You are on page 1of 4

EXI)ERI~ENT NO.8 (a)

•.•

-.J

Qill!~ct:Tocalibrateall amf.lleter with a potentiometer.

tU:!naratus:

1. potentiometer,

~l 3.

2.

4.

storage battery (2), rheostats (2), ,

standard cell,

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

galvanometer~

standard 1n resistance,

ammeter,

two-way key,

one-way key (2),

  • \'- to.connecting wires" and II.sand paper.

The crl'or in ammeter readings is given by-

1 2 -][1 ==Et 2 .: ....Il-

l

vdbere,

It = Curr~:nt read by an ammeter,

  • 1 2 = Curnmt read by a potentiometer,

  • L 1 = 'Lenllth of the pote~Jiometer wire stanc.b,rd cell,

corresponding to E.M.F. of

~1<12:=: Lef.l~~:thof the potentiometer wire corresponding

to the<current 1 2

~ i-tnce(:h~re:

•-=--i'~'''bt;the e~2ctrical connections as shown in Fig. 1.

\

·2,. Place the jockey of tbe potentiometer 'on the end B of the tenth wire. At this ~fpoint the totafi:ength of the wire is l~OC!~~,this is L I • . _~.Clos.~ key .~l nnd JC z (a), ::1 deflection in the galvanometer is observed. Reduce this deflection to zero by adjusting the rheostat R lt in the main circuit. This

adjustment in the

R h should remain same for-further steps .

.:.\.Not(~down 1L!rtF. (If standard cell E and Calctllate potential gradient ~ in

1

'/-

S. Open key K 2 {a), close K 2 (b) and K 3 , ~djusf. the variabl'e resistance by using second rheost;~~tIt~),such tbat the ammetc:r re~lding may b~ O.:yamp. Adjust the jockey on the wire such that there is 110 deflc(=t1on in the galvanom.eter. Note

'"

v

down total balanchtg le~tgt:1.~.

-

.

,,/

~

6. Alter the rheostat R~ such that reading in amnleter becomes 0.2 amp./

7. Repeat the above step till the entire range of the voltmeter is covered.

8. Plot the graph

error(I 2 -It).

between the observed value of the ammeter 11 and the

"

.

o

:,1 :.

R,T c

t

i

h ~L'--~"",,-, '-=,

s

._---::==~

:

I

::oJ

Jockey

G

I

l "----

l~~ig.1. Electrical connections

Lcrvations:

1. Length' of the potentiometer wire corresponding to E.M.F. of standard

cell, L 1 = 1000 em.

  • 2. E.M.F. of standard cell, E =.••.volts.

  • 3. Potentia'l gradient = ~ volts/em. Lt .,

llIe 1.CalibratIOn of an ammeter) .~~JBalancing length of the potentiometer Wire;(, L Error I 2L =Ex-!
llIe 1.CalibratIOn of an ammeter)
.~~JBalancing length of the potentiometer Wire;(,
L
Error
I
2L =Ex-!
(I -,'I~)
cU
= C.
·S·....S
' '~--
1
:'.,
.l
S "g -:;
Length on
Total, ,
(amp.)
(amp.)
~ f:
No. of complete wires, sliding'v.jre
L 2 I
;X
.
(cnif-,
(em)
-1------ ..-1--.
-
0.1
,
0.2
C.3 "_~.
'"
+_ 0.4
t- 0.5
. 0.6
--
'r-- I 0.7
"r 0.8
----
.....
~r~:r--
.L_=:E _
-r-
I

nerice, I z - II= ••••amp.

Continue to (;QI~IlIQte fpr other readings of II'

Draw II ~r••plr botween the error (1 2 - II) and the ammeter reading II' The shape of plot

is zig-zag •••'laown in Fig. 2.

\-

t

,

.- ..

-

-

.

' Ammeter Reading I

1

-+

x

Fig. 2. Calibration curve

Il"csull:

The "rupia of error (1 2 - 11) versus ammeter reading II is zig-zag in shape and thi~ curve

is CllU",(' U8 calibration curve. This curve is point-to-point curve.

I

prC'iD.!t~.•1.0ns:

I. 'fhe storage batteries should be fully charged.

  • 2. The E.M.F. oflhe battery should be greater than the E.M.F. of the standard cell.

  • 3. The positive terminals should be connecte,d at the point A.

  • 4. Il~vcrybattery and cell should be attached with a separate plug key and plug key should be closed at the time of their use.'

.

  • 5. The contact between the jockey and the potentiome~er momentary.

'

wire should be

  • 6. Ammeter in the circuit shouk~ be connected in serires.

Viva-voce

  • Q. 1~ How would you explain potentiometer?

  • Q. 2. What does a zero deflection in a galvanometer indicate?

  • Q. 3. What are the require~ents of potentiometer wire?

  • Q. 4. What is potential gradient? Can you change it?

  • Q. 5. Canan ammeter measure e.m.f. accurately?

  • Q. 6. What do you mean by the calibration of an ammeter?

  • Q. 7. Why is it necessary to calibrate an ammeter?

'-<l. 8.

Why dQYou calibrate with the help of p~tenti8meter?

  • Q. 9. How do you make sure that potentiometer readings are accurate?

  • Q. 10. What inforntation does your calibration curve give? Is it smooth?

,"

~-.