POLISH JOURNAL OF FOOD AND NUTRITION SCIENCES Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 2006, Vol. 15/56, SI 1, pp.


SENSORY QUALITY OF COMMERCIAL FULL FAT AND REDUCED FAT CHEESES Grzegorz Lamparski, Gabriel Tobota, Agnieszka Troszyñska, Józef Fornal
Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences, Division of Food Science, Olsztyn
Key words: cheese, chemical composition, sensory evaluation, quantitative descriptive analysis, hedonic assessment The aim of the present study was to compare the sensory quality of cheeses with different fat content. The samples studied were Polish commercial semi-hard type cheese and its reduced fat version. The sensory quality of cheeses was evaluated by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and as hedonic ratings on day 10, 50 and 80 of their storage under traditional conditions (refrigerator 4C). The chemical composition of the cheeses was analysed as well. The chemical analysis and sensory evaluation (QDA) proved that the level of fat in cheeses and their storage period had a significant effect (p<0.05) on some chemical parameters of cheese and some sensory attributes. Statistically significant attributes which differentiated the profile of sensory quality of both varieties (p<0.05) of cheeses were: creamy odour, sour odour, yellow colour, salty taste, sweet taste, bitter taste, hardness and dryness. The results obtained with the QDA analysis were confirmed by the PCA analysis. Differentiating the sensory profile of cheeses (QDA) did not influence (p<0.05) their overall quality.

INTRODUCTION There is currently much interest in the so-called “light” food products. Obesity has become a major health risk in both the industrial and developing countries. Obesity causes severe health problems, including adult type diabetes, coronary artery disease and breast and colon cancer. People often buy foodstuffs with reduced fat and energy as part of weight-reducing diet. In order to fulfil the expectations of consumers in this field the dairy industry produces various kinds of low fat cheeses. Although, the low fat cheese market is rapidly growing there is still little information which sensory attributes make these products pleasant – or unpleasant for the consumers. So far many studies have been assessed concerning the sensory characteristics of full fat cheeses [Rothe et al., 1978; Heisserer & Chambers, 1993; Moio & Addeo, 1998; Tavaria et al., 2002], but only a few have evaluated the sensory quality of low fat cheeses. In this context, the aim of this work was to compare the sensory quality of Polish commercial semi-hard cheeses with different fat contents and to evaluate the sensorial changes in these products in their shelf life period. The chemical composition of the cheeses was analysed as well. MATERIALS AND METHODS Materials. Full fat semi-hard type cheese and its reduced fat version produced from bovine milk were used in this study. Both varieties of cheese originated from the same region (northern-west part of Poland), the same producer and had the same maturation period. After ripening,

the cheeses were stored under traditional conditions (refrigerator 4°C) and then submitted to the sensory analysis and assay of the chemical composition after 10, 50 and 80 days. Chemical analyses. The cheese samples were analysed for dry matter, fat and total nitrogen by AOAC methods [AOAC, 1990]. Proteolysis in cheese during storage was monitored by measuring the water-soluble nitrogen and nitrogen soluble in 12% TCA by FIL-IDF method [FIL-IDF, 1991]. Sensory evaluation methods. Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) was performed to determine the differences in the sensory characteristics of the cheeses [Stone & Sidel, 1993]. The QDA procedure used in the study was in agreement with requirements of the international standard [ISO/DIS 13299:1998]. A comprehensive vocabulary of descriptors for odour, colour, flavour and texture was generated through consensus (Table 1). Intensity of each descriptors was measured on continuous line scale (10 cm), labelled “no intensity” at the left end and “strong intensity” at the right end. The ratings were afterwards converted into number from 0.0 = non intensive to 10.0 = strong intensive. Overall quality analysis of cheeses was conducted using the same type of scale as above. The quality was expressed as “the general liking” of the sample. Sensory panel. The panel of sensory assessors was trained and monitored according to ISO standards [1993]. Sensory evaluation of the samples was performed by 8 panellists all experienced in discrimination and descriptive tests

Author’s address for correspondence: Grzegorz Lamparski, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, ul. Tuwima 10, 10-747 Olsztyn, Poland; tel.: (48 89) 523 46 26; fax: (48 89) 524 01 24; e-mail: greg@pan.olsztyn.pl

[2002].80% (10-day-old) to 46. The full fat cheese was different from the reduced fat cheese with respect to its contents of fat. bitterness saltiness and sweetness.01bB 7.51±0.20±0. time storage/chemical composition) were analysed by ANOVA.87±0.90±0. The results of the sensory analysis (factors: fat content/sensory attribute. nitrogen soluble in water. non-protein nitrogen and pH (p<0. Chemical components 10 full fat Dry matter (%) Fat (%) pH Total nitrogen (% DM) Nitrogen soluble in water (% in total nitrogen) Non-protein nitrogen (% in total nitrogen) 59. Unsalted crackers and spring water were provided in between samples for cleaning the panellists’ palates.21±0.50±0.57±0. Three-digit random numbers were used to code the samples and the descriptive analysis of the cheeses was evaluated in two replications. Schirle-Keller et al. time storage/sensory attribute) and chemical analysis (factors: fat content/chemical composition.89±0. sucrose. Statistical analyses were gained by Statgraphics Plus 5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Chemical analyses The summary of the results is presented in Table 2. Further. 1993. 2001) and Senstat for Windows (Deltaworks software.03bB 80 full fat 58. Descriptor Odour creamy odour acid odour Appearance yellow colour Taste salty taste sweet taste acid taste bitter taste aftertaste Texture hardness* chewiness rubbery dryness grainy Overall quality basic taste typical of sodium chloride as diluted in water (0.02bA 3.05). USA.84% (10-day-old). dry matter.01aA 9. the fractions of nitrogen have a significant impact on sensory quality of cheese. p<0.11aA 5.08bB 46. The Netherlands).00aB reduced fat 49.79±0. they were instructed to chew cheese and use their tongues to push the sample against the palate to perceive the flavour and texture. 1996.01aA 49. 5 chews the ability of the sample to break into pieces overall sensation determined in terms like and dislike Definition smell of market cream (30%) typical note of fermented milk products such as yoghurt visual estimation of intensity G.42bA 5.54±0.32±0.25±0. capital letters describe comparison between days of storage in each variety of cheese .67±0.29±0.01aA 9.23±0.66±0.04aB 5.51bC 43.0 cm3 samples and placed in plastic TABLE 2.11% (50-day-old) and that of the reduced fat from 26.06aA 5. cheese is a complex product Anchoring points – nonintensive very intensive.49±0.02bA 45. small letters describe comparison between full and reduced fat cheese in each day of storage.06±0. Apart from fat.27aA 27. the subjects were trained to rate the perceived intensity of the following different sensations: sourness.11±0. 50 and 80 days. Prior to their participation in the experiments.05).00bB 9. 1992].30aB 5. NaCl. * .05) in the results were tested by Fisher’s protected least significant difference (LSD) test (p£0.39aA 12. Statistical analysis.96±0. Plug & Haring. 1997.23aA 26.07bB 6.84±0.01aA 7. The cheeses were served at 21°C (room temperature) because of its optimal flavour [Heisserer & Chambers.64±0.01bC means marked in each row with the same letters do not have significant differences (LSD test.18±0.01bC 6. 1994]. Cheeses were cut into 2. using aqueous solutions of different concentration of citric acid. cups covered with a plastic lid.37±0.49% (50-day-old) to 27.17bA 15. According to the lecture of Engel et al.87±0. Lamparski et al. The fat content of full fat cheese ranged from 43.96±0. Preparation of samples and evaluation conditions.01aA 7.74±0.04aA 27.120 TABLE 1.05).08±0.62±0.78±0.1 (Statistical Graphics corp.06±0.05aA 6..14±0.01bA 12.09aA 15. The analysis was performed in a standardised test room [ISO 8589:1998] and with the computerised system ANALSENS for data collection and processing [Bary³ko-Pikielna.12±0. Statistically significant differences (p<0.high on different food products.01bA 5.14aAB 5. It is well known that fat content plays an important role in the sensory quality of cheeses [de Ross.00aA reduced fat 49.01±0.50bA 5.01bA 9. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied for general assessment of similarity-dissimilarity of the evaluated samples and describing their attributes.low . 1993].70±0. Chemical composition of the experimental cheeses stored for 10..01aA Storage period (days) 50 full fat reduced fat 58.5%) after-taste which continued after the removal of sample the force needed by the jaws to bite the sample into two pieces time and multiplicity of chewing the product to prepare it to swallow the ability of the sample to regain shape after pulling moisture that exists in the sample. A preference for higher fat content cheese was found in the study of Vickers & Mullan [1997].46bA 19. mouthfeel after 4.2%) basic taste illustrated by sucrose diluted in water (1–5%) taste of fermented milk products basic taste typical of caffeine in water (0.80±3. where consumption and liking of full fat processed cheese were higher then those of a fat-free version. quinine sulphate. total nitrogen. caffeine. The attributes used in QDA of the cheeses and their definitions and references.

Using QDA method 13 attributes for the investigated products describing odour. Table 3 shows the results of sensory evaluation for QDA analysis and overall quality in two factors: fat level and storage time (the mean values of intensity of these attributes are presented). In order to investigate cheese taste.11aA 4.40aA 1.04aA 3. respectively.88aB 1. Moreover.64bA 3. Graphical chart of the sensory profile (QDA) of products: 80-day-old full fat cheese.46aA 6.51aA means marked in each row with the same letters do not have significant differences (LSD test.33aAB 3.14aA 4.67aA 3.78bA 4.73aB 3. 50 and 80 days.05) were observed in the intensity of such attributes as: salty taste.53aA 1.13bB 4. taste and texture were selected and defined in (Table 1).51aA 4.87 units.05).99 units (Figure 2).51aA 2.54aA 4.15aA 2. 2000].96% (10-day-old) to 15. Stone & Sidel.84bA 1.58aA 4. the contents of non-protein nitrogen in both varieties of cheeses were similar except the 10-day-old reduced fat cheese.93aA 0. 50-day-old reduced fat cheese.95aB 5.55bA 3. Our results indicate that the contents of nitrogen soluble in water (% in total nitrogen) were higher in the reduced fat cheese than in the full fat cheese and ranged from 12.52aA 5.56aA 4.78aA 2. bitter taste.10bB 0.96% (10-day-old) to 19.09aA 2.36aB 5.51% (80-day-old).38aA 1.36aAB 3. sensory profiles of full fat cheese (80-day-old) and reduced fat cheese (50-day-old) which obtained the highest scores of overall quality were displayed as spider diagrams in Figure 1. 1999. In 80-day-old cheeses significant differences (p<0.11aA reduced fat 3. and the attributes of texture and taste.29aA 4.11 units and 4.50aA 3.21aA 4. hardness and dryness. The results show that among 13 attributes only the intensity of three of them (acid odour.93aA 5.63aA 3.14aA 3. sweet taste. which is often applied to study a variety of products including cheese [Lawless & Heymann.20aA 5. 1993]. small letters describe comparison between full and reduced fat cheese in each day of storage. the water-soluble fraction has been extensively studied because it is considered by numerous authors to be mainly responsible for this gustatory property [McSweency. p<0.61bAB 0.36aA 2.87aA 3.05).11bA 6.49aA 0.12aA 4. capital letters describe comparison between days of storage in each variety of cheese .06aB 4.14aA 5.05) were noted in such attributes as: creamy odour.35aA 1. respectively.. appearance. TABLE 3.49aA 3.91aA 1. The reduced fat cheese stored for 50 days obtained the highest scores – 6. Quantitative descriptive analysis of cheeses storaged at 10.38aA 3.44aA 5. These differences mainly applied to the colour.90aA 6.21% (80 days old) and from 9. Attribute 10 full fat Creamy odour Acid odour Yellow colour Salty taste Sweet taste Acid taste Bitter taste Aftertaste Hardness Chewiness Rubbery Dryness Grainy Overall quality 4.71aB 2.20aB 4. whereas in the 50-day-old cheeses significant differences (p<0. amino acids. they were statistically insignificant (p<0. Although prolonging the storage period affected the overall quality of scores.78aA 0.18aA 80 full fat 4. salty taste and dryness) was statistically significant for cheeses stored for 10 days.28aA 4.18 units and full fat cheese stored for 80 days – 5. the quantitative descriptive analysis was used (QDA).18aB 3. Engel et al.52aB 4.99aA reduced fat 2.09aA 4.04bA 4.24aA 3.26aA 3.Sensory quality of commercial cheeses 121 above differences in the products analysed more clearly. salty taste and sweet taste.71aA 3.11bA 2. peptides and low weight molecular proteins). which can be considered as consisting of two portions: a matrix which is a network of protein and fat and water-soluble fraction (minerals cation. The results of the overall quality of the investigated samples demonstrate that full fat cheese and reduced fat cheese stored for 10 days obtained the lowest scores – 5.52aA 2.06bA 4.07aA 1.96aA 3.08bA 0.79aA 3. The results were in agreement with the study of Tungjaroenchai et al. 1997. where proteolysis was found to occur more rapidly in reduced fat cheeses.23aA 2. yellow colour.54aA 4. In order to observe the creamy odour 10 grainy 9 8 7 acid odour dryness 6 5 4 3 2 yellow colour rubbery 1 0 salty taste chewiness sweet taste hardness aftertaste bitter taste acid taste FIGURE 1.69aA 1.96aA 3. At the first glance one could see that the profile of reduced fat cheese differs profoundly from that of the full fat cheese. Sensory analysis For sensory evaluation. [2001].91aA 5.49aAB 4.11aAB 5.84aA Storage period (days) 50 full fat reduced fat 4.71aA 2.74aA 3.49aA 2.

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