Technical description

Version 1.0 build 15
December 2008
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Contents
Geometry ....................................................................................................... 3
Constructions.................................................................................................. 5
Windows and doors.........................................................................................10
Heating and cooling ........................................................................................12
Light and ventilation .......................................................................................13
Start simulation .............................................................................................15
Results..........................................................................................................16





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Geometry

Figure 1 Geometry tab
The house volumes are based on internal areas. For the 1-storey house, the floor area is
simply the width x the length of the house.

For the 1½-storey house and the roof top apartment, the floor area is only counted for
the part of the floor, where the height from floor to ceiling is 1,5 m or higher. The floor
area, height and volume of each house type are found in the tables below.

1-storey house, flat ceiling A B C
Internal width 7 m 8 m 8 m
Internal length 14 m 18 m 22 m
Internal floor height 2,5 m 2,5 m 2,5 m
Internal floor area 98 m² 144 m² 176 m²
Internal volume 245 m³ 360 m³ 440 m³


1-storey house, open ceiling A B C
Internal width 7 m 8 m 8 m
Internal length 14 m 18 m 22 m
Internal floor height 2,5 m 2,5 m 2,5 m
Internal floor area 98 m² 144 m² 176 m²
Internal volume 325 m³ 494 m³ 604 m³


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1½-storey single family house A B C
Internal width 7,5 m 8,0 m 8,0 m
Internal length 8,0 m 10,0 m 12,0 m
Ground floor height, internal 2,5 m 2,5 m 2,5 m
First floor height, internal 0,8 m 0,8 m 0,8 m
Ground floor area, internal 60 m² 80 m² 96 m²
First floor area, internal 49 m² 66 m² 79 m²
Total floor area, internal 109 m² 146 m² 175 m²
Internal volume 311 m³ 424 m³ 509 m³


Roof space (on top of building) A B C
Internal width 11,0 m 11,5 m 12,0 m
Internal length 7,0 m 9,0 m 11,0 m
Internal floor height 0,8 m 0,8 m 0,8 m
Internal height from floor to roof top 6,3 m 6,6 m 6,8 m
Ground floor area, internal 67 m² 91 m² 117 m²
First floor area, internal 28 m² 41 m² 55 m²
Total floor area, internal 95 m² 131 m² 172 m²
Internal volume 273 m³ 380 m³ 502 m³

When using the row house type, the walls to neighbouring buildings are considered
adiabatic in the simulation. The wall type for the adiabatic walls cannot be edited; it is
fixed as a heavy wall construction with a U-value of 0,29 W/m²K.

The floor of the roof top apartment house type is adiabatic. It cannot be edited and is a
light floor construction with a U-value of 0,76 W/m²K.

The climate data files used in the EIC Visualizer are the ASHRAE climate data files
published at http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/energyplus/cfm/weather_data.cfm.


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Constructions
Here the construction types for external walls, roof and floor are specified.


Figure 2 Constructions tab


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Figure 3 Construction definition dialog

The properties of each construction type can be seen by clicking the construction type
(blue text and underlined). This opens the Construction definition dialog, where the U-
value and thickness of the construction are seen. It is also seen which materials are used
in the construction and the thickness of each material can be changed.

Material properties can be seen and edited by pressing the small triangle next to the
name of the material. This opens the Material dialog.
Press to edit
material
properties
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Figure 4 Material dialog
At the Material dialog, the properties of each material can be seen and edited.

U-values
The U-values seen on the Constructions tab are based on fixed surface resistance
coefficients. This means that the U-values seen here are an approximation of the actual
U-values used in the simulation. In real situations, surface resistance coefficients are not
fixed numbers, but vary continuously depending on temperature differences, air
velocities and radiant long wave exchange between the surface and the surroundings.
The EIC Visualizer calculates the actual surface resistance coefficient during each time-
step.

Thermal bridges
Joints between walls, ceiling and floor are handled by using exterior surface area
(meaning that corners are included twice).

The thermal bridge related to the joint between window and building envelope (roof/wall)
is treated differently for façade windows and roof windows.

Ψ, connection between window and building envelope
Roof windows Ψ = 0,000174 * t
insulation
+ 0,0399 W/mK
where the unit of t
insulation
is in mm
Façade windows 0,05 W/mK

Internal walls
The thermal mass of internal partition walls is included in all EIC Visualizer models. The
area of internal partition walls depends on the geometry of the house. For all houses, the
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same length of internal wall in relation to the floor area is used. This number is 0,32 m of
wall per m² of house.

The corresponding area of internal partition walls is then calculated for each house type,
considering the actual floor area and the average ceiling height.

m² internal walls
Size type A B C
1-storey house, flat ceiling 77,7 m² 114,2 m² 139,6 m²
1-storey house, open ceiling 103,1 m² 156,8 m² 191,7 m²
1½-storey single family house 98,5 m² 134,5 m² 161,4 m²
Roof space (on top of building) 86,7 m² 120,7 m² 159,1 m²

The internal walls are assumed to be of 75 mm lightweight concrete.
Roof space of model for 1-storey building with horizontal ceiling
The roof space is not considered in the simulation. This is a simplification as the roof
space will function as a thermal zone, but the effect is assumed to be neglect able in
most cases.
Leakiness
The table below is showing the leakiness rates, which are used in the EIC Visualizer. The
data is taken from EN 13465 table A.2, which is based on data from Sweden.

Construction period Leakiness at 50 Pa [ACH]
Leaky 1950 20
Average 1950 13
Airtight 1950 6
Leaky 1980 10
Average 1980 6
Airtight 1980 2
Leaky 1995 6
Average 1995 4
Airtight 1995 1
Leaky 2005 4
Average 2005 2
Airtight 2005 1
Passivhaus 0,6

c
p
-values for house types
The c
p
-value used for the ventilation calculations are the same for all house types and
sizes. The values are taken from the AIVC report TN 44 and apply to low-rise buildings
with a length:width ratio of 2:1 and surrounded by buildings of similar height. The values
are seen in the table below.

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lronL
Wlndangle
8ear
LefL
8lghL


Wind angle
Face 0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
Facade, front 0,06 -0,12 -0,2 -0,38 -0,3 -0,38 -0,2 -0,12 0,06
Facade, rear -0,3 -0,38 -0,2 -0,12 0,06 -0,12 -0,2 -0,38 -0,3
Facade, left -0,3 0,15 0,18 0,15 -0,3 -0,32 -0,2 -0,32 -0,3
Facade, right -0,3 -0,32 -0,2 -0,32 -0,3 0,15 0,18 0,15 -0,3
Roof front, pitch 25° -0,49 -0,46 -0,41 -0,46 -0,4 -0,46 -0,41 -0,46 -0,49
Roof rear, pitch 25° -0,4 -0,46 -0,41 -0,46 -0,49 -0,46 -0,41 -0,46 -0,4
Roof front, pitch 45° 0,06 -0,15 -0,23 -0,6 -0,42 -0,6 -0,23 -0,15 0,06
Roof rear, pitch 45° -0,42 -0,6 -0,23 -0,15 -0,06 -0,15 -0,23 -0,6 -0,42

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Windows and doors
Here windows and doors are added and edited. When you add or change a value, the 3D
model is updated to reflect the change and show the window or door.



Figure 5 Windows and doors tab

Thermal properties of windows
The thermal properties for windows take the actual slope and glass area into account, as
well as the effect of accessories on both thermal resistance and g-value.

The U-value of the window is calculated based on:
• The window size, i.e. glass percentage
• The U-value and width of top, side and bottom parts of the frame. The U-value of
the frame depends on the window type.
• The linear transmission coefficient for the connection between pane and frame
(psi-value). A psi-value per pane is used.
• Angle-dependent pane U-values are used for each pane.
• g-, τ
v
- and τ
e
-values are used for each pane.
• For each solar shading accessory, a multiplier for the g-value and a multiplier for
the τ-value are defined for each pane.
• For each solar shading accessory, a value is defined for each pane which should
be subtracted from the U-value of the pane.

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For the 1-storey house with flat ceiling, a light shaft connects the roof window with the
house. The thermal resistance of the shaft walls is considered to be equal to that of the
roof construction. The area of the shaft multiplied by the U-value of the shaft is treated
as a thermal bridge in the calculation.

Ventilation properties of windows
For both roof windows and façade windows, a maximum opening area is calculated for
each window size. The opening area is defined as:
• Pivoting roof windows: based on 22 cm from bottom of frame to bottom of sash,
corresponding to a fully opened Integra window.
• Top-hung roof windows: based on 30° between frame and sash.
• Openable façade windows: based on 20° between frame and sash.
• Openable façade windows higher than 2 metres: based on 10° between frame and
sash.

The ventilation flap of roof windows is treated separately. The airflow rate depends on
the width of the window and the pressure difference across the window. The airflow rate
is defined as:
q
v
= (3,70 * width - 0,126) * dP
0,53


Where:
• Width [m]
• dP [Pa]
• q
v
[l/s]


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Heating and cooling
At this tab the controls for heating, cooling and solar shading are selected, as well as the
schedule for the occupants of the house.


Figure 6 Heating and cooling tab

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Light and ventilation
At this tab the controls for lighting and ventilation are selected.


Figure 7 Light and ventilation tab


Airflow model
The airflow model used in the EIC Visualizer is a pressure driven model. Cracks in the
building façade and windows are defined with regard to airflow characteristics. The result
is a calculation of airflow that considers infiltration through the façade and controlled
natural ventilation through windows as one, i.e. these two components constitute the
airflow and thus the ventilation rate of the building.

The leakiness of the building is defined as the leakiness of a building pressurized at 50 Pa
with the leakage equally distributed on the facades. Windows are defined with a
maximum openable area, and the opening is modulated up to this area according to the
control options selected.
Light model
The electricity demand for electrical lighting is determined based on the amount of
daylight entering the building as an average of the lux level on a working plane.
The daylight model calculates the target position of the direct light beam from each
window. Each surface that is hit will then reflect diffusely. A radiosity model is applied to
negotiate diffuse light exchange according to approximate view factors.
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The default values for installed power for electric light include the effect of light fixtures.
The table below shows the values used in EIC Visualizer. A linear function is used to
determine the power consumption when the daylight level is between 0 lux and the given
set point.

Set point 100 lux 50 lux 25 lux
Incandescent
(7,2 lm/W)
13,9 6,9 3,5
Fluorescent
(44 lm/W)
2,3 1,1 0,6
Mixed
(26 lm/W)
8,1 4,0 2,0
The installed power in W/m² for 3 types of light bulbs and 3 set points based on
average light fixtures
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Start simulation
At this tab the simulation is described and started, and advanced results can be selected.

Figure 8 Start simulation tab

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Results
At this tab results are selected and viewed.

Figure 9 Results tab

# $ % ' ( * + & ) $ " ! " .

5 m 98 m² 325 m³ B 8m 18 m 2.# .( 3.5 m 176 m² 604 m³ $! " . flat ceiling Internal width Internal length Internal floor height Internal floor area Internal volume A 7m 14 m 2.( 0 1-storey house.5 m 144 m² 360 m³ ( C 8m 22 m 2.5 m 176 m² 440 m³ ( ( & 0 . open ceiling Internal width Internal length Internal floor height Internal floor area Internal volume A 7m 14 m 2.5 m 144 m² 494 m³ C 8m 22 m 2. ( / ( 0 .( ( ) 1 ( & (2 ( ( 0( ( ( . ( ( 0 1 1 ( 1 0 ( 0 / &( ( ( (0 0 /( ( ) 0 (( 1 1-storey house.5 m 98 m² 245 m³ / ( 0 / 0 B 8m 18 m 2.

0 m 0. internal Internal volume %( 0 2 .0 m 12.0 m 7. internal Internal volume A 7.5 m 0.0 m 2.5 m 0. internal Ground floor area.( 1 ( &( ( ( ) & 0( A 11.) 0 / 6 %! 7 8 ( .5 m 9.5 m 8. internal First floor height.3 m 67 m² 28 m² 95 m² 273 m³ B 11.0 m 0. internal Total floor area.0 m 10.8 m 6. internal First floor area.1½-storey single family house Internal width Internal length Ground floor height.0 m 0.0 m 2. internal First floor area.8 m 117 m² 55 m² 172 m² 502 m³ 1 / ( & ( .( & 1 0 ( & & ( .5 m 0.8 m 6.) ( )! 1 0 /9" %! 7 8 ( :' : * + ! 1 ! 0 !& 0 ( < 5 0 1 1 & ( ( 0 ( 1.0 m 11.0 m 2.8 m 60 m² 49 m² 109 m² 311 m³ B 8.( 0 (0 .6 m 91 m² 41 m² 131 m² 380 m³ C 12. internal Total floor area.8 m 80 m² 66 m² 146 m² 424 m³ C 8.8 m 96 m² 79 m² 175 m² 509 m³ Roof space (on top of building) Internal width Internal length Internal floor height Internal height from floor to roof top Ground floor area.8 m 6. 11 !! 0 4! " .

' ( 1 0 2 & / 0 0 1 0 ! " .

( 1 > ) ( @ 1 2 ( = 0 ( ? .( 1 0( ( ( = 1 ( 0 ( 1 ( = 0 ( / &( &( ( ( 2 ( 1 .( 1 ( @ "! " .A 1 1 . 1 1 0( ( .

( / ( 9! " .( ( .) .) 0 0 .) 0 2 ) .( 1 .) 1 & ( / 0 2 11 0 1 ( 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 ( / ( .( / ( ) & ) ( 2( 0 ( ( .( ( 0 0 0 0D & ( & / 0 & ( C & & ? & & 0 & & & ) 1 > 0 !& ? ( 2 0 + 0 & -D & & & Ψ/ & ΨE / 94 F &( ( 0 / %! 8 & & G / $66 %! 8 ) 1 & .: ( @ / ( 1 1 0 ( .( ( 0 0 1 & 1 1 & ( 0( ( ( .( B > . 0( .

open ceiling 1½-storey single family house Roof space (on top of building) .( = & 0 1 = : ) : : ) : : ) : : ) : A 6 $ " " " 4 4 6 ( 6 = 6 6 ( 6 = 66 66 ( 66 = ( )( (& ( H $4" = = / &( ( : / &( ( A I ' : J 0 ( * & . ( ( .7 m² 0 9 (& ( C 139.( & m² internal walls A B 77. ( / .5 m² 134.( & ( 1.7 m² 114.7 m² 120.6 m² 191.& .1 m² + 01 .( ( 0 0 & (( 1 0 ( 0 = .) 0 ( 0 (& .1 m² 156.2 m² 103.8 m² 98.( 1 ( 0 7 0 ( 1 ( & ( 0 .( ) 1 ( ) = 0 0.H 44 0 11 0 ( 1 &.( 1 01 & 0 0 ( 0 . flat ceiling 1-storey house.5 m² 86.( /" 1. & ( : 1 ( .7 m² 161. ( ( .( /$ 0 0 0 1 ( ) & ( ( ( 0 (( 1 / Size type 1-storey house.4 m² 159.( ) .) ! " .

46 -0.15 -0.46 -0.12 -0.32 0.4 -0.46 -0.32 -0.3 -0.06 -0.42 -0.49 -0.6 -0.06 -0.46 -0.46 -0.6 360 0.32 -0. pitch 45° 0 0.2 -0.38 -0.42 6! " .32 0.23 -0.06 225 -0.3 -0.4 0.2 -0. left Facade.06 -0.18 -0.3 -0. pitch 45° Roof rear.2 -0.41 -0.3 -0.41 -0.3 -0.2 -0.38 -0.3 -0.3 -0.Face Facade. front Facade.38 0.23 315 -0. pitch 25° Roof rear.15 -0.15 -0.23 -0.18 -0.41 -0.06 -0.6 -0.2 0.2 0.06 0.15 -0.6 90 -0.3 -0. rear Facade.46 -0.42 45 -0.49 -0.12 0. right Roof front. pitch 25° Roof front.46 -0.3 -0.15 270 -0.15 -0.41 -0.38 -0.12 -0.23 Wind angle 135 180 -0.49 -0.46 -0.4 0.15 -0.12 -0.15 -0.

) & ( 0 1/ ( 0 1 ( & & 1 . .% ' & & & 1 0 ( ( %( (& ( & ( & ) / ( $ .) 0( 1 1 0( 0 & (1 1 .) (1 1 &( ( ( 0 ! " .) 0 (1 ( ( / 1 ( τ. τ .( 0 0 0 ( > .) 0 0 0 0 ( 0 .( .( .( • • • • • • • 1 1 0 & 0 & & & = ( (( 1 .) 1 ? :1 .) / 1 1 0 0 0 ./ τ).( .) 1 1 : . 1 1 .) 0 .( & & / 1 .( ( & ( .) 0 0 (1 ( ( / ) 0 ( .) 0( & & .

. K) E > $/9 F& (. • % (I J • AI J A • K) I J ! . 1. 0 0 0 1 0 1 & & • . / "? F A/ $ %( .( ( 0 .( ( ( .( ) 01 0 0 & & ( & ( 0( & & ( 1 0 .( 0& 1 ( & & . $ L & 0 • M 1 0D & &. L & 0 • M 1 0D & & ( ( ( . • A) 0 & &. ( 1 0 0 .( & (0 / ( (0 0( ( 0& 0( ( 0 1 ( ( .( 0 & &.( 1 0 .( 0& ! " .) 0 & && ( ( K ( 0( 0( ( 0 ( ( 1 - 1 0 & & 0 0 ( L ( & 0 ( / ( 0 & & 0D & &/ 2 1 (& & .

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