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Field report on Wajaale, Hargeisa and Berbera

Name: Mohamed Hashi Abdilahi Reg.N0. 109

Period: 29 thmay 2011 18thjune 2011


DECLARATION I Mohamed Hashi Abdilahi hereby declare that this work is my original work, and has not appeared any where else in any other form except for the references made from other published works.

Student signature . Supervisor signature


Table of contents Contents: Page No: 5 6 7 7



1.2 Introduction and background of study areas ....

Chapter two....

2.1 2.2.


Methodology....................... 7

Chapter three activities ........................ 7


Wajaale activity...... 7

3.1.1 - Vaccination................... 7 3.1.2- Types of vaccine at Wajaale.......................... 8 3.1.3 - Tog wajale livestock market ....................................................................................8 3.1.4 -Tog- Wajale Livestock marketing cost.....9 3.1.5 -Wajale slaughterhouse.... 9 HARGEISA ACTIVITES..11 3.2.0 - Hargeisa activities .. ..11 3.2.1. Hargeisa livestock market..... 12 3.2.2 .Livestock actors and agents.............................................................................................12 3.2.3. Role of vet in the market........ 13 3.2.4. Hargeisa milk market.................................... 13 3.2.5. Milk market actors. 13 3.2.6 3.2.7 3.2.8. Types of milk in the market.... 15 Mandeeq slaughter house .......................... 14

Sanitation and hygiene of m.sloughterhouse.......................... 14


3.2.9. Meat marketing ..16 3.3.0 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3. Berbera activities.....16 Berbera quarantine station.....................16 Infrastructures of the quarantine..................................................17 Animal inspection........................................................................................................17

3.3.4 Laboratory section ....18 3.3.5 3.3.6 3.3.7 Bacteriology department.18 Serological department.................................................................18 Certification ...................,................................19

Chapter FOUR: conclusion and recommendation..................19 4.1.0 Conclusion .....................................................................................................................19 4.1.1 Recommendation...........................................................................20 .20

4.1.2 Annexes ......



1.1- Introduction of the field study:

This report is about a field study of 21 days. At the end of every academic year, students are sent for field work to different places, such as Wajale, Hargeisa and Berbera, to collect data from the places that they were attached to, in order to practice and improve what they learned during two years of studying at STVS, and to increase their practical knowledge of veterinary services. Students also aim at improving the health of livestock in Somali ecosystem at this time and after their graduation. They also advise the livestock stake-holders accordingly, especially on how to prevent the spread of diseases in their farms as much as possible. During these days students observed, interviewed, collected data and processed this data for reporting and also had practical activities like vaccination and treatment in the field. Map of SOMALILAD





Fig. 1. Shows map of study area.


1.2- Introduction and background of study areas: Wajale:

Wajale district is located in North West of Somaliland on the border with Ethiopia. It is a vibrant market handling both formal and informal trade. It is situated in the North West agro-postural (cattle and sorghum) livelihood zone. It is about 230km and 90km from Berbera port and Hargeisa respectively. It has a livestock market (for export and local quality livestock), a food market and market for non-f commodities (clothes, electronics and other manufactured producers. Wajale is the interconnection of two countries that favor the value of business between Somaliland and Ethiopia; and is the largest Market of cattle in Somaliland. The soil of wajale is suitable for agriculture and rearing cattle and most of the people are agro-pastoralist, on the other hand during the rainy season the soil becomes sticky and this reduces the movement of the people and vehicles to and from the city which can affect and lead to possible reduction of the trade in the city. The city is occupies an area of about 3km2 and its population is 20,000 Somalis who are all Muslims. Most of its buildings are made of Somali traditional huts and roofs. The city has no reliable water supply but rather has at least four rifts which are owned by individuals who sell the water to the community. During the dry seasons the city gets its water from Gabiley and wells by using water tankers.

Hargeisa is the capital city of the republic of Somaliland, Hargeisa is located North West of Somaliland (Latitude 918' N Longitude 4403'E).Hargeisa is the center of trade and commerce and harbor the international airport. Being the capital city of Somaliland, it is also hub for nomadic stock herders, who come here to sell their animals.Hargeisa city's present resident population are approximately 750,000 inhabitants with un-precedent rapid pace of growth according to the latest Hargeisa Abstract Statistical 2000 City Government Administration estimate.Hargeisa is also the center of the other key cities including, Burao, Borama, Berbera, Eirigavo and Lasanod.

Berbera city is situated on the southern shores of the Gulf of Aden. it is the major port town of Somaliland. Berbera town is located on the sea coast with harsh climatic conditions, with high temperatures ranging between 40co to 50co during the months of May to September. Berbera is one of the oldest towns along the Somali coast, in current time Berbera is capital city of Sahil region of Somaliland; it has a lot of veterinary infrastructures such as the quarantine station the holding ground and port. Berbera owns three ports: Old port which is used by boats, fisher port and the main port. Major industries, {cement factory, cold storage facilities} which are the source of income for many people were destroyed during civil wars. Berbera is a seaport, with the only sheltered harbour on the south side of the Gulf of Aden; its population was approximately estimated 3000 5000. The weather of Berbera is very dry, hot and wet during the rainy season. The landscape around Berbera, along with Somalia's coastal lowlands, is desert or semi-desert where the temperatures in the summertime easily crack the 50C mark. Most of the city residents are forced to seasonally migrate to the cooler inland cities during this hot time. 6


CHAPTER TWO: Objectives and Methods.

2.1. Objectives:
To improve the practical skills of the students To improve their skills on collecting and processing data in livestock sectors as wells as reporting techniques To learn the activities which are going on in the field To practice and exercise all that was learned during two years courses at


2.2. Methodology:
Interview: this is one of the commonest methods for data collection in qualitative research. Observation: This method students collected information without asking but just observing it is used when the oral interview is not possible or it is not necessary. Inspection : Inspecting the livestock for any injury or clinical sign of disease;

CHAPTER THEE: ACTIVITIES 3.1.0 - Wajale activities:

In Wajale the students were divided into four groups, and they did two activities; vaccination of FMD disease, and the treatment of animals, in vaccination the students got more experiences and practical skills. The first day students vaccinated 35 pulls while the second day they vaccinated 55 pulls. A total 90 bulls have been vaccinated against Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) by the students. The available vaccine for FMD in Wajale was Fotivax (Fotivax is the commercial name for FMD vaccine, a bivalent sero type for O/A). Unfortunate the number of animals vaccinated was very small compared to the number vaccinated by students last year, because of the political unrest in Yemen which has decreased the number of animals exported to Yemen. Saudi Arabia and Yemen required as standard to vaccinate importing animals against some diseases which are in list A, such as FMD and others. The ministry of livestock provides the vaccine and ear tag to the veterinarians in Wajaale. The traders pay the vaccine and their animals are vaccinated in order for their animals to qualify for exportation.


3.1.1 - Vaccination: Injection of a killed microbe in order to stimulate the immune system against the microbe, thereby preventing disease. Vaccination is one of the most important activities carried out by the veterinarians in Wajaale. 3.1.2- Types of vaccination in wajale In Wajaale cattle are vaccinated from FMD virus. They used foot and mouth disease inactivated vaccine. It provides broad coverage against A, O, SAT1 and SAT2 serotypes of the FMD virus, which are the four prevalent strains in Middle East. Third day 1th June students treated a number of animals in Wajale. Before treatment students take case history, visual appraisal, and physical examination of the animals:

Case history: In this step student took case history of the problem, by asking questions to the owner.

Visual appraisal: during this step of clinical examination students carried out observation to identify if there was any abnormality of the animals or any clinical signs of disease.
physical examination : During this step students did precision, palpation, auscultation and

For the treatment the three mainly used drugs were albendazol (for animals suffering from helmenthiasis), Oxy-tetracycline (for Bacterial infections) and ivemectin (for Endo and Ecto-parasites The table below shows the Number of animals treated and the species: Species Young cattle Adult cattle Goats Sheep Albandazol 35 30 47 38 Oxytertracycline(antibiotic ) 29 40 31 27

3.1.3 - Tog-wajale livestock market: Livestock market: livestock is accessed mainly from Somali region of Ethiopia through a series of clan based corridors, across the border into tog-wajale. In tog-wajale, the export quality livestock are purchased by export traders through their agents (wakiil), while local quality animals are purchased by local traders (fasahle). Brokers (dilaal), who are respected by the community, guarantee the provenance of 8


the livestock. During transactions, one broker represents the seller, while another represents the buyers. The two brokers negotiate to settle on the appropriate price of livestock. The number of people involved in the Seylad system (marketing and trading of export livestock) is difficult to estimate, though it is apparent that the number is significant. The marketing of most livestock exports follows traditional marketing channels known as the merchant-jeeble (middleman) system. This system of trade has a long history and is characterized by a complex network of intermediate brokers and multiple formal.

This table two shows the grades and prices in different species Species Cattle Cattle Cattle Sheep/goat Sheep/goat Sheep/goat Donkey Grades Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade3 Grade1 Grade2 Grade3 Normal Price 680-740$ 620-650$ 390-370$ 45-49$ 35-43$ 27 - 31 3600-4000$ Wages of brokers 6000s/sh 6000s/sh 6000s/sh 1500sl/sh 1500sl/sh 1500sl/sh 2.500sl/sh taxes 4500sl/sh 4500sl/sh 4500sl/sh 1000sl/sh 1000sl/sh 1000sl/sh 3000s/sh

3.1.4 - Livestock marketing cost: 1. veterinary cost ($2.5 )per head for cattle and (1.5$) per head for sheep and goats(main exporters employ veterinary doctors who examine the livestock and provide certificate before they are shipped to the middle east) 2. Herders charge 30,000sl/sh ($5) and 15000sl/sh or ($3) per head for sheep and goats. 3. Over night fenced compounds cost 2000 1500 SL/sh (0.3 0.2$) per head of cattle. 4. Brokers fees 50000 SL/sh (10$) of cattle and 15000 SL/sh (2.85$) per head of sheep and goats. 5. Market tax costs are 5000sl/sh per for cattle and 2000sl/sh per head of sheep and goats. 6. Trucks transporting the livestock cost 2 million SL/sh (323 $) per load for cattle and 1million SL/sh (160$) per head of sheep and goats.


3.1.5 Wajaale slaughter house: The Slaughter house of wajaale is composed two sections. Section for small ruminants which are slaughtered by women and the other section for the cattle which employ men only. Totally there were no camel slaughtered in this slaughter house, and the small amount of camel meat that is locally consumed is transported from Hargeisa and its very expensive. Animals are slaughtered according to Islamic rules. Manually they cut with knife the jugular vein at ventral part of junction of submandibular and neck towards the atlas and axial of the vertebral column. The table below shows the species and the number of animals slaughtered in Wajale: Species Cattle Goats Sheep No. Animals slaughtered 4 5 per day 13 14 per day 10 15 per day

3.1.6- Challenges of the Wajale slaughter house: Lack of electricity Poor hygienic Lack of roofs and shades Lack of veterinary service Lack of permanent water Lack of protective material

3.1.7 Veterinary institutions in Wajale: Veterinary personnel in Wajale consists 2 doctors and 4 assistant all of them are members of ministry of livestock employees. However the veterinary staffs in Wajale are not in definite number but increase or decrease according to the workload. Wajale institution have 1crush for restraining animals during vaccination, 1 ram for loading and offloading animals, 1store used to store the drug and vaccine. 3.1.8 - 1 Role of veterinary institutions in Wajale:

Vaccination of animals. Treatment of sick animals. Animal Inspection and checking of animals before they are vaccinated



produce regular reports to the ministry of livestock and all concerned veterinary authorities


Regional veterinary officer District veterinary Officer officer Assistants Assistants


Chart 1: Structure of Veterinary institution in Wajale Challenge of veterinary institutions in wajaale: In adequate veterinary serves In adequate rumps Poor and insufficient crushes. Veterinarians are not well equipped HARGEISA ACTIVITIES 3.2.0 - Hargeisa livestock market: Hargeisa livestock market is located the south east of the city and it occupies an area of 1.5km2.The main Hargeisa livestock market is the second most important livestock market in Somaliland after Burao. The market infrastructures are view, it has 11 shades those are insufficient to the livestock, 2 modern ramps, and several private pens around the market with small amount of grass and one veterinary office. the livestock in the market are brought from different regions like Gebilay, Awdal, Sahil, Hawd and rural areas surrounding Hargeisa. Sheep, goats and camels are sold for both domestic use and export, and cattle are sold for domestic use (meat). The marketing of each species functions independently and each species occupies a specific location within the marketplace. The buying or selling criteria is dependant on the basis of body score, physical fitness, conformation and also the purpose for which the animal is bought e.g., for local consumption, for breeding purposes or for export purposes. Although there is price difference with in the species because of the status of the animal every species has a fixed amount of taxes with no regard of their condition weather they are for export or local consumption 11


The table below shows the price and the species of Hargeisa livestock market: Species sheep Sheep grade 1 Sheep grade 2 Sheep garde 3 goat Goat grade 1 Goat grade 2 Goat grade 3 camel Camel grade 1 Camel grade 2 Camel grade 3 cattle Cattle grade 1 Cattle grade 2 Cattle grade3 Price in USD ($) Taxes in Somaliland shilling(sl/sh) 1500 sl/sh 1500 sl/sh 1500sl/sh 1500sl/sh 1500sl/sh 1500 sl/sh 6000slsh 6000sl/sh 6000sl/sh 4000sl/sh 4000sl/sh 4000sl/sh

47 - 50 40 - 45 27 - 30 48 - 49 43 - 46 30 - 31 643 - 710 470 - 530 150 200 400 - 490 327 - 320 100 - 126

3.2.1. - LIVESTOCK ACTORS AND AGENTS: The main actors of this market are producers who bring the animal to the market mainly. Consumers who finally consume the product. There are other agents that play an important role in the market.Agents of this market includes Brokers, interregional traders and export traders. ROLE OF BROKERS: Provide the buyers with guarantees that the animal are not stolen Seeking the buyers and negotiate price Provide the seller with reasonable fair price INTERREGIONAL TRADERS: Interregional traders buy the animals from the producers and then they sell to export traders. EXPORT TRADERS: Export traders buy the animals from the producers and interregional traders and then they export to outside counties Chart 2: Hargeisa livestock structure
Producer Broker Local consumption Individual Butchers Traders Interregional traders Butchers Live animals Export traders Carcass



3.2.3 -The Role of veterinary service in Hargeisa livestock market: Hargeisa livestock market is the second largest market in Somaliland after Burao. The role of veterinary serves in this market includes: Checking and controlling the health of the animals that comes to the market. They give certificate for exporting animal. Separating the suspected sick animals. To treat the sick animals. 3.2.4- Challenges of livestock market: Insufficient water in the market Insufficient of shades Insufficient of veterinary services Lack of electricity Lack of free drugs

Figure. 1. Hargeisa livestock market 3.2.5 - Hargeisa milk market: There are two common milk markets in Hargaisa; one is in the center of the town and it is kwon as Waaheen, the other one is located to the north of the city and is named Gobanimo both of them are highly crowded and operate between 8:00AM and 6:00PM, The total quantity of fresh milk traded in Hargeisa is constant for roughly three-quarters of the year, with the daily supply varying only slightly between 28,000 40,000 liters per day. In contrast, the supply of fresh milk during the period between mid January and mid-April drops below 20,000 litters per day (when many consumers switch to powdered milk). 3.2.6- MILK MARKET ACTORS: Producers: producers are pastoralists those produce milk and supply to the market.



Agencies: Agencies are specified people that have a linked to the farmers; they sell the milk to the retailer and send back the money to producer after they took their wages of money. Retailer: they are final link from producer to the consumer they are small scale traders they bought the milk from agencies and resell to the consumer. Source of the milk: The source of the milk is mainly from the rural areas around Hargeisa and from the other west regions such as Gabilley, Arabsiyo, Gedballadh and the border of Somaliland and Ethiopia. 3.2.7 types of the milk: Cattle and camel milk are the most common types of milk sold in the market. The milk is mainly fresh but some times the milk reaches the market as sour. The total quantity of fresh milk traded in Hargeisa is constant for roughly three-quarters of the year, with the daily supply varying only slightly between 35,000 40,000 litres per day. In contrast, the supply of fresh milk during the period between mid January and mid-April drops below 20,000 litres per day (when many consumers switch to powdered milk). The fresh milk traded in Hargeisa originates from Ethiopia and from rural Somaliland through three main Supply routes: Fresh milk traded by producers (15-20%) Fresh milk supplied to well established market agents (15 25%) Fresh milk bought by wholesalers from rural producers (60-65%) The table below shows the price of the milk: Type of milk Cattle Camel Price I Somaliland shilling(sl/sh) 2500 3000 Taxes in Somaliland shilling(sl/sh) 500 500

3.2.8 Mandeeq slaughter house:

Mandeeq slaughter house is located in the eastern part of Hargeisa; its away from the city about 5kms. The enterprise was founded on 25th march 2005 by two Somaliland citizens who are interested and devoted the social-economic development of the country. The slaughter house is located in flat area which is to near to small dry river, the slaughter house consists of three parts; part for sheep and goats, the second part is for camel and the last part for cattle. Camel and cattle section are open and they have less facilities compared to other sections. The slaughter house has two rooms for the workers to exchange their cloths, 11 toilets, one generator, one water tang and several disposal points. The capacity of this slaughterhouse is estimated that it could be processed for about 2000 of animal per night. The break-down of animals slaughtered at Mandeeq on daily bases is: 1,5001,800 sheep and 14


goats, 3543 camels and over 60 cattle are slaughtered in mandeeq each day. The total workers of the company are 85 persons comprising of Maandeeq Management Team, Drivers, Subordinate staffs, Security guards and 350 butchers. 3.2.9 - Sanitation and Hygiene of the Mandeeq slaughter house: Hygiene and sanitation aspects are higher standards and highly improved since the renovation of Hargeisa slaughter house (now Maandeeq slaughter house). Maandeeq has improved transportation facility by using covered van vehicles instead of uncovered donkey carts wheelbarrows which were used before Maandeeq. The slaughter house had conducted trainings and raised awareness on animal hygiene and sanitation and safety of meat for animal operators they were trained on slaughtering techniques, Meat distribution and profession of uniforms sterilization of slaying equipments. Maandeeq has maintained conducive environment for the cleanness of their workers with bathrooms dry washing and dressing rooms for workers. In Maandeeq liquid and solid wastage such as blood dirty used water and animals fluids as animals abdominal remainders are removed and transported with special trucks ar both liquid and solid wastages to dumping sites these dump site are dug in very three months where the full ones are covered. Mandeeq facilities equipments: Mandeeq slaughterhouse has suitable containers available for meat distribution for waste disposal. And all material available in Mandeeq slaughterhouse was summarized as following. Regular water available for cleaning Hold ground or Pens {where animal kept before slaughtering} Refrigerators which are some times they used Sufficient electricity Transportation Clean equipments Challenges of mandeeq slaughter house: Lack of protective materials The company went severe financial difficulties due to the low Rate Income of the company and the overhead expenses faced by the company. In adequate veterinary inspections



Fig.3 Mandeq slaughter house Meat Marketing: About 1,1001,200 goats, 3040 camels and over 50 cattle are slaughtered in Hargeisa town each day. All of the camels and cattle and about two-thirds of the goats and sheep are officially slaughtered in the Mandeeq slaughter house. Regardless of the site of slaughter, there are about 12 market centres where all meat outputs are sold. Over 30% of shoat meat, 75% of camel meat and over 50% of the cattle meat is sold in the central market. The twin markets close to the headquarters of Radio Hargeisa accommodate the sales of over 40% of sheep and goat meat, about 40% of cattle meat and less than 10% of camel meat. The remaining 30% of goat and sheep meat is distributed among the remaining nine smaller markets. Only 4 of these 9 markets sell the remaining cattle meat while another 2 markets host the retail of about 5% of camel meat. BERBERA ACTIVITIES: 3.3.0 - Berbera livestock quarantine station Berbera quarantine station is located in the southern part of town; the area of the quarantine is about (2km2). The quarantine was established 2007 2009 by Aljabiri Company. The quarantine has two main sections, section for the health animals and the section for the sick animals which are rejected after the inspection. The capacity of animal that the Quarantine can hold is 4200000. For goats and sheep it is about 300000, for cattle 70000 and for camel 42000. The Quarantine has played a critical role in reducing the risk of disease. The quarantine is a modernized compared to the old quarantine. When animals are brought in to the quarantine, they are rested for three days, to prevent stress, and to allow the appearance of sub clinical infection. After three days the veterinarian makes inspection to separate healthy animals from unhealthy animals. Generally, the quarantine is divided into two main parts, one for keeping healthy animals that are ready for export. The other part is for collecting the rejected animals which the veterinarian removes from the 16


animals after they have made a full clinical examination and laboratory diagnosis and are considered to be sick animals. The doctors remove all animals which appear clinically sick and dont allow them to be exported. Among clinical signs of concern are mouth lesions, mange, skin lesion, rough hair coat, depression, nasal discharges, diarrhea, respiratory, tachycardia, coughing and nervous signs. . Berbera veterinary institution is composed of mainly a regional coordinator office, five sub-departments in Berbera and four veterinary Districts as the organization chart below shows, they carry out inspection, Brucella test from the animals, and inspection of other diseases such as Foot and mouth disease (FMD,), brucellosis and rinderpest and also certification of the animals intended for export.

Chart 3: Berbera veterinary institutions flow chart

Regional veterinary coordinator

Quarantine section

Berbera district

VET. Districts

Berbera port

Lab. section

Sheikh district

Mandhera district

3.3.1 - Infrastructure of the quarantine: The infrastructure of Berbera livestock quarantine station consist of holding grounds (quarantine part, inspection part, and feeding & resting part), laboratory (serology, bacteriology), postmortem, and administration buildings in the holding ground there are 64 pens each with 2 water troughs the holding ground is divided into three sections section B and C for small ruminant and section D for cattle and camel other facilities like feeding system of the animal, the inspection and treatment is done over there, vehicles, pools, toilets, water trucks, and electricity is also provided in the quarantine station . This new quarantine station is more sophisticated than the old traditional one that was being used before. 3.3.2 Animal inspection
After inspection traders obtain movement permit form to bring their animals to Berbera, which is the center of livestock export in Somaliland. As soon as the animals reach the quarantine station, they are taken into the rest area, before inspection for at least three days in order to avoid stress or recover from the stress of transportation, and fed well with contamination- free feed at regular intervals. After three



days the clinical examination should start. The signs that may warrant the rejection of the animals to be exported are as follows: Diarrhea and discharge of the all openings Skin lesions Poor body condition/emaciation Mouth lesions

3.3.4 - Laboratory section

Berbera laboratory is located inside the quarantine station. It is composed of two small rooms, which were not well equipped. There are about six laboratory technicians, and four assistants. These lab technicians are experts blood testing for Brucella spp, (Brucella Melitensis, Brucella Abort us and Brucella Camiladae). The antigen used for all animals test was the same, and was bought from the U.A.E by the traders. Rose Bengal test: The RBT is a modification of the plate agglutination test used the brucellosis. The antigen which has been stained with Rose Bengal stain is buffered at a ph of 3.65. At this level of activity non-specific agglutinins are destroyed and 19G, normally the most abundant antibody in the serum of infected animals agglutinates strongly. Equal volumes (30) of test serum and antigen are mixed, shaken for four minutes and viewed over an x-ray viewer and any degree agglutination is recorded as positive. The test is expensive and easy to perform false negative results are rare and are usually obtained during the more chronic stages of the disease. 3.3.5 - Bacteriology unit: This unit deals with the study bacteria and it is busy with the diagnosis of bacterial diseases. Blood collected from animals are brought in this department to diagnose it. One of the most important diseases which this department deals with is brucellosis. They test the blood against Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus and Brucella camel. The species they test are sheep, goats and camels. in order to test brucellosis they do the fallowing tests. 3.3.6 serological department: This department is virus isolation and detection of the common livestock disease that are requested by the importing countries such as FMD, PPR, RP, and RIFT VALLEY.



3.3.7 CERTIFICATION: Animal certification is the process of certifying that certain animals have successfully passed the performance of general inspection of many disease such as Brucella test (serum), FMD(indirect Elisa), RIFT VALLEY FEVER(detection of Iga and Igm), and PPR( competitive Elisa), to fulfill the qualification requirements needed in the international regulations. These certificates include: Health certificate, inspection certificate and vessel certificate. CHAPTER FOUR: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION; 4.1.0- Conclusion: The field work was very success full and important which students gained a lot of experience and practice about previous knowledge and learnt new experience. I gained a lot of experience and professional skills in bleeding of animals, vaccination of animals certification systems/procedures and the condition in the field it self, it also gave me skill in reporting and I have exercised the knowledge skill and techniques that I had acquired in second year course work. Physical examination of a herd over hundreds was time consuming and impractical for the veterinarians in Wajaale. In spite of this, the few crashes and limitations in equipments needed in vaccination made the veterinarians exhausted and made the traders become unsatisfactory to the job. If one of the little equipment they have breaks it may cause the work completely to stop. More over traders want to export an animal immediately which is not compliant with the requirements of certification taking a lot of time and this increase the costs of export animals. However, this field work

was beneficial and valuable for students. The main problems that had been observed during the field were summarized as the following:
There are limited vaccination facilities, especially the crashes, syringes, vaccination storage materials (cooling refrigerators, ice boxes etc) and personal protective clothes in Wajale; this has led that veterinary professional to always experience difficulties in their work. Hargeisa milk market could be a like source of disease outbreaks for the resident citizens due to fact that the whole place was hygienically poor. The milk posts for the individuals marketing in this place was clean enough to handle a clean and clean milk safe for human consumption Hargeisa livestock market which locates inside of the city. There are many problems faced on last years such as luck of enough water supply, enough shades the market is also lacking enough shades, water points and proper roads.

Most of the workers of the Mandeeq slaughterhouse are not professional, and are lacking the basic skills needed in such place where almost a million peoples food (Meat) is processed.



4.2.1- RECOMMENDATION: It is better to increase the number of veterinarians who inspect animals both in Wajaale and in Berbera where too many animals are needed to be inspected properly and regularly. Enough equipment is necessary for vaccination and other activities which are going on in Wajaale should be supplied. It is crucial to construct more crashes and renovate the existing crashes in areas where vaccination and mass treatments are carried out. It is also necessary to facilitate faster export of animals and reduce delays of animals exportation in order to encourage traders. It is quite important to encourage and train farmers in order to produce health animals and hygienic products of animals like milk and meat. The inhuman slaughtering practices in Maandeeq could be stopped if camel slayers are trained and new ways of slaughtering are thought. Traders should be trained with importance of certification by lettering them understand how useful it is for their trading interests. In Berbera, students did their normal activities within the period of the field work, but the temperature was extremely harsh, so that cost of living was high. During field activities the cost of transportation was in sufficient for the students to reach some areas where veterinary activities have been going to collect reliable data, and most importantly gain new skills and experience. So that STVS must consider allocating sufficient budget in such situations. Its strongly recommended to all national, International agencies and Donors to contribute the basic needs of Wajaale livestock market, Hargeisa livestock market, Maandeeq slaughter house, and Berbera veterinary infrastructures

4.1.2- Annexes: