Renewable Energy Systems

Topic 2 The Wind Resource

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2 .Reminder  You are welcome to use the “Discussion Board” on Blackboard to pose/discuss questions in all components of the course with your classmates.

and cut out at about 25 m/s.  Typically wind turbines cut in about 5 m/s.  Turbulent wind is undesirable 3 . Therefore 10% increase in wind speed means 33% increase in wind power.  Power in undisturbed wind is proportional to cube of wind speed. This can be shown with the 1st law of thermo for a control volume.Wind speeds  The output of a wind turbine is critically dependent on wind speed.  Proportion of power in the wind captured by wind turbine varies with wind speed.

special measures taken . These are the ‘doldrums’ . south east trade winds from southern hemisphere meet north east tradewinds from northern hemisphere.Exmouth.  Very high winds are undesirable for wind power. (In some areas.Large scale wind patterns in Australia  In southern regions (latitudes of about 30 S to 50 S). strong westerlies known as the ‘roaring forties’  Further north (< 30 S) south east trade winds  Seasonal variation in latitude  Near equator. Antarctica) 4 . prevailing winds are westerlies  Around 40 S to 50 S.low wind potential.

Reading  “Origins of the global wind systems affecting Australia” The Winds of New South Wales. Energy Authority of NSW. 1984  Click here to access 5 .

(In effect. (Hence. It is replaced by cooler air from over the sea. so air speeds up.Local effects  Coastal sea breezes are caused by temperature difference between land and sea.)  Obstacles such as trees and buildings decrease wind speeds and increase turbulence for a significant region around the obstacle. Profile is dependent on local terrain. The hot air over land heats up and rises. 6 . cities are not good sites)  Wind speed varies with height due to wind shear.  Elevated ridges can cause air flow to accelerate. cross sectional area is decreased.

Permanent deformation of local foliage may not be a good indicator (affected by salt in coastal areas). (Affected by weather patterns such as El Niño) Wind monitoring studies done in 1980s. Wind speed atlases now being produced. Terrain modelling packages are available. Daily and seasonal wind speed variation.Finding windy sites         Wind speed regime varies significantly within small region Bureau of Meteorology wind speed records do NOT give a good indication of wind power potential. 7 . Findings from current wind studies generally not publicly available. Average wind speed can vary significantly from year to year.

g. Bureau of Meteorology) to determine if typical year. Should correlate speed and direction data with long term data from nearby site (e. trees) in direction of prevailing winds.Finding windy sites     Monitor wind speeds at site for at least a year.) Select site with little disturbance from obstacles (buildings.typically 50 to 60 m. Monitor at hub height . Thus bottom of rotor should be at least twice the height of nearby obstacle 8 . Flow disturbance from obstacles typically twice the height of obstacle and downwind distance up to 20 times height of obstacle. (Much wind data is from 2 m or 10m height.

High turbulence near edge of cliff. Long ridges are preferable.  Hills can enhance wind speed. Should be oriented close to direction of prevailing winds. and surrounded by hills 9 .  Valleys may be suitable for enhancing wind speed. so locate turbine back from edge. to ensure wind travels over hill rather than around it. Direction of prevailing wind should be approx perpendicular to cliff face.Finding windy sites  Tops of cliffs have enhanced wind speeds.

Wind power output usually does not correlate with times of peak demand. (Some smoothing of output with many dispersed turbines) Electricity systems typically have no (or very little) storage. At significant levels of wind power penetration.Variability of wind energy       Wind speed varies significantly on all timescales. 10 . effect on electricity system operation may be detrimental. Wind turbines are thus intermittent generators. so supply and demand must always be matched. The variable output of wind turbines must therefore be matched by other generators.

Winds in Victoria  Victorian wind atlas  Existing wind farms in Victoria  Wind projects in Victoria 11 .

Wind Vane  It is important to know the dominant wind direction when designing wind farms. 12 . Need to consider layout of wind turbines and location of obstacles.  The direction of the wind can be monitored using a wind vane.

flags flap Papers blow.3 3.4–5.7 10.9 Wind speed at 10m height – km/h <1 1–5 6–11 12–19 20–28 Observable effects on land Wind Turbine performance– 50m height None None None 0 to 20% of capacity 20 to 60% of capacity 60 to 100% of capacity Full capacity Calm.Estimating wind speed using the Beaufort Scale Beaufort number 0 1 2 3 4 Descrip tion calm light air light breeze gentle breeze moderat e breeze fresh breeze strong breeze Wind speed at 10m height – m/s 0–0.8–13.0–10. small branches move Small trees sway Large branches in motion.5–7. umbrellas used with difficulty 5 6 8.5 1. wind vanes move Leaves and small move constantly.3–1. leaves rustle.4 5. smoke rises vertically Smoke drift.6–3.8 29–38 39–49 13 . wind vanes unaffected Wind felt on face.2 0.

Estimating wind speed using the Beaufort Scale Beaufort number 7 8 Descrip tion near gale gale Wind speed at 10m height – m/s 13.7 Wind speed at 10m height – km/h 50–61 62–74 Observable effects on land Wind Turbine performance– 50m height Full capacity Full capacity Whole trees sway Twigs break off.6 75–88 89–102 103–117 Slight structural damage Trees uprooted. disaster 14 .8–24.4 24.4 28.2–20. walking difficult 9 10 11 strong gale storm violent storm hurrican e 20.1 17.9–17.5–32.5–28.7 + 118 + Severe and extensive damage. much structural damage Widespread damage Wind turbine shut down Wind turbine shut down Wind turbine may be damaged Serious damage unless lowered 12 32.

Wind Roses  Wind Rose represents wind speed. Circles on rose represent 5% frequency intervals. direction and frequency.  Centre circle indicates how often it is calm  16 branches of rose represents wind coming from that direction  Each segment in branch represents wind speed range.  Segment length represents frequency. 15 .

19 for low scrub.13 for low grass.32 for forest. urban areas 16 . 0.1 for open sea. 0. 0.Wind Shear  Wind speed increases with height due to friction between air and surface of earth  Wind speed gradient function: v  vref z zref v is wind speed at height z vref is wind speed at height zref α is wind shear exponent Exponent α depends on terrain:   0.

03 m 17 .Wind Shear  Another method of estimating the wind speed gradient is the log law and its physical basis is the “law of the wall” (Boundary Layer theory)  v = m*ln(z) +c. z=zo when v=0 v  v ref ln z ln z 0 ln z ref ln z 0 z0 is called the roughness length Roughness length varies from 0.  Typical value for open agricultural land is 0.0002 m for smooth water to over a metre for cities with tall buildings.

In reality of course the mean velocity is zero at the surface. Asakura Shoten.Wind Shear   Note that the “roughness length” is the height at which the mean velocity is zero if the law of the wall were valid very near the surface. pp. Iehisa NEZU. Akihiro TOMINAGA(2000):"Suirigaku". Note non-zero intercept for log law.130-133 18 .

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