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Shielded Metal Arc Welding

By L D Poyyara

What Is Welding ?
Process of joining metals / alloys The process performed by Heat with or without Pressure Filler metal may or may not be used The joint will be homogeneous
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Classification Of Welding
1 Pressure Welding With Heat &
Pressure

2 Fusion Welding With Heat &


mostly with Filler

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Pressure Welding Process


Metal parts heated to forging temperature Heating by Oven, Oxy fuel flame or Electric Resistance Pressure applied on heated parts by Hammer, Hydraulic Press or Mechanical lever The Parts remain permanent homogeneous joint

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Types Of Pressure Welding


Forge Welding Resistance Butt / Flash Butt / Stud Welding Resistance Spot Welding Resistance Seam welding

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Fusion Welding Process


Metal parts locally heated to melt along the joint. Heating by oxy fuel flame or electric Arc. Invariably filler metal added to molten pool. On cooling, molten puddle solidifies to permanent homogeneous joint.

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Types Of Fusion Welding


Shielded Metal Arc Welding- SMAW Gas Tungsten Arc Welding - GTAW Gas Metal Arc Welding GMAW (MIG / MAG / FCAW) Submerged Arc Welding SAW Gas welding Oxy Fuel Gas Electron Beam Welding - EBW Thermit Welding

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SMAW Process
Core Wire

An electric Arc struck between electrode and base metal joint Flux Base metal melts under arc Coating Electrode tip melts in drops and transfers to molten pool of BM Electrode with Arc moves along Pool the joint keeping constant arc Arc length Base Metal On cooling pool solidifies
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Equipment, Accessories & tools


Power Source Welding Cables, Holder & Earthing Clamp Head Screen, Hand gloves, Chipping Hammer & Wire Brush
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Types Of Power Source


Inverter- DC Thyristor DC Diesel Generator Set -DC Rectifier DC Transformer - AC
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Characteristic Of Power Source


Manual welding
Drooping Cons. A

Machine welding
Linear Cons. V

V
V1 V2

V
Vertical Curve
V1 V2

Horizontal Curve

A
A1 A2 A1 A2 POYYARA CONSULTANTS

A
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Electrode
Consumable Metallic Wire Coated with Flux Conducts Current and generates Arc Wire melts & deposited as filler in joint
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Flux Coating On Electrode


Sodium Chloride Potassium Chloride Titanium Dioxide Sodium Silicate Ferrosilicon Iron Powder Alloying Elements Binding Material
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Function Of Flux In welding


Stabilizes Arc Prevents contamination of weld metal Cleans the weld from unwanted impurities Increases fluidity of molten metal Generates inert gas shielding while metal transfers

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Function Of Flux In welding


Forms slag after melting & covers weld Allows deposited metal to cool slowly Introduces alloying elements in the weld Increases deposition efficiency Minimizes the spatter generation Helps in even & uniform bead finish

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CS & LAS Electrode Sizes & Recommended Currents


Core Wire (in mm) No Dia Length Gage Current Time required for burning in seconds 50-55 60-65 80 -85 85-90 90-95 95-100 Average electrodes consumed in 8 Hrs shift ----120 - 140 110 - 120 80 - 90 60 -70
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1 2 3 4 5 6

2 2.5 3.15 4 5 6.3

300 350 450 450 450 450

14 12 10 8 6 4

40 60 A 60 85 A 100 130 A 130 180 A 150 210 A 240 250 A

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Appx. Cost Of CS & SS Electrodes


Electrode Quality AWS Classification E6013 CS E7018 E308L SS E309 3.15 350 31.60 3.15 3.15 450 350 6.30 22.30 Core Wire ( in mm ) Dia 3.15 Length 450 Cost Per Piece ( in Rupees) 3.00

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ASME Classification Of Electrodes


SFA 5.1 E 7018 E = Electrode 70 = UTS in 1000 psi ( 60/70/80/90/100/ 110) 1 = Position (1= all, 2= 1G, 1F & 2F, 3= 1G & 1F) 8 = Type of coating (0,1,2,3,5,6,8)
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Baking Of Basic Coated Electrodes


Bake the loose electrodes in a baking Oven Baking Temperature 250 C to 300 C Baking Time 2Hrs to 3 Hrs Reduce the temperature to 100 C Hold the electrodes at this temperature till use Unused / left over electrodes to be re-baked

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Why Baking?

To remove the moisture (H2O) from coating to avoid possible cracking of weld

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How Does Moist Electrode Generate Crack Within Weld?


Moist electrodes introduce atomic hydrogen at high temperature in weld On cooling, atomic hydrogen try to form molecules The reaction results in stresses and fine cracks Cracks occur within hardened metal - HAZ Known as Hydrogen Embrittlement , Under Bead Crack, HIC, Delayed Crack, Cold Crack.

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Important Terminologies used in Critical Welding Operation


Preheating Post Heating or Dehydrogenation Intermediate Stress leaving Inter pass Temperature Post Weld Heat Treatment

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What Is Preheating?
Heating the base metal along the weld joint to a predetermined minimum temperature immediately before starting the weld. Heating by Oxy fuel flame or electric resistant coil Heating from opposite side of welding wherever possible Temperature to be verified by thermo chalks prior to starting the weld

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Why Preheating?
Preheating eliminates possible cracking of weld and HAZ Applicable to
Hardenable low alloy steels of all thickness Carbon steels of thickness above 25 mm. Restrained welds of CS & LAS of all thickness

Preheating temperature vary from 75C to 300C depending on hardenability of material, thickness & joint restraint
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How does Preheating Eliminate Crack?


Preheating promotes slow cooling of weld and HAZ Slow cooling softens or prevents hardening of weld and HAZ Soft material not prone to crack even in restrained condition

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What Is Post Heating/Dehydrogenation?


Raising the pre heating temperature of the weld joint to a predetermined temperature range (250 C to 350 C) for a minimum period of time (3 Hrs) before the weld cools down to room temperature. Post heating performed when welding is completed or terminated any time in between. Heating by Oxy fuel flame or electric resistant coil Heating from opposite side of welding wherever possible Temperature verified by thermo chalks during the period
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Why Post Heating?


Post heating eliminates possible delayed cracking of weld and HAZ Applicable to Thicker hardenable low alloy steels Restrained hardenable welds of all thickness Post heating temperature and duration depends on hardenability of material, thickness & joint restrain
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How does Post Heating Eliminate Crack?


SMAW introduces hydrogen in weld metal Entrapped hydrogen in weld metal induces delayed cracks unless removed before cooling to room temperature Retaining the weld at a higher temperature for a longer duration allows the hydrogen to come out of weld
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What Is Intermediate Stress Relieving?


Heat treating a subassembly in a furnace to a predetermined cycle immediately on completion of critical restrained weld joint / joints without allowing the welds to go down the pre heat temperature. Rate of heating, Soaking temperature, Soaking time and rate of cooling depends on material quality and thickness Applicable to Highly restrained air hardenable material
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Why Intermediate Stress Relieving?


Restrained welds in air hardenable steel highly prone to crack on cooling to room temperature. Cracks due to entrapped hydrogen, hardened HAZ and built in stress Intermediate stress relieving makes the joint free from crack prone by - Relieving built in stresses - Relieving entrapped hydrogen. - Softening HAZ.
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What Is Inter- Pass Temperature?


The temperature of a previously layed weld bead immediately before depositing the next bead over it Temperature to be verified by thermo chalk prior to starting next bead Applicable to
Stainless Steel Carbon Steel & LAS with minimum impact
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Why Inter Pass Temperature?


Control on inter pass temperature avoids over heating, there by
Refines the weld metal with fine grains Improves the notch toughness properties Minimize the loss of alloying elements in welds Reduces the distortion

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What Is Post Weld Heat Treatment?


Heat treating an assembly on completion of all applicable welding, in an enclosed furnace with controlled heating/cooling rate and soaking at a specific temperature for a specific time. Rate of heating, Soaking temperature, Soaking time and rate of cooling depends on material quality and thickness Applicable to
All type of CS & LAS
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Why Post Weld Heat Treatment?


Welded joints retain internal stresses within the structure HAZ of welds remains invariably hardened Post Weld Heat Treatment relieves internal stresses and softens HAZ. This reduces the cracking tendency of the equipment in service

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Welding Terminologies used in Qualifications


Heat In Put Heat Affected Zone HAZ Dilution Overlap In Weld Overlay Tempering Bead

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What Is Heat In Put In Welding?


The extent of heat energy generated in Joules per unit length while making each weld bead. Heat In Put is the Function of Welding Current, Arc Voltage, And the Welding Speed It is measured in Joules Heat In Put In Joules / mm = (A x V x 60) Travel Speed in mm / min

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Why Control On Heat in Put?

Heat In put controls the grain size of weld metal.


Lower the Heat in put finer the grain size. Finer the Grain size Better the impact properties

Heat In Put Also controls Dilution, HAZ & Geometry of Bead size
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What Is Heat Affected Zone (HAZ)


A small volume of BM adjacent to weld fusion line, which is totally changed in its structure due to intense heat of each weld bead is known HAZ
Diluted BM HAZ Weld Zone

Fusion Line Weld Zone


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Diluted BM
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What Is Significant Of HAZ


It is a part and parcel of weld joint It is inevitable It has properties different from BM & Weld Metal
Diluted BM HAZ Weld Zone

Fusion Line Weld Zone


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Diluted BM
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What Is Dilution In Weld


In all Fusion welding, a small portion of BM very close to the welding heat gets melted and added to weld zone / fusion zone. Dilution is the ratio of molten base metal volume (Area) to the volume ( Area) of total fusion zone
% Dilution = (Area of Diluted BM Total Fused Area) 100
HAZ Weld / Fusion Zone

Fusion Line

Diluted BM
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What Is Significant Of Dilution


Weld metal chemistry changes depending on the extent of dilution Chemical elements influence Physical properties of the joint. Weld chemistry influences corrosion resistance of weld overlays
Diluted BM HAZ Weld Zone

Fusion Line Weld Zone


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Diluted BM
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What Is Overlap In Weld Overlay?


The extent of covering or over lapping of previous weld bead by the adjacent bead.
Less Dilution More Thickness Less Thickness More Dilution

40 to 50 % Over Lap

10 to 15 % Over Lap

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What Is Significant Of Overlap In Weld Overlay?


Overlap of 40 to 50% results in Less Dilution & more weld overlay Thickness per layer Less dilution results weld metal chemistry more towards filler metal chemistry
More Thickness

Less Dilution

Less Thickness

More Dilution

40 to 50 % Over Lap

10 to 15 % Over Lap

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What Is Temper Bead Technique?


In a multi pass groove & Fillet Welds, each bead & its HAZ are getting tempered (heat treated) by the welding heat of the next bead. Thus all beads & their HAZ, except those in last layer, are tempered. Temper beads are the specially & carefully welded temporary beads on the top of final weld reinforcement with out allowing to generate any HAZ within the BM. Temper beads are to be ground flush with the required reinforcement.
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Temper Bead
Temper Bead T1 & T2 Not To Generate HAZ In BM Temper Beads To Be Ground Flush
Rqd. Reinforcement

T1 5 4 3

T2 5

T1 & T2 To be ground Flush

2 1

4 3

HAZ

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Common Defects In SMAW


1. Cracks 3. Slag 5. Pinhole 7. Undercut 9. Lack Of Penetration 11. Spatters 13. Under Flush 15. Uneven Bead 2. Lack Of Fusion 4. Porosity 6. Piping 8. Overlap 10. Excess Penetration 12. Suck Back 14. Burn Through 16.Stray Arcing
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Crack
1) 2) 3) 4)
Cause Wrong Consumable Wrong Procedure Improper Preheat Excessive Restrain

1) 2) 3) 4)

Remedy Use Right Electrode Qualify Procedure Preheat Uniformly Post heating or ISR

crack

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Lack Of Fusion
Cause
1) Inadequate Current 2) Wrong Electrode angle 3) Improper bead placement

Remedy
1) Use Right Current 2) Train /Qualify welder 3) Train/Qualify Welder

Lack Of Fusion

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Slag
Cause
1) Inadequate Cleaning 2) Inadequate Current 3) Wrong Electrode angle 4) Improper bead placement
Slag

Remedy
1) Clean each bead 2) Use Right Current 3) Train / Qualify welder 4) Train / Qualify Welder

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Porosity
Cause
1) Damp Electrode 2) Damaged coating 3) Wet surface of BM 4) Rusted core wire
Porosity . .

Remedy
1) Bake the electrodes 2) Replace the electrodes 3) Clean & warm the BM 4) Replace the electrodes

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Pinhole
Cause
1) Damp Electrode 2) Damaged coating 3) Wet surface of BM/WM 4) Rusted core wire
Pinhole

Remedy
1) Bake the electrodes 2) Replace the electrodes 3) Clean & warm the BM 4) Replace the electrodes

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Piping
Cause
1) Damp Electrode 2) Damaged coating 3) Previous beads wet 4) Rusted core wire
Piping

Remedy
1) Bake the electrodes 2) Replace the electrodes 3) Clean & warm the weld 4) Replace the electrodes

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Undercut
Cause
1) Excess Current 2) Excess Voltage 3) Improper Electrode
angle 1) Eccentric Coating
Under cut

Remedy
1) Reduce the Current 2) Reduce Arc length 3) Train & Qualify the
Welder 1) Replace the electrode

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Overlap
Cause Remedy
1) Wrong Electrode Angle 1) Train & Qualify welder 2) Inadequate current
Overlap

2) Increase the current

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Lack Of Penetration*
Cause
1) Excess Root Face 2) Inadequate Root opening 3) Over size electrode 4) Wrong Electrode angle 5) Improper bead placement 6) Improper weaving
technique * Applicable to SSFPW

Remedy
1) Reduce Root Face 2) Increase Root Opening 3) Reduce electrode size 4) Train / Qualify Welder 5) Train / Qualify Welder 6) Train & Qualify Welder

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Excess Penetration*
Cause Remedy

1) Excess root opening 2) Excess Current 3) Inadequate root face 4) Wrong Electrode angle
* Applicable to SSFPW

1) Reduce root gap 2) Reduce Current 3) Increase Root face 4) Train / Qualify Welder

Excess Penetration

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Spatters
Cause
1) Excess Current 2) Excess Voltage 3) Wrong Polarity 4) Wet Electrodes 5) Rusted BM surface 6) Rusted Core wire 7) Eccentrics coating
Spatters

Remedy
1) Reduce to Right Current 2) Reduce Arc length 3) Correct the polarity 4) Use Baked electrodes 5) Clean BM surface 6) Replace the electrodes 7) Replace the electrodes

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Suck Back*
1) 2) 3) 4)
Cause Excess weaving in root Excess Current Inadequate root face Wrong Electrode angle Remedy 1)Reduce weaving 2) Reduce Current 3) Increase Root face 4) Train / Qualify Welder

* Applicable to SSFPW in 4G, 3G & 2G

Suck Back

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Under Flush
Cause
1) Inadequate weld beads in 1)
final layer 2) Inadequate understanding on weld reinforcement requirement 3) 3) Wrong selection of Electrode size for final layer

Remedy
Weld some more beads in final layer 2) Train / Qualify welder Train / Qualify Welder

Under flush

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Burn through*
Cause
1) Excess Current 2) Excess Root opening 3) Inadequate Root face 4) Improper weaving
Burn trough

Remedy
1) Reduce the Current 2) Reduce root opening 3) Increase root face 4) Train / Qualify Welder
*Applicable to root pass

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Uneven Bead Finish


Cause
1) Improper bead
placement 2) Excess Voltage 3) Excess / inadequate current
Uneven bead finish

Remedy
1) Train & Qualify the
Welder 2) Reduce Arc length 3) Train & Qualify the Welder

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Stray Arcing
Cause Remedy
1) Wrong Arc Striking Practice 1) Train the Welder 2) Inadequate Skill of Welder 2) Train the Welder
Arc Strikes

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Good Engineering Practices in


Shielded Metal Arc Welding

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Good Engineering Practices In SMAW


Do Welding with properly baked electrodes Basic coated CS electrodes to be baked to 250C to 300C for two hours Baked electrodes to be directly used on job or to be retained in a hold over oven at 100C to 150C until use Unused balance electrodes shall be returned to baking oven

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Good Engineering Practices In SMAW


Do not weld with damp Electrodes Do not try to heat electrodes by touching the job (Short circuiting) Do not use electrodes with damaged coating Do not use electrodes with cracked coating Do not bend the electrodes after holding it in the holder
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Good Engineering Practices In SMAW


Do not weld on groove / surface with mill scale or rusting Prior to welding, clean the weld groove with power wire wheel Do not weld with unidentified electrodes Do not leave balance electrodes unattended on shop
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Good Engineering Practices In SMAW


All connections with earthing and welding cables shall be tight fitted Earthing clamp shall always be tightly connected to the job Burn the full length of electrode till 37 mm stub length

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Good Engineering Practices In SMAW


Earthing cable shall directly connect to the job with an earthing clamp. Tacks for set up shall be minimum 5 times the electrode diameter Weaving shall be limited to three times the electrode diameter. Only trained & qualified welders shall be employed for welding
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Good Engineering Practices In SMAW


Do not direct fan or blower to welding arc Remove paint if any from the area near welding While welding in open, area shall be covered to protect from rain water & breeze Weld edge preparation shall be free from serrations

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Good Engineering Practices In SMAW


Use poison plates between the job material & structural supports. Do not damage parent metal while removing temporary supports. Locations where from temporary supports are removed shall be touched up by welding / grinding and PT checked.
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Good Engineering Practices In SMAW


Remove visible defects from welds before placing the subsequent beads Do not weld over a visible crack Electrodes kept out side more than 2 Hrs shall be returned to baking oven Maximum 15 electrodes at a time shall be taken from oven for welding
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Good Engineering Practices In SMAW


When preheat is required, heat from opposite side of welding. Use temperature indicating crayons for checking temperature Do not Weld more than specified weld size- Fillet / Reinforcement.

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Safety Precautions in
Shielded Metal Arc Welding

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Safety Precautions In SMAW


Welders shall use safety devises Hand gloves, Head screen with right glass & Safety shoes Welders shall use full sleeve boiler suit Use welding glass-DIN 11/12 up to 250 Amps and 13 above 250 Amps Do not look at the arc with naked eyes
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Safety Precautions In SMAW


Do not throw Stubs on ground. They shall be placed in stub collector. Do not keep electrode in the holder when work is not in progress Do not touch the electrode held on holder and the the job when the power source is on Keep welding cables duly wound near power source when no welding is done

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Safety Precautions In SMAW


Do not breath welding fumes When working in confined area, ensure adequate ventilation / exhaust Gas cutting torch / preheating burner shall not be taken inside confined area unless the flame is lit When not in use, switch off the the power source from electric supply
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Safety Precautions In SMAW


Acetone / inflammable liquids (Chemical for dye penetrant test) shall not be brought near welding Gas cutting unit / fuel gas cylinders shall be away from welding area Wet safety Shoes or wet hand gloves shall not be worn while welding
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Thank You