4/6/2009

Watershed Application using ArcGIS
Agus Wibowo
MSc in IT for NRM Bogor Agricultural University
e-mail: aw3126@yahoo com e mail: aw3126@yahoo.com

Aplikasi GIS untuk “Watershed”
• Menentukan batas DAS / watershed boundaries • Menentukan distribusi curah hujan di DAS
o o

Polygon Thiessen Isohyet

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Data Used
• Data Digital Elevation NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) • Dapat di-download di http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org/ • Tersedia Data SRTM 90m Version 4

Website Data SRTM

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Search Data SRTM

3. Click untuk mencari data

1. Pilih format data 2. Click lokasi data

Download Data

Click untuk download

Data hasil download

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Software: ArcGIS Desktop + Spatial Analyst Tools

Watershed Delineation
• • • • • • • Creating a depressionless DEM Flow direction Flow Accumulation Stream network/line Stream link Stream order Delineating watersheds
Sumber: ArcGIS Desktop Help

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Add Data to ArcMap - 1
• Ekstrak Zip file data hasil download • Start ArcMap • Aktifkan ArcToolbox • Click menuConversion tools → ASCII to raster

Add Data to ArcMap - 2
• • • • Input: ..\srtm_58_14\srtm_58_14.ASC Output: ..\SRTM_v4\jabar_dem Output data type: INTEGER Click OK

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Add Data to ArcMap - 3

Ubah Symbology Peta
Double Click Layer y

Pilih jenis Color Ramp

Click untuk membalik urutan warna

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Cropping Data DEM
• Gunakan ArcToolBox → Spatial Analyst Tools → Extraction • Untuk ekstraksi berdasar luasan misal poligon batas admin Jawa Barat gunakan Extract by Mask. Buat raster poligon batas admin Jabar terlebih dahulu.

Buat Mask Batas Admin Jabar
• Pilih poligon Jabar
Load batas admin Indo_prop.shp o Select Jawa Barat
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• Konversi Poligon ke raster
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Gunakan Arctoolbox Conversion tools → To Raster → Polygon to Raster
Atur ukuran sel 0.001 (10 m)

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Extract by Mask / Cropping
• Gunakan menu Arctoolbox • Spatial Analyst Tools → Extraction → Extract by Mask

Hasil Extract by Mask

•Spatial Analyst Overview of Hydrology Tools
• • • • • • • • • • • • • Basin: Creates a raster delineating all drainage basins within the Analysis window. Fill: Fills sinks in a surface raster to remove small imperfections in the data. Flow Accumulation: Creates a raster of accumulated flow to each cell by accumulating the weight for all cells that flow into each downslope cell. Flow Direction: Creates a grid of flow direction from each cell to its steepest downslope neighbor. Flow Length: Calculates upstream or downstream distance along a flow path for each cell. Sink: Creates a grid identifying all sinks or areas of internal drainage. Snap Pour Point: Snaps selected pour points to the cell of highest flow accumulation within a specified neighborhood. SnapPour: Snaps selected pour points to the cell of highest flow accumulation within a specified neighborhood. Stream Link: Assigns unique values to sections of a raster linear network between intersections. Stream Order: Assigns a numeric order to segments of a grid representing branches of a linear network. Stream To Feature: Converts a raster representing a raster linear network to a feature class. StreamShape: Converts a grid representing a raster linear network to a shapefile. Watershed: Determines the contributing area above a set of cells in a grid grid.

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Watershed Delineation
• • • • • • • • Creating a depressionless DEM Flow direction Flow Accumulation Stream network/line (Map Algebra) Stream link Stream order Delineating watersheds
Sumber: ArcGIS Desktop Help

•Creating a depressionless DEM - 1
• Sink dan Peak terjadi resolusi data atau pembuatan nilai integer • Sink dan peak harus dihilangkan, jika tidak maka delineasi jarinagn drainase tidak kontinyu.

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•Creating a depressionless DEM - 2
• Arctoolbox → Spatial Analyst Tools→ Hydrology → Fill • Waktu: 4 menit (Core 2 duo 2.33 GHz, RAM 4GB)

DEM h il hasil

Create Flow Direction
• Menentukan arah aliran air • Evaluasi 3 x 3 cell, berhenti cell pada tengah cell dan evaluasi dengan nilai cell tetangganya. • Jika arah aliran ke utara maka nilai cell tengah diganti dengan cell tsb. • Nilai cell antara 1-255 • Contoh untuk illustrasi

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Compute Flow Direction
• ArctoolBox → Spatial Analyst Tools → Flow Direction • Waktu: 30 detik

Hasil Flow Direction

Compute Flow Accumulation
• Untuk menentukan jaringan sungai • Waktu: 1' 6”

Hasil Flow Accumulation

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Extract Stream Network - 1
• Ubah symbology peta FlowAccumulation menjadi classified dengan 5 klas secara Natural Breaks. • Maka akan terlihat angka treshold jaringan sungai.

Extract Stream Network - 2
• ArctoolBox → Spatial Analyst Tools → Map Algebra → Single Output Map ALgebra

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Stream Link

Stream Order
• Metode:

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Watershed Delineation
• Watershed Outlet / “Pour” Points • Create shapefiles (point) using ArcCatalog • Add “pour” point pada pertemua cabang sungai. sungai

Pour Point
• Buat “pour” point sesuai kebutuhan

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Watershed Delineation
• Hasil kurang bagus, perlu pour point yang banyak.

Automatic Basin Delineation
• Secara otomatis delineasi basin / watershed area untuk seluruh data. • ArctoolBox → Spatial Analyst Tools → Hydrologi → Basin

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Compute Flow Length
• Flow length is the distance travelled from any cell along the surface flow network to an outlet. This can be used to find areas that are closer to headwater locations or closer to stream outlets. • ArcToolBox → Spatial Analyst Tools → Hydrology → Flow Length

Hasil Flow Length

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Hillshade
• Untuk memberi efek tampilan 3D • Arctoolbox → Spatial Analyst Tools → Surface → Hillshade • Overlay dengan Flowlenght dengan transparancy 35%

Referensi
• ArcGIS Desktop Help • Hydrologic Modeling and Watershed y g g Delineationhttp://courses.washington.edu/esrm590/lessons/hydrology/index. html • SRTM 90m Digital Elevation Data • http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org/ • Data Batas Administrasi, jaringan jalan, lokasi kota, http://neonet.bppt.go.id

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