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DOI 10.1007/s10489-006-0009-z

and a multi-objective genetic algorithm

Ivan Blecic · Arnaldo Cecchini · Giuseppe A. Trunfio

C Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2007

Abstract A significant class of decision making problems a set of non-dominated solutions, computed using a multi-

consists of choosing actions, to be carried out simultane- objective genetic algorithm.

ously, in order to achieve a trade-off between different ob-

jectives. When such decisions concern complex systems, Keywords Bayesian networks . Decision networks .

decision support tools including formal methods of reason- Influence diagrams . Multi-objective genetic algorithms

ing and probabilistic models are of noteworthy helpfulness.

These models are often built through learning procedures,

based on an available knowledge base. Nevertheless, in many 1 Introduction

fields of application (e.g. when dealing with complex polit-

ical, economic and social systems), it is frequently not pos- Making decisions about complex systems can involve an

sible to determine the model automatically, and this must analysis of interactions between actions and future events,

then largely be derived from the opinions and value judge- which often proves to be a hard task for the human mind.

ments expressed by domain experts. The BayMODE decision Help in coping with such complexity can be supplied by

support tool (Bayesian Multi Objective Decision Environ- normative Decision Support Systems (DSSs), implementing

ment), which we describe in this paper, operates precisely formal probabilistic methods of reasoning [1]. This kind of

in such contexts. The principal component of the program is DSS allows the user to build a model, that is, an abstraction of

a multi-objective Decision Network, where actions are exe- the real world, in terms of interacting variables. These include

cuted simultaneously. If the noisy-OR assumptions are ap- at least decision variables (i.e. actions), which are under the

plicable, such a the model has a reasonably small number of decision maker’s control, as well as objective variables. The

parameters, even when actions are represented as non-binary latter are used to express the decision maker’s preferences,

variables. This makes the model building procedure acces- often using utility functions [2]. Once the model is built, the

sible and easy. Moreover, BayMODE operates with a multi- DSS assists the decision maker in the identification of ac-

objective approach, which provides the decision maker with tions, by an appropriate formal method based on a decision

theory and according to the specified preferences.

Since DSSs of this kind are increasingly requested in vari-

ous domains of application, including medicine, economics,

I. Blecic . A. Cecchini . G. A. Trunfio () military, engineering and urban planning, they have been the

Department of Architecture and Planning, University of Sassari, subject of significant research efforts over the last decades.

Palazzo del Pou Salit, Piazza Duomo,

In particular, a vast amount of work has been carried out

6, I07041 Alghero (SS), Italy

e-mail: trunfio@uniss.it concerning the graphical probabilistic models related to the

Bayesian Networks (BNs) [3], which are often adopted as

I. Blecic a modeling technique and a reasoning engine for normative

e-mail: ivan@uniss.it

DSSs. These research efforts have been accompanied by the

A. Cecchini development of a number of BN software tools. At present,

e-mail: cecchini@uniss.it about fifty different programs and libraries are reported in

Springer

126 Appl Intell (2007) 26:125–137

[4, 5], and among these there are some popular tools such as system can impact the probability of a reduction in traffic

Analytica [6], BayesiaLab, GeNIe and SMILE [7], Hugin [8], congestion for a specific city. Other cases of models which

MSBNx, Netica. Mostly, the DSSs developed are for general cannot be automatically derived from the observation data

purposes (e.g. [6–8]), while others have been conceived and are those involving events such as ‘the development of

optimized for specific fields of application (e.g. [9, 10]). The a particular new product’, ‘the occurrence of a particular

BayMODE program (Bayesian Multi Objective Decision En- scientific discovery’, ‘the enactment of a specific piece of

vironment) described in this paper belongs to this latter cate- legislation’ or ‘the outbreak of a particular war’. For these

gory. It was developed in fact to operate in particular contexts kinds of event there is really no statistically significant his-

where: tory of occurrence, and the use of experts’ knowledge in

the phase of model construction appears mandatory.

– the decision maker needs to simultaneously undertake dif-

ferent actions represented by numeric variables. An inter- BayMODE is based on the particular type of Decision

esting specific case of this kind is when the decision maker Network (DN) [11] introduced in [12], coupled with a meta

has to allocate a quantity of resources for different actions. heuristic search algorithm. Such a special class of DN will

In this case, the variable associated with an action mea- be called a Simultaneous Decision Network (SDN), since

sures the ‘investment’ (in a wide sense e.g. economic, so- there is no assumption of sequentiality of nodes representing

cial, electoral, normative, consensus) the decision maker actions.

is willing to put into that specific action. For example, a Both the SDN used in the program and the coupled so-

town municipality should allocate the available budget for lution procedure are multi-objective. As argued in [13] and

different simultaneous actions, which might be: the im- later in this paper, this has a number of advantages, especially

provement of collective transport systems, the restoration when dealing with conflicting objectives, as often happens

of the historical center or the provision of facilities and in the specific context of application outlined above. Thus,

services for citizens; at a certain point in a military con- BayMODE’s main outcome is a set of non-dominated solu-

flict, the military planner might be in the position to have tions [14], each representing a strategy (i.e. a vector contain-

to decide how much effort to spend on an air raid and on a ing a numeric value for each action).

simultaneous ground attack; an entrepreneur might be in In real applications, incorporating expert knowledge into

the situation of deciding how much of his profits to invest a standard DN can be arduous, since the number of condi-

in the research and development of a new product and in tional probabilities to be estimated for a single node grows

exploring new markets for his current products. exponentially with the number of its direct parents. When

– the decision maker needs to achieve a trade-off between actions are not binary, the problem becomes even more rel-

different, often conflicting, objectives, which are proba- evant. For these reasons, BayMODE makes use of the well

bilistically dependent on simultaneous actions. For exam- known noisy-OR canonical model of interaction [3, 15, 16],

ple, the town municipality might wish for an increase in which provides various advantages deriving from the causal

visiting tourists and the revitalization of the urban econ- interpretation of the interaction between the model entities

omy, as well as a decrease in traffic congestion and a re- and the logarithmic reduction of the number of parameters.

duction in the level of air pollution; the military planner As will be shown later in the paper, in the field of appli-

might wish to win the conflict, but minimize the losses of cation of BayMODE, such a model of interaction is often

his own military troops and in terms of civil population well justified. In the context of the noisy-OR assumption, the

and civil infrastructures. program offers a simple and convenient way to incorporate

– the model must be built out of the knowledge provided the effects of the simultaneous non-binary actions into the

by human experts. Indeed, in many fields of application, model. This is provided through the use of functional rela-

the cases collected are often insufficient or not suitable to tionships, which link the decision variables to the probability

determine the model with automatic learning procedures. of their effects. Such interaction patterns are then estimated

In these situations the input information must largely in a semi-qualitative form by the experts with the aid of a

be derived from experts’ opinions and value judgements specifically conceived user interface.

grounded on expert knowledge. For example, in the field With respect to existing general purpose Bayesian DSSs,

of urban policy making, while it could be accepted that an BayMODE operates more effectively in the context for which

increase in number of some particular categories of tourists it was specifically designed. The reasons for this lie in differ-

can determine an increase in real-estate values, there are ent concurrent characteristics, namely: (i) it allows modeling

rarely data suitable to procedurally define the impact of of the probabilistic effect of many numeric actions applied in

the first event on the probability of the second. Likewise, parallel; (ii) the approximate effects of such non-binary ac-

it is difficult to obtain from data to what extent spending tions can be estimated by domain experts and then included

resources on the improvement of the collective transport in the model in a simple and effective way; (iii) it offers an

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Appl Intell (2007) 26:125–137 127

intrinsic multi-objective perspective, which results in provid- by the domain experts, the event set V is partitioned in

ing the decision maker with a set of non-dominated solutions the set U containing exogenous events, which cannot be

with a single run of the search algorithm. influenced by any of the entities in the model, and the set

The outline of the paper is as follows. In Section 2 we E containing endogenous events, which can be influenced

present BayMODE’s underlying model. In Section 3 we by all other events in V and by actions in A;

discuss the problem of searching for a trade-off strategy – a set C of k objectives. Each C ∈ C is a variable defined

with the use of a multi-objective genetic algorithm. The in the set of real numbers , reflecting the value of an

section assumes some general knowledge of genetic algo- objective function gC .

rithms. Subsequently, we present an example application of

a policy-making case study in Section 4. The paper ends with

An element of the set Y ∈Y D(Y ) will be defined as a config-

Section 5, presenting some conclusive considerations.

uration of a set of variables Y. In particular, a configuration

α of the set of actions A will be called strategy.

The model of interaction used is a BN, integrated with

2 The causal model decision nodes and objective nodes, that is, a Decision Net-

work (DN). It is worth noting that, in contrast with the more

BayMODE allows the construction of a causal model whose frequent utilization of DNs, in this case the multiple deci-

entities are represented by variables which we will indicate sions must be made in parallel and not sequentially. In other

by uppercase letters (e.g. Y ) or indexed uppercase letters words, in the DNs used in this paper there is no precedence

(e.g. X i ). A specific value of a variable will be denoted by among decision nodes, and they are not dependent on any

lowercase letters (i.e. x). The set of all possible values of a other model entity, so the model can be called Simultaneous

variable Y will be indicated as D(Y ). A set of variables will Decision Network (SDN) (or Simultaneous Influence Dia-

be indicated by calligraphic style letters (e.g. Y). The general gram as in [17]).

scheme of this model is shown in Fig. 1 and it includes: As in every BN, the causal model can be represented by

a directed acyclic graph consisting of a set of nodes and the

– a set A of m actions which are modeled as real number links between these nodes (see Fig. 1). Each node is associ-

variables. The value a of an action A ∈ A represents some ated with a variable Y representing a model entity. For sim-

physical or abstract quantity relevant to the modeled con- plicity, we will refer interchangeably to nodes and their asso-

text (e.g. the effort spent in terms of energy, money, etc.). In ciated variables. Each variable Y has a parent set π (Y ) in the

general, the domain of definition of an action A is the dis- network. Actions and exogenous events have no ingoing arcs,

crete set D(A) ⊆ [0, +∞[ that is typically a result of the i.e., their parent sets are always empty. Endogenous events

discretization of a continuous interval. As will be shown can have ingoing arcs representing probabilistic dependence,

later (see Section 2.2), under some conditions the model whereas objectives can have ingoing arcs representing func-

can easily and effectively be built even in the case of high tional dependence. In the DN, nodes representing objectives

cardinality of D(A) for each action A; do not have children.

– a set V of events which are modeled as binary variables. In particular, for each E ∈ E, the distribution P(E |

The two values of an event Y ∈ V will be denoted by the π(E)), where π (E) ⊆ V ∪ A \ {E}, specifies the probability

corresponding lower case letter y, with the meaning of of each value of E, given every possible assigned value of

‘occurrence’, and negate lowercase letter ¬y. Hence, the π(E). If the domains of definition of E and π (E) are finite,

domain of definition of an event Y is D(Y ) = {y, ¬y}. In such a distribution is called a Conditional Probability Table

order to facilitate the process of elicitation of the model (CPT).

scheme and the entities involved

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128 Appl Intell (2007) 26:125–137

Each objective C assumes a value given by an ob- 2.1 Multi-attribute utility versus multi-objective approach

jective function gC : D(π (C)) → , where D(π (C)) =

X ∈π (C) D(X ). By definition, as shown in Fig. 1, the parent In contrast with more frequent DNs with a single terminal

set of the objective C1 is the set of actions, i.e., π (C1 ) = A, objective node, in the model adopted in BayMODE the mul-

while for each objective Ci , i = 2, . . . , k, a specific parent tiple objective nodes are retained. This is in accordance with

set π (Ci ) ⊆ E is defined as part of the model. what has been suggested in [13], where it is argued that act-

In order to simplify formalization, an action variable Ai ing in a multi-objective perspective with DNs can provide

can be viewed, with respect to a strategy α, as a random great advantages for the whole decision process.

variable whose probability Pα (Ai ) is defined as: When multiple objectives Ci are combined in a single ter-

minal value node, this is normally accomplished through a

multi-attribute utility function [2, 18]. In practice, a multi-

1, if Ai = ai objective problem is transformed into a single-objective

Pα (Ai ) = (1)

0, otherwise problem of expected utility maximization. Frequently, un-

der certain conditions that have been axiomatized [18],

Thus, temporarily neglecting the objective variables, the the multi-attribute utility function is constructed as a

SDN can be seen as a BN representing the following joint product or sum of the objective variables, with some

probability: parameters (i.e. weights) grounded on the decision maker’s

preferences.

m The critical point in this approach is the definition of a

Pα (V, A) = P(Y | π(Y )) Pα (Ai ) (2) suitable multi-attribute utility function [19, 20], which may

Y ∈V i=1 incorporate many conflicting objectives, possibly with dif-

ferent physical meanings. In particular, there is usually high

The expected value of the objective variable C ∈ C, in the subjectivity in the choice of both the form and parameters

case strategy α gets activated, is: of the multi-attribute utility function. Moreover, assessing

the utility function requires an explicit statement of pref-

E α (C) = Pα (π (C)) gC (π(C)) (3) erences by the decision maker prior to the solution pro-

π (C) cess: if the preferences change, the entire solution process

must be repeated. Another issue is related to possible in-

where Pα (π(C)) denotes the marginal probability of the vari- accuracy in the expected value of an objective: using a

ables π(C) in the BN, that is: multi-attribute utility function, the entire output of the de-

cision making process will be affected by that inaccuracy.

Pα (π(C)) = Pα (V, A) (4) Finally, while the solution process can potentially give valu-

A∪V\π(C) able information about the system represented by the DN,

this is precluded by combining all objectives in a single

with summation extended to all possible values in A ∪ V \ value.

π(C). The different approach adopted in the DN represented

The BayMODE program also allows the definition of sce- in Fig. 1, consists of maintaining the objectives multiple

narios, where a scenario s is defined as a configuration of a and emphasizing the generation of a range of solutions to

subset S of V. The scenarios thus defined are of particular be presented to the decision maker for consideration. The

use in the evaluation of the performance of a specific strategy main purpose of this approach is to produce a set of non-

α, assuming that evidence is given in terms of occurrence or dominated (or efficient) solutions [14] in the way explained

non-occurrence of a subset of events in V. One of the possible later in Section 3. Then, the solution eventually chosen by

situations would be that of a decision maker seeking to know the decision maker is obtained by examining and exploring

what the best actions to undertake are, under the assumption the various trade-offs between objectives for the set of non-

of occurrence of a specific subset of exogenous events. Here, dominated solutions. This latter phase can be carried out

for each scenario s, if the strategy α has been applied, the in a systematized way as in the Surrogate Worth Tradeoff

expected value of the objective variable C ∈ C is: method [21].

In practice, the decision maker’s preference is used only

E α, s (C) = Pα (π (C) | s) gC (π(C)) (5) after the most computationally expensive phase of the entire

π (C) decision support process, and avoiding the usual assump-

tions of utility theory or the specification of a multi-attribute

where Pα (π(C) | s) is the conditional probability of π(C) utility function [21]. On the other hand, however, it must be

given s. observed that the choice of the final solution becomes indeed

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Appl Intell (2007) 26:125–137 129

non-dominated solutions grow. X1 X2 X3 X4

2.2 Probabilistic dependence of events

Y1 Y2

of domain experts able to build a model from scratch, since Fig. 2 Causes (X i ’s) and effects (Yi ’s)

the knowledge-base for automated or semi-automated model

construction is unavailable. This suggested the adoption of

a scheme of interactions between entities, which, in most that is to some extent imperfect (i.e. neglecting some small

cases, provides reliable and efficient incorporation of experts’ interactions), but with small elicitation errors, rather than a

knowledge. more complete but far too complex model, the parameters of

Although the program allows the user to specify the com- which are in all probability affected by larger uncertainties.

plete CPT for each node in the model graph, this might be It is also worth observing that the causal interpretation

a hard task in some cases, since the number of CPT entries of the interactions provided by the noisy-OR gate, helps the

for a node X is exponential to the number of configurations domain experts to better identify the building blocks of the

of its parent set π(X ). The problem is particularly evident model [22]. This, in our experience, results in great advan-

when one or more non-binary actions are in π(X ). In fact, tages in terms of the overall quality of the decision process.

the set D(A) may contain few values (e.g. labeled values

as in D(A) = {very low, low, medium, high, very high}) and 2.2.1 Interactions between events

may also be defined by a very fine subdivision of a given

continuous interval. With the purpose of briefly recalling the noisy-OR assump-

For the above reasons, BayMODE implements the most tions used in BayMODE as a favorite way to model the prob-

frequently accepted and widely applied solution to this prob- abilistic dependence of events, let us say that the event rep-

lem, that is the noisy-OR gate [3,15,16], which has the main resented by the variable X i may be a cause of Y when it is

advantages of providing a logarithmic reduction in the num- active with respect to Y or, in other words, when it assumes a

↑Y

ber of model parameters, as well as a causal interpretation particular value xi . For example, with reference to Fig. 2, if

of the interactions. Moreover, in this context the program the binary variable X 3 represents an event, it may be that its

allows a simple and effective way to estimate and take into occurrence is a cause of the effect Y1 whereas non-occurrence

account the effects of non-binary actions. is a cause of Y2 . It is worth noting that since in a large BN

The use of the noisy-OR model in BayMODE is justified, an event X i may represent a cause for more than one effect,

as in its field of application the hypothesis of independence the activation value of X i may be different for each effect.

of causes is often quite well verified. Coming back to the In general, given a configuration of π (Y ), we can define the

example of a town municipality formulated in Section 1, set:

a domain expert may suggest that both investing resources

in the renovation of the historical center and the currency

π ∗ (Y ) = {X ∈ π (Y ) : X = x ↑Y } (6)

exchange rate, can have an impact on the probability of the

event ‘increase in visiting tourists’. But it is likely that the

two causal mechanisms act quite independently. to which all the X i belong which are in the active state for

Moreover, in the case of models built completely by do- Y . Formally, the basic noisy-OR assumptions are:

main experts, using the noisy-OR gate can lead to appre-

ciable outcomes even when the causes do not act perfectly – each of the causes X i is characterized by a parameter pi ∈

independently. Indeed, as recently argued in [12], some em- [0, 1] called causal strength with respect to its potential

pirical studies concerning models built by human experts effect Y ;

show that even when distribution does not rigorously respect – the ability of each cause to be sufficient is independent from

the noisy-OR hypothesis, the elicitation error affecting the the presence of other causes (i.e. when effect Y has not been

parameters might be smaller than the elicitation error of the produced, each cause X i has failed independently).

complete CPTs. This decrement of estimation errors could

possibly be due to the significant reduction in the number The parameter pi is defined as the probability the effect Y

of parameters combined with the causal interpretation of the is true, cause X i being active and all other causes X j , with

interactions, which make the estimation task more suited for j = i, inactive:

a human mind. As a conclusion, it seems reasonable to as- ↑Y

pi = P y xi ∧ ¬x j ∀ j ∈ [1, n], j = i

↑Y

sume that in this field of application it is better to use a model (7)

Springer

130 Appl Intell (2007) 26:125–137

model X1 X2 ... Xn

p1 p2 pn

p0

X0 Y

additional factor 1 − p(A) in Eq. (10), which becomes:

The above hypothesis allows us to specify the entire CPT,

given the non-empty activation set π ∗ (Y ), and only n P(y | π ∗ (Y ), A) = 1 − (1 − p0 ) (1 − p(A)) (1 − pi )

parameters, in other words, to specify only a parameter pi i:X i ∈π ∗ (Y )

the following formula:

where p(A) is the causal strength of the action A, with an

∗ obvious meaning in the context of the noisy-OR assumptions.

P(y | π (Y )) = 1 − (1 − pi ) (8)

i:X i ∈π ∗ (Y ) During the elicitation process p(A) can be given in a tabular

form, that is, a strength value for each of the discrete values

which is sufficient to derive the CPT of Y on its predecessors of A. A different way to provide p(A) is through a function

X 1, X 2, . . . , X n . ψ representing an interaction pattern:

Since in practice it is almost impossible to enlist all possi-

ble causes which can produce effect Y , BayMODE uses the p(A) = ψ(A; q1 , . . . , qn ) (12)

well-known extension of the binary Noisy-OR gate, called

leaky Noisy-OR gate [15], which is suitable for situations

where the effect can be produced even if all its explicit causes where both ψ and the parameters q1 , . . . , qn must be cho-

are inactive. This can be conceptualized by introducing an sen during the modeling phase. In Fig. 5, few examples of

additional cause X 0 which is assumed to always be active (see strength functions included in BayMODE are represented.

Fig. 3). This cause is associated with an additional parame- For instance, the function I allows the causal strength to be

ter p0 ∈ [0, 1], called the leak probability. It represents the expressed in terms of the three parameters pinf , aα and aβ ,

probability that the effect Y is produced by the non-modeled that is, the asymptotic value of ψ, and values of the action

causes, when all the modeled causes are inactive. Hence: corresponding to the strengths α pinf and β pinf , respectively.

Returning to the example of the town municipality, a domain

↑Y expert may estimate that spending resources on the renova-

p0 = P y | ¬x j ∀ j ∈ [1, n] (9)

tion of the historical center acts on the event ‘increase in

visiting tourists’ with a causal strength which follows the

Since X 0 is always active, the CPT is expressed by the equa-

tion:

P(y | π ∗ (Y )) = 1 − (1 − p0 ) (1 − pi ) (10)

i:X i ∈π ∗ (Y )

duced by X i , being inactive all the other modeled and non-

modeled causes, while π ∗ (Y ) has the same meaning as in

Eq. (8).

other events X i as its explicit causes in the model. According

to what was illustrated before, concerning the advantages of

facilitating the elicitation phase, this can be extended to the

situation represented in Fig. 4, where among the causes of Fig. 5 Examples of causal strength functions depending on two (I I

Y there is also the action A. To this end, let us introduce an and I I I ) or three (I and I V ) parameters

Springer

Appl Intell (2007) 26:125–137 131

logistic curve I . Then, the expert should estimate the maxi- DNs [11], which satisfy the regularity constraint (there must

mum causal strength pinf inducted by that action, as well as be a directed path containing all decision nodes), and the

the amount of resources corresponding, for example, to the no-forgetting constraint (a decision node and its parents are

10% and the 90% of the causal strength pinf . parents to all subsequent decision nodes, that is, information

Like many other Bayesian DSSs [4, 5], BayMODE was available now should also be available later).

designed in a way to help experts be involved in a collab- Roughly speaking, the existing methods can be classified

orative interactive phase of modeling, considerably assisted as those operating directly on the given network, and those

by the visual definition of the model in the form of a di- that perform the evaluation after transforming the network

rected graph (see Fig. 6). In particular, for arcs linking ac- into a different representation. The well-known method de-

tions and events the user can provide the causal strength both scribed by Shachter [23] belongs to the first class, which con-

in tabular form and in terms of choice of the shape of the sists of transforming the DN by successively removing nodes

function with the associated parameters. During this phase, from the graph, like in stochastic dynamic programming [24],

BayMODE interactively visualizes the chosen shape of the until the final objective node holds the value corresponding

function, given its actual parameters. to the optimal policy. To the second class belong the meth-

ods which transform the diagram into a BN. This approach

was first proposed by Cooper [25] and later by Shachter and

3 Searching for best strategies Peot [26] and Zhang [27]. A related method transforms the

DN into a junction tree that is suitable for probabilistic in-

Once the model has been built, the subsequent step in the ference using the clique-tree propagation algorithm [28, 29].

BayMODE-supported decision process is the computation Since all the algorithms for standard DNs adopt the regu-

of a set of strategies to be presented to the decision maker larity and no-forgetting constraints, they cannot be used for

for consideration. In the line of principle, an optimal strategy the SDN implemented in BayMODE. Similar considerations

m

α = (a1 , . . . , am ) ∈ = i=1 D(Ai ), could be found with are valid for methods concerning non-standard DNs, the cor-

an exhaustive search, consisting of the computation of the rectness of which relies on some specific properties of those

expected values of the k objectives Ci in correspondence DNs [30–32], which do not hold for SDNs.

with all possible strategies. On the other hand, in our case the exhaustive approach

With the aim of avoiding an inefficient exhaustive search, might turn out to be computationally infeasible. In fact, ac-

a number of methods have been conceived to find the op- tions are represented by non-binary variables, and this poten-

timal policy for DNs. Most algorithms concern standard tially leads to a very large dimension of the decision space .

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132 Appl Intell (2007) 26:125–137

For example, supposing that the m actions Ai belong to finite In other words, α dominates β if α is better or equivalent

sets of definition D(Ai ) the cardinality of which is q, then the to β with respect to all objectives, and better in at least one

number of different strategies is || = q m (e.g. almost ten objective. A non-dominated solution is optimal in the Pareto

million strategies in the case of q = 5 values and m = 10 ac- sense (i.e. no criterion can be improved without worsening

tions), while in the case of binary actions it equals || = 2m at least one other criterion). Rather than a single solution, a

(e.g. about one thousand strategies for m = 10 actions). search based on such a definition of optimum produces a set

To cope with such a high dimension of the search space, of non-dominated solutions, from which the decision maker

the approach followed in BayMODE consists of viewing should pick one.

the problem as a combinatorial optimization, for which The multi-objective GA adopted is the well-known

an approximate solution is provided by a multi-objective NSGA-II [41], which has been extensively investigated and

meta heuristics. The use of heuristics is not new for BN- successfully tested [41–44]. The NSGA-II algorithm is based

related problems [33–38], although, to our knowledge, multi- on the idea of transforming the objectives into a single fit-

objective heuristics has never been used before. The problem ness measure by the creation of a number of fronts, sorted

can be conveniently formulated as a multi-objective search according to non-domination. The fronts are created using

as follows: Goldberg’s ‘non-dominated sorting’ procedure [45], which

works as follows:

max E α, s (Ci ), i = 1 . . . k (13) 1. all non-dominated individuals in the current population

α∈

are inserted in the first front, which corresponds to the

highest fitness;

where E α, s (Ci ) is defined by Eq. (5) in correspondence with 2. these individuals are virtually removed from the popu-

a given scenario s. lation and the next set of non-dominated individuals are

A more complete formulation may include some con- inserted in a second front, corresponding to the second-

straints. For example, if actions represent homogeneous highest fitness;

quantities, it may prove convenient to impose constraints on 3. phases 1–2 are reiterated until all of the individuals have

the total amount such as: been assigned a fitness rank.

When each front has been created, the so-called crowding

m

Ai ≤ amax (14) distances (i.e., normalized distance to closest neighbors in

i=1 the front in objective space) are assigned to its members, to

be used in the next phase with the purpose of promoting a

uniform sampling of the Pareto set.

where amax is the maximum total value allowed to be allo-

Selection is performed by binary tournaments [41]: be-

cated for different available actions.

tween two individuals the one with the lowest front number

In the current version of BayMODE, the meta heuristics

wins. If the individuals come from the same front, the one

adopted for solving the (13) is a multi-objective Genetic Al-

with the highest crowding distance wins, since a high dis-

gorithm (GA) [39, 40]. The GA is used to evolve a randomly

tance to the closest neighbors indicates that the individual is

initialized population, whose generic chromosome is an m-

located in a sparsely populated part of the front. If N is the

dimensional vector s representing an element α ∈ . The

size of the population, in each generation N new individuals

i-th element—or gene—of the chromosome is obtained as

are generated by a standard crossover with a predefined prob-

the binary encoding of Ai , using a suitable number of bits

ability pc . Then, a mutation with a probability pm is applied

(optionally different for each action) and its interval of defini-

to each offspring at each position in the chromosome. The

tion D(Ai ). Each chromosome can be decoded in a strategy

algorithm is elitist, in the sense that out of the 2N individuals,

α and, performing a BN inference, the objective functions

the best N individuals are kept for the next generation. The

can be computed.

constraints, like that in Eq. (14), are handled with the concept

In the multi-objective GA, to avoid the aggregation of mul-

of constrained dominance proposed in [41]. It consists of a

tiple objectives in accordance with what was illustrated in

redefinition of the criterion (15), in such a way that any fea-

Section 2.1, the comparison of two candidate solutions, with

sible solution belongs to a better non-domination front than

respect to different objectives, is achieved through Pareto’s

any infeasible solution.

optimality and dominance concepts. In particular, consider-

Execution of the NSGA-II algorithm requires the evalu-

ing the optimization problem (13), we say that a solution α

ation of the objectives corresponding to every individual in

(strongly) dominates the solution β if:

the population. This involves the use of a suitable inference

procedure for the BN representing joint probability (2), in

∀ i E α (Ci ) ≥ E β (Ci ) ∧ ∃ j : E α (C j ) > E β (C j ) (15) order to carry out the computation of Pα (π (C) | s).

Springer

Appl Intell (2007) 26:125–137 133

BayMODE performs the evaluation of the objectives Table 1 The set of events in the example presented (Ux denotes exoge-

using the so-called likelihood weighting method [46, 47], nous events, E x denotes endogenous events, p0 is the leak probability

while p̄ is the estimated probability corresponding to the null strategy)

which belongs to the class of approximate inference algo-

rithms based on stochastic simulation. The method is a varia- Id Description p0 p̄

tion of the so-called probabilistic logic sampling [48], where: U1 Increase in demand for agro-biological products 0.1

(i) repeated simulations of the world described by the BN U2 Exceptional flooding 0.02

are performed following the causal links, (ii) samples that U3 High competition from emerging countries 0.25

are inconsistent with the evidence values are thrown away, U4 Oil crisis 0.15

and (iii) the probabilities of query nodes are estimated by U5 Euro:Dollar = 1:2 0.01

counting the frequency with which relevant events occur in E1 Increase in visiting tourists 0.08 0.10

the sample. Unfortunately, if there is unlikely evidence, most E2 Increase in demand for services 0.05 0.11

E3 Increase in traffic congestion 0.11 0.66

generated samples will be inconsistent with that evidence and

E4 Agricultural development 0.06 0.19

therefore wasted. In the likelihood weighting method, this E5 Increase in real-estate values 0.09 0.23

problem of logic sampling is mitigated: instead of sampling E6 High added-value economic activities 0.06 0.41

evidence nodes, the observed value of the evidence variables E7 Population decrease, especially young people 0.1 0.75

is weighted by the likelihood of evidence. E8 Increase in unskilled immigration 0.1 0.30

The likelihood weighting algorithm was implemented in E9 Increase in unemployment 0.07 0.34

BayMODE for various reasons. First, the problem of unlikely E 10 Industrial development 0.07 0.51

evidence is not severe since the evidence (i.e. the values of

random variables representing actions and the current sce-

nario) is mainly concentrated in the roots of the BN graph Table 2 The set of actions in the example presented. All actions

are defined in the interval [0, 10]

(scenarios are mostly composed of variables in the set U of

exogenous variables). Second, the method permits the con- Id Description

trol of accuracy, which increases with the number of samples

A1 Financial support for agricultural development

generated and which is not affected by network topology and A2 Better services for citizens

size. Indeed, with certain limitations, the GA does not require A3 Improvement in collective transport systems

the exact evaluation of objectives in order to converge. This A4 Renovation of the historical center

allows fast execution of the GA, even with large networks, A5 Extension and foundation of new universities

because of the relatively small number of samples required A6 Investment in new technologies

for the evaluation of each individual. A7 Support for entrepreneurial start-ups

A8 Measures for environmental protection and

territorial preservation

A9 Better quality high-school education

4 An example application

The example application shown in this section refers to a Table 3 The set of arcs in the example presented. All shape functions

policy-making exercise. The model graph is represented in are sigmoidal with α = 0.1 and β = 0.9 (see Fig. 5)

Fig. 6, including actions (i.e. rectangles) and events (i.e. Causal Activation Causal Causal

ovals). Table 1 reports all events included in the model and influence value strength influence aα aβ p0 or pinf

their estimated leak probabilities, as well as the estimated U1 → E 4 u1 0.40 A1 → E 4 5.00 10.00 0.60

probabilities p̄ assuming that no actions were undertaken. U4 → E 10 ¬u 4 0.30 A2 → E 5 2.00 7.00 0.45

Table 2 reports the actions that in this model represent the E1 → E5 e1 0.40 A2 → E 7 8.00 3.00 0.40

efforts associated with their execution, defined in the inter- E3 → E5 ¬e3 0.25 A2 → E 1 2.00 8.00 0.50

U2 → E 4 ¬u 2 0.14 A3 → E 3 10.00 4.00 0.60

val [0, 10] and expressed in a homogeneous virtual unit. In

U3 → E 10 ¬u 3 0.25 A3 → E 5 2.00 8.00 0.30

Table 3 the characteristics of the causal strengths correspond- E 10 → E 9 ¬e10 0.40 A4 → E 5 3.00 8.00 0.40

ing to the arcs in Fig. 6 are presented. E 10 → E 6 e10 0.14 A4 → E 1 5.00 10.00 0.40

Interactions between events were modeled by the noisy- E7 → E5 ¬e7 0.25 A5 → E 7 10.00 5.00 0.40

OR assumption as explained in Section 2.2. In the graph, a E4 → E8 e4 0.30 A6 → E 10 2.00 6.00 0.70

minus symbol labeling an arc from an event X to an event E4 → E9 ¬e4 0.15 A7 → E 10 2.00 7.00 0.60

Y means x ↑Y = ¬x, whereas a plus symbol means x ↑Y = x E1 → E2 e1 0.20 A7 → E 6 5.00 10.00 0.40

(see Section 2.2). A minus symbol labeling an arc from an ac- E7 → E8 e7 0.15 A8 → E 10 10.00 5.00 0.20

E9 → E7 ¬e9 0.20 A8 → E 5 2.00 10.00 0.40

tion A to an event Y means that a decreasing causal strength

E5 → E6 ¬e5 0.35 A8 → E 4 5.00 10.00 0.40

function was used, whereas a plus symbol means that an in- U5 → E 1 u5 0.70 A9 → E 6 5.00 10.00 0.30

creasing one was used (see also Fig. 5). The thickness of

Springer

134 Appl Intell (2007) 26:125–137

the arcs represents the intensity of the causal strength (i.e. spectively. The NSGA-II algorithm was executed using the

the maximum or the asymptotic value in the case of arcs settings experimented in [41] for a wide range of tests, that

from actions to events). The model required the estimation is, a crossover probability pc = 0.9 and mutation probability

of 15 leak probabilities, 16 constant causal strength and 16 pm = 1/ , where = 12 is the number of bits in the chromo-

shapes of functions, the latter selected via the program graph- some. In order to obtain a Pareto set of good quality, exper-

ical interface. Three different objectives were specified, with iments have suggested the use of a population of N = 500

parents defined as: individuals, each encoding a strategy (i.e. the 9 effort values

relative to the available actions).

– the set of actions A as π(C1 );

The objective functions were evaluated performing the

– the set G ⊆ V, as π (C2 ), containing events reputed positive

BN stochastic sampling procedure for each individual in the

facts by the panel of domain experts;

population. Given that the adopted GA was of an elitist kind,

– the set B ⊆ V, as π(C3 ) of events reputed negative facts;

the values of the objective functions relative to the current

In particular, the objective functions were defined as: Pareto set were conveniently stored from one generation into

its successors (i.e. the BN inferences are not re-performed).

m

1 1

gC1 = Ai , gC2 = xi , gC3 = (1 − xi ) Computation was simply terminated after 200 generations

Ai ∈A

G X ∈G B X ∈G (the software allows real-time monitoring of the Pareto-set

i i

evolution). Using a standard PC, about thirty minutes were

(16)

required for the total computation.

where it is assumed that x = 1 and ¬x = 0. Thus, E α (C1 ) Figure 7, representing the final non-dominated set com-

is simply the total effort spent on the strategy α, E α (C2 ) is posed of about 400 individuals, shows how the proposed

the expected share of occurring events in G, while E α (C3 ) is multi-objective approach allows the user to pick a solution

the expected share of non-occurring events in B. It is worth- from a variety of possibilities. Clearly, the final selection

while mentioning that once the model has been defined, the must be performed on the basis of some additional subjec-

program allows the user to define a different set of objectives tive decision. The selected strategies in our case are labeled

which corresponds to a different point of view in the analysis. as a and b in the figure. In particular, Fig. 8 reports the ef-

fort allocation suggested by the BayMODE analysis for both

4.1 Case I: A three-objective problem strategies, while Fig. 9 represents the corresponding proba-

bility variations.

The first analysis was carried out with the aim to maximize For example, according to strategy a, the decision maker

the expected values of gC2 and gC3 and to minimize gC1 . should invest high efforts in “Support for entrepreneurial

The parent sets of the objective functions gC2 and gC3 were start-ups”, “Support for agricultural development” and

defined as G = {E 1 , E 4 , E 6 , E 10 } and B = {E 3 , E 7 , E 9 }, re- “Better services for citizens”, medium effort in “Investments

computed non-dominated

solutions in the space of the

objective functions. The

selected solutions are labeled

Springer

Appl Intell (2007) 26:125–137 135

Fig. 8 Case I: effort allocation corresponding to the selected solutions selected solutions are labeled

tions

Fig. 9 Case I: Variations of the estimated event probabilities, corre- 50 generations when the quality of the Pareto-set was judged

sponding to the selected solutions to be sufficient. Figure 10 represents the final non-dominated

set where three selected strategies are labeled with the letters

in new technologies” and low effort in other actions. Un- a, b and c. Figure 11 reports the effort allocations suggested

dertaking strategy a leads to an expected number of oc- by the BayMODE analysis in correspondence to the selected

curred events in G of 65%, and to an expected number of strategies.

not-occurred events in B of 54%. As visible in Fig. 7, if the Strategy a corresponds to a moderate value of the to-

decision maker is willing to spend more effort, he/she may tal effort: it suggests that, according to the knowledge pro-

substantially maintain the value of objective C2 , while in- vided by the panel of experts who built the model, a decision

creasing the probabilities of C3 : this is the case of strategy maker can obtain an increment in the probability of increas-

b. According to the latter, the decision maker should spend ing the real-estate values, from P(e5 ) = 0.23 (see Table 1) to

more effort, especially on the actions “Improvement of col- P(e5 ) = 0.63, simply with high investments in “Better ser-

lective transport systems” and “Extension and foundation of vices for citizens” and very low investments in other actions.

new universities”, obtaining as a result an expected number According to the strategy b, which leads to P(e5 ) = 0.83, the

of occurred events in G of 63%, and an expected number of most important actions are “Better services for citizens” and

non-occurred events in B of 79%. “Renovation of the historical center”, while a moderate in-

vestment in “Improvement of collective transport systems” is

4.2 Case II: A two-objective problem suggested. Increasing the latter allows a further increment in

the value of P(e5 ), that in the strategy c is estimated as 0.94.

In the second analysis, a two-objective problem of maximiz-

ing the expected value of gC2 and minimizing gC1 was solved.

The parent sets of gC2 were defined as G = {E 5 }, that is, the 5 Conclusions and future work

problem consisted of maximizing the probability of increas-

ing the real-estate values, while minimizing the total effort. In this paper, we have presented the main features of the

In this case the GA population was composed of N = 100 decision support system BayMODE, which is based on a si-

individuals as in [41], while all the other GA parameters were multaneous decision network coupled with a meta heuristic

Springer

136 Appl Intell (2007) 26:125–137

search procedure. The proposed tool includes some charac- 7. Druzdzel MJ (1999) SMILE: structural modeling, inference, and

teristics which, put together, make it particularly effective learning engine and GeNIE: a development environment for graph-

ical decision-theoretic models. In: Proceedings of the sixteenth

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national conference on artificial intelligence and eleventh confer-

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The kind of decision network adopted in BayMODE is es- 903

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pecially suitable when the noisy-OR gate is chosen to model

tool for probabilistic graphical models. Int J Artif Intell Tools

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medical diagnosis based on Bayesian networks. In: Proceedings

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