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Figure O-42

Composition of academic doctoral S&E workforce by race/ethnicity, sex, and citizenship at degree conferral:
1989–2003
Percent

Underrepresented
White male White female minorities Asian Non-U.S. citizen
1989 66.0 16.1 3.4 1.3 13.2
1991 64.7 16.7 3.6 1.3 13.6
1993 61.8 18.2 3.8 1.5 14.7
1995 59.4 19.4 4.1 1.7 15.4
1997 57.9 20.1 4.2 1.8 16.0
1999 56.4 20.7 4.5 1.9 16.5
2001 54.2 22.0 4.9 2.0 16.9
2003 50.8 22.1 5.9 2.7 18.6
NOTES: Non-U.S. citizens include both permanent and temporary visa holders. Other categories include only U.S. citizens.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, special tabulations. See appendix
table 5-25.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2006

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