THE SKY IS PINK

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.ANNO·TATED
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DOCUMENTS
Southwestern Oilfield Watson Energy Review

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I Bacchu

I Schlumberger
I SPE

Dusseault, Gray + Nawrocki International Archer

Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission [COGCC]

If it is not possible for gas to migrate from targeted formations, why does industry show so much evidence to the contrary in these, their very own documents?

LAND

The gas industry asserts that the target formation is thousands of feet from water supply aquifers and that the aquifers therefore cannot be contaminated by migration of natural gas,radioactivity, VOCs and other chemicals. However, SOUTHWESTERNENERGY'Sown powerpoint deck shows three waysthat just such a scenario can occur

CEMENT CHANNELING The cement forms incomplete bond to the casing, sometimes caused by exposure while curing to pressurized gas.

LEAKTHROUGH CASING The casing itself starts to corrode over time due to exposure to moisture and chemicals.

INSUFFICIENTCEMENT COVERAGE The annulus around a casing stnng is not cemented to the surface, allowing pressurized fluids accessupwards to a freshwater aquifer.

LAND

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In this article from Oilfield Review. it is stated that sustainedcasing pressureis an indication of communication to the annulus from a sustainable pressuresource because of inadequate zonal isolation. caused by gasmigration due to faulty cement or casings. This chart shows the number of wells in the Gulf of Mexico with SCP- or the failure rate - by age. As you can see.6% fail immediately. and wi thin lS years.over 50%have failed.

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Migration is a common problem in Canada.Most of the SCP/migration is due to gas.

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It is acknowledged that the search for energy in ever more remote locations "extreme energy" - will push technology and operators to the limit: the consequences of ··poor zonal isolation" are more failures.

SCPcan result from direct communication with gas in shallow formations as well. as the target formations. usually caused by poor primary cementing.

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GAS LAND
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There are 4 commonly

understood A - Tubing 1 migration leaks. If they lead to a failure of production casing. the outcome can be catastrophic. jeopardizing personnel safety. production facilities and the environment.

causes of SCPo although identifying the precise cause is often difficult. likely for the same reason that remediating is difficult.

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LAND

D - Evenafter a flawless cement iob, the cement can still be damaged by the routine operation of the well. Also. the mechanical properties of casing and cement vary over time: differential expansion and contraction due to temperature, pressure or vibration can cause the bond between casing and cement to fail.

loss tOIIPftd with 11>0iol ...... 'i•• ...._ .,.null, ......... 111, bordlol e ...u ond ('Ulna U.IUi(·!, a 10$5- 01 h}drolo1.aHc p1t$$'U'~. I.odill& I" an andnIoobnctd rondition, Whil'L"the- h,dfDsb.I:iI:: p,['nure in the ~.I" btl... fonn>lioopl'e55llrt'. ma)· iN< __ If ••• h..,k.d. lho i""",lon CUltiftg$ ro'POI\$.1l) _"II nutds C_ .aOllll" woro .. ton !rom• &os y .IUI. adw,"01 throu~ .!oirh po an ...... Ill. _hom Gull 01M_o (lnlloh.1h .. ~b.st I11II(I; dlo ... "'ilil" n .rr.di>.tr .... pr ....... g ...... 1... 41dy had no1 bun RlpaSad tOo woIIflf-basl RaId Prior tD lesling. Ahlll' da'nlAIJ 0tJ otId zenoll .. bbo .. tr.am I:b-8 cwings. SwflClI. SchlumberglllrlaborltDry IIICllnicliRS -sorted lha rO£k pilKQ$_ Thr.a ... itially-.jdllllDcal sarnplQS ar rock war. phologf'lphad rr.. ....... in oeaem _ obo "" ...... <1'>11Iftar rQcQMnIj1l1 di1t818'111trgllmlnt Siqlla A(lrm was plaC-od lin tip W.l.t~ n.l. Undor .Uli. condil,on ... Iuror last.tbibl)· 50 ...... B ImII""IltD. gon.rit 1'UIlO.ulfonat. drilling IIuid and 50"' .... C m1.)" rr.l.d 10 • ..aler nparating, from a (Client It.igM WI. ".mo"od in I glycol·polymo'1ID""'um thlond. nUld. Each sluri)'. This IIj~ 10 the borthok sampta WlS rodldi in DItacnlt$$·s •• ,1 ellt in al'lal-f-OiJ Ov. 'or 16bGuf$. II wall ....r .0U ..... fomi.,3 chan .. l. This ;, of 2SO'f (lll'Cllo ... 011'. lOll 111'''Il0'l up"'. b... IIoI. 10.ulf •••. Tho sa,"",. I.lap WIt Sompl. A. man dll1lltjOd,.nd S","". C ...... la dmoI<d we u...... """ QIyt.l-polymo.·p" m._ n w """",.., .nd od. Tho ,,""11 m>1 dr~" d.",h)' ... p... lron and nuod loQ_I ..... ",'fill 00 .... I00I 'mod d .... g.lor $om 8, D"I10"" im'tnion_ .....rtlng '" the ""~I_I.t a ".,,wnh. fmICI h-.mg InhGitlon II11ut5 would be '!petted to ,en'I,,[Qb,,;ry on4w r me m cloy 1_ O.1d on 1100lop sido 01 tho """"""'_ b•• lIla",'" by ....... ".,. ••• d .~ uy_ ~ .. glyt .. ~ . Ctllt.' .t••• q/I.r "''''.lI-scr ca. P01)$.$ium (:hlofidl. occee long .... ' 1100... U....rulrudlon p"""'_ Even a nil.less primary cement job CoH bedmlagtd by rig .ope-rations or .. elllCtn.i~iH In Iho .. rr.re "he ... SCP_Id """'op. (:nor.. 1 oIriIlinc Auids f.t<d d<IorM.f. 10 this ........... ott botclool ••••• lillon_ oiled;,,, lio •• and ph)" ol i•• ion 01 eore and 1 o«orrinl 011., 11>0"",,",nI r... .. L Chonllal _ iu tho mirnwmulj. <llltinCS ",th se ioc electron .. it..... p,.-·, o mud r('mont and ceme-nt·s)"StetD dll'5i&n tot """"~, .. 1>oth__ 1c:IdIn& pI ...... nt, databilily •• d ...... ilily to lhe Thr rew!ls ~ oRm jnronsiSlrnt, 5ft dnllinc

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""lIlit.qd e, 1I.lIto.o.. ondition dopondo on ...., r.<I.... c lMluding rec k t)1'<'. lo..... tion ........",.. Ioc.>! $lrU5e'5~ the l) ..... of mud u.Jtd and drillinl r. operational parameters, ,ul"h a~ h)'draulil'!i. ilK"ft",lulion holr dean"~c ;ind fluid-

nuid ..tC<'tion 0[1.0 is b...d .impl~ on Ii.ld hisloor· ldallf lim es , ..... ;m,.,I)· in new fi.lds
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=:C::;;"U:::::=:O'E'~CS-

i~;NfIC:l"_IR4IZhwO

l,c."._2IIIJl

_~W_ot
-"t",~oIPrHWf't' -(:erne",

_ .............. ...... ~ "c..._.
p1""WJC1SP(5':rJ.prtstfltd."t~PE
OriIin;I(.onI_ac'.JII _ll-~lIIJl .. f)rIf.~.t.cv:NIl.I.~

As tJoo bo.. hofe RlXh .. deepe, .... tJoo """'_ ~... ,••• Ir i,.I •• td tar 01 lonnotion ar. "'1>O'<'d t. :moth"" Uh the bo... hulo .. tho ... ndu<1~" path, t.. f.\tina th.... bI'c'" .. csIol>lisloing...... bob is kC)" to IDinimizin, tJoo migal,on of r 1I.. Aulds bot.. ... mnrs or

CoooIr1Il1bot

Ga~

0"

• combination thereof, fot .1a7 ronlml. Today, r~:tItonIfI'rn:::"r4~.~ ffQ$. USA. s.p.lI1JI't 16-11.1. AlcI.base and DDnilqUl"ODS inlt·ert ..-eJBDJsion ~, '~d'1N.g,I~~!tIc-tf!'W1ani .. llaido omou.1 r.r gr." 01 all drilliD& p:te Dr .. ~ar.utX:n nn pI'Mnantncn hIS bHn 'IIocu. tNC:td tlJ'n.fN'I9lt1Qwt"" c:er.wm bll'lilop, film The 1NjoNy,.ro.1 7~ .... WOl""-pmswe- __ ....',;:IMllfJdrwn_W r m.d Ilw i. highly t ... ~~ ~.SLft4 TM bonilo9 dt .... lft.llCettt'Wl .~"""JUfI'fIIMdo1nl~ wkfIdloIoicti ll.FJiIIIU -c.n.w.\\Jlllbh"'I9Au1c1:P,rtonr-ln::t Orillill&0.1d d ... bt<d oechnicol Itb'. Wt Sun?'"'~-t;Jtf S~E I~"IS. ",,'Mi1IIIII'I, spocl>h .... h».., appl,ed '~0Il! Itchniq ...... SP£ 1l3'l ~ E.tII ... Show" Ccnttr'nl.ct. 8ii'J'''''~ _'-'UtI:) im... ;pu, rock IHI>OIISO 10drill .. , Ouid <hem· iSU)';. tMSIt inctBde 't'~i.nl (OK' 5Ullple:s 10

,........ ~

.... ~siI""""

............

'0 PI!'t"'J~'''IIId:SII~''''

or

O" .... Ii't_ .. lII,...AcvalCblao. Goa:! leNllloIDa,: p.lpitt $PE 131Jl~'"H .. d'ltSR:hSJtEAM..I'"

s;r.,n....,.

II'ICI

QW."""'""" ......

n.ids .~

engjn""....

GAS LAND

.

....

11 )17 1\1. LIwtI dntt
1

i

I!.'i-ut

!broft-b)W

U\l(,'II;th
brh.oo

...... .Julh,* ~I

p.I;

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iii

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~

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gu

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.'l..~ WoN. I'HMnly.t.t. UIP ~~ MIIIJ

.Jv. fin •• J\Moo-h 11\ t"U.inCpnauy

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;\DoQ", 001 u.ndf'1' t(ofttQl'l r« IJI" :flfI'tI"t.. SthlUZlbHfll"r JI'IJ N,I-r-rtC1J',ortnal)T\lI'Illn-rUI p. ....u.r.. '1111""·l"lll·.&nd lbtl!: pll1nr-n. t-uUJ; ' n 1Mj., ~ 3 ptu. to tnt"'cn~~r ~h"Ulnll.~n ~;JII..~WftII~IDl 4 dllpI1..- .. m..nt :and

~._I

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or

U*",I·Zo!lftel

nenuJ.IJ ~

no..mI..", 1o_~""1n u..1!'I1n

"'""'"
til-

These three drawings illustrate a concern over migration from nontarget shallow gas zones through vertical fractures into non-gas-bearing sand formations as a result of poorly bonded cement.

toroutf11"""'_"'" Uj\~ .. ~0IIl U41.lJiJ.OUUOI\

61 Ynd and Wuk, JO IIbJc-tIr.Lll),

IOl

o1 ...l\Irh IIQ.'I ft'¥ln..- rb) UIT'1r fvua.Uulu, W'CE
I:II

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.Joi1dti.'U

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cvn.EA.Jhn,cthr tmr.bWf' and u,llUlp I"_",,,nl] aUh SlI.I)RIL muoJ. 11000IIJID·sIUntr, bl!i~
dnll~ftl.l~ Thrflb~"'t"a-'l,LI,,""'_.tItI1I"""" .U .. ..IUI upUDlI,f'd cbUl1: " 3M (fmt:1I cP-~,"IW'I<t I.&UI" tpt'l,rtll.·lr roLv"-ilM"'~

ct1lltr..U.UU.fl1l auld du.pll(t'mrn.

...-rn:u,,,,,=,

__ ~nWo1b 8(·11-6."" th-td.tJV9k:om'rt:dS(P"ts-uI1,K"

SUMn»r:t I..~P'I!t·:wtld cl·oil.t~~.HI•• ''''' 1!11~"IJ'II'I.lI"1110. ~U''l''lUIU'" u~t :I,JIM,Io\-Wt [IW~ .... '!Ulii:J1 SWUM " S(oftl_~Wifiaf'll'lC9iPlr~ • .rpII;dl,"Sc:tcs.$.

''''I""u''''''~n'''iI
a'·I1·l '"-"

GISd.,Ult¥o1l as rfd btbbt'1.ar~CJ:1 t.'l't Sh.lftW.a!S .... ncr In"iN-1lVw 1CIHUnas s.-"KPM1,g.'" r"Lo;' .. r.CI,u~ POOf'r ~I:Cll;'om,~ '" en ~OYCIlltIlvMPOOl'rtoo-r.dIl';;:;~""I;'\l'QMII rroClc:M., IBI I~ mejlfClli ClfClV"ld pow, tJOoI'IUIH ,lrl,nt .. f'IIIS uvow;.l'I" a.,,'oI'r.~IIIT. nltworklC, EII~";.Mlo. VI.m,;t,~.tt"lll bW wp""",,,:,, lonllts.otltlQl\r';~l1gllSl!' ...~rI:lDRUIDcltn lJ~r I.IIn;!urd tsttwun C4SlJ"q J:m1s. rD:I.IJ~·

1Il':!4nS-CP

~I

~~.. I. .II.. . _ .....
¥.108

~';-

.,.,..,.1_.'"101
tI ..

~1iI"'''i!lhIil~

~":''''';r.",·k. e;..... "",,,,•. _ ... , ..._.1.',,

This and previous 2 pages from "From Mud to Cement-Building Gas Welts':
tt:=;te=_...·-·_i
f ..
r ..

~k-~_
1_ ," __ ..... L'-I'

"_"_ii

1':., --'-- ... _(,. -..,.6" '_'''-

!ri"'!'~ .lft~"" ~ ' ....

LAND

Evaluation of the Potential for Gas and CO2 Leakage Along Wellbores
Sum "
mollil

',,"f'lIc.tc, , ...r \,.. tVlI odllP.. ,jdc ~CO.:l' ,.IIw'4'C' ... l'~"'~I".-l mnIi.a e:tn .. ptuprt ..&!o!iO.'lmCM uf Ilk ril.L uf 1c-J1.~ frum~t:',.n.:,._~c:PJlh¥rl<i)s.m~cu~ Ihrool:!h.and:llon~ ....(ttbtlro... whld'i m.J~. p:n:tr .... ' tc ReM to the~"C ogle .. t..Incmcdvd of ~Cl.tirlg "'" punUlIi (OJ co,!: k.;4.~ lhrvupi. ",,,11 U. ... h~ ft'Iin.n.,:: d.iaJ.:.l\:uc.,_ U gt;wII~ teDdc ",ilh~1.Ib1:VI"!t it!:c1h.iC"o.

co:

t~.,.w""m.- ~..It ,mf'<'V1 ,
fulUl\".

hLcI)'

10

iIr.d.

or ~"e

drillaI

Thr ...... 1\ Iu-..;d .. p IP Ih- end yJ 2001

,.!lI..

futurt' abadofrnmt: ~bllit~ ilfI! m.:-"ul";t:t"f"'''-~ -1'IIl~')r ...... d.Ju fut -dun .~~s,om.'db

*'*'*'

;11'''''

,t

Ul1hc

pru.:U1(C-~I(

Alb::rt.L

B.ellground

""tal,"1 Weilbur .. Ik .... ,. Patlnn" s,
U.'T~ 1'0{";.,:.11 ('U"~~'C!·\·iln,-'~udl"n ... ~It

Th .... ,. I-,~

~

~....9!r~'~ i.!JJ,. nlr:.lTT'lrw,.

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rl'"

I

"i'i' 1IIII1I.l:Ii-od

• ....11

~1hJ.1"I"tl,"r~1

"1:'.

J. ODd I" iOusrroM":"" fl"

• o

~

These charts show a correlation of increased well failures over time. by year of well spud. and cumulatively.
Ve.
o

Vu.
4

-

Wetta"",~ % Wells WIlli SCVF/GhI

CumulauYe \¥IiI4c. e;pud

-

% 01 CunMatiVe wels WlIII SCVfIGM

p1u.'_._.,."" ........... mII_
___ oD

1od...,.,..acoJ..,.........
iII _ _

~

-.I 'f'PO"oIo, "I1Iio Cd'_ ... 1M ot ...... weJllGft ~ .,.
...... eM be _

nI 00CIImII00 01 SCVF ill _ _111~ ofl,l,ot-lk~i.G.
Iivt01ltt_C.

FI"••
10-.,

.... hid. pc*: .. W lndi· _1tb1Driool driIIin, a<tMty .....r!be loot 1m )'COB. ......

.... ""oct rc-:_~... IIave __ of lbo .Oldy 0-: .... .....dIe.taa:a: bee...... ....... y_dwd
flllllelh- pel' of

va:)' Tlu.R- .....

~

~w

.1 ....

do

~p:cDaolo.p """""'" w ..... 101111. Iloilo __

ci~)"'6--"'.C~ BO·. ardU~

_

obo

_

.. _die

................. In

Iris_ ..,..-,._
iD d_ '110 .. __ table ~ ............
... camaI-C",

die ,...._

lar wd

IIIf'"'r......,. ....... r...,~Mwoi~

• _"" __ ....., ~

bblDriool oU tri... _ in """""" USD. __

inr oIcI_

oIso ••• ,hodeodGp ... eIootranie_ poiDwy_ ..... .,.;_. Ad .. 1_a.

w. ml
I

-.I lor

~.010_.....-r ia .... _1Iboo<.
poIoi< __
lOp
L

___

odi.ity tlIot pooolllioll)' oouId "'W
mil .. ell _

i_

,""'_of$CVF((lM
avolillMt ..... u

Fl.

library -..

..... SCVF.<lM mil ...
of

....... ........ wa.ow

9_

.........

me eJ:i!liIi*

_al ... _ oc_.,..ft5I. dopIh lode_doe dr .... of A ..at -. .. eII.n42J lIod dIIO ... ~ , .. 1 _ ..... _ Emt....-at.tho pnM",ioI,,,,,,y," __ 1c _ .... pooood_ .... __ .-I i. """""'7

wv .....u ,.,....", ,...... ' 'nnNlllliAft ,..

_sm._. ""r_
f•• _"'p,,"

_d ",_'-Iop C.,.. ••. <01*'001 I« __ Y SOl) w..... TIl...

t~cd~i

... c::rnaI ..

cu.:maI

~

Tbe mil _oed i>< tbo love! of .... II<coode "'" dIIO

.pubIic_tIati_. tbodeptlo.e_i ... _ _lllWllbe "I1Iio Cd'onooaDOII_ to oIcpN_..

011',,,,i00i oIriIlinJ. ...

.....ta<._
_ 10

~ arbyr

-.I lbo ..... _

~~ "'P.•

miolooj: _

psfaon«I in lOOS based
-IDd Y dID 11M: :ac::b2

tbo dIIO

the na:D11IEftBe In od pna: IncI II driIIinJ of .,.0'-1)' 20.000 ......

todie _,

of

. _
,;eo

<- __
r_ kmWII
in doe

to""'1Iiah""'"
...ptor

~

f .. .u.~ of wdI ...... tho_i> 01
NII't~ _,. ...

.-u

<1_ ...

_

depohs.

Variouo d.". fa:t1lD ......

lIIaI

......... fo< 001
Ibot i> .......

Ie..,._ ...__
..-001

_'0

Oft ....

booi> of wdl _ 11

..

11)0 .. oi...... for • Iqe
11

;01

,4$61U

I~!l I. IS "

II:

ie
:.<
g

I j
1

10

me
<O~
<1)0.

Sl!

'I •

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'OM ~ -,~_,",,,,

.
.m
'9111

t...... c; )~lO8

~I

!
I

,u~
~

"'5
"

1116

,~

It~

;000

v_

r o.lanci (lHAd

'oee ........ _
" " .."_~rtvr.tNr~ .... ~.- .... n 'j to.",ar"ldM!'wel ...ogr~.,t,q1e4 , .. W" .b..:ilcnM'tI!i J'l1U. 'SN' ... ilQltJ'1:W"9 'S r:tf'~""",",IefSCW'~tHl""'9
~i""

This chart shows a correlation of migration in wells with SCVFwith oil price changes. suggesting a trend to less vigilance at times of increased financial pressure.

1 foo1lSC ............... 1 Fwu,._I""""_........... ...
.. tJpdMe 01 SC .,.lldI'"'IotH S~t:J:sc .. n:JGef1'Iie'RDllGltoIiI.~a.

tJoI!ia!fr

d aM'e*,~.g- ...

........

"'!J

'.~Q:Coo"l ( il,;.C'nauaCi ~ ,",Rl'MI'U e Uf- 04 SC '"'1.......... b, SE M>o-to
q

'G

Uft"bI-'"

.,~'"II"'Ih ...

~'aI~~..-~

f

'1' ~.

"Ltf'IG It"mue.m,-IIJIIogtM'lf1:'p.iII3''IrJ ~ao.nl_:;If

.... _a'SCVFlGlln_
wn:WMlT .... _~

..._

.. a.pICO..

d_..

as_'-

...,mut.SC\l'f

.o.!I"'oI' ItI,I:;;M

1ft"fIDI'05I!'1ftII

oryceww-IIC:

g,GW:grou _. ....

119

,...:.'.

GAS LAND

TABU; 1-GOMPARI$OII

OF SCVF/G .. OCCU~R(IICE A~EA

Dol

1)(1 PAOVIIICE TO THE TEST

_,.
fotal!
fUnDet ~ III'8b 316.439

r........ 21H2:>
1.90Z

"-",,,WI Ina

tBit"""

Ina-. flrttAIU ~.!160 1,412

~ .. w._
U!J()
323'0;

wats_SCv>
W",_G1.4 Woh _..,. CM.'t,C.vr
SCVF~ .......

n.... ~
'.11'3
39'.1:. n ...

6~'"
'~.J""a ~4~

1.181

'"

92%

r.UJWW1"AlltaoCOmbooeo_'"'JO

."7~

".
1iPo.Ji. ~h ...

....
If ~

• 6'1i

ISS'li

"'... 66'4 ft' ~.....,..
tt., _
nr:v""'1 .If"4.t

Ihc

u...... "'W1'COL."I! of fiIIt~U~
4T1""-

I~-C"
II'WI} I..

In
n~'
... .h' nc:-.ar:b}'

IIfC.h

f die- 11;::\11 ~ .~ ..... b dUll oiilC.oll" ..... li"i!iI'C"$ '*II;:U «lUId:- .......... ~ iil;: .. e~ ...t;'Ib. 1h.JI nLii)' nul N-\,C b:~ le.laJ '1&1<<Il0l:,.1)' '1' Ihx an: (<<llddI:d bcoa«_B«.awc Oi ... .. 1a Iu::i tr~ I'r'pino.luurChcr!lwdio. il lb.", f
bcaI m.alllel.l Inflnl'Loltion ""11enLM1~ SCVf:L .nJ G!t.1 Du~ ... "..bn.=--~''''' "li. .... '_'uid·h.,Lko.:.aIbuo nv-'l.d ~dl, I.... ... "'<di: or M'.a'" ri"cr \'''':,.-:IobA ~cn kJ"Of'Icd MIdI.,JouUy ...... .,. 3IIJfI'I: ~'.bC'l h» Mn YroIrU _.oIIft:n'lal. 'loUd1 ,jn die" ~ uf.J, ~d1 in

JuLin~ w 'lWf1llLT d'Iruu,F:h nwJ.) 'M-~. n.311 "uR"1ftni In Ihe ~)''IoIJ

_ll-tn-_n

dn~

'_I.' ..
..

h.r.... ViTD t.kn~)'.
A

w.u. Gb<>l. """pI<oa1. ....
i... .,.

1.lftel.-- .. ".n.

.. ~_

UtNI,'C',ft'_Ilht.CIrne- ~ibk-

m

T.pu~.,. n.......
iU.a

muMlr

.~bH' for

Un ... .m.JIY~L"

.!kIlL" ct .,d. !(Jfj..II. RhC"l' ...aD.;:r-o 1IU~ ,... ;tiu.. G~' .nd SCVf h", ... ", of ,............. nUll .oJ ....ti""l .wtdaodiull ~a1"",c,,1tc .. ~••iI lIIc: h~u~""" •• plC1o,.,~ lh..1 c'Ontn:"~ dl)~".o-IfJ :l&d'1ia.'C" 11k' poiMluD~ ..hdhM o.~r· ~um.I p'l/.ofte1, Ii.n C"O'Rp.!rt'ol"In k.I- ~Jc'IQM..1.I drilJ b.~ion. ptJ':iC" pr001c.ru. In .'11:". C'ORIr1" mJ "-ave-.J ....~hc1 ra lJ:\1 thruup. -t:emI2'It acn iii pnlp;2I,· U!."IIIC2lIIb:Il",,!;'IIbun:-.. tGun.u!u d.d. 2flQ5.J.lfv,*,~C'I'. d.w.~~:lDdtJ n. ... t"rron,::&:vnt'u. .... bo' ...... k_po) .n! SCVI',QI ec,,,,...,.,,,.

~

d'H'

."ky

,I)

i"ft\:~ h« Fi);. Ib}. .u......... .,MdAlNt 111c- .. .II'1doatIEn1 nrthllJ in .;-~d , ........ u.autJ&r;..;-d ... db UI Allen.a. 1"\ t.llaJu.uu",-:., 'lIIiJ~c V1uji;\ L~ \lllI:h ~mMt 1ft\-C"1ob~1iaft... IMU Ihc- lCt'Wtl)' if tlu,s aNn· d_1 _Iud .............. ~'moll bn.J~. plug. hoU• 1"'"" III" ~'" he m (l1IUl1 U'iJ ., 01 'i."<illr.. U1vC'J... ~3tcd m.a. :or.maJ. ...-nplU'li "1:11.. ~tnaJ fut p.u.b.a.-bun putpna. Th:K" bn..J(-t pliu.:.- lad ba:n -en JClVIiC'C" fdr S bt 30 )'nr~. G~'Ij'. tI'k:: L'l:Dt."'I1l CJPpt.L"OJ un. kJpof.1w brid;r: ~tIIg ....-at, ru.I e-..J.:nL even dwu'Fh. h.W'·"'fO'1 'R' in..i,,-....,.-d Ihll IJM ~m".aJ been

"';)c-4..~~.

""''''r. "h.-.~I'"

.."",dun<d

...
r:..

Table data on increased well failure rate in deviated ( E.G. horizontal) wells over all wells.

U,

"It,_.

,.:u. fur..Jn:-.Jc-.

y.f

PC-"'C R;,ft'

,.

AIbnta

......

dt1-... ~

u, ..,<rl>u"""

bnM-

.-.I

~llImr h..~",,1tom .-....

IhWlllmJ
~b

.... 'rom

do;'

.nuII

... of

)'C'mt. OIppuutlUld) of Iha.e 1)1"C"o vf .w.uI _11 fail _. .diu .... f*"""&l ...... ~&u:.a ..... mE..::. tfa.:

tri.tr. rrur ...... ",..nm"""" ~mp..... , ..,,' • I~ un

""urn

pmw

""p",;"...,v.

d .....

ron"aJ

rmJ ..

....-eI1bo.r'-t. Ohr:. ~. mrthoJ.. Iourn ~ pb:mj:' a,,~ plu, iILTI»" \:omplrw\hrtCT\'iallo U\InS.J tul.lnc.J.pluJ: mrthtltl.! Vi' ..dbf\: a amrA! R'l.imu .-d ,.~nng ce....... ULrou~ pcrt(J;l~ bm ... 2'C C"ap:clallu~¥:" lime. flUutc nln 1t)G._S- IRIU Ibr 6i11Wr ... ~:lw.iUu. .... here- CO..:: m~ ru.VC' been i"n.:1.: ....fm ...w~ .... olqI .... d ",u.loo.~ (_ ..... ,. bn.JS".pl.~ (.. t.. ""'Y ...

.......".,.. oe4"M' st.......,..,. IQ'XI _ ... ~"'jO< .... oct. ._.",.., A_ ,."., ...... IIw- mrrlt-.iouLrI-t.ein!" TheD.Dh:'f 'II) befiud' gUC'\ to Ilk UlictJ:!,"In~ "P"ifX-IN .uwilll.iftlhepw.:ifti:C" ..... r..\hn.a. tnlhck~ 10 1_;nJ t~ iUlli ....ph.:re .s-l~ ... ",ddnl ~UI~ D-p. Frum 11I'rOtis.a~ UN. tl 11. ~~ b1,I R¥UWOm lID rundun (j!lo' 1c:Y"" ... .all uu-u..,.. ""col. IC-C'.'Y. d.aC' ".,.,_ <Me' hi~hl, UtN-cbodrk. IIu-. e'K'~. . wctk. T.Yr l: ~e5 1tr occ...n:.ce of SCVFJCM the dtc- Q"iCnF<..ap f.a.i~ nul ~n 1&1 mlU&.," Hw ri,,~ uf o.ft'J'f'ft"'u.r~ CR"~ rra\iD(:c:(:~lDtheb'~.hi'DDldecrif_~ injt Ilk' 'YUf.ar<Ai'\j .. tu:. unl.'anc'flai fumul.lun" 3ad gt"U1UkI. """ .... ,.."..w...mftW. ,in LlIoM. JlliIIt"a .......... _ .. ,......MotS' ~IW .of 1004 tori", ,""",,"'ut if Ib< __ od, 1O~b:. \I,;liI:t .aqwlcn..:!Ifn.JIU ICiIi... n d'Ic ("Jrpma~ ...1. .... lIft rat!, ...-lIftIng duo 1h<' .. U ....... oi.~~ _oompovrn....J. n....loal, .. •• .. ....-d oIuo ,'" ERCB 4esis_d obo> lor "",,0>1 ~Iv ,d.,u;r,.d .. ,.,;s GM .nd .... .." .... cd .., ... '" • .".,. • ...Ulfti.tJc-J ...... La..a&.M:.Aut.c.oJ p-uLlaI.:L ..JdlWo.iI j_"Q.d]' Do. dw ~ ...-.:nlut-. oIuo Ib< .so.. a=anooi~ ioJm1j'y MIl> in III............. inS • h;~ fWUbohiIiI) .U ... b",. .........

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SPE 64733 Why Oilwells Leak: Cement Behavior and Long-Tefffi Consequences

Ma\IIiC.e B Dusseau. SPE Porous Mella Research InSlilule. UnillelSty at WaterlOo. WalerIOo. Ontafio; MalcOlm N. Gray. Alomk: Energy canaCla limbed. MlssIssauga. omano; and PaWl!! A. NawrockI. CANMET. Sudbury. Onlario

01

This study explores the issue of migration long after a well has ceased production and has been plugged: "Explanatory mechanisms include channelling. poor cake removal. shrinkage. and high cement permeability. The reason is probably cement shrinkage that leads to circumferential fractures that are propagated upward by the slow accumulation of gas under pressure behind the casing.

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doned. mxbvc. or iKbvof' 011 iItId 8~ weus. ,nducbn:g. !:D '51«.. 3fe weus, UWc1.JfR'nUy Iw g» 10 5-urf3a". Much of lhis enlm Ih< .....,.".."" dir«Oy. OOfIIriboung .nptly '0 fRO" I.,CDC crrL'\.'b~ Sunil:" uI da:- foiD "'''1'tk:., :Iolul .... ._. ;:,~ .. Ircu •• 1IIo1k'1'I: U",,"I;:Io ur Ii.v"'P'"'~iIIIb "' ..... Ie-I_I tla: 'l:.di:1 IIUlI· .' ~Ic. Of wben: Ihc: mc:'lhuc .udf CilII sc-ncriMc:unpk~ lU!:'h..,. PI' 'odd",! q( hou:s.:haJJ "A-c-Ib. Of SU c;ntains ho~ho-td 'Y'-wrm .0 c-omc OUi ....-hon ~'- arc UJfTk'd Oft. !\t"tIan.! from IIi'!'::akiriS \II'cU, ii~ t,l,1d.:Jy bo In ~ui(~rt in A.~ Ri.'"r and Uo)dmimw-, ...-v-::u. (AJb.m.:ILt hen: ~I't' UIl' ::1I'I,..nlnI~'" nr I~" V" in l.lt"htn l::ip fIIo":lilt"f 'hMnt ieniN'd R.-. ca,..., of the nato", 01 ..., mccluni.m. the pnob"'m i. unlikely '" ........... and the <OII«.tmto. 01 tho r~ in ...., stull o,,·

rvck &I'C' pn:pucd by C'atrful condltionin~ usi.! rtattalitmud-mk Kl'af""rs. U1dI SO~, Durin! pl~ft1ii:nL ~-ifl" i.J. fQLiU'd .ClAd mn",cd to inc.-c3S-C"W waluts: II!'ff«Dv(,Ih.·u of' the cement Rccr.en' e«haiq'Ulfl. Co ~""-a","C"BinS-ro.:\~lIne 1I'f'L1.)I _"... •• 1iA.t "\",,",Iine ~~)"e "'~Ai~t N_ mt'nl:l'linn:ll"'" ::lnnllt~t fiI!ine ,,,,:iAe::l ,IM':J.II di:"Th"""'" hlhr Addiu.", rna' b.: ,nrofllOr>I<d '" ,lIor ""' ........ b,,,
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teas or tbo~s. of xti\'e v.-dhi. We-lis arc ('3$((1 ror cnvt, ronmcnLal 5«"UElIy and zOIUI isobilioo. In d'Ic C~. :t'Ia.." 011 bc-Il, il ~lcommon ID use :a :5ln,~ pmduclion asln~ suin! '0 slllf..,., 'FI~"'" I), fo, doxpor ,..11s. """Jojonal Cloin. !ltriup m",} be II«CUoItJ • .mel 3oud..:C' c.uin!" to 130IiJl': :lh.lJkwuMCIMOtidllcd xdiJMnb i3 RqU'f'C'd. A.J"C' ...iSl 1«'. JurlKI: .:asinp M.W I.uk df(\. .. on P:J. m.~fWon.. thou_t;h the}· Uln· do.wdly ~tL'~ maR' stCUril)' ~"'''' bIO\l'Ou~ udi rro~ 1.h2Jloy.· udi-mtnu from mud fillnlU! :a.rW pt'.e-;.1-orU..M..OIII.

Introdudion. Environ_nlal "'cun rliv.,",c''"'' i,.; nN"'t"tQrity 'I.... ~t"i::ll tiVl'n thP ",nmr'''''1ilf of tho: i and .u.:ndoJII ~" f.. IM> sudo OS w orl. obilily itr. ,.1 _lion. mINI cak ",mo .. l. <ow:ai .. ""'01 of formotiDn J'" ....... 1o.thinjl. J1U"""O~ ....,. mil comi>l<oc¥. and 10 DO. Aconccpl.uol modd .. ill be ..... krpod .n this 1I1ic~ 10clpwn slov.·Sas migl'ltion behind! C2Siog. but .... d.:lib.:_ly ko,·.... for Ih< rompI<l op=Iional i1iSIJeSusociwd w.lh ulllCD1 ,plxcmcnt and b£~,·ior I. 1997. Iher< .. ,,'" -3S.000 i_Ii ~Ib le Alben. :tIo..,. Ion. 01 Ihousand. of """ ...."""" oopIwI ...~II.'. plus
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~uireB win ,,;l!I Lime TItio ,mplies We 1 .bndoro1o lor oil",,11 c'''r",.tiD~ and P&A oro cilh<f 00' 11f""od<d. 0< th< <ri.tri. are boscd ao a Ra.... d vie ....ortbe IIK'C"banism. TlUs is e a roodcmm· lion of indu>lry: all tomp:1Aics ......,k.0 romply .. ill1.WId"",,' Nc,','IlhcI css, V;~ b.:1;",~ liDt ...., All'B I... rim Di,,'C1i .. 99· 03' il n...", "ill1 '"'POOl'" Ps I.,u •• >lDUnd To R<tify Ibis, ..., 1IK'C1un;.ms must to.: Uk.ufo ... cvom:iJy. Prxti .. con .... n be _ on ro ..... l physic.1 m,dl>n;s .... ;P"in!! :I beucr dUnre of sut'(t.ss. (tbou@:b'Ii.~ do no. belle;,,,

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"Strength is not the major issue in oil well cementing under any circumstances ... cement cannot resist the shear that is the most common reason for oil well distortion and rupture during operation ... · ·

SPE 64133

VMf OILWlliS

LEAK

I

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('~mml Slnnlllh and Rijlidily" API slanlbrds for oil,...:11 ccrnenl sp«ify certain slrenp cri~ri:L Screngtb is nOI the major ~ue ill oil well CemenDn!! under any circulmlaJlces. B:ISI.'d OR ellcnsivc modellin!;!. CCm<!nldearly cannot resislibo! shear thai is the mosl common rc:&SOR for oilwell dislonion :and rupture during active production." If compaeHon or heave: (from solids injection> is lakin!! pla..-c. the cemem ilSelf pro"ides minimal re5iolance 10 bucUinf! (compression) or thread poppinS (Iension). If !he annulus could be filled with relatively dense sand. the rcsisWlCe 10 1bcar would be beller than ClIITCnlordinary oilwcU cement formulations. Based on over 50 ui':llti:.1 ICSIS at vanous confining stresses, we haw shown Ihal 2840Y cured oil .. -cll cements 3JC conuacLilc (volume rcdUCIIDII duri'ni! shear) at ;all conlinin!! stresses above I MPa ( 150 ~i I. This is also the case for 70% silica nour eemems, and for the new producl5 based on ClIremely linely !round cement. ISpecimens were cured under water at 2O·C or al9O"CJ However, dense concretes used in Civil En!!lnecnn!! ..... di13tant. :and iJlcrcfore resislanllo shear. e al all ...'Orl:in!! stresses, The suITne •• modulus of Iypkal o,h"cli cemeer is small compared 10 lIIal of low poroshy rocks. and ,-astly lower than thai of slccl" The slifrn= moduli are rou!!hly 2-1'l lIIat of steel, though there is II wide range dependin~ on density. CIII). lent. and confinin!! SIrCSS. Depending on d.:pth (-SIl"CSS) :md induration (-porosity). rock moduli may vary rrom !'l> 10 50% of s!eel. and a rc-asonable value is S-15<:f In most intenn.-diate cases of moderate porosily (10-20%). Bond. Cement will not bond 10 salt. oil sand. higb porosity shale. and perhaps otller malcrials. Also. bond sLrengtll u.e. IIIc lensile resistance of the cemenl·rock inlcrf3<:c) is quite small: in f~ct. the lensile strcnglh of carefully mixed and ewed oil ..-ell cement at recommended fonnulations is generally less !han 1-2 MPa Given that nuid pressures of 10's of MI'3 may have to be eneounlered. ~i~en that pressure cycJin~ of a .. -ell C'3Il ~'aSlly debond tile rock and ecmenl (there is strain i'ocompatibility because of the different stiffnesses), and given thaI de-bondinll is generally a rraclUrin!! process "ilb a sharp Icading edge rath..., than a convenuonat tensile pull.apan process. a large cement bond 10 rod: cannor be 3SSumed in any ~n3ble casco Initiation and grov.·th of II d~umfcrenti31 fraCNre I"micro-annulus") at the ensing.rock interface will not be substantially Im~'t:Icd by a coheSive slfen!!1II al this interface. The presence of "good hood" on a cement bond 108 is in fact nol an indientOf' of hand. but an mdicator of intergranu[ar conlXt maintained by a suflidenl mial cffccti,·c SlreSS. The lack of bond on a bond log is actually evidence of the innbilily 10 IraiIsmll high rr('(jucncy sonic impulses because of tile presence of lift "open zone". that is. a circumferential fra.. ..ure that . is open by 31 leasl a fev.- microns. Thus. maintainin!! "hand" actually means maintaining effective r:ldial stress. Note lhal if diceu"e radial stress QAQI.t be maintainetJ. Ihcn hydrau"c fracturing conditions must e:usl nltbe inlerface.

The Gas leakage Model A good conceplual model must explain ihe following typical
aspects of oil"'ell behavior!lut are observed in practice, Gencrally there are no open circumferential froelures deleclable aft.:c a typical good qu:ility cement job IHf!ood bond" is observed on the log uaces), Such fractun:~ develop over time and willi service, E"en in C2SCS "'here hand appears reasonable over substantial secuons of the casillS. !!as l~e may be evidenced some vears or decades lalec. The process is in-Variably delayed: thus. there mest be physi'cally reasonabje I:llc.Jjmitin@ processes. The £las often appews al surfX(' rother than hein!! pressure injc.:led imo another porous stramm eacoumered in tho: su-ati!rophic column. The prcsenre of surf:ICCe;wng pro,ides no assurance 3!ain5lSas kabge. Whereas .. -e do nOl deny thai mud ch2Mehng. poor mud C3kc removal. gas channelinr. and so on can occur in isol:md cases, "'I! befieve th:ll a beuer hypothesis exists to ruuonally explain the points lis1ed above. Fisure 2 sho ws the cffecl of shrinkage on ncar- ... ellbore · stresses. (Plots 3JC qualitative. but have been conliclll<.'t:I by numerical modclinf!. 10 be published lalCr.) Iniually. cement pressure 1'«1) 1..1. a1mosl 31v.·3Yshi@ber than p... bUI lo .. er than 0-. .Ialeral minimum total SLress). SCI oecers and a small "mounl of shear stress develops bcl .. een the rock and the o.:ment then. bydrost:tlic pressure in the ccmcm is no lon!er Ifllft.mill"d :!Ion!! lIIe annulus. Thereaflcr. even minor shrink3!!C (-0.1-0.2<:;') .. ill reduce thc radial stress la, = 0', + P.) bel .. un cement and rock b.."C:IUSC rock is stiff (....20 GI'3 for softer rocks). and sm;all r:idial strains 10.001-0.00)) C3USC rclaxation of 0, and increase 'in 00. A condition of p, > 0,1011 is reached: i e. the hydrauUc fraclure crilenon. A circumfer. emial fracture (i.e. 1. 10 G, = 0,). Iyplcally no wider than 10-20 11m. develops at the rock-cement interface. Alliin fraclure apenure is suffidcnl 10 appear as "10.55 of bood" in a geophysical bond log. Because in situ stresses arc

"The presence of surface casing provides no assurance against gas leakage:'

=

alv..,.ys de"ialoric (c.!!. GIooo .. GINU'. bond loss "ill usually appear lirst on one side of the Irace. or on two opposite sides (direction of G_1. Wclls!lut haw experienced several pressure or thetm:ll cycles wilt almost always sbow Joss of bond. sometimes for vertical distances in excess of 100 m. A .tOIK: of p. > 0, (Gl) C211 eatcnd for considerable heights. Ncvenbetess. tbis is still nol a mecbanism for wrucal growth, To understand vcnic;al ~Ov.1h. consider Figure 3. where n hypothetical case is presented. The ~tat.ic dn:umferenliaJ frDcture of Io:n!!th L is filled v.-illl formation v."'l~r or density givin!! a gradient of aboul 10.5 kPaim ror Iypkal oi llield brine. but the gradient of lateral stress (.)a~l is !enernlly on the ocdcr of 18-24 kPaim This means ilia! if the frncmre contains ::I nuid pressure sufficient 10 just ~eep il open at the bouom. there is lift ~XC<.'5S pressure at the upper Lip equal 10 -L·(ll-IOS): about 10 tPaim. in typical Al~na conditions. for e~amplc. ThIG. because Ihc imhalance between !he pressure gr:idient in the fracmre and the stress ~ienl in the

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A global challenge
% of wells with Integrity issues

Gulf of Mexl'co

North Sea. UK

North Sea, Norway

In this slide presentation, loss of well integrity is recognized as a ubiquitous and common problem .

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Integrity and performance failures

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40·... risk 01 uncomrolled discharge

20% of catastrophic well failures are due to loss of well bore integrity.

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GAS CONSERVATION COMMISSI

2010 REPORT TO THE WATER QUALITY CONTROL COMMISSION DIVISION

and
WATER QUALITY CONTROL

of

THE COLORADO DEPARTMENT OF PUBUC HEAL. TH AND ENVIRONMENT

THE COL.ORADO

OIL AND GAS CONSERVATION

by

COMMISSION

IIlv¥Jdt;;; IIVifflO;:fIy leJ,IIJIlS Ihe SWIU;; 1,111 1Itt; ~ lemO;:tlli;fOOlI Utt;SI; slalu;; lelltlfhi ale ami ilVild.11l1P. ,,"" r.O(1"C Wi!t'MI! (W'WIN "Mec nil cn II~IIIMH I PiI'J!ilnre RamI The lOW-now air sparge system designeo 10 remedial. ShalloW ground water contaminated Wi1h benzene. 101........ elhylbenzene. and tOiaI Jt)IIenes(1;11 ,. conllnLle$lo doetrea~ . ~ concen!rallons and aleal ellleni ollh_ compounds In !he IIIIpacted area. I he concenltabon and areal extent of !hermogenic meth3fle In !he ground W31eJ' on!he Impacted area aloo conlmUC5 10 dccrcO".oCalthough at alowcr nIIc lhan the BTEX compound:; There werc no delections DI DTD< compounds in Dny West OMde Creek surface water sample locations in 2010.

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De8eque Orphan Natural Gas and Oil Wells -Mesa

County

I he (;OOI,;C ldenldoed 11 orphaned natural 93S Of 011wetl$ In Mesa COunty dunng 2010. Otphaned natuoal gas Of 001 weI$. are those for which !he operalOfS have gone OUIof buslness and no curren! operator of the wets can be 1oC31ed. Histone r_ds were Ioealed lor :;orne: of the orph;lncd IliIIvtaI g;:I$ well$. inGeating th;It they were drilled on 11)11.. Othcf!> are bckllCd 10 b;)vc bc:cn drilled on the mid-1020's. Seven of the orphaned well$. odcntificd lire dischafqroq produced walef" 10 the!lroond sufface from the StIIface Ci15In!I. and waIef" is IIowin!I lIlIo nearby dratnage:.. ditdles or waler features from lour 01 those wells. TIll! COOCC has Slfu:t!SSlully Iliuwal ilfd ilhdllwned ulle III UlI! _1 -us so Ihifl it "'"no Innger dl'idlillllrl!l pmrIlJa>o1 Wil'f!f An :w1P.m1l' 10pht(l aM ilh:lndnn il SH'.nnd nrpMo well wao; no! successful becau~ !WIface casing could not be Iocaled before !he Iirnils 0I1IIe eXc:w.Ilor were reached. I he scope III wolle required ID plug and abandon !hIS orphan weB exceeded thai anbcopaled and tunded. ~und1ng trom the (;ut>C(; emergency response 3ppr0pri3tion \l\1li be U$ed 10 plug thIS weB and one of the other.;. The plugging and aboodonmcnt of the remaining 0fPh;ln wcII:i win be prioritized bmcd on potcntial risk and impact to the environment, illduding ground and surface waler 1eSOIJtu:S, and public health and safety Nu!!!lin!! and abandonment 01 these welb wiD proceed u time and fundin!l allows. Noah.ast

Orphaned wells - wells that have been abandoned by their owners/operators and are - are a no longer productive and the surface. Often. the original operator of a well is long gone. and there are insufficient contamination. It is estimated that there are 35.000 abandoned wells in New York State. The locations of many are unknown. funds to remediate these sources of

migration pathway to aquifers

COlOradO

Oil"nd C"s E&P Activity
Od and !las activity in Ute northeaslem portJon 01 Ute ~tate remains hl!ih. althou!lh overall numbeB 01 new pem'I~s are !owoer Ihan prewous years. In general thi~re~ts the slowdown I~dled lu Iuw IIalulal lies:> 1,I1K:e:>. 1112010. iIlIllluallllalo;:lV 36% vI IIle IWlt IIUUflJO;:l W1;!I III jIt:Itflols aJ,lllIUllt:d by U~ COGCC Wd:i i:i:;uO;:tlluIJIIt:latlJlS ill Wdli CuulIIV (Waueflltt!llI Fiekl,. which has the largest number of active wets III the Slale_ smaller 011and gas fields WlII\ loWer rewlS of actMty are located in other coun~ thraugllOul nonhea~ COlorado. In 2010 approxtmately 1/:1. billion cubic: leel (I;I(;~' 01gas were ploduCed to northeast <..:oIor.I«l (approXimalely It>% 01the total gas productton lor the Stale, and 13 million barrels (bbl$.) 01 crude oil were pt"oduced (approtrimalely 65% 01the IDI3I crude ot! production lor the Sl.3le,_

Public Involvemenr
r.OGer. !IIil" ~mllinllP:!i 10rer.eM! aM Inllnw-flfl on ~nmfllilinl~ from m", WekI "nlOlIy I1P.flill1mem01Pflhlj~ Heillih ... Fnvirnnmenl. Tn-f'.ollnty Hl'ahh Ilf>partml!nt. I armf!f C.ollnty EflIIlronmen131 Advi'wIy Board, Morgan County Olnce 01 Emergency Management, NOtIhea~ Colorado Hea11h Uepartmenl, other munlClpalllfeS, and the public throughout northeaslern

CoIor.Jdo.

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GAS LAND
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