Replacement of the TCA 785 for a Configurable IC to Drive Single and Three Phase Converters

Eduardo M. Vicente, Paula dos Santos, Caio A. da Costa, Tales C. Pimenta, Robson L. Moreno, Enio R. Ribeiro
Grupo de Microeletrônica – IESTI, Universidade Federal de Itajubá. Itajubá – MG, Brasil eduardomoreira@unifei.edu.br, paula.elp@gmail.com, caioalonso@gmail.com, tales@unifei.edu.br, moreno@unifei.edu.br, enio.k@unifei.edu.br
Abstract – This paper presents the development of an integrated system to replace the TCA 785, with the possibility to drive up to six independent devices, which will be used in the triggering of controllable devices. The developed circuit is capable to drive single and three phase systems, using only one control device, letting the user select what type of converter will be driven. It is also possible to include a digital control system capable to maintain the current or voltage output constant. Another important aspect is the decrease of the external circuits, allowing the reduction of the interference and undesirable effects caused by connections between circuits. The practical results are show through the text, with the firing of different loads, which demonstrates the possibility of implementing this system. Keywords – TCA 785, PSoC (Programmable System-on-Chip), pulse generation, current control.

observed in several areas. Following this trend, it is proposed in this work, the replacement of the TCA 785 by a Systemon-Chip, which are integrated circuits that incorporate different features, configurable and programmable, into a single device, where the features of the TCA 785 will be implemented through the functions of a SoC. Among many SoCs, the PSoC (Programmable System-onChip) was chosen, due to its specific characteristics and the resources available in the device. To implement the functionality of the TCA 785, the circuits used for the applications mentioned above, [2], [3] and [4] were took into account, adding resources that could be useful in developing other applications. II. THE TCA 785 The TCA 785 is an integrated circuit, which has 16 pins in DIP package. Among many applications, the TCA 785 is used to control the firing angle, from 0 to 180º, of controllable devices (TRIACS, thyristors and transistors) [4]. Fig. 1 presents the block diagram of the TCA 785 internal circuit.

I. INTRODUCTION Over the years the controlled rectifiers have been used in different types of applications, such as DC motor control, lighting control, battery chargers and DC power sources. With the advance of microcontrolled systems, which enables the execution of different tasks and the insertion of several resources in one chip, it is possible to achieve more flexibility in control systems, enabling these resources to be used in the phase control of the rectifiers [1]. This type of control can be made in several ways. One of the most employed methods is to use a trigger circuit for the rectifiers. The integrated circuit TCA 785 (successor of the TCA 780), developed by Siemens, is a dedicated circuit to the firing of controllable devices, most commonly used today. Analyzing some applications of the TCA 785, there is [2], where three TCA 780 are used for the firing of six thyristors in the control system of a three phase induction motor. In this work, the control system is accomplished through an analog PI controller and the use of the LM555 integrated circuit to decrease the power dissipated by the control device. In [3], a power control system, for single phase load, through a thyristor trigger circuit, controlled by a Personal Computer (PC), is shown. The system consists of an R-2R network, connected to the PC's parallel port and a circuit, the TCA 785, to control the firing angle of the TRIAC. Another application of the TCA 785, as the component datasheet suggests [4], is to apply the device as a trigger circuit of two high-power thyristors. The replacement of components by similar ones, with the aim of reducing the costs of final products, can be easily

Fig. 1. TCA 785 block diagram.

Its configuration allows the selection of external components for the modification of parameters of the pulses,

reducing the power consumption of the device. respectively.without increasing the size of the circuit. Its purpose is to adjust the amplitude of the ramp. The PSoC. the blocks and pins are mutually independent. • Length of output pulses determined by external components. which performs a NOR logical sum of the pulses at pins 14 and 15. while the internal modules may use other frequencies of the system. LCD drivers. The pulse width can be controlled by connecting a resistor between pins 13 and 16. PSOC MICROCONTROLER The System-on-Chip (SoC) circuits are devices that have several resources. comes from a constant current source that charges the capacitor connected at pin 10. which can be used as a protection for the system [4]. 2 illustrates the block diagram of the PSoC. Some of the features found in the PSoC that can be mention are: 8-bit core. whose control is in the logical unit. All software and development environments are free and are available in the manufacturer site [9]. during the positive half-cycle. from pins 14 and 15. and a dedicated arithmetic unit for multiplication and accumulation [6] and [7]. • Generates additional pulses that can be used by an external control system. inhibits all outputs of the TCA 785. consists of a family of mixed-signal microcontrollers developed by Cypress Microsystems.1 V. whether analog or digital. internally connected to a synchronization register [4]. which is available at pin 5. The Control Comparator block compares the ramp voltage with the control voltage and when their values match. The PSoC microprocessor is based on Harvard architecture and has a CISC set of instructions. Some digital modules available for use within the PSoC are: PWMs. due to the saturation of an internal transistor connected in parallel with the capacitor. is obtained at pin 15. In addition. The clocking speed of the PSoC1 family devices is 24 MHz. timers and counters up to 32 bits. unlike some SoC devices [8]. Although in SoCs the pins and blocks are fixed and independent of the designed system. preventing the simultaneous firing of both outputs and ensuring that will not occur a short circuit between the controllable devices. The width of these pulses is determined by connecting an external capacitor between pin 12 and the reference signal. the pulses of the negative half-cycle are obtained. I2C. IR and USB communication interfaces. it is possible to configure the device only with the resources that are required in the project. SPI. which is a programmable SoC. Pin 6. Among the analog modules is an interesting quote: analog to digital converters up to 14 bit. digital to analog converters up to 9 bits. PSoC Block Diagram. which will be used by the control system. reducing external interference. . In a complementary manner. making the SoC more reliable and less prone to errors [5]. programmable gain amplifiers. Fig. customizable I/O bus. The programming languages supported in the PSoC are: ANSI C and Assembly. The main features of the TCA 785 are: • Operation in polyphase circuits using other TCAs connected in parallel. at pin 14. since the disabled features are "turned off". 2. which goes to zero when the voltage passes through the reference. sends pulses to be used by the logic unit in the firing of controllable devices [4]. The synchronization is obtained through a zero detector. • There are two main outputs and two complementary outputs. For applications with TRIACS. are obtained. comparators. into a single chip. This type of device is desirable because the components are integrated into a single chip. as well as signals from the Comparator system. allowing any pin to be used to access any block. RAM and Flash memory. From the synchronization data. One of the advantages of using the PSoC is due to the fact that the device development took into account the configuration flexibility. At pins 2 and 4 the inverse or complementary outputs. set between 8 and 18 V. The ramp generator. III. arrays of configurable analog and digital blocks. from trail connections and electromagnetic effects. the output 7. this current is controlled by a resistor or potentiometer on pin 9. triggering pulses with a 180 degrees width. The level of the internal voltage. which should be kept constant regardless of variations in supply voltage. • Possibility of simultaneous inhibition of all outputs. can be used. is 3. when connected to ground through a relay or a PNP transistor. filters. and the amplitude is controlled by the supply voltage at pin 16. Fig. in the PSoC. and analog multiplexers [7]. UART.

3. with a frequency of 10 kHz. there is the possibility of modifying the triggering logic. The block diagram of the developed system is shown in Fig. which can range from 121 Hz to 15. to be used in the control system. in the development software. However. To control the firing angle of thyristors an incremental analog to digital converter. if only the single phase converter is triggered. according to the chosen resolution and clock speed. 7. for the firing of a pair of thyristors. Analog system block diagram. which.The component used in this project was the CY8C2946624PXI. . The output of the timers 1 and 2 is applied to an AND gate. IV. It is illustrated in Fig. which indicates the events that occur in the system. 6. This device can control single and three phase converters. 7. it is possible to use an 8 pin device. Block diagram of the system. which is widely used in power electronics to reduce the power dissipated in the control device [10]. Digital system block diagram In light green there is the timer 1. 5. was used. This configuration is shown in Fig. together with the output of the PWM module. Fig. Fig. Any pin or block of the PSoC may be used as an interrupt source. XOR gate to prevent simultaneous triggering of TRIACS. we used two blocks of digital inverters. as will be explained. 3. is able to detect the transition moment of the signal through an interruption. upon receiving the signal of an optocoupler connected to the input voltage. Thus. This is accomplished through a XOR gate. In light blue is the timer 2.6 kHz. The A/D converter input can be used to set the firing angle of thyristors. Developed Circuits The following are the circuits developed in the PSoC to replace the TCA 785. 16 digital blocks. Fig. 4. 12 analog blocks. Fig. Fig. preventing the outputs to be activated simultaneously. in dark red. However. The analog to digital conversion ratio is defined in the project. generating the trigger pulse according to this reference. which has 28 pins. REPLACEMENT OF THE TCA 785 A. highlighted in dark yellow in Fig. One of the advantages to utilize a System-on-Chip is the ability to handle interrupts. by reading the voltage of a potentiometer. 6. internal to the PSoC. 4. AND gate responsible for the connection between the timers and the 10 kHz oscillator. 2 Kbytes of RAM and 32 Kbytes of ROM. 3 presents the digital blocks used. 5. responsible for the pulse generation in the positive half cycle. Fig. if the devices that are being fired are TRIACS. or to sample the voltage or current output. in order to detect the zero crossing. which will generate the pulses in the negative half cycle. This connection can be seen in Fig.

which show. This pulse is shown in detail in Fig.The zero crossing input receives the signal of an optocoupler. The controllable device of the rectifier bridge is the thyristor. 9. Figure 8 presents the pulses for a single phase system. In blue there is the waveform of the input voltage. 9. Its period is approximately 20º. from 0 to 5 V. Trigger pulses for a three phase converter (switches Q1. There are also some switches that can be used to change system parameters. 12. Q3 and Q5). resulting from the association of the 10 kHz oscillator with the timers. Fig. . the control method or the type of converter that will be used. B. 11. Trigger pulses for a three phase converter (switches Q2. the strategy of generating the pulses with the 10 kHz oscillator was not used just for convenience. Fig. which is sufficient to cause the power device to turn on. 10 kHz trigger pulses. Trigger pulse generation The first test aimed in the generation of pulses. Fig. Fig. respectively. which could be applied in single or three phase converters. the anode connected to the phase signal) and the lower keys (with the cathode connected to the phase). Q4 and Q6). to allow better visualization of the trigger pulses. in purple the pulses of the positive half cycle and in green the pulses of the negative half cycle. 10 and 11. V. 12. in order to prove the effectiveness of the developed system. The circuit diagram is shown in Fig. in phase with the input voltage. Analyzing the generation of pulses for a three phase converter. 8. It is interesting to observe that the generated pulses have a frequency of 10 kHz. the pulses of the upper keys (which have Fig. which will receive the trigger signals from the PSoC through a pulse amplifier circuit. Relationship between the trigger pulses and the input voltage. Firing of a single-phase converter To demonstrate the operation of the developed system. The trigger pulses are applied to the drivers that are responsible to amplify and isolate the control and power systems. In the generation of the three phase pulses. there are the waveforms of Figs. 10. which provides a square wave signal. RESULTS A. Circuit diagram. it was applied in the firing of a single phase rectifier bridge.

was developed in this work. Fig. to enable the observation of the control system feedback. it would require an integrated circuit capable of implementing the control system.The input voltage was set at 127 V (RMS) and the load was a bank of resistors. thus increasing system reliability. The overshoot signal was about 30% and the settling time approximately 1s. approximately. 13. whereas to accomplish this task with the TCA 785. the response is shown in Fig. which will take the output current signal. allowing the addition of resources that are not available in TCA 785.e. a variation of 23 to 46Ω. the input voltage was kept constant at 127 V and the load was modified. The load waveforms of voltage and current. RMS current for a load modification of 46 to 23Ω. is illustrated in Fig. through the available internal resources.7 A. . included only to demonstrate the feasibility of implementation. with a total load of 23Ω. for a 46Ω load. including another three resistors in parallel. However. The reference current was set at 1. Voltage and current waveforms with a 46Ω load. as a parameter to be controlled. Fig. a PI controller was used. would require the use of three control devices. Analyzing the response of the control system. the undershoot signal was 20% and the settling time 800 ms. One of the main aspects to be highlighted is the increasing of the system robustness. VI. 15 and 16 were considered satisfactory when compared to the results presented in [3]. For a load variation from 46 to 23Ω. since a reduced number of external components were used. Another advantage is the possibility of triggering a three phase rectifier with a single IC. i. with six 140 Ω resistors. provided from a Hall sensor and read through the A/D converter. RMS current for a load modification of 23 to 46Ω. Fig. 13. the focus of this work is the generation of pulses for single and three phase converters. Voltage and current waveforms with a 23Ω load. capable of replacing the TCA785. In the last situation. 14. 16. 15. the waveform of the output current is presented in Fig 16. The results presented in Figs. It was also possible. The results show the feasibility of including an internal control system. we get the voltage and current output seen in Fig. Modifying the load. If it were accomplished with the TCA 785. In the opposite situation. to control the output current of the converter. to enable the replacement of the TCA 785 with the developed system. CONCLUSION A microcontrolled system. Fig. 15. which linked in parallel results in an equivalent resistance of 23Ω. 14. three resistors connected in parallel.

R. V. E. ed. R.. D. C. 2006. G. A. E. 115 f. 1.° 42. Santos. [2] Ferreira. addition of a logic in the pulse generation (in the firing of TRIACS. E. 1-8. 414p.. A. R. Fu-Jing Ke. both in real time. 5ª Semana Acadêmica UFU 2008. through dynamic reconfiguration. [7] Cypress Semiconductor. (2000). Vicente thanks Cypress Semiconductors for the support.” Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference. 251-257. it is possible to use the device in different types of circuits. D.com. 1-6. Santos. P. M. Microcontrolador PSoC: uma nova tecnologia. São Paulo: Érica. and the modification of the control strategy used. Aug. pp. 3. Dias.cypress. 2006. Carrijo. vol.. CES/IEEE 5th International. (2005). Coelho. Due to the device configurability. (2006). accessed in 20/04/2011. E. Moreno.. The PSoC’s development environment allows more than one configuration to be created for the component and. [6] Nicolosi. D. 9th IEEE/IAS International Conference on Industry Applications – Induscon 2010. ed. (2003). Tecnologia SoC e o microcontrolador PSoC (Programmable System on Chip). Revista Integração. Gallo. n. R. [8] Vicente. the desired trigger system. [5] Júnior. Ivo.. [9] http://www. 2010. Dissertação (Mestrado em Ciências em Engenharia Elétrica) . Eletrônica de Potência. L.. Florianópolis: Edição do Autor. p. such as: the variation of the pulse width. IPEMC'06. Otimização de reguladores para acionamento controlado de motores de indução alimentados por intermédio de inversor de corrente com comutação natural. Ano XI. 1-5. by selecting through a key or a digital input. Semiconductor Group. C. REFERENCES [1] Ming-Fa Tsai. E. R. pp. Rangel. [10] Barbi. C.Universidade Federal de Itajubá. for example). Thyristorized Rectifier Bridge Controlled Through a PSoC. (2008). ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work was partially supported by CAPES. . C. “Design of a Digital Programmable Control IC for Single-Phase Controlled Rectifiers.. Itajubá. which is very useful for triggering high frequency systems. Sistema de Controle de Luminosidade de uma Lâmpada Incandescente via Porta Paralela do Computador. (2010). [4] Siemens datasheet. pp. 1994. it is also possible to add other features. C. S. São Paulo. C. A. 2. 2003. Ying-De Lin and Jui-Kum Wang.It is important to mention that PSoC is a fully configurable System-on-Chip and it is possible to change the control strategy of the system and the frequency of the trigger signals by modifying its firmware.. R.. CNPq and FAPEMIG. CY8C29466 device datasheet. TCA 785 Phase Control IC. [3] Pereira. The author Eduardo M. A. uma nova tendência. Ribeiro.

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