PASMO Module 8: Decision-making Preparation To implement this session, you’ll need:  Shop paper for the groups

(should be provided by the institution)  Markers Introduction 1) For the next couple classes, we’re going to talk about “Life Planning.” 2) Planning for our lives requires many things – a good understanding of what we want and need, responsibilities we have to our families and our communities (i.e., going to school). 3) But the key to “Life Planning” is “good decision making.” o If we don’t make good decisions, we may suffer from bad consequences that can hurt us now, or hurt our future plans. Part 1: Discussion on Decision-making 1) We need to understand that humans are “decision-making” animals. We make decisions and choices every day, from the moment we wake up (will I get out of bed right now? Will I wait 5 minutes? How will I comb my hair?) all throughout the day until we go to sleep. Many of these decisions are so small, we don’t even think about them or consider them to be “decisions.” 2) What are some examples of decisions we make every day? a. b. Which other students we’ll talk to. How will I wear my hair? c. Will I pay attention in class, or will I stare out the window? d. Will I listen to my teacher, or will I give her/him problems? 3) Because adults play a big role in our lives, it can feel like we don’t have power. But even if someone makes us do something (like watch our little brothers and sisters after school), we make choices about how we’ll do it. a. b. Will we be pleasant or mean? Will we do what they asked us to, or will we make another choice?


even though she doesn’t want to 2 . we can’t always control what happens to us. Will I do a good job. needs to decide if she’s going to skip school to hang out with her boyfriend. The steps would be as follows: (write briefly on the board) Identify the problem: should Keisha go to school or hang out with her boyfriend? Describe all the alternatives – she has 4 possible options: 1) Go to school and tell my boyfriend I’ll hang out with him after school 2) Go to school and encourage my boyfriend to go to school as well 3) Skip school and hang out with my boyfriend 4) Skip school and don’t hang out with my boyfriend Evaluate the solutions: what are the advantages and disadvantages of each? Solution #1: Go to school and hang out with boyfriend after school Advantages  Won’t get in trouble  Will get a better grade for presenting on time  Still get to hang out with boyfriend more? Disadvantages  Have to tell boyfriend “no” and they might quarrel  She’ll have to present her project today. She doesn’t feel like going to school because has to present a project that is due today for her science class and she’s nervous about it.” (write on the board) Identify the problem Describe possible solutions or options Evaluate the solutions or options Act out a plan Learn for the future Give the following example: A girl. but we can always control how we respond. Keisha. or just the minimum so I don’t get hassled any d. 5) There are 5 parts to making a good decision – and they spell out the word “ideal. Will we watch TV or go visit a friend? 4) So.PASMO Module 8: Decision-making c.

She also realized that her decision to skip her presentation had worse consequences than if she had done it to begin with. even though she doesn’t want to Solution #3: Skip school & hang out with boyfriend Advantages  Won’t have to go to school  Probably have fun with boyfriend Disadvantages  May get in trouble from mother or teacher  May get a bad grade  Doesn’t want to make a habit of skipping school Solution #4: Skip school & don’t hang out with boyfriend Advantages  Won’t have to go to school  Won’t start a habit of skipping school to be with boyfriend Disadvantages  May get in trouble  May get a bad grade  May get in a fight with boyfriend Act out a plan: Keisha decides to skip school and hang out with her boyfriend. They have a good time in the morning. She won’t skip school again just to please a guy and she’ll respect her deadlines in the future. The group has to use the “IDEAL” model to explain the process the character goes through. Learn for the future: Keisha realized that she sacrificed her well-being for a guy who won’t necessarily stick around for her. Group Work: Using the IDEAL Model Break the class into groups of three. the teacher reduced her grade by 15% for having missed the deadline. the final decision and what the character learned 3 .PASMO Module 8: Decision-making Solution #2: Go to school and tell boyfriend to go to school as well Advantages  Good influence on boyfriend  Won’t get in trouble  Will get a better grade for presenting on time Disadvantages  Boyfriend might quarrel with her  She’ll have to present her project today. and even though she did a good job. the different choices they have with the advantages/disadvantages. Her mother finds out from their neighbor that she skipped school. and have each group come up with a scenario where a character has to make a decision. but get into a fight after lunch. It should be completely different than the example above. She hopes he won’t break up with her. give each group a piece of shop paper and a marker. and her boyfriend leaves to go hang out with his friends. Her teacher made her do the presentation the day she returned. and as a punishment Keisha will have to come directly home after school for the next month and help out with her little brothers and sisters.

By using our experiences. What are consequences? a. if I decided not to show up to lead this session today. We can also use our common sense. etc. For example. They can briefly present to the class. we might just have a good time. I could get in trouble. i. we need to answer 2 questions: i. Is it more likely that my decision will have good consequences or bad consequences? ii. go to prison. Your teacher might call my boss to find out what happened ii. Part 2: Discussion of Consequences 1) As you can see. we learn about what can happen. d. we might get hurt while we’re out.) or bad (get sick. Every time we make a decision and see the consequences. we might not get caught. (Note: the character doesn’t have to make a bad decision – he/she could learn that he/she made the right choice). The teacher might think I’m unreliable. When choosing what we’ll do. The events that occur directly as a result of a choice that we make. b. b. there could be several consequences: i. many times we can predict the possible consequences of our decisions. 3) How can we predict possible consequences? a. if we sneak out of our houses.) c. it’s very important for us to weigh the consequences of our decisions. we know that we might get caught. If my boss found out. rewards. and not view me favorably in the future iii.PASMO Module 8: Decision-making for the future. Is the good we’d receive from the best possible consequence worth risking the worst possible consequence? 4 . etc. For example. Consequences may be good (good grades. maybe even fired 2) Even though we don’t always know what exactly will happen.

Her mother hears her come back into the house and is very angry. they need to write 3 possible consequences. one of the consequences should be the best possible consequence. Scenarios for the class: Scenario 1: Brandon decides to try crack cocaine for the first time this afternoon. Have each group present the 3 consequences they thought of for one of the scenarios (each group presents 1 scenario. Her mother decides to ground her for 2 months. and her mother never finds out. and one should be in-between. Scenario 2: Shavonda decides to steal a pretty shirt from a store on Queen Street. One of the consequences should be the worst possible consequence. A guy she meets there tries to force her to have sex with him. try to have all 4 scenarios presented by the different groups. returns home. Scenario 3: Troy decides to give in to his girlfriend’s request to have sex. and her mother has a hard time forgiving her. Example: Marla decides to sneak out of her mother’s house to go to a party.) Point out differences or similarities between the groups’ answers. She has a good time. Give them the following scenarios.PASMO Module 8: Decision-making Group Work: Weighing consequences The participants should still be in their groups from the last exercise. but she manages to fight him off. 3) “In-between” consequence: Marla goes to the party and drinks alcohol. For each scenario. 1) Best possible consequence: Marla sneaks out and goes to the party. even though her mother told her that she had to stay home. She’ll never walk again. 2) Worst possible consequence: Marla gets into a car accident on her way home from the party and is very seriously hurt. 5 . Scenario 4: Sherlene decides to run away from her mother’s home and go to Dangriga.

with #1 being the most important reason. Now. Ask the class if there are any reasons that are better than others on both sides of the argument. If we have a reputation for having lots of sexual partners. f. we might have a hard time finding someone who will marry us. Brainstorm all of the reasons for a teenager to decide to have sex. etc. which could hurt our ability to get a good job later on.). some boys/girls might decide that they don’t want to be with us for anything more than sex. We’re going to discuss that decision right now. and one of them wants to wait. brainstorm all of the reasons for a teenager to decide to wait to have sex. (write on the board under the appropriate scale) e. b. i. Rate the reasons given in order of importance. (Draw a very simple scale on the board) Reasons to have sex Reasons not to have sex 2) Let’s imagine a couple who is our age. 3) How could the decision to have sex affect our “life planning”? a. it will hurt our ability to further our education (if we want to go to UB. If we get pregnant. Peer pressure (boyfriend/girlfriend or friends) b. and often difficult decision we all need to make at some point is whether or not we’ll have sex. One of them wants to have sex. 4) What influences a teenager’s decision to have sex? a.PASMO Module 8: Decision-making Discussion on sexual decision-making 1) One important. and we’ll die younger than necessary c. What are the arguments they might use? a. If we catch HIV. Parents 6 .

Risk of unwanted pregnancy c. Dumped by girlfriend/boyfriend. 6) Can someone who has already had sex change his/her mind and decide to stop for now? Why or why not? a. Risk of HIV or other STIs b. 8) What’s the worst thing that can happen to a young person who says “yes”? a. Absolutely – many people do that. Where to buy protection (condoms. Which forms of contraception best prevent HIV/STIs and pregnancy d.PASMO Module 8: Decision-making c. Good communication – say “no” clearly c. Religion d. 7) What’s the worst thing that can happen to a young person who says “no”? a. Sexual feelings /desires e. They realize that sex is more complicated than they thought. etc) e. Made fun of by friends b. HIV b. How to communicate well with the partner (in case one changes his/her mind) 7 . or it didn’t keep them and their boyfriend/girlfriend together. STIs c. 9) What does a young person need in order to say “no”? a. Rape (if she said yes once. Yes – he or she may be convinced if they’re not strong enough to stand up to peer pressure. Get in trouble with parents d. Good self esteem – can withstand peer pressure b. etc. pills. etc. Feel good about the decision to wait 10) What does a young person need to know or do if he/she says “yes”? a. but doesn’t want to again). The media 5) Can someone who has decided to wait change his or her mind? a.

which encourage us to make a certain choice. Parents b. Choose a partner who will be good to you – doesn’t have other partners.PASMO Module 8: Decision-making f. Also. Religion c. 12) What or who plays a role in influencing us? a. movies tell us what is “cool”) 8 . a person who pressures us doesn’t really care about us 11) But. they can usually find someone else if they want. but we are influenced by a lot of things. The media (TV. (Write the following equation on the board) Your decision + other influences = your behavior Explain that we make choices. or not to make another choice. radio. we need to understand that we don’t make these decisions in a bubble. Teachers d. won’t be violent g. A realistic attitude – sex won’t keep a boyfriend/girlfriend in the long term. Our friends e.

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