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A1 PASSERS TRAINING, RESEARCH, REVIEW AND DEVELOPMENT COMPANY Licensure Examination for Teachers MATHEMATICS Prepared by: Lilibeth Joy C. Vallejo

Counting numbers/ Natural numbers or positive integers: 1, 2, 3, and so on. Integers: positive integers, negative integers and zero ( neither (+) nor (-)

E.g. 5, -19, 0 Rational number: any number that can be represented by the division of one integer by another nonzero integer; are used to specify parts of a quantity E.g. 5, -19, 5/8, -11/3 Irrational numbers: cannot be written as the division of one integer by another. E.g. √2, ᴫ Real Numbers: The integers, the rational numbers, and the irrational numbers, including all such numbers that are (+), (-), or zero. Imaginary number: the square root of a negative number; not real numbers

Fraction - may contain any number or symbol representing a number in its numerator or in its

denominator; Indicates the division of the numerator by the denominator ; may be a number that is rational, irrational, or imaginary.

Examples:

Absolute value- the absolute value of a positive number is the number itself, and the absolute value

of a negative number is the corresponding positive number. E.g. The absolute value of 6 is 6, and the absolute value -7of is 7. We write these as | 6 | = 6 and | -7| = 7.

** SIGNS OF INEQUALITY : On the number line, if a first number is to the right of a second number,
**

then the first number is said to be greater than (>) the second. If the number is to the left of the second, it is less than (<) the second

RECIPROCAL

NOTE: Every number, except zero, has a reciprocal. The reciprocal of a number is 1 divided by the number.

then your profit will be 3x − 10 dollars"). we write the area as 0. Variables.g. • allows the exploration of mathematical relationships between quantities (e. but which may be found through the formulation and manipulation of equations. DENOMINATE NUMBERS: Numbers that represent a measurement and are written with units of measurement Examples: To show that a certain HDTV set weighs 28 kilograms. To do this. For addition: the sum of a number and 0 is the number itself. we represent the numbers by letters. "multiplication distributes over addition.a letter or symbol used in algebra to represent numbers.literal numbers that may vary in a given problem Constants. ×. LITERAL NUMBERS: It is usually more convenient to state definitions and operations on numbers in a general form.) Division ( / ) Logarithm (Log) and nth root Exponentiatio b a or a^b n Properties of PROPERTY COMMUTAT IVE ASSOCIATIV E DISTRIBUTI VE Numbers EXPLANATION The word "commutative" comes from "commute" or "move around" The word "associative" comes from "associate" or "group". • allows reference to numbers which are not known • may represent a certain value which is not yet known. variables and arithmetical operations. (–6)( –1/6 ) = 1. which preserves numbers: a1 =a inverse operation Subtraction ( . • allows the making of generalizations in mathematics • allows arithmetical equations (and inequalities) to be stated as laws (such as a + b = b + a for all a and b). The major difference between algebra and arithmetic is the inclusion of variables. which preserves numbers: a × 1 = a 1.literal numbers that are held fixed ALGEBRA AND ARITHMETIC Arithmetic: only numbers and their arithmetical operations (such as +. ÷) occur Algebra: also uses variables such as x and y.: "if you sell x tickets. which preserves numbers: a + 0 = a 1. Expressions • (In elementary algebra). To show that the area of a computer chip is 0. the rule that refers to grouping. Variable .75 cm2. we write the height as 110 m.75 square centimetre. To show that a giant redwood tree is 110 metres high. For multiplication: The product of a number and 0 is the number itself. INVERSE . • conventionally written with 'higher-power' terms on the left • Examples: Properties of operations Is Operation commutative Written Addition Multiplication a+b a×b or a•b a+b=b+a a×b=b×a Not commutative ab≠ba associative (a + b) + c = a + (b+ c) (a × b) × c = a × (b× c) Not associative identity element 0. Either takes something through parentheses or else factors something out. To show that the speed of a rocket is 1500 metres per second. or a and b to replace numbers. we write the speed as 1500 m/s. called literal numbers. Additive inverse: the number that you add to a certain number that For addition: a + b = b + a For multiplication: ab = ba For addition: a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c For multiplication: a(bc) = (ab)c a(b + c) = ab + ac EXAMPLE 2+3=3+2 2×3 = 3×2 2 + (3 + 4) = (2 + 3) + 4 2(3×4) = (2×3)4 2(3 + 4) = 2×3 + 2×4 2(x + y) = 2x + 2y IDENTITY a+ 0= a a * 1= a additive inverse of a=-a multiplicative inverse of a= –6 + 6 = 0. we write the volume as 25 cm3. −. and thus is the first step to the systematic study of the properties of the real number system. To show that the volume of water in a glass tube is 25 cubic centimetres. we write the weight as 28 kg. may contain numbers.

that if two symbols are equal. The relation of equality (=) has the property. transitive: if a = b and b = c then a = c.... reflexive: b = b. Simplify: 23 + 5x + 7y – x – y – 27. original (given) statement Commutative Property Associative Property simplification (23 – 27 = –4) Distributive Property simplification Commutative Property Justify your steps.. Subtraction of one number from another Change the sign of the number being subtracted and change the subtraction to addition. . Addition of two numbers of different signs Subtract the number of smaller absolute value from the number of larger absolute value and assign to the result the sign of the number of larger absolute value. Perform the addition. original (given) statement Distributive Property simplification (3×2 = 6) Commutative Property Associative Property Distributive Property simplification (3 – 4 = –1) Commutative Property 23 + 5x + 7y – x – y – 27 23 – 27 + 5x – x + 7y – y (23 – 27) + (5x – x) + (7y – y) (–4) + (5x – x) + (7y – y) (–4) + x(5 – 1) + y(7 – 1) –4 + x(4) + y(6) –4 + 4x + 6y • Simplify 3(x + 2) – 4x. then one can be substituted for the other. that if a = b then a + c = b + c. Multiplicative inverse: the number that you multiply with the number. 3(x + 2) – 4x 3x + 3×2 – 4x 3x + 6 – 4x 3x – 4x + 6 (3x – 4x) + 6 x(3 – 4) + 6 x(–1) + 6 –x + 6 OPERATIONS ON POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE INTEGERS Addition of two numbers of the same sign: Add their absolute values and assign the sum their common sign. Justify your steps.makes it equal to 0. that if a = b and c = d then a + c = b + d and ac = bd. Properties of equality 1/a The relation of equality (=) is. symmetric: if a = b then b = a. equals 1.

1. the bar. how we are to combine numbers is clear by grouping the numbers using symbols such as parentheses ( ).6 ÷ 2 = 4. 3.____. Otherwise. and vertical lines | | for absolute value.2 x 3= 2. we use the following order of operations. EVALUATING NUMERICAL EXPRESSIONS OPERATIONS WITH ZERO . it is generally more convenient to change the operations and numbers so that the result is found by the addition and subtraction of positive numbers. Operations within specific groupings are done first.| -3 – 6 |= 3. 16 . for an expression in which there are several operations. 16 ÷ (2 x 4) NOTE: When evaluating expressions. 2. ORDER OF OPERATIONS Often.Multiplication and division of two numbers The product (or quotient) of two numbers of the same sign is positive. The product (or quotient) of two numbers of different signs is negative. Then perform additions and subtractions (from left to right). between the numerator and denominator of a fraction. | 3 – 5 | . (PMDAS) EXAMPLES: 1. Perform multiplications and divisions (from left to right). 12.

Proportion: An equation stating that two ratios are equal. If the ratio of to 8 equals the ratio of 3 to 4. RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio: The quotient is a/b is also called the ratio a of to b. After further 8 years. Father is aged three times more than his son Ronit. how many times would he be of Ronit's age? A. if one of the numbers is unknown. he would be two and a half times of Ronit's age. 2 times . All the other operations with zero may be performed as for any other number. Division by zero is the only undefined basic operation. WORD PROBLEMS Age • 1. Usually. this is done by noting the denominators and multiplying each side by a number that will clear the fractions. After 8 years. we can solve for its value as with any equation.Note: Never divide by zero. we have the proportion: Since a proportion is an equation.

Son's age 5 years back (19 .30 6x = 84 • x = 14. 5 Therefore.x) = x 2x = 38. father's present age =(x + 3x) years = 4x years. (38 .5) = 14 years. 3. 14 years 33 years B. 2 3 time 4 s D.6) 54 . father's age was five times the age of the son.6 = 5(x . • Son's age after 6 years = (x+ 6) = 20 years. 1 5 Answer:Option D 1 A's 1 day's 1 work = 5 1 B's 1 day's 2 work = 0 (A + B)'s 1 day's work = (A + B)'s 4 day's work = .x) . Work A can do a work in 15 days and B in 20 days.2 C. Six years ago. C. (60 . 1 1 0 8 D. Then. 19 years 38 years Answer: Option A Let the son's present age be x years. 14 years 20 years Answer: Option D Let the present ages of son and father be x and (60 -x) years respectively. x = 19.. If the father's age is 38 years now. The sum of the present ages of a father and his son is 60 years. If they work on it together for 4 days. A father said to his son. Then. 1 5 7 C. Then. 4 B. "I was as old as you are now when you were born". s 3 times Let Ronit's present age be x years. . 1 1 5 7 6 0 1 + 2 0 x 4 1 7 = 6. (4x + 4 16) 8 = Hence. the son's age five years back was: A.x = 5x . required = ratio = (x + 2 2. Remaining work = . 12 years 18 years B. D. After 6 years. 16) 4 2. (4x + 5 (x + 8) = 2 8) 8x + 16 = 5x + 40 3x = 24 x = 8. D. 5 7 1 5 8 = 1. then the fraction of the work that is left is : 1 A. son's age will be: A. C. 0 7 = 1.

such as waves. The reciprocals of these functions are named the cosecant (csc or cosec). • defines the trigonometric functions. Then. Tangent function (tan Cosecant Secant Cotangent Definition the ratio of the side opposite the angle to the hypotenuse. opposite side. secant (sec). of the opposite leg to the adjacent leg. 9 13 B. 3x = 2(x + 4) + 3 x = 11. adjacent leg. In this right triangle: sin A = a/c. it is the longest side of the triangle. Third integer = x + 4 = 15. cos A = b/c. and one of the two sides adjacent to angle A.ithe side that is opposite to angle A. which describe those relationships and have applicability to cyclical phenomena. D. the ratio of the adjacent leg to the hypotenuse. Trigonometry-a • branch of mathematics that studies triangles and the relationships between their sides and the angles between these sides.the side opposite to the 90 degree angle in a right triangle. C.4 Solution: . The third integer is: A. x + 2 and x + 4. Hypotenuse.NUMBERS Three times the first of three consecutive odd integers is 3 more than twice the third. respectively: Calculate the length of the side x. and cotangent (cot).tan A = a/b Trigonometric function Sine function (sin) Cosine function (cos).the other side that is adjacent to angle A. given that tan θ = 0. 11 15 Answer: Option D Explanation: Let the three integers be x.

For example: Conversely. z) the slope m of the line: 1.9/7 The slope of the given line is 8/7. 0) and (3 . Radian to degree conversion derivation We know that the length of circumference of a circle is given by . For example: Radians can be converted to turns by dividing the number of radians by 2π. The most common coordinate system to use is theC artesian coordinate system.x1) = (8 . and a y-coordinate representing its vertical position. The concepts of equality. we can very well say that the following equivalent relation is true: [Since a sweep is need to draw a full circle] By definition of radian. the plane is given a coordinate system. These are typically written as an ordered pair (x.ANALYTIC GEOMETRY In analytic geometry. -7y = -8x + 9 y = (8/7) x . sums. 8). we can formulate that a full circle represents: is the Angle Degrees 90° 60° 45° 30° Radians /2 /3 /4 /6 Combining both the above relations we can say: . where each point has an xcoordinate representing its horizontal position. So. Thus. to convert from degrees to radians. to convert from radians to degrees. DEGREES AND RADIANS The concept of angle is one of the most important concepts in geometry. and differences of angles are important and used throughout geometry. by which every point has a pair of real number coordinates. Find the slope of the line that passes through the points (-1 . multiply by π/180. This system can also be used for three-dimensional geometry. Solution: m = (y2 . where every point in Euclidean space is represented by anordered triple of coordinates (x. y). multiply by 180/π. y. one radian is equal to 180/π degrees. where radius of the circle.0) / (3 . but the subject of trigonometry is based on the measurement of angles. Conversion between radians and degree A chart to convert between degrees and radians As stated.y1) / (x2 .-1) = 2 What is the slope of the line -7y + 8x = 9 Solution: Rewrite the equation in slope intercept form.

6). 3 green and 2 blue balls. n(S) 21 What is the probability of getting a sum 9 from two throws of a dice? P(E) = A. 1 6 1 9 B. 4). 3. n(E) 9 P(E) = = . Let E = Event of drawing 2 balls.. 12. n(S) 36 9 . . 5). n(S) = Number of ways of drawing 2 balls out of 7 = 7C2 ` = (7 x 6) (2 x 1) = 21. n(S) = (6 x 6) = 36. D. Answer: Option C Explanation: In two throws of a die. Let S be the sample space. Let E = event of getting a sum ={(3. 20}. 15. 11 21 5 7 C. none of which is blue. Let E = event of getting a multiple of 3 or 5 = {3. (4. D. 18. n(E) = Number of ways of drawing 2 balls out of (2 + 3) balls. 2 5 9 20 C.Probability is ordinarily used to describe an attitude of mind towards some proposition of whose truth we are not certain. 2. Answer: Option D Here. What is the probability that the ticket drawn has a number which is a multiple of 3 or 5? A.. 4. 10. 3)}. = 5C2 = (5 x 4) (2 x 1) = 10. n(E) 10 = . 5. 6 . 1 8 1 12 C. D. Two balls are drawn at random. 20}. n(E) 4 1 P(E) = = = . 10 21 2 7 B. (6. Then. 9. n(S) 20 A bag contains 2 red. What is the probability that none of the balls drawn is blue? A.. (5. 19. S = {1. 1 2 8 15 B. Answer: Option A Total number of balls = (2 + 3 + 2) = 7.. The proposition of interest is usually of the form "Will a specific event occur?" The attitude of mind is of the form "How certain are we that the event will occur?" Examples: Tickets numbered 1 to 20 are mixed up and then a ticket is drawn at random.

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