕ)i = {x ∈ gia | [u. For a standard Z-graded subalgebra s we also get the map f : R(s) → R(g). Clearly e ∈ s1 . i.3. This means it is enough to classify the regular semisimple Z-graded subalgebras s of g. x] = iϕ(u)∀u ∈ H }. ϕ) = ⊕i∈Z g(h.e. This allows to give a combinatorial method for classifying regular semisimple Z-graded subalgebras of g. It follows from the theorem that the nilpotent e is deﬁned uniquely (up to conjugation by an element of G0 ) by its support. The supports of nilpotent elements of the space gi are exactly the complete regular locally ﬂat semisimple Z-graded subalgebras of the algebra g. if for all i ∈ Z we have [t.12 JERZY WEYMAN for u ∈ h. Consider the graded Lie subalgebra g(h.e. he shows that if two standard Z-graded subalgebras are conjugated by an element of G0 . The subalgebra s deﬁnes the degree map deg : R(s) → Z. Moreover we have . The nilpotent element e can be recovered from the support subalgebra s as the generic element in s1 . We are ready to state the main theorem of [V87]. si ] ⊂ si . ϕ)i where g(h. Deﬁnition 4. Vinberg also proves that every Z graded subalgebra s is conjugated to a standard subalgebra by an element of G0 . then they are conjugated by an element of N0 (t). it satisﬁes f (α + β) = f (α) + f (β) ∀α. ϕ) of g deﬁned as follows g(h. β ∈ R(s). (Vinberg). Let us choose the maximal torus t of g0 .

For non-principal orbits one needs to make a more detailed analysis. Establish the restriction of the invariant scalar product (. α) b) f (α) − f (β) ∈ R(g) ∀α. Exercises for section 4. Thus it is enough to classify the subsets of weights vectors in g1 for which the pattern of scalar products is the same as the one for simple roots of s.6. Find in how many ways s embeds into g as a standard Z-graded Lie subalgebra by exhibiting corresponding map f as in Proposition 4.e. Since we are interested in the nilpotents e ∈ g1 . c) deﬁnes a standard regular Z-graded subalgebra s of g. / c) deg f (α) = deg α. The map f satisﬁes the following properties: a) (f (α). ∀α ∈ Π(s).5 means that in order to classify the nilpotent elements e ∈ g1 we need to classify the possible maps f corresponding to its support. . The subalgebra s corresponding to the map f is complete if and only if there exists an element w in the Weyl group W of g such that wf (Π(s)) ⊂ Π(g) (see [V87]. 3. (f (α). Fix a nilpotent element e ∈ g with Bala-Carter characteristic s.7. the corresponding complete regular Z-graded subalgebra s. β ∈ R(s). α2 ). ) on g to g1 . every map satisfying a). β) = ∀α. 1.5. One should also mention the connection with the Bala-Carter classiﬁcation. b). Proposition 4. Proposition 4. So to ﬁnd the components of a given nilpotent orbit with Bala-Carter characteristic s it is enough to see in how many ways the Lie algebra s can be embedded as a Z-graded Lie algebra into g.5. The Bala-Carter characteristic of a nilpotent element is given by the type of the algebra s. we need to classify the maps f for which degf (α) ∈ {0. 1} for every α ∈ Π(s). i. The following procedure allows to ﬁnd the components of the intersection of a nilpotent orbit in g with g1 . Conversely.25) . Remark 4.GEOMETRY OF ORBIT CLOSURES 13 Proposition 4. For a characteristic s such that e is a principal nilpotent in s the map f sends all simple roots of s to weight vectors in g1 . 5. Prove that we do not have any cases of type A5 and D4 . β ∈ Π(s). f (α)) (α. 4. p. Classiify the subalgebras s of type A3 +2A1 and A2 +2A1 in bigwedge3 C8 (the case (E8 . One can determine the orbits explicitly using the following strategy. but still one reduces to ﬁnding sets of weight vectors in g1 with certain patterns of scalar products. f (β)) (α. 2.

+ er ⊗ fr . j1 ]. . Vinberg method: examples. α4 ). n). The weight vector ei ⊗ fj corresponds to the root i − m+j .1. . j]. C) × C∗ . . We have g = sln+1 . C) × SL(n − m + 1. . r]}. 1. 2 C2 ⊗ 2 C3 ⊗ 2 C3 . The intersection of the orbit of e(r) with g1 is a determinantal variety of m × (n + 1 − m) matrices of rank ≤ r. g2 = 3 3 3 3 g3 = S2. ) on g restricted to g1 is ([i1 . Consider a matrix of rank r in g1 .1 C2 ⊗ C ⊗ C . The Z grading is g = g−1 ⊕ g0 ⊕ g1 where g0 = C ⊕ sl(m) ⊕ sl(n − m + 1). G0 = SL(m. Let us denote it by the label [i. g(E6 ) = g−3 ⊕ g−2 ⊕ g−1 ⊕ g0 ⊕ g1 ⊕ g2 ⊕ g3 with g0 = C ⊕ sl(2) ⊕ sl(3) ⊕ sl(3). Consider the case (E6 . [i2 . so (up to permutation of indices which means conjugation) we have one r-tuple {[1. [r. . . So the only root systems whose simple roots can be embedded into g1 are (A1 )r for 1 ≤ r ≤ min(m. Let’s go to triple tensor product cases. j2 ]) = δ where δ = #([{i1 } ∩ {i2 }) + #([{j1 } ∩ {j2 }).2. The representative is the tensor e1 ⊗ f1 + . g1 = C2 ⊗ C3 ⊗ C3 . The corresponding set of weights has to be orthogonal. Let x be the note corresponding to αm := m − m+1 . The corresponding orbit is the set of tensors of rank r. The invariant scalar product (. Example 5. g1 = HomC (Cn+1−m . . After changing the bases in Cm and in Cn+1−m r we can assume that the corresponding nilpotent e(r) = j=1 Ej. Consider the diagram Xn = An . 0. Cm ). 1].14 JERZY WEYMAN §5.m+j . Example 5. This means the scalar products can take only values 2.

1 C2 ⊗ C ⊗ C . e2 } be a basis of E. 1] + [1. 2. 1] + [1. 2. 2. 2. 1] + [2. 1. g4 = S2. 3] Example 5. 1. 1. 2. H respectively. f2 . 1] [1. 2. 1] [1. {h1 . 2] [1. 2] + [2. 1.GEOMETRY OF ORBIT CLOSURES 15 number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 s zero A1 2A1 2A1 2A1 3A1 3A1 A2 A2 + A1 A2 + A1 A2 + 2A1 A2 + 2A1 A2 + 2A1 2A2 A3 2A2 + A1 A3 + A1 D4 (a1 ) representative 0 [1. 1. The six orbits in the representation E ⊗ F ⊗ H are: generic. 3] + [2. α4 ). The invariant scalar product on g restricted to g1 is ([a. 3. 2. 2. 1. 1. 2] + [1. i. 2] + [1. The graded Lie algebra of type E7 is g(E7 ) = g−4 ⊕ g−3 ⊕ g−2 ⊕ g−1 ⊕ g0 ⊕ g1 ⊕ g2 ⊕ g3 ⊕ g4 with g0 = C ⊕ sl(2) ⊕ sl(3) ⊕ sl(4). 3] [1. u]. g1 = C2 ⊗ C3 ⊗ C4 . 1.1 C3 ⊗ C . 2] + [1. 1] + [2. h2 .2 C2 ⊗ S2. 3. We label ea ⊗ fi ⊗ hu by [a. Combining this knowledge with the case (E6 . 2] [1. h3 . 2. 2] + [1. 1. 2] [1. 1. hyperdeterminant hypersurface and four F -degenerate orbits. Consider he case (E7 . 2 2 2 . 3] [1. 2] [1. 2] + [1. 2. 2. 2] + [1. 1. 2] + [2. 2] + [1. 3] [1. 2] + [1. 2] [1. 2. 1] + [2. 1] + [2. 2] [1. 1. 1] + [2. 1. 4) we get 23 orbits in our representation. 1. 3. 1. h4 } bases of F . 2] + [1. coming from 2 × 2 × 2 matrices: generic. 1] + [2. 2. 3. u]. and {f1 . 1] + [1. 1. 1] + [2. 3. 2] − [2. 1. 2. 3. 1. They can be described by observing that the castling transform establishes a bijection between H-nondegenerate orbits and H -nondegenerate orbits for the 2 × 3 × 2 matrices corresponding to representation E ⊗ F ⊗ H . 3] + [1. 2] + [1. hyperdeterminant and two determinantal varieties. 3] [1. 3. j.3. [b. 2. 2. 3 3 3 4 4 4 g3 = S2. 2. 1] [1. 3] + [2. 3. 2] + [1. 1] + [2. 3] + [2. 3. 2. 1] + [2. There are six H-nondegenerate orbits. 1. g2 = C2 ⊗ C3 ⊗ C4 . 1] + [2. 1] + [2. 3. 1. 3] + [2. 3. 1] + [1. 2. v]) = δ − 1 where δ = #({a} ∩ {b}) + #({i} ∩ {j}) + #({u} ∩ {v}). 3] [1. 1.1. 1] + [2. 1] + [1. Let {e1 . f3 }. 2. 1. 1] + [2. 2] [1. i. 2. 1] [1.

3. 3] + [2. 1] + [2. 2 2 2 . Consider the case (E8 .2. 1] + [1. 1. g1 = C2 ⊗ C3 ⊗ C5 . 1] [1. 2. 3. α4 ). 2] + [1. 1] [1. 1] + [2. 1. i. 1. 2] + [1. 2] [1. 2. 2] + [1. 3. 4] [1. 1] + [2. 3. g5 = S3. 1] + [2. 2] + [1. f3 }. 4] + [1. 2] + [1. 3] + [1. 2. 2] [1.2. 2. 3] + [2.1. 1] + [1. 3. 1] + [2. 1] + [2. 3] + [2. 2.1 C2 ⊗ C ⊗ C .3 C2 ⊗ S2. 2. 3. The graded Lie algebra of type E8 is g(E8 ) = g−6 ⊕ g−5 ⊕ g−4 ⊕ g−3 ⊕ g−2 ⊕ g−1 ⊕ g0 ⊕ g1 ⊕ g2 ⊕ g3 ⊕ g4 ⊕ g5 ⊕ g6 with g0 = C ⊕ sl(2) ⊕ sl(3) ⊕ sl(5). We label ea ⊗ fi ⊗ hu by [a. 1. v]) = δ − 1 where δ = #({a} ∩ {b}) + #({i} ∩ {j}) + #({u} ∩ {v}). 3] + [1.14 C5 . [b. 2] + [1. 1] + [2. 2. 1. u]. 2. 1. 2. 2. f2 . 2. h3 . 3] + [1. 2] + [1. 2. 2. 2] [1. 1. 1. 1] + [2. 3. 2. Let {e1 . 1] + [2. 1] + [2. j. 2] [1. 3] + [2. 2. 3. 2] [1. 3] [1. 2.16 JERZY WEYMAN number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 s zero A1 2A1 2A1 2A1 3A1 3A1 A2 A2 + A1 A2 + A1 A2 + 2A1 A2 + 2A1 A2 + 2A1 2A2 A3 2A2 + A1 A3 + A1 D4 (a1 ) 2A2 A3 + A1 A3 + A2 A4 A4 + A1 A4 + A2 representative 0 [1. 3. 1] + [2. 1] + [2. 2.2 C2 ⊗ 5 5 S2. 2. 2] + [1. g2 = C2 ⊗ C3 ⊗ C5 . 2. 1. 1] + [1. 1] + [2. 1. 2. 1. 1] + [2. {h1 . 3] + [2. 2] + [1. 3. h2 . 2. H respectively. e2 } be a basis of E. 1] [1. 3] [1. 1. 3] + [1. 2. 1] + [1. 2. 1] + [2. 3] + [2.2 C2 ⊗ S2. 3. 2. 3 3 3 5 4 5 g3 = S2. and {f1 . 4] [1. 2. 1] [1. 1. 1.1 C3 ⊗ C . 1. 1. 2] + [1. 3. 1. 4] [1. 2] + [1. 1. 1. 1. i. 1. 1. 3] + [2. 2] [1. 1. 1. 3. u]. 1] Example 5. 2. 3] [1. g6 = S3. 2] − [2. 4] + [2. 1. 1. 3. The invariant scalar product on g restricted to g1 is ([a. 2. 3. 1] + [1. 2] + [1. 2] + [1. g4 = S2. 4] + [1. 2] + [1.2 C3 ⊗ S2. 2] + [2.4. 1] + [2. 1] + [2. 2] + [2. 1. 3] [1. 1] + [2. 4] [1. 2. 3. 3. 2. 1. 1. 1] + [2.1 C3 ⊗ C . 2] [1. 1. 4] [1. 2. 3] + [2. 2] + [2. 2] + [1. 2. 3] [1. 3] [1. h4 . 1. 2] + [1. h5 } bases of F . 1. 1. 2.

4] + [2. 1. 1. Analyze one of the smaller cases. 2. 3] + [2. 2.GEOMETRY OF ORBIT CLOSURES 17 number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 s zero A1 2A1 2A1 2A1 3A1 3A1 A2 A2 + A1 A2 + A1 A2 + 2A1 A2 + 2A1 A2 + 2A1 2A2 A3 2A2 + A1 A3 + A1 D4 (a1 ) 2A2 A3 + A1 A3 + A2 A4 A4 + A1 A4 + A2 A5 A6 representative 0 [1. 1. 3] + [2. there is another approach using representations of Kronecker quiver. 1. 1. 1] + [2. 1] [1. 3. 3. 2. 5] + [2. 5] [1. 2] + [1. 3] [1. 2. 2. 3] + [2. 1. 1. 1. 1] + [2. 1] + [2. 3. 1] + [1. 2] + [1. 2] + [2. 2. 3. 1. 2] [1. 2] + [1. 2. 2. 1] Exercises for section 5. 1. 2] + [1. 2. 2. 3. 2. 1] + [2. 1. 2. 1. 2] + [1. 2. 1. 1] + [2. 1. 4] [1. 1] + [2. 2. 1] + [2. 1. 2. 1] + [2. 3. 1] + [2. 2] + [1. 2. 2] [1. 1] + [2. 2] + [1. 3. 1] + [2. 3] [1. 2. 1. 1. 1] + [2. 1] + [1. 1] + [2. 3] + [2. 1] + [2. 3. 3. 1. 2. 2. 3. 4] [1. The Kronecker quiver is the quiver → Q: 1 → b a 2 . 1. 2. 3] + [1. α4 ) we are mostly interested in. 1. 2. 2. In the case of (E6 . 2] [1. 3] + [2. 3] + [1. 3. 2. 1] + [1. 4] [1. 2. 1. 1] [1. 2. 4] + [1. 1] + [2. 3] [1. 4] + [1. α2 ). 2] + [2. 1] [1. 1] + [2. 1] + [2. 2. 2] + [2. 2. 3. 4] [1. 1. 1. 2. 2. 2] [1. α4 ). 1. 1] [1. 1. 2] + [1. 2. 2] + [1. for example (D5 . 3] + [2. α4 ). 4] [1. 2. 1. 2] + [1. 3] [1. 3] + [2. 2. 3] [1. 3. (E8 . 3. 3. 3. 4] + [1. 2] + [1. 3. 2] + [1. 3] + [1. 1. 3] + [2. 1] + [2. 1. 2] − [2. 2] [1. 2. 2. 3] + [2. 3] [1. 3. 2] [1. 1. 2] [1. 2] + [1. 3. 2] + [1. 1. 1. 1] [1. 1. §6. 2. 4] + [1. 3. 1. 1] + [1. 1. 3] + [1. 1. 1] + [2. 2. 1. 2] + [1. 2] + [1. 1] + [1. 1] + [2. 2] + [1. 3] + [2. (E7 . 1. 1] + [2. 2] + [1. Triple tensor products: quiver approach.

Notice that the action of both functors on dimenson vectors (m. . V (2) = K n . In the case of Kronecker quiver one can list all indecomposable representations. .. . . as they would imply the existence of indecomposables in dimension vectors (|m − n|. V (b) = Jλ n where Jλ is an n × n Jordan block of dimension n. Each representation V of Q has dimension vector α = (dimV (1). . V (a) = Id. 0) or (0. V (2)} and a pair of linear maps. In each dimension vector (n. q + 2) and (q + 1. as it is the case in dimension vectors (1. q + 1) goes to (q + 1. . assuming one of the matrices is nonsingular.18 JERZY WEYMAN A representation V of Q is just a pair of vector spaces {V (1). q − 1). 1)... n). n) with |m − n| ≥ 2. .... By Krull-Remak-Schmidt theorem each representation decomposes uniquely (up to permutation of factors) to a direct sum of indecomposable representations. 0 0 1 . C + (2) takes dimension vector (m. deﬁned as follows 1 0 . The representations of Q form an Abelian category (in fact a category of KQmodules where KQ is a path algebra of Q). . |m − n|). . . . .. . Finally. in dimension vector (n. q) goes to (q. . 0 0 . n) there is P1 worth of representations. . 0 0 0 n P (a) = .. 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 . 0 1 The matrices of Qn are just transposes of the matrices of P n . In the dimension vectors (p + 1. n). This means there are no indecomposables in dimension vectors (m. p + 1) there is one indecomposable. Respectively. This means (q. p) and (p. the vector (p+1... n ≥ 0). we can use it to identify V (1) and V (2) so the description of indecomposables follows . dimV (2)) ∈ Z2 . . p) goes to (p+2. Proof. The are as follows. n) into (n. p+1) goes to (p−1. and {Qn } of dimension vector (n + 1. . n) preserve m − n. . p+1) and (p.. .. . Thus they take indecomposables into indecomposables. . . 0 1 0 0 .. n) into (2m − n. n ≥ 0. 0) and (0. . So. 0 0 . n + 1). We denote these representations n by Vλ . . . with the standard A1 is given by n V (1) = K n .. p). and their compositions τ and τ −1 . m).. C − (1) takes (m. . . 2n − m). 1 0 0 0 . there are two discrete inﬁnite families: {P n } of dimension vector (n. They take Q into itself.. 0 0 1 n P (b) = . The idea is to introduce reﬂection functors C + (2) and C − (1). Moreover. .

2. 2] + [1. 1] + [2. 2. In particular the P1 families become one GL(2)-orbit. 1] + [1. This method goes back at least to Sato-Kimura [SK77] who classiﬁed the irreducible representations of reductive groups with an open orbit. 3] + [2. 1. and we get ﬁnitely many possibilities. 3] quiver 3P 0 ⊕ 3Q0 1 Vλ ⊕ 2P 0 ⊕ 2Q0 P 1 ⊕ P 0 ⊕ 2Q0 Q1 ⊕ 2P 0 ⊕ Q0 1 2Vλ ⊕ P 0 ⊕ Q0 We end this section with some remarks on the castling transform. 1. 1. 2] [1. 0) which is injective. 2. V (b) by the linear combinations of these maps. 1. 1. This is a version of the reﬂection functors. 3. number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 representative 0 [1. 3] [1. 2] + [1. so it splits. 1] + [2. 3. 2] + [1. and the orbits in C2 ⊗ Cp ⊗ Cq are the GL(2)-orbits of this action. the group GL(2) acts on the set of representations of Q of dimension vector (p. 1] + [2. 1] + [2. 2] + [1. 2] [1. 1. In this language our three tables have the following meaning. e2 } of C2 . 1] + [1. 1. 3. 2] + [1. 2] [1. 1] + [2. 1. 2] + [1. 2. 3] + [2. 3] + [2. 1] [1. then there has to be subspace of dimension p + 1 in V (1) that is taken to a subspace of dimension p in V (2) by both V (a) and V (b) (apply Hilbert-Mumford criterion-exercise). 2] + [1. 2. as long as the numer of summands of that type is ≤ 3. 2. The method allows to classify the cases when the triple tensor product has an open orbit. 1. 1] [1. 3. q) by replacing V (a). V (ϕ(b) = ϕ(b). This is the case if any linear combination of V (a) and V (b) is nonsingular. 2] [1. 1. 3] + [2. 2] [1. 2. 2] + [2. as . 1. 2] + [1. Alternatively. 1] + [2. 1. 1. 2. n) having a subrepresentation of dimension (1. 2. 1. 3. 2] + [1. 2] [1. 3. 3. 1] + [2. 3] [1. 1. after applying reﬂection functors we reduce to a representation of dimension (n. 1. 3. 2. 1. 2. . 2. 3. To a tensor in ϕ ∈ C2 ⊗ Cp ⊗ Cq we can associate the representation V (ϕ) by choosing a ﬁxed basis {e1 . 1. 1. 2. 3. If not. α4 ). 1] + [2. 2. 1] + [2. 2] + [1. 2. 1] + [2. 2. 1. 2] + [1. write ϕ = e1 ⊗ ϕ(a) + e2 ⊗ ϕ(b) and take V (ϕ)(a) = ϕ(a). 2. 3] + [1. (E6 . 2] + [2. 1] + [2. 3] [1. 2. which means V s not indecomposable. suitable for the triple tensor products. 1. 1] [1. 2. 2. 3] [1. 2.GEOMETRY OF ORBIT CLOSURES 19 from Jordan canonical form. 1. 1] + [2. 1] + [1. 2] [1. 1] + [1. 1] + [2. 3. 3] [1. 1] [1. 1] + [1. 2] − [2.

Notice that the GLp × GLq × GLr orbits in U are in bijection with the GLp × GLq -orbits of r-dimensional subspaces in CC p ⊗ Cq .2. The main point of the approach is the following observation. if r = pq then Cp ⊗ Cq ⊗ Cpq has an open orbit. r) with r ≥ 4. The open orbit occurs unless we are in the case linked to (2. Assume that p ≤ q ≤ r. pq − r) is called castling. Proposition 6. Recall that the number N (p. But from an r-dimensional subspace in Cp ⊗ Cq we can produce a pq − r-dimensional subspace in (Cp )∗ ⊗ (Cq )∗ by taking the set of linear forms vanishing on a given r-dimensional subspace in Cp ⊗ Cq . r) := p2 − q 2 − r2 − pqr. r) to (p. Let us assume that p ≤ q ≤ r. q. q. q.1. q. Let us introduce the invariant N (p. q. Then there are open subsets in Cp ⊗ Cq ⊗ Cr and in Cp ⊗ Cq ⊗ Cpq−r such that there is a bijection between the orbits within these open subsets. r) ≥ 2 (the number 2 comes from the fact that homoteties from three linear groups act in the same way on Cp ⊗ Cq ⊗ Cr ). Theorem 6. q. The move from the triple (p. r) ≥ 2. When p = 1 we have N (p. Proof.20 JERZY WEYMAN We will work with the triple tensor products Cp ⊗ Cq ⊗ Cr . q. p = 2 and 3 ≤ p ≤ q ≤ 6. Obviously pqr = dim Cp ⊗Cq ⊗Cr and p2 +q 2 +r2 = dim(GLp ×GLq ×GLr ). q. r. r). Notice that the invariant N (p. r) will not change if we replace (p. Thus it remains to classify cases p = 1. q. q. r) does not change when we apply castling. r) by (p. q. . q. r) or to (2. 6 3 2 This shows that if p ≥ 3 and q ≥ 6 all three summands will be negative. r < pq. r) = p(p − ) + q(q − ) + r(r − ). q. We have a chance to have an open orbit only if N (p. pq − r). r) = 1 + q 2 + r2 − qr = 1 + (q − r)2 + qr ≥ 2. Moreover. The triple tensor product Cp ⊗ Cq ⊗ Cr has an open orbit only if N (p. Proof. Thus we may assume that r ≤ pq . r) to (p. Assume that p ≤ q ≤ r. pq − r)) the triple can be reduced to (1. Let U ⊂ Cp ⊗ Cq ⊗ Cr be the open set of tensors r t= i=1 ti ⊗ ei where ti are linearly independent in Cp ⊗ Cq . This happens precisely when by a sequence of castling moves (exchanging (p. If r > pq then any orbit in Cp ⊗ Cq ⊗ Cr is inherited from Cp ⊗ Cq ⊗ Cpq . q. q. Now we 2 write rq pr pq N (p.

β the linear combination αV (a) + βV (b) is singular. n + 1) and (n + 1. then there exist p. u + 1). Let us look at the examples with p = 2. Let us consider the projective variety V of dimension m. n) (one parameter families) and (n. Let Y = q(Z). In this section we provide a quick description of main facts related to geometric technique of calculating syzygies. In the cases with p = 1 example 5 shows that the algebra A3 (1. The generic tensors can be determined by the generic decomposition. r) = 4 + q 2 + r2 − 2qr = 4 + (q − r)2 ≥ 4. Thus canonical decomposition of (n. We work over an algebraically closed ﬁeld K. Apply Hilbert-Mumford criterion to prove that if a representation V of the Kronecker quiver has the property that for each α. Exercises for section 6. α4 ) §7. The indecomposables occur in dimensions (n. Fill the rest of the entries in the table (E6 . u) + v(u + 2. n). u + 2) where n = uk + v is division with remainder. r) this will allow us to identify the generic tensors. n) = (k − v)(u + 1. We will think of C2 ⊗ Cq ⊗ Cr as of the set of representations of Kronecker quiver of dimension vector (q. 1. Similarly (n + k. n + k) is (k − v)(u. Detailed case by case analysis shows that in the cases 3 ≤ p ≤ q ≤ r the value of N is never ≥ 2. 2.GEOMETRY OF ORBIT CLOSURES 21 When p = 2 we have N (p. q. We get the basic diagram Z ⊂ ↓q Y ⊂ X ×V ↓q X . Let us consider the subvariety Z in X × V which is the total space of a subbundle S in E. Let X = AN be the C aﬃne space. u + 1) + v(u + 1. The space X ×V can be viewed as a total space of trivial vector bundle E of dimension n over V . q. We denote by q the projection q : X × V −→ X and by q the restriction of q to Z. Geometric technique. 0 ≤ p ≤ n − 1 and a subspace W of dimension p + 1 in V (1) such that dim (V (a)W + V (b)W ) ≤ p. r) is ﬁnite dimensional. This decomposition allows to write easily the generic tensors.

We will identify the sheaves on X with A-modules. Now we are ready to state the basic theorem (Theorem (5. In many cases the complex F(OV )• gives the free resolution of the deﬁning ideal of Y . Thus we have the exact sequence of vector bundles on V 0 −→ S −→ E −→ T −→ 0 The dimensions of S and T will be denoted by s. . V)• := K(ξ)• ⊗OX×V p∗ V This complex is a locally free resolution of the OX×V -module M (V) := OZ ⊗ p∗ V. The coordinate ring of X will be denoted by A. .1. .22 JERZY WEYMAN The projection from X × V onto V is denoted by p and the quotient bundle E/S by T .2) in [W]). . t respectively. For every vector bundle V on V we introduce the complex K(ξ.1. → ∗ (p∗ ξ) → p∗ (ξ) → OX×V where ξ = T ∗ . The idea of the geometric technique is to use the Koszul complex K(ξ)• to construct for each vector bundle V on V the free complex F• (V) of A-modules with the homology supported in Y . It is a polynomial ring in N variables over C. The direct image p∗ (OZ ) can be identiﬁed with the the sheaf of algebras Sym(η) where η = S ∗ . The locally free resolution of the sheaf OZ as an OX×V -module is given by the Koszul complex t 2 K• (ξ) : 0 → (p ξ) → . Theorem 7. j ξ ⊗ V) ⊗k A(−i − j) a) There exist minimal diﬀerentials di (V) : F(V)i → F(V)i−1 of degree 0 such that F(V)• is a complex of graded free A-modules with H−i (F(V)• ) = Ri q∗ M (V) In particular the complex F(V)• is exact in positive degrees. For a vector bundle V on V we deﬁne a free graded A-modules i+j F(V)i = j≥0 H (V. The diﬀerentials in this complex are homogeneous of degree 1 in the coordinate functions on X.

The complexes F(V)• satisfy the Grothendieck type duality...3. .. The next theorem gives the criterion for the complex F• to be the free resolution of the coordinate ring of Y . c) If ϕ : M (V) → M (V )(n) is a morphism of graded sheaves then there exists a morphism of complexes f• (ϕ) : F(V)• → F(V )• (n) Its induced map H−i (f• (ϕ)) can be identiﬁed with the induced map H i (Z. Let ωV denote the canonical divisor on V .. Let us assume that the map q : Z −→ Y is a birational isomorphism. Then the following properties hold. Theorem 7. M (V)) and it can be also identiﬁed with the graded A-module H i (V. . E) → Q → 0 be a tautological sequence of the vector bundles on Grass(r. .... M (V ))(n). This is Theorem (5. Sym(η) ⊗ V)... 0 c) If Ri q∗ OZ = 0 for i > 0 and F0 = H 0 (V. a) The module q∗ OZ is the normalization of C[Y ].3) in [W]. To ﬁx the notation. Thus all the exterior powers of ξ will also be the direct sums of such bundles.µr R. Let 0 → R → E × Grass(r. In all our applications the projective variety V will be a Grassmannian. Theorem 7. Let us introduce the dual bundle t V = ωV ⊗ Then ∨ ξ∗ ⊗ V ∗. M (V)) → H i (Z.1.λn−r Q ⊗ Sµ1 .. The vector bundle ξ will be a direct sum of the bundles of the form Sλ1 .. .. If V is a one dimensional trivial bundle on V then the complex F(V)• is denoted simply by F• .1.λn−r Q ⊗ Sµ1 . b) If Ri q∗ OZ = 0 for i > 0.4) in [W]. We will apply repreatedly the following result to calculate cohomology of vector bundles Sλ1 .GEOMETRY OF ORBIT CLOSURES 23 b) The sheaf Ri q∗ M (V) is equal to H i (Z. Let V be a vector bundle on V . E) of subspaces of dimension r in a vector space F of dimension n.2. then F• is a ﬁnite free resolution of the normalization of C[Y ] treated as an A-module. F(V ∨ )• = F(V)∗ [m − t] • This is Theorem (5.. E). .µr R. let us work with the Grassmannian Grass(r. ξ) ⊗ A = A then Y is normal and it has rational singularities.

§8. We have H l (Grass(r. α4 ).k ]. µr ) and add to it ρ = (n.. (E7 . Sλ Q ⊗ Sµ R) = 0 for all i ≥ 0. . Before we start talking about orbit closures for triple tensor products let us introduce the concept of a degenerate orbit. . Singularities. . We look at the weight (λ. The geometric method of calculating syzygies [W03] is applicable to analyze the singularities and deﬁning ideals of orbit closures. . 1). In such case H i (Grass(r. For an orbit closure Y = O(t) we deﬁne its coordinate ring C[Y ] = A/J. We will look more closely at the three cases (E6 ... .λn−r Q ⊗ Sµ1 . . µ) + ρ = (λ1 + n. µ1 . . µ) + ρ) − ρ is a non-increasing sequence. Let us recall our basic notions. . J = {f ∈ A | f |O(t) = 0}.. b) The sequence (λ. . Then one of two mutually exclusive cases occurs. µ) + ρ has no repetitions. The ideal J is called the deﬁning ideal of Y . defining ideals and syzygies. E) is calculated as follows. E). . E). . . It is possible in most of the cases (and all cases for triple tensor products). µ1 + r. In order to ﬁnd the data for some orbit closure we need to ﬁnd a desingularization of each orbit closure and then use the push-down of the Koszul complex to calculate the terms of a minimal free resolution. . .. Then the only non-zero cohomology group of the sheaf Sλ Q ⊗ Sµ R is the group H l where l = l(w) is the length of w. µ) = (λ1 .4 (Bott’s algorithm). λn−r + r + 1. . . α4 ). λn−r .. The coordinate ring of the triple tensor product is A = Sym(E ∗ ⊗ F ∗ ⊗ G∗ ) = C[Xi. . . . Then there is a unique permutation w ∈ Σn that makes this sequence decreasing. Sλ Q ⊗ Sµ R) = Sν E. n−1. . α4 ) and (E8 . Here Sν E denotes the highest weight representation Sν E of GL(E) corresponding to the highest weight ν (so-called Schur module).24 JERZY WEYMAN Proposition 7.µr R on Grass(r. .j. . The cohomology of the vector bundle Sλ1 . µr + 1) has repetitions. . The sequence ν = w((λ. a) The resulting sequence (λ.

α4 ). so we get its desingularization using the Grassmannian Grass(2. G ⊂ G) such that t ∈ E ⊗ F ⊗ G (resp.2. F ⊂ F . It is clearly G-degenerate. F1 = 4 (E ∗ ⊗ F ∗ ) ⊗ S1.1 G∗ ⊗ A(−4). • ξ) where ξ = Q∗ ⊗ F ∗ ⊗ G∗ .GEOMETRY OF ORBIT CLOSURES 25 Deﬁnition 8. G) → Q → 0 and the bundles η = E ∗ ⊗ F ∗ ⊗ R∗ . The GL(E) × GL(F ) × GL(G)-orbit of a tensor t ∈ E ⊗ F ⊗ G is E-degenerate (resp. γ)• = H (Grass(m − 1. F. F2 = (E ∗ ⊗ F ∗ ) ⊗ S2. The point is that for an E (resp. Sα R∗ ⊗ Sβ F ∗ ⊗ Sγ G∗ ⊗ B) has a resolution with the terms • F (α.degenerate obit closure we can get an estimate on the free resolution of the coordinate ring of the orbit closure as follows. Taking sections we get an exact complex of A-modules supported in the subspace variety q(Z). E).1.1. In fact this is a general G-degenerate orbit. R) ∈ E ⊗ F ⊗ G × Grass(m − 1. Each of the modules H 0 (Grass(m − 1. E) | r ∈ R ⊗ F ⊗ G} The tautological sequence associated to the projective space is 0 → R → E × Grass(m − 1. G) of B modules modeled after F• . F . the resolution F• has the terms 3 F0 = A.1. Example 8. G) with the tautological sequence 0 → R → G × Grass(2. . Consider the desingularization of the subspace variety Z = {(t. Without loss of generality we can assume that dim E = dim E − 1. E). We can use the cone construction to ﬁnd a (non-minimal) resolution of the coordinate ring of O(t) in E ⊗ F ⊗ G. Look at the orbit O10 in the case (E6 . Assume that we know the terms F• of the free resolution of the coordinate ring of the orbit closure Y = O (t) where O (t) is the closure of the orbit of a tensor t treated as an element of E ⊗ F ⊗ G. β. E ⊗ F ⊗ G. E) → Q → 0 Working over the sheaf of rings B = Sym(R∗ ⊗F ∗ ⊗G∗ ) we can produce the exact sequence F (R. whose terms are ⊕Sα R∗ ⊗ Sβ F ∗ ⊗ Sγ G∗ ⊗ B(−s). G-degenerate) if there exists a proper subspace E ⊂ E (resp. E ⊗ F ⊗ G ).1 G∗ ⊗ A(−3). F . ξ = E ∗ ⊗ F ∗ ⊗ Q∗ . G).

Consider the orbit O8 in the case (E6 . G).2. i. In his case the length of our resolution is 5.1.2 F ∗ ⊗ S3.3 E ∗ ⊗ S2. The resolution of this orbit closure is given by an invariant of degree 6. G0 = S3.3. G• → F• gives a (possibly non-minimal) resolution of the coordinate ring C[O8 ].2.2.2 F ∗ ⊗ S3. F0 = B.0 G∗ ⊗ A(−6).1 G∗ ⊗ A(−7). G). The resolution of H 0 (Grass(2.3.3 G∗ ⊗ A(−9).3.2 F ∗ ⊗ 3 (E ∗ ⊗ F ∗ ) ⊗ S3. the complex 0 → S3.3 E ∗ ⊗ S2. F0 ) was worked out in the previous example.3 R∗ and ξ from previous example).3 E ∗ ⊗ S2.2.3 E ∗ ⊗ S2. . 6 G3 = S3.1 G∗ ⊗ A(−5). (E ∗ ⊗ F ∗ ) ⊗ S3. F1 ) is (use V = S3. Now we can ﬁnd the resolutions of both modules using the geometric construction from the previous example.4 G∗ ⊗ A(−10). 2 ∗ G2 = S3. (E ∗ ⊗ F ∗ ) ⊗ S4.1.4. G1 = S3.e.2. F4 = and our complex is just the Eagon-Northcott complex asscociated to the 3×3 minors of a 3 × 6 matrix we get when we ﬂatten our 3-dimensional matrix Example 8. The resolution of H 0 (Grass(2.1 G∗ ⊗ A(−6). This is a G-degenerate orbit which corresponds to an orbit of codimension one in E ⊗F ⊗G .3 E ∗ ⊗ S2. so we get the exact sequence 0 → H 0 (Grass(2.2.e.2.3. F1 ) → H 0 (Grass(2. We construct a complex of sheaves F• over B = Sym(E ∗ ⊗ F ∗ ⊗ R∗ ) with F1 = S3.2 F ∗ ⊗ S3.2 F ∗ ⊗ (E ∗ ⊗ F ∗ ) ⊗ S3.2 F ∗ ⊗ G4 = S3.2 F ∗ ⊗ S3.3 R∗ ⊗ B.2 F ∗ ⊗ The mapping cone (E ∗ ⊗ F ∗ ) ⊗ S4.2. i.26 5 JERZY WEYMAN F3 = 6 (E ∗ ⊗ F ∗ ) ⊗ S3. G).3 E ∗ ⊗ S2.2 G∗ ⊗ A(−8).3 G ⊗ A (−6) → A .3. equal to codimension of O8 so the orbit closure is Cohen-Macaulay.3 E ∗ ⊗ S2. G). Bott theorem implies both sheaves have no higher cohomology. F0 ) → C[O8 ].3 E ∗ ⊗ S2. α4 ).

RF and RG respectively. 1) ⊗ A(−3) ⊕ A. This is the hypersurface given by the 2×3×3 matrices with vanishing hyperdeterminant. 3. 0. 2. The calculation of cohomology reveals that we get a complex F(15)• 0 → (5. 0. 0. 0). The orbit closure has a geometric description as the set of pencils of 3 × 3 matrices whose determinant is a cube of a linear form. 1. 2. 0. We see the complex is determinantal so it must give a resolution of the reduced ideal. 0. (1. 0. 1. 2. 0. 0). 0. 0. 1. 0). Example 8. 3) ⊗ A(−9) → (4. 0. Codimension 2 orbit closure O15 . 0. 0.4. 1. 1. Our incidence space Z(15) has dimension 9 + 3 + 3 + 1 = 16. 1. 1). 0. This complex can be obtained also from the hyperdeterminant complex by looking at the kernel of the transpose of the cubic part of the complex F(16)• . 1). 0) on the ﬁrst coordinate. This is . The determinant of this matrix is the hyperdeterminant ∆ of our matrix which has degree 12. The bundle ξ is the submodule with the weights (0. 0. 2. 1. The orbit closure O16 . 1. 0. 1. 3. 0). 1. 0. (0. 0. 0. 0. 2. 1. (0. 2. 2. 0. 1. 1. and the second matrix represents the weghts with (0. We treat each projective space as the set of 2-subspaces with the tautological subbundles RE . 1. 1). 1. 0. 0. (0. 1). 2) ⊗ A(−6) → A. 2) ⊗ A(−6) → (2. 1. 0. 3.GEOMETRY OF ORBIT CLOSURES 27 Example 8. 0. 1. 0. The symbol X denotes the weight in η. (0. 1. X X X X X O X O O X X O X O O O O O Here the ﬁrst matrix represents the weights with (1. 2. 1). 1. 1. 1. 1. The bundle ξ is ξ = Q∗ ∗ ⊗ QF ∗ ⊗ G∗ + E ∗ ⊗ Q∗ ∗ ⊗ Q∗ ∗ + Q∗ ∗ ⊗ F ∗ ⊗ Q∗ ∗ . 2. 2. 3. This bundle can be thought of as the set of weights in the graphic form as follows. 1. Its desingularization lives on P(E) × P(F ) × P(G). (1. 3. 1. 0. 0. 1) on the ﬁrst coordinate. E F G E G The complex F(16)• is 0 → (4. 0. 4. 0. (0. 1. 0. (1. 0. so it projects on the orbit of codimension 2. 2. 0. 0. 0. the symbol O-the weight in ξ. 0.5. 2.

1. 0. 0. 1. 0. The bundle ξ is the submodule with the weights (0. One still needs to resolve the cokernel module. Dividing by the regular sequence of 16 generic linear forms gives a resolution of the ring with Hilbert function 1 − 3t6 + 2t9 = 1 + 2t + 3t2 + 4t3 + 5t4 + 6t5 + 4t6 + 2t7 . The orbit is not normal. (0. 0. 2. 2. 1. 0). (0. 0. 1). 0. and the second matrix represents the weghts with (0. 0). 0. 1. 0. 0. 0. 0). 1. 1. They give terms of the Gulliksen-Nagard complex resolving 2 × 2 minors of the generic 3 × 3 matrix. 0. 1. the symbol O-the weight in ξ. 0) ⊗ A(−3) ⊕ (2. 1). 0. 0. 1. 1. X X X X X X X X X X O O O O O O O O Here the ﬁrst matrix represents the weights with (1. 1.28 JERZY WEYMAN in fact a proof that the incidence space Z(15) is a desingularization. 1) ⊗ A(−4) → → (2. 1. It is clearly O14 . 1. 0. 0. 1. 0. (0. 0. 0. It consists of pencils of 3 × 3 matrices of linear forms containing a matrix of rank ≤ 1. 1. (0. 1. 1. 2. 0). 1. 2. 2. 1. This orbit closure has a nice geometric description. (0. 0. Our incidence space has dimension 10 + 2 + 2 + 1 = 15. 0. 0. This bundle can be thought of as the set of weights in the graphic form as follows. Example 8. 1). 1. The calculation of cohomology reveals that we get a complex F(14)• 0 → (5. 1. 1. 1. 1. (0. (1 − t)2 This means the degree of the orbit closure is 21. 0. 2. 1. 1. 0. 1. 0. The symbol X denotes the weight in η. 1. 0. 1. This is an important problem. 2. The corresponding term on the ﬁrst coordnate comes from the symmetric power on the bundle Q∗ ∗ . 1. 0. 1. 0) ⊗ A(−2) ⊕ A. so it projects on the orbit of codimension 3.6. 0. The codimension 3 orbit O14 . 1) on the ﬁrst coordinate. (0. hence the shift in homological degree. 0) on the ﬁrst coordinate. 1. 0. 2. 1. 1. . 1. 1. 0. 1) ⊗ A(−3) → → (1. 1. 1. The terms of the complex F (14)• can be understood by looking at the partitions on two last coordinates. 1. 1. 1. as similar situation occurs in several other cases. 2. 2) ⊗ A(−6) → (3. This means the E term comes from H 1 on the P(E) coordinate (except the trivial term). 0).

2. 2. 0. 0. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. F ) × Grass(1. so it projects on the orbit of codimension 4. 0. 2. 3. 0. 2. 1. 1. Indeed. 1. 1. 1) → (1. G) and the bundle ξ is ξ = E ∗ ⊗ Q∗ ∗ ⊗ Q ∗ ∗ . The codimension 4 orbit O13 . 1. 2. The complex F(13)• reveals that the A-module C(13) has the presentation (2.7. 0). In this case one can see directly that Z(13) is a desingularization of O13 . 2. 1) → (1. 1. 1. The geometric description of this orbit can be understood from the quiver point of view. 2. 0. 1) ⊕ (3. 1. 1. 1. 1. 2. Our representation can be thought of as the set of representations of Kronecker quiver of dimension vector (3. 0) ⊕ (2. . 2. 2. 1. O Our incidence space has dimension 10 + 2 + 2 = 14. The complex F(13)• gives a minimal resolution of the normalization N (O13 ). 1. 0. 1) ⊕ (3. 1. 3. 1. 2. 1. 1. 1. 2) → → (2. 2. 1. 1. 1. 1. 2. 1. C3 → 3 C . 1. 0)) ⊕ (0. 1. 1) ⊕ (2. 1. 1. 2. 3. 1. 1. 1) can map only into the trivial term in the complex F(13)• . The orbit closure is obviously not normal. 0. 2) → (4. 0. 1) ⊕ (3. 3. 0). 1. 1. the representation (3. The desingularization Z(13) lives on Grass(1. 3. 1. 1. 1. 1. 0) ⊕ (2. 1. 1. 1. 0. 0. 3. 1. F G Graphically we have X X X X O O X O O X X X X O O X O. 1. 1. 1. We have an exact sequence 0 → C[O13 ] → C[N (O13 )] → C(13) → 0. 1. 1. → Our orbit closure then is the set of representations having a subrepresentation of dimension vector (2. 3. 2. 1. 4. 1. 2) → → (2. 1). 2. The calculation of cohomology reveals that we get a complex F(13)• 0 → (4. 2. 2. 1) ⊕ (2.GEOMETRY OF ORBIT CLOSURES 29 Example 8. 1. 1. 1. 0. 3). 2. 0. 1. 1.

3. 0) ⊕ (3. 2. 3. 3. 1. 3. 1. 4. 2. 1. 3. it would contribute to the minimal generators of the deﬁning ideal. 3. 2. 0. 2. 2. 3) ⊕ (6. 1. 2. 2. 4. F ) × Grass(2. 3. 3. 1. 1.30 JERZY WEYMAN We can look for the module with the above presentation among twisted modules supported in smaller orbits. 4. 1. 3. 1. 2. 1. Its bundle ξ has a diagram X X O X X O O O O X X O X X O O O. 2. 2. 1. 1. 0) and (3. 2. 4. 2)⊕(4. 0). Let us see that the pairs of representations (2. 2. 2. 1) cancel out. 1. 3. 1) ⊕ (3. 2. 4. 1. 3. 3. 1. 3. 0) ⊕ (2. 1. 1. if (3. 1. 1. 1) ⊕ (4. 1. 0. 2) in degree 6. 3) → (4. 2. 1. The homological dimension of C[O13 ] as an Amodule equals 5 because the top of the resolution of C(13) does not cancel out. 4. 3. 4. 1. 3. 2. 1. 2. From this we can deduce that the deﬁning ideal of O13 is generated by the representations (3. 0. 3. 0. 2)⊕(4. 3. 2. 1. It turns out the right choice is the orbit closure O7 . 1. 2. O This bundle lives on the space Grass(2. 1. 4. 2. 2. 3. 4. 3. 2. 2. Its terms are: F G 0 → (6. 2. 2. 2. 3. 4. 3. 3. 2. The resolution of he A-module C[O13 ] can be constructed as a mapping cone of the map 2 2 2 F(13)• → F( E⊗ QF ⊗ QH)(7)• covering the natural epimorphism of A-modules. 1. So this coordinate ring is not Cohen-Macaulay. 2. 1. But this is impossible since both orbit closures have the same dimension. 2. 1. 0. 2. 3. 3. 1) in degree 3 and the representations (3. 2. Also the non-normality locus of O13 equals to O7 . 1. 2) → (2. 2) ⊕ (5. 1. 3. 3. 1. 1) and (3. 1. 3. 2. Consider the twisted 2 2 2 complex F( E ∗ ⊗ R∗ ⊗ R∗ )(7)• . 1) would not cancel out. 1) → → (1. 1. 4. However it occurs once in S4 (E ∗ ⊗ F ∗ ⊗ G∗ ) so that representation is already in the ideal generated by (3. 3. if it would occur in the deﬁning ideal of O13 the analysis of the next section will show that then the deﬁning ideal of O13 would contain the deﬁning ideal of O12 . 3. 1. 2) ⊕ (4. 4) → (5. 2. 1. 2. 4. 1. 1. 1. 2. 3. 2. Regarding representation (2. 2. 2. 1) ⊕ (3. 6. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 4. 3. 3. 3. 4. 3. 3. 3. 1. 2)⊕2∗(5. . 3. 1. 3. 1. 1). 2) ⊕ (5. 3. 2. 2) → (4. 2. 2) → (2. 3. 1. 1. 3. 3. 3. 3. 1. Indeed. 2. 1. 3. The mapping cone is not a minimal resolution but the repeating representations might cancel out. 3. 2. 1) ⊕ (2. 0. 2. 2. 1). 1. 3. 1. 3. 3. 1. G). 2.

[GW98] Goodman. Singularities of hyperdeterminants. 488-526.. Groningen. [SK77] Sato.... Graduate Texts in Math. J. W.. [MM05] Manivel. Nilpotent Orbits in Semisimple Lie Algebras. Cambridge. [FH91] Fulton. MA 02115.. M. [V87] Vinberg.edu . Classes of Unipotent Elements in Simple Algebraic Groups I. [JPW81] J´zeﬁak.1 (1987). J. P. Classes of Unipotent Elements in Simple Algebraic Groups II. P. 149. Ann.GEOMETRY OF ORBIT CLOSURES 31 References [ABW82] Akin. 1993. B. 44 (1982). Some remarks on nilpotent orbits. Cambridge. Carter. 190-213. 2 (1961). Adv. and Kac. 109-189. Schur Functors and Schur Complexes. 79 (1976). Cohomology of vector bundles and syzygies.. Mezzetti. 207-278.. The Algebra of Invariants. 1991. Zelevinsky. [W03] Weyman.. 1998. Foundations of the theory of algebraic invariants.. Wallach. E. Department of Mathematics.. [DK85] Dadok. Young. [BC76b] Bala. V. Lie algebra cohomology and the generalized Borel-Weil theorem. Soc. Chelsea. P. Ann. V. of Algebra 64 (1980)... Phil. Noordhoﬀ. vol. Cambridge Tracts in Mathematics. Journal of Algebra 92.. Nagoya J. Harris. UK.. L. Weyman. J. Fourier (Grenoble) 46. J. 1-18. Asterisque 87-88 (1981).D. Buchsbaum. Classiﬁcation of homogeneous nilpotent elements of a semisimple graded Lie algebra.. A. of Mathematics 74 no.. in Math. V. 1-155. Cambridge University Press. Representation Theory.. J. W. 591–644. BOSTON. R. Pragacz. Viniberghi E.. 68.. Izv. 80 (1976). [GY03] Grace... [Ko61] Kostant.. Camb. B. G. (1985). T. Adv. vol. R. Weyl group of a graded Lie algebra. vol.B. 129. in Math. Soc. [K80] Kac.. 106 (1994). Resolutions of determinantal varieties and tensor o complexes associated with symmetric and antisymmetric matrices. New York Heidelberg Berlin. [BC76a] Bala.. Manuscripta Mathematica 117 (2005).B. 329–387. Polar Reresentations.. Manivel. Adv. A. Carter. [WZ96] Weyman. Akad. UK. K. 1965.H.. USA E-mail address: j. Camb. Kimura. Math 65 (1977). 1-35. E. Proc.. Van Nostrand Reinhold. [V75] Vinberg. Proc. [GV] Gatti. A classiﬁcation of irreducible prehomogeneous vector spaces and their relative invariants. Cambridge University Press. R. L. D.. Northeastern University 360 Huntington Avenue. Inst.. Weyman. [CM93] Collingwood. J.. Encyclopedia of Mathematics and its Applications. 401-425. 2003. J. Springer-Verlag. [LM] Landsberg. J. Koh J. Phil.. Selecta Mathematica Sovietica 6 no.. McGovern. in Math. E. N. Representations and Invariants of the Classical Groups.... T.. [EK94] Eisebud . 1964. J. [Gu64] Gurevich. 319-331. 504-524. Van Nostrand Reinhold Mathematics Series.. New York. D.weyman@neu. Nauk SSSR 40 (1975).

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