1. Define the term technology.
Write a short note on evolution and growth of technology
ANS: The technological singularity is the hypothetical future emergence of greater-than-human superintelligence through technological means. Since the capabilities of such intelligence would be difficult for an unaided human mind to comprehend, the occurrence of a technological singularity is seen as an intellectual event horizon, beyond which events cannot be predicted or understood. Proponents of the singularity typically state that an "intelligence explosion", where superintelligences design successive generations of increasingly powerful minds, might occur very quickly and might not stop until the agent's cognitive abilities greatly surpass that of any human. The term was coined by science fiction writer Vernor Vinge, who argues that artificial intelligence, human biological enhancement or brain-computer interfaces could be possible causes of the singularity. The concept was popularized by futurists like Ray Kurzweil and it is expected by proponents to occur sometime in the 21st century, although estimates vary. In 1938, Buckminster Fuller introduced the word ephemeralization to describe the trends of "doing more with less" in chemistry, health and other areas of industrial development. In 1946, Fuller published a chart of the discoveries of the chemical elements over time to highlight the development of accelerating acceleration in human knowledge acquisition Since the late 1970s, others like Alvin Toffler (author of Future Shock), Daniel Bell and John Naisbitt have approached theories of postindustrial societies. They argue the industrial era is coming to an end, and services and information are supplanting industry and goods. Some more extreme visions of the postindustrial society, especially in fiction, envision the elimination of economic scarcity. The mathematician Vernor Vinge popularized his ideas about exponentially accelerating technological change in the SF novel Marooned in Realtime (1986), set in a world of rapidly accelerating progress leading to the emergence of more and more sophisticated technologies separated by shorter and shorter time intervals, until a point beyond human comprehension is reached In his 1988 book Mind Children, computer scientist and futurist Hans Moravec generalizes Moore's law to make predictions about the future of artificial life.
Moore's law describes an exponential growth pattern in the complexity of integrated semiconductor circuits. Moravec extends this to include technologies from far before the integrated circuit to future forms of technology. n his 1999 book The Age of Spiritual Machines Kurzweil proposed "The Law of Accelerating Returns", according to which the rate of change in a wide variety of evolutionary systems (including but not limited to the growth of technologies) tends to increase exponentially. He gave further focus to this issue in a 2001 essay entitled "The Law of Accelerating Returns" which argued for extending Moore's Law to describe exponential growth of diverse forms of technological progress. Some claim the exponential growth of technological progress may become linear or inflected or may begin to flatten into a limited-growth curve. In this model, instead of an overall acceleration of progress, technological advance jumps forward whenever there is a human "buy in" and stalls whenever there is no benefit large enough to profit the technologists. As a result, the sequence of changes never gets steep enough to become a singularity. 2. Citing an example, state and explain the reasons that compel a company to go for the new technology.
ANS: the reasons which compel a company for obtaining a new technology. The use of new technologies plays an important role in the industry. Whenever a company wants to adapt the new technologies, it has to make decisions related to the acquisition of the technology. The company has to see the experience of its R&D for the actual need of acquiring the knowledge. The acquisition of technology becomes critical when the market lead time and competition is more. The following explains the reasons that compel the company for technology acquisition.
• Technology acquisition helps to bridge the gap in technology, in the developing countries like India. The fastest way of bridging the technology gap is through collaborations. Acquiring the technology from outside company is more costlier than acquiring technology from the R&D of the same company. It will be better, if we develop the new technologies from the in-house R&D. The dependence of the company on the collaboration is bad and we should have the self-reliance in the company every time.
Q3. Sometimes the economic policies do not allow the foreign countries to sell their goods and services in the domestic market.
• Technology acquisition is mainly designed for business-to-business technology acquisition.• Technology acquisition depends on the policy environment.
• Technology acquisition is the process by which a company acquires the rights to use and exploit a technology for the purpose of improving or renewing processes.
• Technology acquisition helps for enhancing the productivity of an organisation. In few cases. proven and ready to use. Explain in brief about the six phases in technology forecasting process ANS: Structure: 3. the foreign companies can get the financial returns only through the collaboration and selling the raw materials and components. The company planning for technology acquisition has to make the agreement between the two companies and even the details of the costs are also present as part of the application. Describe some characteristics of technology forecasting. In such times.2 Concept of Technology Forecasting Characteristics of technology forecasting
. technology comes from a university or research organisation. products or services.1 Introduction Objectives 3. The origin of the technology can take place in any area but it has ton be tested. It does not include retailed or mass market off the shelf software which is generally governed by nonnegotiable “shrink wrapped” licences.
8 Glossary 3.11 Case Study 3. · Justify the need for technology forecasting.6 Planning and Forecasting 3. We have also discussed about the measures of scale and mechanisms for acquiring technology.9 Terminal Questions 3.5 Forecasting Methods and Techniques 3.3 Technology Forecasting Process 3.1 Introduction By now. We also learnt about the management of acquired technology that is required in all companies. you should be able to: · Define technology forecasting. we are going to define technology forecasting and discuss about the need for technology forecasting. At last we will see how to relate planning and forecasting. advantages and disadvantages of technology acquisition. Previous unit also familiarised us with the alternatives for acquiring new technologies.Technology forecast method Principles of technology forecasting 3. and the reasons compelling a company for obtaining new technologies. We will also study about the role of forecasting in planning process. In this unit. we are familiar with the concept of technology acquisition.7 Summary 3.4 Need and Role of Technology Forecasting 3. We are also going to discuss the different forecasting methods and techniques. Objectives: After studying this unit.10 Answers 3.
. · Examine the role of forecasting in planning process.
The decisions made at the early stage influence the subsequent time of that project. products.2 Concept of Technology Forecasting Before we start our discussion on „technology forecasting‟. there are some characteristics that are associated with technology forecasting. emission levels. attributes and parameters. The hardware includes the mechanical or physical hardware and software includes the procedures and methods for organising the human activity. we can say that technology forecasting deals with the prediction of future technological capabilities. Thus. The technology forecasting is done by considering the parameters. In this regard. The forecaster need to have clear idea of the organisational goals and goals of the units for which the forecasting is prepared. costs. picture phone. traditional forecasts used to deal with the speed and power. rate of technological advances (introduction of paperless office. Forecasting consists of the strength and weakness of the empirical sciences. In the early days. 3. let us first define „forecasting‟. processes. The technology forecasting does not have any law because of the complexities that are associated with the systems. The forecaster has to take the historical examples in order to forecast in a better way. We will now discuss them briefly. The complexities in technical. The technology forecasting is done at the early stage of the project life cycle. The forecasting process helps in effective management of technology. They did not focus on the structures of the organisation.. the technological forecasting is nothing but the future characteristics of useful machines. „forecasting‟ refers to the prediction of future on the basis of available information. It was assumed that inventions of the future are not easy to predict. · A technological forecast relates to certain characteristics such as levels of technical performance (e. power. so on). temperature. so on). new materials. safety. Generally.· Describe and apply different forecasting methods and techniques.g. environmental. technical specifications including energy efficiency. attributes and capabilities of technology. economical and ethical contexts are very difficult to remove.1 Characteristics of technology forecasting Generally. We can define technology forecasting as the process that predicts the future characteristics and timing of technology.2. The forecasters were not focussed on evaluation of the forecast process. procedures or techniques. speed. Technological forecasting is an attempt to predict the way things are going to be done. 3. We know that technology considers both hardware and software.
. · Relate planning and forecasting.
· Evaluation of the present value of technology being developed: It is common that we provide the monetary value to the technology during its development. let us now learn how to represent the technology in the form of quantitative terms. · Analysis of new technologies that may change the strategies: This analysis helps to evaluate the improvements that a new technology offers for its internal strategies. we consider „when‟ and „to what extent‟ the technology will be commercialised. or techniques. We will now discuss these steps: · Selecting information requirements: In this first step in deciding the technology forecast project. since they depend more on personal tastes rather than on technological capability. · The technology being forecast (Qualitative element): This involves definition of „what to forecast‟ in the technology.2. 3. the substitution of copper cable with the optical fibre cable. In particular. procedures.· A technological forecast also relates to useful machines.the output: The data that is collected for the forecasting process defines the amount of information that is contained in the technology forecast. we have to determine the purpose of the forecast that the project has to serve. We require the following information in this case of forecast. · Assistance in the management of R&D: The forecast helps to set the realistic goals for product or process of R&D project.2 Technology forecast method There are some steps in deciding the technology forecast method. medium-term.
. The substitution analysis is helpful for the growth of the company. For example. It also defines whether it is forecasting a single approach of technology or the common technology. · A technology forecast can be for short-term. Technology forecast also helps in setting the strategies for different technologies. and long-term. · The elements of a forecast . We can divide the information into four elements. · The characteristics of the technology (Quantitative approach): As we have defined what to forecast. This involves the way profitability of a company is affected by competing and non-competing technologies. Use of technology forecast in the evaluation process involves the analysis. Technology helps to improve the overall schedule of the R&D. · Evaluation of the new products that can present threats or opportunities: The evaluation is done to verify whether the new product is causing the threats or causing the opportunities. In this. · The rate at which new technologies replace the old one: This tells the rate at which the new technology replaces the old technology. this is intended to exclude the items intended for pleasure or amusement from the domain of technological forecasting.
ANS: Introduction By now. you should be able to: · Explain the technology strategy and innovation management. We know that a strategy is a long term view that describes a high level framework. Write a short note on technology strategy. The technical parameters include the parameters like the inlet temperature.There are both the functional and the technical parameters with this. compression ratio. 4. We cannot mix both the technical and functional parameters.
Q4. The functional parameters are related directly to the user. In this unit. This unit will enable us to analyse that technology strategies help us to maintain the competitive advantage. We will also see how to evaluate the technology management in an organisation. · State how to evaluate/assess the TM in an organisation. This high level framework describes where the organisation needs to be in the future years. · Mention the components of competitive advantage. · Explain competitive advantage. we will learn about the technology strategy. The competitive advantage helps to capture the competitive market. Objectives: After studying this unit. you must be familiar with technology forecasting and the need for technology forecasting. which involves the strategies that have to be followed for managing the technology. · Create competitive advantage using value chain. previous unit also familiarised us with the different forecasting methods and techniques and also with the relation of the planning and forecasting process. We will also9 study about the innovation management and the components of competitive advantage. Explain in brief about the innovation management. Apart from this.2 Technology Strategy Let us first understand the concept „technology strategy‟. We will analyse how a firm can create competitive advantage using value chain.
is to have a core corporate technical competency. some firms effectively use technology as a competitive advantage. it has been management‟s ability to foster corporate core technical competencies. developing superior products and pursuing learning curve and cost leadership. There are many factors in competition. 4. What it means.1 Technology strategy and management After studying the meaning of technology strategy. These are: · The view of management of the impact of general management on the business and business strategy. One important factor in the successful use of technology is the role of general management in technology strategy. Most of the organisations use technologies in product and services‟ generation. and others do not.We can define technology strategy as a planning document that explains how technology should be utilised as part of an organisation‟s overall business strategy. let us learn about the relationship between the technology strategy and management.2 Elements of an accessible technology strategy Till now we have seen how the technology strategy and the management are related. We can see that there are three aspects of relationship between the management and technology strategy. With this. but also manufacturing process can be improved in future generations of technology. The role of management in building competitive advantage for an organisation. The managers play an important role in the decision making process of the technology. and technology is only one factor among them. to lead in both innovating new-technology products and improving manufacturing quality and lowering cost of these products. · The management checks whether there is any chance of discerning the technology strategy. not only products can be improved. but all the organisations will not gain the positive competitive advantage from the technologies.2. The central idea here is that a business can be developed around a long-term. Now. · The management checks whether there is any chance of discerning particular orientation towards new markets. 4. technology intensity introduces the layer of complexity. It is better to understand the intended strategy of general management. Yet. we will study about the elements of an accessible strategy. depends on the technology strategy. The document is usually created by an organisation‟s technology manager and should be designed to support the organisation‟s overall business plan. In particular.2.
. In the case of competitive markets. consistent focus on a core technological competency. The decision making process involves many problems in sustaining and building competitive advantage.
Let us have a look at these elements in figure 4. · Ownership: The ownership defines the responsibilities of the team members in the project. This explains which expenses should become a part of overall technology purchase.1.The accessible technology strategy defines how the technology fits within the organisation. · Objectives: The objectives define the success metrics and clarify the details of vision statement. · Vision statement: This involves the creation of a unique statement that defines the role of accessible technology in the organisation and how it supports the organisation‟s overall vision of accessible technology objectives. if the organisational vision already provides the foundation for creating accessible objectives. What is the importance of technology diffusion? What are the benefits of technology absorption?
.1: Elements of an Accessible Strategy We will now have a brief discussion on the elements depicted in figure 4. Some organisations include the assistive technology product costs in the main centralised accommodation budget. and some companies deduct these expenses from the individual technology budgets of each department.
Figure 4. An accessible technology strategy includes some elements. · Expenses and budget: This involves the clarification that is done in regard to the expenses.1. It is important for us to clarify the budget decisions and see that the funds are allocated appropriately. and which should come under a separate budget. The ownership also plans the execution of the project. There should be one committee to see whether the execution of the plan is moving correctly or not. This is mainly helpful in integrating the technology into the business plan and business. and describes the funding resources. It also makes sure that the accessible technology strategy is aligned with the business needs. The objectives use the vision of the accessible technology. Q5. We have to restate the accessible technology vision.
than the sector with the tradable goods. now let us study about the importance of technology diffusion. as well as changes in knowledge or attitudes. Diffusion enlarges the set of available technologies and increases the productivity of the country. so let us now let familiarised ourselves with the concept of technology diffusion.) can be used to influence a diverse group of potential customers to adopt a technological innovation. The barriers to technology diffusion help us to determine the magnitude of technology diffusion. we can say that diffusion is the process of closing the gap between what people do not know and what they can effectively put to use. Thus. This perspective focuses on how the various channels and modes of communication (media. The free technology diffusion generates more gains compared to that of the free merchandise trade.
. In general. we know that diffusion is the process of spreading. These barriers determine the volumes of diffusion.3. In case of diffusion. · Traditional perspective: Technological innovation and diffusion have traditionally been viewed as separate processes. Diffusion involves special types of communication methods or system to help diffuse changes in practice.ANS: Previous section familiarised us with technology adoption. Such an approach results in better returns for the investments made in R&D and technology development systems. productivity is determined by the domestic technology in the production country and the diffusion technology from other countries. interpersonal etc. The process of adopting the new technology by the customers who came to know about the technology from other customers is called as the technology diffusion. we will now study about different perspectives of innovation diffusion process. Technology diffusion plays a major role in most of the countries today. This view treats diffusion as the marketing efforts required to expand the acceptance of the technology beyond the markets initially targeted. We can increase the merchandise trade by removing the diffusion barriers since the countries achieve higher productivity by taking the technology from the diffusion process.3. · Adoption perspective: The adoption perspective is most often used to describe the diffusion process. The technology diffusion plays more important role in the sector of goods that are not tradable. 5.2 Perspectives of innovation diffusion process After the importance of technology diffusion. A well-managed technology diffusion system enables an organisation to plan its technology development projects in a more meaningful manner as well as transfer the technologies more successfully. 5.1 Importance of technology diffusion After defining the technology diffusion.
In return. To model a diffusion process. In this activity.3 Activities necessary for diffusion process In this section. · Industrialisation: This activity of diffusion process focuses on developing a practical and profitable application of the technology . an analyst works with a few variables to fit a curve that describes the spread of innovation over time.It links customer demand with technical opportunities and out of this emerges a design concept for evaluation. develop strategies for diffusing an innovation. · Regulatory /Societal perspective: The regulatory / societal perspective looks at the effects of government policies. · Individual action: The diffusion process begins with this activity. · Creation of favourable conditions: The leadership in the organisation must establish the expectation that everyone will take some responsibility for generating innovations and make some contribution to their diffusion. communication. regulatory requirements.3. terrain. 5. · Applying basic research: This activity represents the translation of the findings of people who have done the basic research (people) into applications. During the individual action activity. This perspective is particularly important for diffusion of technologies in developing countries. etc. weather. and bureaucratic processes. It views the diffusion process as part of a total innovation process. and the development stage of the area in which the technology is to be used.· Infrastructure perspective: The infrastructure of the region in which the technological innovation is targeted is an important factor in diffusing the innovation. diffusion involves linking the basic scientist‟s work to the applied scientist‟s work and the world outside the laboratory through the comprehensive diffusion perspective. · Models perspective: The models perspective looks at the development of models that management can use to predict the behaviour of potential users of a technological innovation and. Let us have a look at its main activities. The application of basic research is a more organised effort than individual action. we will have a brief discussion on the activities necessary for diffusion process. Linking technical opportunities with
. the people in the organisation should expect that they will be rewarded for their efforts. · Comprehensive perspective: The comprehensive perspective uses all the perspectives discussed so far in developing a diffusion strategy. consequently. Infrastructure aspects that affect diffusion include transportation. Poor infrastructure development can constrain some innovations. the inventor proceeds (sometimes without even realising it) through a series of steps that result in practical use of an innovative idea. Diffusion will occur only if the necessary facilities exist. availability of energy. We can say that diffusion is a multi-faceted activity.
new geographic regions.Have an understanding of the organisation predominantly. commercialisation receives the major emphasis. The marketing department develops a description of the attributes of the new technology. organising trials. new market segments that have not been explored. Marketing next assesses the target market segment to identify the potential adopters that should be influenced first. we will understand its implementation.
. These considerations are: · Initial considerations: The management of the business needs to understand that the new system alone cannot find solutions to all the problems experience by the organisation. and begins development of a promotional programme. · Commercialisation: After initial development of the technology concept. communication with suppliers and a relationship among all other engrossed stakeholders. Commercialisation includes finding solutions to all the problems of defining the technology. which are critical and people those are involved must : .4 Implementation of New Technology The previous section gave you a clear idea on the necessary points. You must keep in mind some vital preliminary considerations. Explain the implementation of new technology. engineers and marketing personnel. which you must keep in mind while choosing a new technology. consumer services. The boundary between the industrialisation and commercialization activity is hard to define exactly. We know that planning is the key to success of a project. ANS: 6. In the same manner. to anticipate the likely trouble spots and ease it accordingly. There are a number of less-substantial activities. · Full Scale Diffusion: This is the last activity of a comprehensive diffusion process. in terms of its traditions and principles are essential. Briefly describe the automation decisions. and new ways to couple the innovation with other innovations. new industries. mechanisms for transfer of technology and expanding and managing the technology life cycle. Q6. selects channels for its marketing message. setting pricing policies and selecting and segmenting the market as a whole. The firm next develops the corporate capabilities for managing the diffusion. Valuing the conflicts will facilitate the organisation to keep away from these problems.market demand requires coordination and cooperation among applied scientists. and for the management. In this section. · Communication: Communication activities are the next major activities. The whole implementation process involves the complete business process and/or academic practice. a sound planning is essential for the success of any technology‟s implementation. The failures that are likely to arise during the implementation process may be due to the poor planning or inadequate resources. It includes a search for a wider range of potential markets. especially market research personnel.
. A competitive edge will make the clients and customers more independent. The various issues arising at this point of time will negatively affect the organisation‟s status. The competitive edge enhances production that may be related to the total system performance and authorising employees.A thorough system test procedures should be conducted. . and developing and introducing new policies before tuning the system to meet the decided requirements should be undertaken. or flow of data that will lead to a effective business. · Planning and implementation: A thorough plan with efficient management is necessary for success. . to identify faults and correct freely. where required.The inbuilt dangers of customisation of any software should be understood. For example.The users must be trained. and to work against the fear of high costs. it is essential that the “go live” day causes as tiny disturbance to the daily business. to use the system. . with all stakeholders. . we will now briefly discuss about some considerations for implementation of technology. · Be aggressive: An important consideration when implementing a new technology is to be aggressive to set up a strong competitive edge. extended time. .This information has to be conversed to all concerned parties. academic practice.The essential nature of system documents has to be accepted and retain accordingly. The competitive benefit may possibly combine several functions.
. we can think of an ATM machine that will make the customers convenient by establishing it outside the bank. Considerations for implementation As we are discussing about the implementation of technology.The training and development to be conducted for the internal staff should be planned in advance. . .A complete review of every business processes and. .The complete approval of the difficulty and flexibility of the system should be determined. . while accepting the likely need for software malfunction and improvements. losing key persons and common disappointment with the result · Go-Live Considerations: Finally.The users must be trained.The underlying principle of any new system implementation should be able to provide all the better services to all concerned through it. sometimes irreversibly. since it is practically possible. partners.
It is pretty often. · Be safe: During the implementation of a new technology. or employee information stored automatically. to design small changes. you should be aggressive to increase the competitive chances to grow the profit and performance of your business. Henceforth. customer information. of some companies that had apparently made changes to billing. or billing. we can say the technology plays a significant role in organisations worldwide accomplishment.
. you must be careful even while implementing changes that may affect your core business contributions. the centre design and functions of the business are well-organised and updated. health information. On the other side. monetary information. test changes and schedule to bring consistent enhancements. the employees will be liable to assist with the functioning. also conserve the primary processes until the changes have been tested on some of the more difficult and less used utilities. internal proposal for simplifying routines or improving customer performance. If you have customers. It is better to employ a security expert who will take care of the privacy of the organisation. From this discussion. failed to produce invoices or statements to the clients. The processes that are more frequently in use are likely to get the majority attention and seem to be highly evolved. There will be remarkable information to be achieved with the experience and less effect on business by concentrating on most composite and least used functions. then it is vital to consider safety. A well-organised management of people is crucial to the successful implementation and use of new technical systems. Basically. · Be slow: If major changes affect your business. We must follow a set of routines. The management should take the responsibility to support the commitment to the new system. customers. If we consider examples. the better time to address the potential security needs is at the time of design and development. In addition to the impact on cash flow. who abruptly received several months‟ worth of amass billing once the accounting system problem was resolved. credit cards. There should not be any delay. and for the displeased customers. · Be quick: It is important for you to be quick enough to implement the small changes to your chosen technology and to supervise their impact. it is vital to make the implementation changes slowly. when it comes to performance improvement. The consequence formed economic poverty for the billing company. If the management supports a new technology.· Be cautious: If the new chosen technology provides revenue to your business. available on a network. intellectual belongings. you must avoid focusing on common ground. then it is necessary to be careful while making any major modifications in the new technology. the minor improvements encompass the major impact to business performance. This proves to be right. these processes are given the first priority. it is the right time to reassess the associated documents by means of a security or privacy specialist. Also. At the same time. or printed in files. It conveys to be more careful in understanding the consequences and secondary applications which may perhaps be impacted as a result of a very small change. the relationships with the customers become weak. if you are planning to undergo a technology change. Being cautious does not merely mean that you should avoid the advancing technology. Normally. when it comes to implementing a transfer in technology. customer accounts.
Distributed Energy Systems designs. Distributed Energy Systems has
. real-world energy solutions to meet their customers‟ evolving needs. These advanced technologies also have applications in ground-based and marine environment. Individuals. as well as the government entities like the US Department of Energy. develops models and builds solutions to meet the needs of commercial aerospace partners and civilian and military government agencies. Explain Technology Development. To meet the growing demand for electrolysers for hydrogen-based renewable energy systems. and communities seek out the hydrogen fuelling systems because they are available in a range of production capacities and produce pure hydrogen.while they understand that the success and sometimes survival of the organisation along with their potential security depends on the adapted new procedure.
ANS: As we are now familiar with both the technology generation and technology development. the work is being developed for low earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) satellites. they are focused on meeting present commercial needs while advancing the innovation required creating future energy choices. From high pressure electrochemical cells to high energy density regenerative fuel cell (RFC) energy storage systems. In an effort to look for ways to extend present resources. Through new product development. · Backup power and renewable-to-hydrogen systems: Regenerative fuel cell technology can be used in a wide range of backup power applications including telecommunications. the Technology Generation group is advancing technologies in several core areas. · Military & Aerospace hydrogen applications: Leveraging the core proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. peak shaving. we will now study about their importance. Distributed Energy Systems‟ Technology Generation group is committed to the development of practical. task force. remote geographies. Explain Technology Generation. the technology has been used and validated with renewable sources of energy such as wind and solar. · Hydrogen fuelling systems: Distributed Energy Systems is developing hydrogen fuelling systems to meet the needs of an increasing number of fuel cell electric and convenient power applications. critical loads. NASA and California Energy Commission. Partnering with commercial. Discuss the importance Technology Generation and Development.
Q1. National Science Foundation. key strategic relationships and industry leading solutions. high altitude airships and high altitude winged aircraft. and load levelling in finest power markets.
· The abilities and inspiration of the supplier enterprise. Explain the dimensions of technology transfer and features of technology package. They have also designed and tested a 1. · The incorporation abilities of the receiving enterprise. and connected to the grid with an advanced power converter platform offers advantages in efficiency. Q2. The technology progress varies in character. a minibus manufacturing plant was closed in Pakistan.developed the HOGEN RE hydrogen generator. Several years ago. reliability and performance. · Megawatt wind turbine technology: Distributed Energy Systems has developed an advanced gearless drive train design for megawatt (MW) scale wind turbine applications. you must praise the variation between transfer and diffusion.5 MW slow speed permanent magnet generator for direct drive wind turbine applications and developed and commercialised a power converter platform for wind and related applications based on their FlexPhase™ power module technology. The sale of buses was dull. We transfer technology from an enterprise to an individual. To understand the implication of the culture. they could not maintain the building-up quality. From the above concept. and required excessive maintenance
. that is. This slow speed permanent magnet generator directly coupled to the blade hub. The time and resources required to transfer a given technology depend upon: · What is actually transferred? · The mode of transfer. As the next evolution of the company‟s advanced proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyser. we will now study about the dimensions of the technology transfer. whether transfer or diffusion. The buses produced were identical with those successfully built and marketed in foreign country.
ANS: Dimensions of Technology Transfer After studying about the different modes of technology transfer. we can say that the individual is the pivotal point of technology movement. The advancement of the technology depends on the combined effect of transfer and diffusion. and diffuse the technology from an individual to an enterprise. It conveys you the concept of cultural dimension. the HOGEN RE generator incorporates sophisticated power electronics to make integration to renewable power sources easy and efficient. A program of ten years for the transfer of built-up and market technology had failed. But in Pakistan. whether it is transferring or diffusing.
It was designed to be driven in England or similar environments where repair services and spare parts will be easily available.
. · The relationship between performance and incentives. technology is also not culture free. Actually. · The decision making social authority structure.Briefly describe the concept of technology choice. and incorporate it into their work. · The view and appreciation of pre-emptive action to prevent future problems. Those creating and applying technology perform within the context of their culture. The same is true for other technologies like. and so on. including that available from developed countries. So. If it is transferred without any adjustments can be referred to the result of blind luck. · The social suggestion including questionnaire. they influence both the transfer and successful application of the technology. The qualities often include: · The problem-solving method and logic. As we find difficult to adjust with the foreign culture. So. conflict and confrontation. · Source of personal status in the work place and society. the manufactured product works with the culture from which it came. refineries. Usually. engineering. mining machinery. they left their program forgetting their whole experience. Since the vehicle was designed as per the supervision and administration of British manufacturing plant. the combination of both is required for the successful technology transfer. education. · The vertical and horizontal orientation to organisational authority. the problem was with the bus and not with the customers. distribution and marketing organisation. However.
Q3. In our discussion. either the technology must adapt different culture or the people who use the technology must adapt to the culture used in the technology for successful transfer.and repair. · The relationship of fatalism and self-determination. They could not find the solutions even after the investigation of the problem. List and explain the steps involved in technology assessment process. Most recently developed technologies are embedded with “western” type cultural qualities. Most of these qualities are considerably different or do not exist in other cultures. · The time management and plan as it relates to tasks and activity. electric power stations. computerised information systems. · Taking initiative action for analysis value.
we can say that imaginary implications are the result of both rational technology based economic behaviour and complex imaginary struggles that emerge at various points and in many shapes by providing archives of meaning about the content of technology and its application. work. constituted and expressed as a function of such a system of implications. Because we can use different types of technologies to realise an organisation‟s goals. These implications and dominant interests are reflected in the shape and functioning of technology in imaginary practice. Imaginary assumptions can be considered as conscious or unconscious symbolic representation of human actions in the creation of meaningful and sense making ideas. and institutions. the real and the imaginary components of these implications. it depends on the ability to identify and evaluate opportunities in different technologies. the acquirement of certain technologies can simultaneously provide verification of membership of certain social groups. Choice of technology has significant involvement in growth and productivity of an organisation. in the method of what we call the actual imaginary or the imagined. The expected result is that the organisation will go for the most "appropriate" technology (AT) in this situation. These imaginary designs play an important role in modelling the choice of „symbolic representation‟ constituted by the world. In the perspective of technology choice.
. For example. expertise and relations to other actors by encouraging new aspects of subjectivity. The effective choice depends on previously decided measures for a technology‟s conference specified requirements. The technology choice in the framework of society and its creation is the idea of imaginary assumptions and are the key sources of meaning in social and cultural life. The social world is. the technology and its choice encloses not only the preferred technology based economic implications of the technology itself. This eventually comes from the original ability of positing or presenting oneself with things and associations that do not exist and have never been given in any depiction. Symbolic representation proposes implications which require perceptions of not only the real or rational. but also an additional imaginary component. These implications exist after they have been formed. Because of this balance between the assumed. and especially the choice of its organisational symbolism as well as the ends to which it supports „functionality‟. Q4. The use of technology is always related to an objective. indicate cherished relationships and include imaginaries about knowledge practices. in every situation.ANS: Technology Choice Let us start our discussion with the concept of „technology choice‟ used to assist in the success of an organisation. In addition. Briefly explain the factors influencing the high performance innovative technology based organisations ANS: Let us now discuss the key factors driving the innovative activities of organisations. but the issue of choice arises. but also the engraved imaginaries of technology in society. This is an imaginary field which individuals and institutions create in order to maintain and show „representations‟ and „projections‟ of possible alternative realities and ideas of possible fate related to the content and application of a technology.
Other policies may have the unintended consequence of inhibiting innovation. Enhanced data on innovation are critical for evaluating the impact that regulatory policies have on innovation. · Public-Private Partnership: Collaborative efforts by public and private sector are an efficient and useful way to develop innovation support mechanisms. · Establishing strong and self-sustained industry and education linkages: Public policy is a key element for motivating the cooperative efforts of all relevant stakeholders in the innovation process. · While developing effective ways to quantify innovation in the business priority should be given to the measurement of impact of rules and regulations on innovation. the burden on organisations should be minimised as much as possible. · Support to investment in R&D by both government and business: Governments can encourage private R&D investment by allowing the financial structures to cater the necessary packages to businesses. · Innovation data compilation efforts should build on the way organisations assess the effectiveness of their innovative activities. 11. Appropriate management training programmes can support this process.
.2 Principles The innovative performance in an organisation is guided by a set of principles which help the organisation to succeed in business. Some regulatory policies may exclusively support innovation. Let us study the principles that guide innovative performance.4. · Business investment in innovation strategies: This can be encouraged by both relevant education and concessions to influence companies so that they appreciate the need to change. · Data collection should be communicative rather than being based only on theory. Also. · Policy needs to steer the development and support of the soft and hard infrastructure that feeds innovative companies: Careful importance should be given to strategy and developing innovation support institutions and the related industry support programmes.· Investment in education that is relevant to business: Educational institutions require connection with business and evolve courses that are related to the operational process that make up national innovation systems. · Providing support and solutions for organisations: Specific policy measures are encouraged to address the issues of SMEs and to provide a favourable environment for such organisations to engage in the marketing of innovative business opportunities.
international and where possible. the mutual nature of the innovative process.· Due to the nature of innovation and. most organisations do not have a systematic or standard method of securing either investments in. are usually indefinite. national. Measurement is a step by step process that needs to be considered not as a „project‟ but as an ongoing „dialogue. · A conventional approach should be taken to any new data compilation efforts by recognising compromise between costs and potential benefits and considering resource and regulatory issues. with considerable variation in measures used every year. organisation. The measures of innovative performance comprises of three categories which are discussed here:
.3 Measures There are several issues for measuring the performance related to both new products and services: First. international comparisons would help explain why different countries are experiencing different economic growth rates. The government needs the support of the researcher community in order to achieve this in a timely manner. all the development contributes equally. Especially. regional Ievels. and they are rewarded based on their ability to achieve this target. For example. The methods by which they achieve this growth.4. recognising that innovation demonstrates itself differently in different parts of the economy. For example. there needs to be acceptance of qualitative and subjective measures. whether it is from acquisition or from innovation.‟ Learning and improvement are to be obtained from each stage of the process. or returns from. As innovation performance is not measured in a systematic way.effectiveness and ability to push out the boundary of knowledge about innovation and its impact on the economy. Enhanced data on innovation should allow industry and sector-specific analysis. Consequently. · Innovation measurement should not be stagnant. The execution of project trials to measure the costs and benefits of new data collection efforts is encouraged. innovation effectiveness is an area of constant concern as senior managers are always involved in assessing their company‟s innovation performance. they should be filtered and continually reevaluated for their cost. measurement of innovation performance tends to be informal in most companies. however. 11. Thus. it should be continuously updated. The costs of new data compilation include both direct program costs and the cost burden imposed on possible survey respondents. in particular. especially if such collaborations are informal or if the benefits are subject to spillovers. · Innovation measures should be analysed at the enterprise. most senior executives have a business target for their department or company. industry. At the same time. it has no significant role in the performance evaluations of senior management. measuring the resources invested in and the results of collaboration may be very significant but also very difficult. As new innovation data are compiled. innovation.
Those days have passed. Companies in these industries must dedicate resources to research and development as part of a long-term management strategy. such as sales or profits. ANS: After analysing the relation between technology and competition. The first process of R&D management is to determine which projects to carry forward.
. a pharmaceutical company can evaluate the market for hair shampoo that fights dandruffs and decide that there is adequate consumer interest in the product to make it profitable. After review and approval. cost management. The key concepts used in R&D management include supervising committees. Research and development management has transformed from the back office work to center stage. we will now discuss about the management of R&D. is typically the creation and execution of new product ideas. For example. time to market. such as number of projects in the planning. Measures which are known as “time to cash” or ROI are calculated on a project-by-project basis. This new responsibility has drastically changed relationships with other business operations. The need for growth. R&D management is generally viewed in the manufacturing. and how is it managed? Explain the different categories of Intellectual Property Management. the search for new ideas and new ways of doing things. scientific and product development sectors. The development part involves the process of designing and testing the effectiveness of the new product or product improvement. such as production. when a good R&D manager required only technical knowledge. The product development team presents the product manager with a project layout. to a leading force. the product development work can begin. R&D management involves the process and methods used to control the amount of funds and effort invested in research and development (R&D) projects.· Results-based measures: It focuses on business results. marketing. or percent of sales from new products. project management and product life cycle management. · Project measures: It looks at the returns and investments from particular innovation projects. complete with the estimated cost and time required to develop the product. · Process measures: It captures the activities that contribute to these business results. The product manager will discuss the plan with the supervisor or R&D management committee. The R&D management team will then review the possibilities and inform the scientists to explore the possible solutions. and finance. Q5. stock price or market valuation. Even though there are multiple stages of this process. and growing competitive pressures has changed the R&D operation into one of the major strategic requirement. becoming a key part of business success. The research part of R&D refers to the planning and examining stage of creating a new product or upgrading an existing product. What is Research and Development (R&D). Research and Development also known as R&D.
such as. project management processes are used to create a time line. n the previous section. to the owner of an invention. paintings. In addition. and so on. the use or exploitation of the license by the owner of the patent may not be possible due to other stringent laws of the country which has granted the patent. The reason for this type of accounting is to have a proper record of the amount of money spent on a specific project at any point in time. trademarks. schedule resources and set goals. along with required amount. The patent right is regional in nature. innovations. and designs used in business. Cost accounting is a key feature of any R&D management system. artistic works such as drawings. images and sculptures. A clearly defined project has more chances to be successfully completed than one with unclear requirements and no deadlines. sold or licensed by others. Intellectual property is related to the ideas created in the mind. and companies will have to apply for separate patent petitions in countries of their interest. can be gifted. use. and therefore. food. Under a cost accounting system. which comprises of patents. security. content and artistic creations. musical works. safety. This license is available for a limited period of time. A patent according to law is a property right. even if the patent has been inherited or licensed or produced or marketed by someone else. existing patents in the same field may also come in the way. it can also be withdrawn by the government under some very special conditions. As a function of an R&D management system. employees monitor the time spent on the project so that the remuneration and benefit costs also are charged to the cost account. In this section. As the right is granted by the government. allocated. producers of syllable in their recordings. for obtaining patents in those countries. and constructive designs. and symbols. Let us have a look at different categories of „intellectual property management‟. and Copyright. names. radio broadcasting and television programs. and geographic implications of source. Also. films. we discussed about the management of R&D. pictures. to create. A copyright includes the rights of artist‟s performances. industrial designs. every new project or activity is assigned to a cost center. · Patents: This category is related to the management of patents. „Special license‟ means that no one else can produce or market the invention without the permission of the patent holder. We can define a patent as a special license granted by the government of a country. provisions and material costs related to the project are charged to this account.it ensures senior management assistance for all initiatives as well as a proper understanding of the costs and the time line for each project.
. All equipment. These laws may relate to physical condition. In spite of the possession of the license. which includes content and artistic works such as novels. we will discuss about „intellectual property management‟. A project management plan gives a higher quality output in a shorter time frame. provided the invention satisfies certain conditions prescribed in the law. inherited. poems and plays. We can classify „intellectual property‟ as „industrial property‟. produce and market the invention.
1 Environmental impact analysis process We can define „environment impact analysis or assessment‟ as an activity to identify. and water. The following are the EIA process steps: 1. and evaluated against the economic advantages rising from a given activity. ANS: Technology Assessment and Environmental Impact Analysis In the previous section. Collective symbols are reserved by an alliance. Q6. Technology should become self-evident that each technology assessment should answer the question – does this technology intrude in any way upon the problem areas of technology? If so. such as. and pass information about the impact of an activity on human‟s health and well-being. Discuss the technology assessment and environmental impact analysis. shape and wrapping of goods.) formulated by international institutes and governments. predict. if it not. or to allow others to use it in return for some considerable amount.4. or colours used as distinctive feature. The first step is to make a fast examination of the basic environmental resources – land. which identifies certain commodities or services as the ones manufactured or used by some other person or organisation.· Trademark: A trademark is a unique symbol or logo. which is also called as the „environmental impact assessment‟. Trademarks may be single or collection of words. A trademark is given to the owner of the mark by providing the exclusive right to use it for identification of goods or services. let us now study about technology assessment and environmental impact analysis (EIA). and numerals. Hence it is said that all human activity whether it is economic. They may also consist of pictures. 15. This is done at a macro level where the project is to be located. whose members use them to recognise themselves with a level of class. The scanning is
. International Certification grades are provided to companies for compliance with the defined standards (example ISO 9000. letters. symbols. can the negative impact be used in a better way? Or should the technology be dropped? The effects of activities that are not addressed for in the common area of transactions need to be considered in the decision making processes. social. can the technology be altered so as to make a more positive contribution to the solution of a problem? And if that is not possible. is the impact beneficial or. interpret. It is us who are in the centre for development. or anything else is basically to fulfil the requirements of us through modifying and using environmental resources. assessed. air. There is economic development because of the association of natural resources and technology maintained by us and designed for us. Here. the environmental impact assessment is considered to be the vital process as they provide a way to humankind to consider the effects of their activities on the environment. we studied about technological change and industrial relations. All these effects should be identified. three-dimensional designs. letters.
4.3 Issues in preparation of EIA report
. The description includes a statement of its purpose. This also includes various materials. significance and quality. The fourth step is to rank environmental resources by their fragility. assess. 4.2 Guidelines on the scope of EIA The following are the guidelines to be present in the EIA report: · The project proposed action should be described. 3. The second step is to separate the project zone. The project and regional environment is then related. · The connection between local short term uses of human‟s environment and the maintenance of and improvement of long term production. 5. 15. 6. The seventh step is to prepare remedial plans for diminishing negative effects. and others involved. · Irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources are indicated. The sixth step is to categorise the effects in a systematic order. · Any possible negative environmental effect that cannot be avoided and addressing how each avoidable impact will be diminished. The fifth step to carry out review on every aspect of effects of the proposed project on the identified individual environmental resources available in the project zone. The third step is to identify. 7. policies and controls in the affected area or the project should be provided. · Alternative actions to the proposed action are indicated. and define all the environmental attributes. and a description of all related technical information to offer a clear and complete understanding of the proposed action. It is required to understand the affected environment. resources. includes actions which are not present in the authority.performed to evaluate the amount of fragility and exploitation of the resource base. · The connection of the proposed activity to the land use plans. 15. 2. · The important aspects which should be considered in detail are the possible impacts of the proposed project on the environment.4.
there can also be important secondary impacts in the biophysical environment. · Properties of the base: Conditions before the activity – The type of the impact is determined using the conditions of the environment living prior the project. The secondary effects are in the form of related investments and altered outline of social and economic activity. tough to measure. redundant. and others. This infers that few attributes which are tough to measure can still be examined. Because it is tough to define impacts in common units. · Aggregation issue: The problem of how to aggregate all impacts arises after measuring the project impacts on different individual attributes. The issues are: · Determine the environmental impact: This is the main concept in EIA. a set of similar activities can produce a large cumulative effect on particular aspects of environment. Likewise. · Identify the impact: There is infinite number of attributes to be evaluated. which is tough. The problem is one of finding out and assessing the source condition effect to solve for remedial measures. · Character of attributes: The impacts are the effects on the actual distinct attributes of the environment.The following are the issues reported to have been come across while carrying out and making the EIA. This is because any property of the environment is considered to be an attribute. the analyst as to take the issues as they are. This induced growth shows changes in the natural conditions. Thus it is advised to perform an EIA on huge programmes instead on a series of small
. mines. One activity can produce a small effect on environment. Few issues cannot be solved. If there are no alternatives. the impact on attributes have to be measured. the environmental impact and the changes in the environmental attributes should be clearly distinguished. Nature does not respect human‟s discrete categories. Yet. The actual impact might be the effect of changing severity on a range of interrelated attributes. Hence the number should be minimised to get finite manageable number. hotels. This includes depicting the different impact measures in common units. And also the computations of some impact are difficult. · Accumulating impacts: The accumulation means the similar activities distributed over in an environment making beach. resorts. · Amount of impact: All the impacts should be converted into common unites. They should be considered specifically in association to the infrastructure investments that prompts secondary effects. duplicative. · Indirect impacts: These are secondary impacts on environment. The determination of environmental impact includes the impacts on environmental attributes have to be found out. At the beginning. Therefore. and unclear attributes can be discarded. This is a very complicated process. But this is not possible. To assess the properties of the base is an important factor. and to show the total impact on environment the impacts on attributes should be aggregated. The question of how to deal with these cumulative effects rises.
That is done by methane which is escaped from natural gas. they lead to severe health hazards. The aquatic life is seriously affected. · Reporting results: The result should be shown in an easy and clear way to understand the total impacts of an activity from a short review. Alzheimer‟s disease. The major effects are caused by two aspects · Waste products let out from factories. Hence. The ozone layer is depleting because of the CFC gases. such as. and by propellant and refrigerant gases. EIA for a specific geographical area can be prepared where a set of similar activities are present. The presence of nutrients in the water results in the growth of algae and a reduction of oxygen causes death of fishes. farms. an increased incidence of bronchitis. · The ozone layer is being destructed. and presence of pollutants. heavy metals like lead or cadmium. Waste products include high amounts of nitrates. · Fertilizers used in agriculture eventually get washed into water bodies. the layer should be protected by limiting the generation of CFCs. and many others.4. These have many effects. acid rain. The coastal waters are polluted due to inefficiently treated sewage. natural environment is the first thing we think about. The combustion of fossil-fuels produces carbon-dioxide. Thus we have
. The exposure to ultra violet radiation causes skin cancer. The availability of clean water for human purposes has become very problematic. and others to damaging effects on trees and forests. then the average temperature of the earth also increases. This acts as a protective shield against the ultraviolet radiation. · A number of effects caused by increased amount of gases like nitrogen oxide. and their interdependent living things are also affected. The ozone layer is around 24 km above the earth. It is preferred to show the impacts on a summary sheet in a matrix form. such as. The chemicals in water bodies affect severely the aquatic life and also the use of water. various types of toxic chemicals. asthma. If the concentration of these gases in the atmosphere increases. the chloro-fluoro carbons (CFCs). and others. and homes. 15. health risks to infants. Air pollution · The well known greenhouse effect is caused by carbon-dioxide. Sometimes toxic chemical spills or oil spills may happen. carbon monoxide.actions. Water pollution Air pollution eventually turns into water pollution. The outcomes range from occurrence of smog. When the fish and other edible animals are consumed.4 Elements of the environmental problem While speaking of problems related with the use of technology. phosphates. burnt elements of fuel and soot. This results in climatic changes. Let us look at the main elements of the problem.
to carefully handle resources. It is becoming tough to find space to live. Noise pollution is intensified by low acoustic quality of buildings. and standards can be improved. and poses to be hazardous when it percolates into ground water. and is a question to make better by technical means. Noise pollution is also caused by extremely noisy music and motorcycles. with good sewage treatment so that water can be re-used after primary utilisation for secondary purposes like irrigation. Some trash can be burnt and the heat generated usually methane can be extracted. like what has been stated noise pollution. We are sinking in rubbish from unwanted packaging. which is a useful product. unwanted oil. Few small beginnings with both the reduction and utilisation of trash have been made. unwanted machinery. Desalination of sea water is another way to get fresh water. and so on. and tough to use old sites for constructing or recreation because they have so much toxic elements. This indicates huge problems of safe disposal as some of the trash is toxic and polluting. unwanted batteries. Other types of pollution · The major factor of pollution is trash. A simple solution lies in recycling instead of throwing away. · There are comparatively harmless nuisances. unless it is carried out in an intelligent way by combining semi-permeable membranes and solar energy.
. but there are serious technical and economic issues to be overcome. Noise pollution is caused by noisy vehicles and machines. But this needs huge energy. Modern aircrafts noise is less compared to the noise from older aircrafts.