Petroleum Geology Introduction

Prof. Dr. Stefan M. Luthi

Petroleum Geology AES/TA 3820

• Why it matters: Some basics • History of petroleum • The carbon cycle, organic matter and maturation • Composition of oil and gas • Migration from source to reservoir • Reservoir rock properties • Trapping • Basin types and their exploration and development • Reserves and resources

Petroleum Geology AES/TA 3820

Course Description
This course aims at introducing the students to the basics of petroleum geology, a vast field that includes geochemistry, structural geology, sedimentology, mineralogy, fluid mechanics, mapping, volumetric calculations, risk and uncertainty analysis, and a vast array of industrial technologies.

Petroleum Geology AES/TA 3820

Sc.Course Description The course goal is to obtain a basic knowledge of the origins of petroleum and gas. and of the techniques to find and exploit hydrocarbons. or to join a company where in-house training is provided. either here at the TU Delft or elsewhere. This should give the students a sufficient basis for further M. of the accumulation conditions. Petroleum Geology AES/TA 3820 . courses in the field.

607 p. W. 2nd edition.H. Allen & Unwin. Blackwell Publishing. 359 p. & Swarbrick R.K. OGCI. 743 p. F. (1967): Geology of Petroleum.H.H. (1978): Petroleum Formation and Occurrence. Freeman and Co. Academic Press.M. Springer. D. Tissot. 538p. 480 p. Selley R. (2004): Petroleum Geoscience. (1997) Elements of Petroleum Geology. 490 p. A. 724 p. W. (1985): Petroleum Geology.K. J. Furthermore: North. B.P. Hunt.C. 2nd edition. (1990) Basic Petroleum Geology. & Welte.I. Levorsen. (1995): Petroleum Geochemistry and Geology.Reference Textbooks Gluyas J. Lint P. Petroleum Geology AES/TA 3820 . Freeman & Co.

Why it matters Petroleum Geology AES/TA 3820 .

P. (2005) The end of oil: the decline of the petroleum economy and the rise of the new enegy order. ISBN: 978-0747570813 Petroleum Geology AES/TA 3820 . Bloomsbury Publishing PLC.Roberts.

R. Petroleum Geology AES/TA 3820 .Heinberg. ISBN: 978 1 905570 04 1. terrorism and economic collapse. (2006) The oil depletion protocol: A plan to alert oil wars. Clairview books. Available online via

Karl.Kaldor. Pluto Press. Y.. T. M. Said. L.. (2007) Oil Wars. ISBN: 978-0745324784 Petroleum Geology AES/TA 3820 .

New society publishers. updated edition. R. ISBN: 9780865715295 Petroleum Geology AES/TA 3820 . war and the fate of industrial societies. (2003) The party’s over: oil.Heinberg.

(2005) Blood and oi: how america’s thirst for oil is killing us. M. Hamish Hamilton. ISBN: 0 241 14306 3 Petroleum Geology AES/TA 3820 .Klare.

(2005) Twilight in the dessert: the coming Saudi oil shock and the world economy. R. Wiley. M. ISBN: 9780471738763 Petroleum Geology AES/TA 3820 .Simmons.

on gravity) Gas is expressed in millions of cubic feet: 1 barrel = 159 liters 1 MMcf ≈ 3—104 m3 Energy-wise. gas can be expressed in oil equivalents: 1 boe ≈ 6000 to 6500 cf Petroleum Geology AES/TA 3820 .8 to 7.6 barrels (dep.Measurement Units Quantities of oil are expressed in barrels: 1 barrel = 159 liters 1 cubic meter = 6.37 barrels 1 metric ton = 6.

000 Petroleum Geology AES/TA 3820 .000 bbls/day Total number of producing fields: ~40.000 Total number of drill rigs worldwide: ~ 5.Some Numbers Number of oil and gas wells drilled to date: ~ 7 million Percentage of wells in the USA: ~50% Producing wells worldwide: ~ 1 million Average production of oil wells in USA: 20 bbls/day Average production of oil wells in Middle East: 7.000 Total number of petroleum geologists: ~ 100.

includes 688 Gbo reserve growth and 732 Gbo undiscovered reserves 1 Gbo = 1 billion barrels of oil Petroleum Geology AES/TA 3820 . 1998 2 BP Statistical Review 2007.0 Gbo 4-8 Gbo 1050 Gbo 850 Gbo 1372 Gbo 2311 Gbo 1900 Gbo Annual World Oil Consumption 2008 Annual Oil Discovery Rates in 1990s-2000s Total World Oil Consumption 1860-2008 Conventional World Oil Reserves (P50)1 Conventional World Oil Reserves (P50)2 Conventional World Oil Reserves (P50)3 World Reserves (OIP) of Heavy Oil. Tar Sands.More Large Numbers 30. 2000. and Oil Shales 1 Campbell & Laherrère. includes 164 Gbo of oil sands in Canada 3 USGS.

3 y 5.0 y 7.9 b $37.000 96.6 Gboe 12.400 * Proved Sources: Annual Reports.600 104.4 Mboe/d Res* 12.1 Gboe 6.4 Gboe R/P Revenues 8.9 y $464 b $380 b $484 b $272 b $315 b Net $49.7 Gboe 7.9 b $16. Press Releases.8 b Staff 107.1 Gboe 10.100 97.2 y 11.1 b $28. Newspaper Reports Petroleum Geology AES/TA 3820 .6 b $23.7 Mboe/d 2.0 Mboe/d 3.000 65.2 y 8.Oil Companies (International) 2007 Company Exxon/Mobil BP RD/Shell Chevron Total Prod 4.2 Mboe/d 4.7 Mboe/d 2.

2 y 40.4 y 9.4 y 61.5 Gbo R/P 66. Co.5 Gbo 41.2 Mbo/d 1.6 y 126. China Nat.3 Mbo/d 3.9 Gbo** 137. Oil Co.3 Gbo 79.3 Mbo/d 2.8 Mbo/d 3.5 Gbo 115. Iraq National Oil Co. Sonatrach 6 largest Russian Oil Co.8 Gbo 36. Libya National Oil Co.3 Mbo/d 1.3 Gbo 21.5 Mbo/d 1.4 y 77.Oil Companies (National) Company Saudi Arabian Oil Co.3 y 16.3 y * Plus 267 Gbo of heavy oil reserves ** Other sources cite >100 Gbo Claimed reserves BP Statistical Review 2007 and other sources Petroleum Geology AES/TA 3820 . Petrol.0 Gbo 80. Co.7 Mbo/d 4.2 Gbo 12.8 Mbo/d 3. Petroleos Mexicanos National Iranian Oil Co.7 y 17.8 y 22. Abu Dhabi Nat.9 y 90.0 Gbo* 101. Petroleos de Venezuela Kuwait Petroleum Co.8 Mbo/d 264.0 Mbo/d 2.5 Mbo/d 9.0 Gbo 12. Production Reserves 10.8 Mbo/d 2. Nigerian Nat.7 y 242. Petrol.5 Gbo 97.6 y 86.

Source: BP Statistical Review 2007 Petroleum Geology AES/TA 3820 .This and following slides are for oil.

Production by Area Source: BP Statistical Review 2007 Petroleum Geology AES/TA 3820 .

R/P by Area and for World Source: BP Statistical Review 2007 Petroleum Geology AES/TA 3820 .

Consumption by Area Source: BP Statistical Review 2007 Petroleum Geology AES/TA 3820 .

Consumption per Capita Source: BP Statistical Review 2007 Petroleum Geology AES/TA 3820 .

heat etc. Not including solar.Total World Energy Consumption In Mtoe = Million tons of oil equivalent. Source: International Energy Agency (IEA) Petroleum Geology AES/TA 3820 . wind. geothermal.

Total Energy Consumption per Capita Source: BP Statistical Review 2007 Petroleum Geology AES/TA 3820 .

4 Gbo Gas Russia Iran Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates USA Nigeria Venezuela All others Total 1680 Tcf 974 Tcf 911 Tcf 240 Tcf 214 Tcf 204 Tcf 182 Tcf 152 Tcf <100 Tcf 6183 Tcf USA Russia China India Australia All others Total Coal 270.0 Gbo 101.0 billion tons 1000.9 billion tons 87.4 y R/P = 74.9 billion tons R/P = 45.5 y R/P = 185.5 Gbo 97.3 Gbo 179.1 billion tons 126.2 billion tons <40. but it is a simple metric with a message Petroleum Geology AES/TA 3820 .8 Gbo 80.7 billion tons 173.0 Gbo 60.Reserves/Production Oil Saudi Arabia Canada Iran Iraq Kuwait United Arab Emirates Venezuela Russia All others Total 262.2 billion tons 101.4 y R/P is a static measure with little predictive value.2 Gbo 136.3 Gbo 115.0 Gbo < 42 Gbo 1317.

Ploesti..) “Anticlinal theory” known but not used in practice Many fields located in so-called “geomorphic traps” (where the reservoir rock is truncated by a recent erosion surface) Drake well in 1859 first to discover oil (Pennsylvania) Petroleum Geology AES/TA 3820 . Baku. Borneo.. Peru.Historical Development Prior to 1900 No “petroleum geology”. all oil discovered through seepages (Appalachian. California. Egypt.

launches SOC becomes first major oil company Automobiles! Gas stoves! Masjid-i-Suleyman 1908 .Historical Development ctd. Mexico.First Middle East Oil Petroleum Geology AES/TA 3820 . first large field with heavy oil. Oklahoma. Trinidad. 1901-1924 “Anticlinal theory” put in practice with Spindeltop well in Texas Important discoveries in Lake Maracaibo (Venezuela). foundation of AAPG Bolivar Coastal field: First in homoclinal trap. San Joaquin Valley. California (all USA) Petroleum geology is “American”. Masjid-ySuleiman (Iran). Borneo. first offshore.

1925 .Historical Development ctd. wells to 3000 meters depth (before: to 1000 m) World Petroleum Congress founded Petroleum Geology AES/TA 3820 . micropaleontology and organic geochemistry developed as important tools Technological breakthroughs: Rotary drilling. Kirkuk (Iraq. gravimeter. reflection seismology. torsion balance. numerous fields in Middle East (most also carbonates) Oil is organic. carbonate reservoir!). electrical well logs. not inorganic. perforations.1945 Important discoveries in La Paz (Venezuela).

Russian platform Drilling depths reach 6000 meters. Levorsen) Sedimentology becomes important to understand reservoirs “Log-normal distribution” of oil fields Petroleum Geology AES/TA 3820 . Western Canada.g. USA. by King Hubbert.Historical Developments ctd.1960 Drilling boom. gas became important Important insights into hydrocarbon migration and accumulation (e. 1945 . discovery of major oil fields in Middle East.

eastern Mexico oil provinces “Subtle traps” (e. construction. Further technological improvements in drilling.g. 1960 .Historical Developments ctd. North Dome in Qatar) Vast improvement of seismic acquisition and processing.1980 Offshore drilling technology developed Discovery of North Sea. becomes vital exploration tool. Siberia. and logging Petroleum Geology AES/TA 3820 . Nigeria. Libya.

Historical Developments ctd. Deep to ultra-deep drilling technology developed Huge carbonate fields in intra-cratonic setting discovered (PeriCaspian oil province) 3-D and 4-D seismics provide volumetric and dynamic picture of reservoirs. Since 1980 Passive margins plays discovered (Gulf of Mexico. West Africa. computerized workflows Half of the “easy oil” is produced Petroleum Geology AES/TA 3820 . leads to seismic stratigraphy Integration of petroleum disciplines. Brazil).

Summary: Why it matters • We depend on energy: In the industrial world every person uses the energy corresponding to about 200 human powers 24 hours per day • Fossil energy constitutes ±85% of our energy consumption • Fossil fuels have a high caloric value per volume • Fossil fuels are finite • The burning of fossil fuels has undesirable climatic consequences • But: Energy companies are important for the economy Petroleum Geology AES/TA 3820 .

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