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Original Title: Capacitor Banks

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You are on page 1of 168

Nicholas A. Losito Jr. Castle Power Solutions, LLC

Outline

Day 1 Day 1

Basic Power Calculations

Capacitor Fundamentals

Capacitor Ratings

Capacitor Application

Capacitor Protection p

Day 2

Harmonics

Capacitor Bank Design Considerations Capacitor Bank Design Considerations

Shunt Capacitors

Medium Voltage

Substation Applications pp

Power Factor Correction

Basic Power Calculations

Basic Power Calculations

C Q ti Common Questions:

What are VARs?

Wh d b t VAR ? Why do we care about VARs?

Basic Power Calculations

Most plant loads (motors, transformers, etc) are INDUCTIVE

and require a magnetic field to operate. The magnetic field is

necessary, but produces NO USEFUL WORK. The utility

must supply the power to produce the magnetic field and the must supply the power to produce the magnetic field and the

power to produce USEFUL work.

The ACTIVE component produces the USEFUL work, the

REACTIVE component produces the magnetic field.

Basic Power Calculations

An analogy that

V

A

R

gy

most can understand.

Mug

i f i

V

A

Capacity of equipment

(i.e. xfmr, cable, swgr, etc)

Beer

W

ee

Stuff that you want

Foam (Head)

St ff hi h t Stuff which prevents

you from maximizing the

amount of beer that you get

Basic Power Calculations

f l V: Reference voltage

I

R

: Resistive load

I

L

: Inductive load

I : Capacitive load I

C

: Capacitive load

Basic Power Calculations

V

ref

I

res

Power = Re(V I*)

Basic Power Calculations

V

ref

I

lag

Note that due to phase shift (30 degrees) only 86.66% of current is applied to calculate work.

Power = Re(V I*)

Basic Power Calculations

V

ref

I

lead

Regardless whether leading or lagging, power calculation yields similar results

Power = Re(V I*)

Basic Power Calculations

V

ref

I

90

In the case where current leads or lags the voltage by 90 degrees, P = 0

Power = Re(V I*)

Basic Power Calculations

Power Factor [ PF ] = Cos = P / S

S

(

k

V

A

)

Q (kVAR)

P (W)

Power Triangle

The relationship between S, P, and Q. This figure represents a lagging power

factor. If Q is negative, leading power factor.

g

Basic Power Calculations

So how do we know if our

current is lagging or leading current is lagging or leading

the voltage, and what can we

do to correct it? do to correct it?

Consider this example Consider this example,

Basic Power Calculations

Incoming service is at

5500 kW

3400 kVAR

g

99.5% capacity

6466 kVA

2000 kW 1000 kW 2500 kW

1000 kVAR 800 kVAR 1600 kVAR

Basic Power Calculations

Power Factor [ PF ] = Cos = P / S 0.85 lag

S

(

k

V

A

)

g

Q (kVAR)

3400 kVAR

31.8 deg

P (W)

Power Triangle

5500 kW

g

Even though our facility require only 5500 kW to perform Real Work, our

incoming service must be sized for 6466 kVA.

Basic Power Calculations

We have a 6500 kVA mug

that is holding 5500 kW

and 3400 kVAR.

V

A

R

V

A

W

With the existing configuration

the facility cannot add any loads y y

without upgrading the incoming

service.

Basic Power Calculations

Incoming service is at

5500 kW

0 kVAR

g

85% capacity

5500 kVA

3400 kVAR

2000 kW 1000 kW 2500 kW

1000 kVAR 800 kVAR 1600 kVAR

Basic Power Calculations

Power Factor [ PF ] = Cos = P / S 1.0 unity

S

(

k

V

A

)

y

Q (kVAR)

0 kVAR

0 deg

P (W)

Power Triangle

5500 kW

g

The cap bank is providing 3400 kVAR, so our service is now providing only

5500 kVA (reduction from 6466 kVA.

Basic Power Calculations

1

,

5

0

0

k

V

A

COS [ ] = 0.67

COS [ ] = 0.95

Q2 = Q1 + Qc

Q1 = 1,118 kVAR

1 000 kW

1,05

3 kV

A

Q2 = 330 kVAR

1,000 kW

Q

Qc = 788 kVAR

Required Apparent Power

Before and After

Adding a Power Capacitor Bank

An example of how to calculate the size of a cap bank based on a target power factor

Basic Power Calculations

But wait, theres more.

Basic Power Calculations

Odds are that the utility is

5500 kW

3400 kVAR

y

charging you for penalties

for a low power factor.

6466 kVA

5500

6466

= 0.85

Typically, penalties are

applied for power factor less applied for power factor less

than 0.95%.

2000 kW 1000 kW 2500 kW

1000 kVAR 800 kVAR 1600 kVAR

Basic Power Calculations

There are also voltage

5500 kW

3400 kVAR

g

considerations.

Assuming typical values:

6466 kVA

Assuming typical values:

Source impedance =

9% at 6500 kVA

Volt Drop = 5.8%

The expected voltage drop at

the main bus will be close to

6%!

2000 kW 1000 kW 2500 kW

1000 kVAR 800 kVAR 1600 kVAR

Basic Power Calculations

Capacitor bank reduces the

voltage drop at main bus

5500 kW

0 kVAR

voltage drop at main bus

by 5%!

5500 kVA

Volt Drop = 1.0%

3400 kVAR

2000 kW 1000 kW 2500 kW

1000 kVAR 800 kVAR 1600 kVAR

Basic Power Calculations

Note that the capacitor bank

can also raise the bus voltage

5500 kW

-1600 kVAR

g

above the nominal value.

5728 kVA

Volt Drop = -1.5%

5000 kVAR

2000 kW 1000 kW 2500 kW

1000 kVAR 800 kVAR 1600 kVAR

Basic Power Calculations

The voltage continues to rise

if the capacitor bank remains

3000 kW

-3200 kVAR

p

connected and the load is

reduced.

4386 kVA

Volt Drop = -3.6%

5000 kVAR

Out of service

2000 kW 1000 kW 0 kW

1000 kVAR 800 kVAR 0 kVAR

Capacitor Fundamentals

Capacitor Fundamentals

C = e

o

A / d for a parallel plate capacitor,

where e

o

is the permittivity of the insulating material (dielectric)

o

between plates.

Capacitor Fundamentals

We recall that we can add series capacitances to

1 / C = 1 / C

1

+ 1 / C

2

We recall that we can add series capacitances to

obtain an equivalent capacitance.

1 / C

eq

1 / C

1

+ 1 / C

2

Capacitor Fundamentals

Similarly, we can add parallel capacitances to

obtain an equivalent capacitance.

C

eq

= C

1

+ C

2

Capacitor Fundamentals

but we typically do not have much use for capacitance values.

So we convert capacitance to impedance: So we convert capacitance to impedance:

fC C

X

C

2

1 1

= =

fC C

C

t e 2

Capacitor Fundamentals

c

jX R Z + =

c

jX R Z + =

C

X Z =

V

Z

2

=

X

V

S

2

=

S

C

X

Capacitor Fundamentals

1000 *

] [

] [

2

=

kV V

kVAR S 000

] [

] [

O Z

kV S

Example: Example:

The capacitance of a capacitor is 6.22 F and the

nameplate voltage is 8000 V. Calculate the power rating.

] [ 7 . 426

) 10 22 . 6 )( 60 )( 14 . 3 ( 2

1

6

O = =

x

X

C

] [ 150 000 , 1

7 . 426

) 8 (

2

kVAR S = =

Capacitor Fundamentals

Capacitor Fundamentals

Capacitor Fundamentals

Capacitor Fundamentals

Capacitor Fundamentals

Capacitor Fundamentals

Note that IEEE Std 18

requires the discharge

Discharge resistor

requires the discharge

resistor to reduce the

terminal voltage to 50 V in

th ti f ifi d the time frame as specified

in the table below.

Capacitor Ratings

Capacitor Ratings

Medium voltage capacitors are available in many different styles Medium-voltage capacitors are available in many different styles.

The main points of differentiation are listed below:

Voltage rating

kVAR rating

Single bushing or dual bushing g g g

Internally fused, externally fused, or fuseless

Capacitor Ratings

IEEE 81 defines the ratings for capacitors IEEE 81 defines the ratings for capacitors

Voltage, rms (terminal to terminal)

Terminal-to-case (or ground) insulation class

Reactive power

Number of phases p

Frequency

Capacitor Ratings

IEEE 18 provides capacitor tolerances IEEE 18 provides capacitor tolerances

The capacitance shall not vary more than -0% to +10% of

nominal value based on rated kVAR, voltage, and frequency

measured at 25 deg C.

This means that a new 150 kVAR unit can range anywhere from g y

150 kVAR to 165 kVAR.

Capacitor Ratings

IEEE 18 states the capacitor is intended to operate at or below IEEE 18 states the capacitor is intended to operate at or below

rated voltage. Capacitors shall be capable of continuous

operation given that none of the following limitations are

exceeded:

110% of rated rms voltage (temporary overvoltage parameters

will be discussed later))

120% of peak voltage, including harmonics but excluding

transients

135%of nominal rms current based on rated kVAR and rated 135% of nominal rms current based on rated kVAR and rated

voltage

135% of rated kVAR

Capacitor Ratings

* Impulse tests shall be applied between terminals and case, with the terminals connected together. For capacitors

having bushings with two different BIL ratings, this test shall be based on the bushing with the lower

BIL. The nameplate shall show both BIL ratings, e.g. 150/95 kV BIL.

** Not applicable to indoor ratings

Capacitor Application

Capacitor Application

Power factor correction capacitor banks are typically installed in Power factor correction capacitor banks are typically installed in

the following ways :

Pole top

Metal-Enclosed / Pad-Mount

Open rack Ope ac

Terminal end at equipment

Capacitor Application

P l T I t ll ti Pole Top Installation

Capacitor Application

Transient inrush reactors

P l T I t ll ti Pole Top Installation

Capacitor Application

Pad Mounted Installation Pad-Mounted Installation

Capacitor Application

Metal-Enclosed Substation Installation Metal Enclosed Substation Installation

Capacitor Application

Three-phase iron core

harmonic filter reactor

Metal-Enclosed Substation Installation

harmonic filter reactor

Metal Enclosed Substation Installation

Capacitor Application

Open Rack, Medium-Voltage Substation Installation

Capacitor Application

Open Rack, High-Voltage Substation Installation

Capacitor Application

Installation in Equipment

Capacitor Application

Power factor correction capacitor banks can be configured in the Power factor correction capacitor banks can be configured in the

following ways :

Delta

Wye - Solidly Grounded

Wye - Ungrounded y g

A common misconception is that the capacitor bank should be

connected Delta since it is being applied to a delta or high connected Delta since it is being applied to a delta or high-

impedance grounded system. This is NOT true.

Capacitor Application

The driving factor which determine the configuration for the

given application is COST.

Voltage considerations Voltage considerations

IEEE 1036 suggests that only banks rated 2400 V and below

should be Delta connected This is mainly because standard should be Delta connected. This is mainly because standard

voltage ratings for wye connected banks may not be available.

Cost of phase-to-phase vs phase-to-neutral rated capacitors at

higher voltages tends to point installations towards wye

connected banks for larger bank installations. connected banks for larger bank installations.

Capacitor Application

Delta

Lower voltages (<= 2400 V)

Standard capacitors are typically not available at 1380 V

Distribution systems (pole top)

Units are configured with a single series group of capacitors

with capacitors rated phase to phase Therefore unbalance with capacitors rated phase-to-phase. Therefore, unbalance

detection is not required.

Capacitor Application

Wye Solidly Grounded

Initial cost of the bank may be lower since the neutral does not

have to be insulated from ground have to be insulated from ground.

Capacitor switch recovery voltages are reduced

High inrush currents may occur in the station ground system

Th d d id l i d f l The grounded-wye arrangement provides a low-impedance fault

path which may require revision to the existing system ground

protection scheme. Typically not applied to ungrounded systems. p yp y pp g y

When applied to resistance-grounded systems, difficulty in

coordination between capacitor fuses and upstream ground

protection relays (consider coordination of 40 Afuse with a 400 A protection relays (consider coordination of 40 A fuse with a 400 A

grounded system).

Typical for smaller installations (since auxiliary equipment is not

i d) required)

Capacitor Application

The most common capacitor bank configurations for

larger substation applications are Wye-Ungrounded

Three of the most common unbalance protection schemes are shown.

Discussion of the protection schemes will be presented later.

Capacitor Protection

Fusing

Fuseless

I t ll F d Internally Fused

Externally Fused

Capacitor Protection

B k P t ti S Bank Protection Summary

Capacitor Protection

Fuseless Capacitors

Constr cted of small capacitor elements hich are arranged in Constructed of small capacitor elements which are arranged in

series and parallel. The elements are constructed of aluminum

foil with a dielectric of electrical grade polypropylene. This

design provides a safe failure mode. In the event that the

dielectric fails, the energy in the resulting small arc punctures

many layers of the thin film and foil within the element. The many layers of the thin film and foil within the element. The

arc causes the film layer to receded allowing many layers of the

aluminum foil electrodes to touch and weld together forming an

electrically stable electrical joint This results in an entire electrically stable electrical joint. This results in an entire

series section being shorted.

Capacitor Protection

Example of Fuseless Installation

Capacitor Protection

Internally Fused Capacitors

Constr cted s ch that each element Constructed such that each element

is protected with a series

connected current limiting fuse.

The design is such that isolated

fusing prevents potential damage

to the adjacent elements and to the adjacent elements and

fuses. The current limiting mode

chops the fault current to prevent

the energy stored in the parallel the energy stored in the parallel

connected elements from being

discharged into the faulted

element.

Capacitor Protection

Group Fusing

Individual Fusing d v du us g

Capacitor Protection

Group Fusing Considerations for Selecting Fuse

(typical for distribution pole mounted racks)

Continuous Current Continuous Current

Transient Current

Fault Current

k C C di i Tank Rupture Curve Coordination

Voltage on Good Capacitors

Capacitor Protection

Continuous Current

For wye-solidly grounded systems: Fuse > = 135% of rated

capacitor current (includes overvoltage, capacitor tolerances,

and harmonics).

For wye-ungrounded systems: Fuse > = 125% of rated y g y

capacitor current (includes overvoltage, capacitor tolerances,

and harmonics).

Care should be taken when using NEMA Type T and K tin links which are rated

150%. In this case, the divide the fuse rating by 1.50. g y

Capacitor Protection

Transient Current

Capacitor switching (specifically back-to-back switching)

Lightning surges

Back-to-back is typically not a factor for pole mounted capacitors yp y p p

banks.

High frequency lightning surges: High frequency lightning surges:

Use NEMA T tin links for ampere ratings up to 25 A.

Use NEMA K tin links for ampere ratings above 25 A.

Capacitor Protection

Fault Current

Ensure that the fuse can interrupt the available fault current

Tank Rupture Coordination

Ensure that the fuse maximum clearing TCC curve for the fuse g

link is plotted below the capacitor tank rupture curve. In cases of

high fault currents, the tank rupture curve should be compensated

for asymmetry for asymmetry.

Voltage on Good Capacitors

d d f l h l i For an ungrounded system, a fault on one phase results in a 1.73

times overvoltage on the un-faulted phases. Ensure that the fault

is cleared before the second capacitor failure. p

Capacitor Protection

Problems with Fusing of Small Ungrounded Banks

Consider a 12.47 kV, 1500 kVAR cap bank made of three (3)

500 kVAR i l h i 500 kVAR single-phase units.

Fuse A A A

kV

kVAR

] [ 100 ] [ 104 5 . 1 44 . 69 ] [ 44 . 69

] [ 47 . 12 3

] [ 1500

= =

kV] [ 47 . 12 3

If a capacitor fails, we will expect approximately 3x line current.

It will take a 100 A fuse approximately 500 seconds to clear this pp y

fault (3 x 69.44 A = 208.32 A). The capacitor case will rupture

long before the fuse clears the fault.

The solution is using smaller units (explanation to follow).

Capacitor Protection

Individual Fusing Considerations for Selecting Fuse

(typical for substation capacitor banks)

Continuous Current Continuous Current

Transient Current

Fault Current

Tank Rupture Curve Coordination

Voltage on Good Capacitors

Energy Discharge into Faulted Unit Energy Discharge into Faulted Unit

Outrush Current

Coordination with Unbalance Detection System

Capacitor Protection

Continuous Current

Fuse > = 135% of rated capacitor current (includes overvoltage,

capacitor tolerances, and harmonics)

Care should be taken when using NEMA Type T and K tin links which are rated

150% In this case the divide the fuse rating by 1 50 150%. In this case, the divide the fuse rating by 1.50.

Capacitor Protection

Transient Current

Lightning surges

Capacitor switching (specifically back-to-back switching)

High magnitude, high frequency lightning surges are typically not g g , g q y g g g yp y

a concern for substation installations.

Back to back switching is typically controlled with pre insertion Back-to-back switching is typically controlled with pre-insertion

closing resistors or current limiting reactors.

h f i ll i h ll l f ill h h By the nature of installation, the parallel fuses will share the

transient current and will not be a factor.

Capacitor Protection

Fault Current

Ensure that the fuse can interrupt the available fault current.

In substation banks with multiple series groups, fault current will

not flow through a failed capacitor unit unless other units g p

experience a simultaneous failure. For this reason expulsion

fuses are commonly used rather than current limiting fuses

Tank Rupture Coordination

Ensure that the fuse maximum clearing TCC curve for the fuse

li k i l d b l h i k f link is plotted below the capacitor tank rupture curve. In cases of

high fault currents, the tank rupture curve should be compensated

for asymmetry. y y

Capacitor Protection

Example of a Definite Example of a Definite

Tank Rupture Curve.

Th i b h The time between the

rupture curve and the

fuse maximum clear

curve is the

coordination margin.

Capacitor Protection

Example of a 10% and 50%

Rupture Curve for a 100 kVAR Rupture Curve for a 100 kVAR

Capacitor.

Probability based tank rupture y p

curves are developed when there

is too much variance in rupture

test data.

Based on the 10% and 50%

curves, one can extrapolate the

f b bili curves for any probability.

Capacitor Protection

Voltage on Good Capacitors

When a short-circuit on one unit occurs, an overvoltage results on

the un-faulted phases. Ensure that the fault is cleared before the

second capacitor failure. A table summarizes this voltage rise on

the un-faulted units

Per Unit Voltage on Un-failed Capacitors

Capacitor Protection

Energy Discharge Into a Failed Unit

When a capacitor failure occurs, the stored energy in the parallel

connected capacitors can discharge thro gh the failed capacitor connected capacitors can discharge through the failed capacitor

and its fuse. The total calculated parallel stored energy should

not exceed the energy capability (Joule rating) of the capacitor

and fuse. If the energy capabilities are exceeded, a failure of the

fuse and/or rupture of the capacitor tank can result.

Typical rating of film capacitors is 15,000 Joules (4650 kVAR in

parallel) and 10,000 Joules (3100 kVAR in parallel) for paper-

film capacitors Expulsion fuses are typically rated 30 000 film capacitors. Expulsion fuses are typically rated 30,000

Joules. Current limiting fuses are required if ratings are exceeded.

(1 Joule = 1 Wx sec use 0 2 cycle clearing time for calculation) (1 Joule = 1 W x sec, use 0.2 cycle clearing time for calculation)

Capacitor Protection

Outrush Current

When a capacitor failure occurs, the parallel connected capacitors

can discharge high frequency current into the failed capacitor.

The fuses of the un-failed capacitors should be able to withstand

the high frequency discharge currents. These calculations and g q y g

measurements are complex and are determined by the

manufacturer.

Coordination with Unbalance Detection Scheme

The individual fuse must clear the fault before the unbalance

i h i h i i b k protection scheme trips the entire capacitor bank.

Capacitor Protection

Fusing Recommendations by McGraw Edison

Capacitor Protection

Recall Problem with Fusing of Small Ungrounded Banks

12.47 kV, 1500 kVAR cap bank made of three (3) 500 kVAR units

Fuse A A A

kV

kVAR

] [ 100 ] [ 104 5 . 1 44 . 69 ] [ 44 . 69

] [ 47 . 12 3

] [ 1500

= =

It will take a 100 Afuse approximately 500 seconds to clear this It will take a 100 A fuse approximately 500 seconds to clear this

fault (3 x 69.44 A = 208.32 A). The capacitor case will rupture

long before the fuse clears the fault.

The solution is using smaller units with individual fusing.

Consider five (5) 100 kVAR capacitors per phase, each with a ( ) p p p ,

25 A fuse. The clear time for a 25 A fuse @ 208.32 A is below

the published capacitor rupture curve.

Capacitor Protection

Why is the Current 3 x Nominal Line Current for a Phase-to-

Neutral Fault on a Wye-Ungrounded Capacitor Bank?

A

B

A

B

V

A

C

N

A

N

V

NG

C

C

I 3 0

Since V = I*Z, where Z is

t t ( i f 60 h )

I

A

= 3.0 p.u.

constant (assuming f = 60 hz)

If voltage across capacitor is

increased by 1.732, the current

also increases by factor of 1.732 y

Capacitor Protection

Minimum Conductor Size

It was noted that capacitors are rated 135% of rating. This

requires the conductor to be sized 135% of the nominal capacitor

rating rating.

Capacitor Protection

Unbalance Protection

As single-phase units in a multiple unit/phase installation fail and

are removed from service the remaining units are experience an are removed from service, the remaining units are experience an

overvoltage condition. IEEE Standard 1036 provides

overvoltage limitations.

Duration

Max Voltage

(x rated RMS)

6 cycles 2.20

15 c cles 2 00 15 cycles 2.00

1 s 1.70

15 sec 1.40

1 min 1.30 1 min 1.30

An unbalance protection scheme must by implemented to prevent

the failure of the overvoltaged units. g

Capacitor Protection

Capacitor Protection

Neutral Voltage Unbalance with Unbalance Compensation

Capacitor Protection

V

A

V

V

V

N

V

G

V

NG

Normal Conditions

V

N

= V

G

V

AN

= V

BN

= V

CN

V

C

V

B

V

AN

V

BN

V

CN

Capacitor Protection

Ungrounded or Impedance

Grounded System

V

A

V

V

V

N

V

G

V

NG

Normal Conditions

V

N

= V

G

V

AN

= V

BN

= V

CN

= 1.0 p.u.

V

C

V

B

V

AN

V

BN

V

CN

.0 p.u.

Capacitor Protection

VV

NG

Phase to Neutral Fault Phase to Neutral Fault

V

NG

= V

LN

V

AN

= V

BN

= V

LL

= 1.732 p.u.

Capacitor Protection

V

A

V

V

N

V

G

V

NG

One Can Removed

V

NG

= 0.2 p.u.

V = 1 2 p u

V

C V

B

V

CN

= 1.2 p.u.

Capacitor Protection

Ungrounded or Impedance

Grounded System

V

A

V

V

V

N

V

G

V

NG

Normal Conditions

V

N

= V

G

V

AN

= V

BN

= V

CN

= 1.0 p.u.

V

C

V

B

V

AN

V

BN

V

CN

.0 p.u.

Capacitor Protection

Ungrounded or Impedance

Grounded System

V

A

V

Gnd

V

N

V

NG

V

C

V

B

Ground Fault

V

NG

= V

LN

V = V = V = 1 732 p u

V

C

=V

G

Ground Fault at Cap Bank or

A h h S

V

AG

= V

BG

= V

LL

= 1.732 p.u.

Anywhere on the System

Capacitor Protection

Wye-Ungrounded:

Voltage Between

Capacitor Bank Neutral

and Ground vs. Percentage

of Capacitor Units

Removed from Series

Group

Capacitor Protection

Wye-Ungrounded:

Voltage on Remaining

Capacitor Units in Series

Group vs. Percentage of

Capacitor Units Removed

from Series Group

Capacitor Protection

Wye-Grounded:

Neutral Current vs

Percentage of

Capacitor Units

Removed from Series

Group

Capacitor Protection

Wye-Grounded or Delta:

Voltage on Remaining

Units in Series Group vs.

Percentage of Capacitor

Units Removed from

Series Group

Capacitor Protection

Double Wye-Ungrounded,

Neutrals Tied Together:

Neutral Current vs.

Percentage of Capacitor

Units Removed from

Series Group

Capacitor Protection

Double Wye-Ungrounded,

Neutrals Tied Together:

Voltage on Remaining

Capacitor Units in Series

vs. Percentage of

Capacitor Units Removed

from Series Group

Capacitor Protection

A phase

B phase

C phase

P: Number of

units in group units in group

(P=6)

S: Number of S: Number of

series groups

(S=4)

Reference Figure for Calculations to Follow

Capacitor Protection

# of Series Groups Grounded Y or Delta Ungrounded Y

Split Ungrounded Y

(equal sections)

1 - 4 2 1 4 2

2 6 8 7

3 8 9 8

4 9 10 9

5 9 10 10

6 10 10 10

7 10 10 10

8 10 11 10

9 10 11 10

10 10 11 11

11 10 11 11

12 and over 11 11 11

Minimum recommended number of units in parallel per series

Group to limit voltage on remaining units to 110% with one unit out

Capacitor Protection

Many more configurations and

calculations shown in IEEE C37.99

Day 2 Day 2

Capacitor Fundamentals

Further discussion on capacitor voltage ratings:

On a ungrounded or impedance grounded system, a ground fault

on one phase will cause the other two phases will be elevated by

1 732 1.732.

Does this mean that capacitors must be rated phase-to-phase?

Certainly nothing wrong with this, but cost will be significantly

higher. g

Capacitor Fundamentals

Recall:

X

V

S

2

=

C

X

This means that a 150 kVAR 12470 V unit applied at 7200 V This means that a 150 kVAR, 12470 V unit applied at 7200 V

will provide only 50 kVAR.

] [ 50

] [ 150

] [ 12470

] [ 7200

2

2

kVAR S

kVAR

V

V

S

NEW

=

] [ 50 kVAR S

NEW

=

Capacitor Fundamentals

Using 12470 V capacitors on a 12470 V Ungrounded or

Resistance-Grounded System will require 3x more cans. y q

It should be noted that the 12470 V cans will also be larger than

the 7200 V cans the 7200 V cans.

Results in a much larger and more costly installation.

This solution would be required if a ground fault could be

maintained for extended periods of time. p

Capacitor Fundamentals

Perhaps a 150 kVAR or 200 kVAR, 7620 V or 7960 V units

applied at 7200 V would be a better solution.

] [ 150

] [ 7620

] [ 7200

2

2

kVAR

V

V

S

NEW

=

] [ 200

] [ 7620

] [ 7200

2

2

kVAR

V

V

S

NEW

=

] [ 134

OR

kVAR S

NEW

=

] [ 178

2

OR

kVAR S

NEW

=

] [ 123

] [ 150

] [ 7960

] [ 7200

2

2

kVAR S

kVAR

V

V

S

NEW

=

] [ 163

] [

] [ 7960

] [ 7200

2

2

kVAR S

kVAR

V

V

S

NEW

=

=

] [ 123 kVAR S

NEW

=

Note that the 7620 V unit provides an additional 6%

The 7960 V unit provides an additional 11%

] [ 163 kVAR S

NEW

=

The 7960 V unit provides an additional 11%

Capacitor Fundamentals

Explusion Fuses:

Provides a means of disconnecting a failed capacitor from the circuit by melting a

tin-lead low current link. The shorted capacitor unit causes a large increase in the

current through the fuse. The current is limited only by the power system

reactance and the other capacitor units in series with the failed capacitor unit. The reactance and the other capacitor units in series with the failed capacitor unit. The

pressure is generated by the hot arc making contact with the fiber lining of the

fuse tube. The link is cooled and stretched as it is forced out the tube. The fuse

continues to conduct until a natural current zero occurs. The current zero is

d b th t f lt t i If th it caused by the power system fault current crossing zero. If other capacitors are

connected in parallel with the failed unit, all the stored energy in these capacitors

will be absorbed in either the fuse operation or the failed capacitor unit. Most of

the energy is absorbed in the failed capacitor. gy p

Capacitor Fundamentals

Current Limiting Fuses:

Uses a long uniform cross section element. This configuration makes the fuse a

current chopping fuse. The fuse develops a back voltage per inch of element

across the entire length of the element. When this voltage exceeds the available

voltage across the fuse, the fuse forces the arc to extinguish. The result is that a voltage across the fuse, the fuse forces the arc to extinguish. The result is that a

trapped voltage may and probably will remain on the other capacitors in the

series group. The fuse by its design avoids absorbing all of the available energy

on the series group. This fuse is used for capacitor banks with a large number of

ll l it It b d li ti ith ti ll i fi it ll l parallel capacitors. It can be used on applications with essentially infinite parallel

stored energy, as long as sufficient back voltage can be developed to force the

current to extinguish. This is the fuse we apply to series, large shunt, and DC

banks.

Because of the high back voltage that is developed, this fuse must be used with

several capacitors in parallel to limit the voltage build up or a flashover may

occur elsewhere in the capacitor rack occur elsewhere in the capacitor rack.

Capacitor Fundamentals

Current Limiting Fuses vs Expulsion Fuses:

C Li i i F

Expulsion Fuse

Current Limiting Fuse

Capacitor Fundamentals

Current Limiting Fuses vs Expulsion Fuses:

Expulsion Fuses

Operate mechanically and provide a visual indication

Require additional space for operation Require additional space for operation

Typically applied for outdoor application due to ionized gas release.

C bi ti l i ith t li iti h t i ti f b d i Combination expulsion with current limiting characteristic fuses can be used in

indoor metal-enclosed equipment.

Less expensive p

Capacitor Fundamentals

Capacitor Fundamentals

Current Limiting Fuses

Do not emit ionized gases during operation Ionized gases are undesirable Do not emit ionized gases during operation. Ionized gases are undesirable

because they can cause bushing and insulator flashovers that result in additional

damage. Do not require ventilation.

Fast current-limiting operation

High interrupting capacity, noiseless operation

Can be specified for indoor and outdoor applications .

No pressure build-up, therefore, no vents or special reinforced compartments are

i d required.

More expensive

Capacitor Fundamentals

Note no pigtail and blown fuse indication

Capacitor Fundamentals

Current Limiting with Expulsion

Capacitor Fundamentals

What about arresters? How and where should they be

applied? applied?

Depending on application, environment, exposure to

switching etc arresters may be necessary switching, etc, arresters may be necessary.

We recall that when a travelling wave meets a high

impedance, the wave can double in size. For this reason,

arresters (if used) should be installed as close to the capacitor

bank as possible. Installation of arresters at the breaker p

feeding the capacitor bank will not do much for protection of

the capacitor bank.

Capacitor Protection

A basic three (3) arrester method is shown below. This is

typical for solidly grounded systems and wye-grounded typical for solidly grounded systems and wye grounded

capacitor banks.

Capacitor Protection

Depending on type of installation, system parameters and

level of protection required, a six(6) arrestor method may be level of protection required, a six(6) arrestor method may be

applied.

Capacitor Protection

For an ungrounded system or a high-impedance grounded

system, a four (4) arrestor grounding method might be system, a four (4) arrestor grounding method might be

considered an wye ungrounded bank.

Phase to Neutral Fault

V

NG

= V

LN NG LN

V

AN

= V

BN

= V

LL

= 1.732 p.u.

Ground Fault

V

NG

= V

LN

V

L

L

V

L

L

Arr

NG LN

V

AG

= V

BG

= V

LL

= 1.732 p.u.

If faults can be maintained,

Arr

N

V

Arr

PH

Arr

PH

must be rated V

LL

Arr

N

must be rated V

LN

The effective arrester MCOV

N

is V

LL

+ V

LN

Capacitor Protection

Note that if a basic three (3) arrester method is applied to an ungrounded bank, the arresters

must be rated high enough to sustain a temporary overvoltage condition during a phase-to-

ground fault on the system. This may not provide an adequate level of protection for the

capacitors.

Phase to Neutral Fault

V

NG

= V

LN

V V V 1 732 V

AN

= V

BN

= V

LL

= 1.732 p.u.

Ground Fault

V

NG

= V

LN

V V V 1 732

V

L

L

V

L

L

V

AG

= V

BG

= V

LL

= 1.732 p.u.

If faults can be maintained, Arresters

must be rated V

LL

V

Arresters do not provide protection

across the capacitor bushings. Note

that the BIL applies to bushing-to-

i l ti case insulation.

Capacitor Protection

Good Presentations on Capacitor Arrester Applications

G id li f S l ti f S A t f Sh t Guidelines for Selection of Surge Arresters for Shunt

Capacitor Banks ABB Technical Information

Surge Arrester Application of MV-Capacitor Banks to

Mitigate Problems of Switching Restrike CIRED 19

th

International Conference on Electricity Distribution Vienna International Conference on Electricity Distribution, Vienna,

21-24 May 2007.

B th f th l dd h t h t Both of these papers also address phase-to-phase arrester

connections.

Harmonics

Harmonics

Recall that the impedance of a capacitor is inversely

proportional to the system frequency proportional to the system frequency.

fC C

X

C

t e 2

1 1

= =

fC C t e 2

Harmonics flow to the point of lowest impedance. The higher

the harmonic the lower the impedance of the capacitor the harmonic, the lower the impedance of the capacitor.

As capacitors absorb harmonics, the capacitor heats up and

th lif t i d d Th lt h i t the life expectancy is reduced. The voltage harmonics stress

the capacitor dielectric and reduce the life expectancy of the

capacitor.

Harmonics

Harmonics

Where do harmonics come from?

Power Electronics (drives, rectifiers, computer power

supplies, etc)

Arcing Devices (welders, arc furnaces, florescent lights, etc) g ( , , g , )

Iron Saturating Devices (transformers)

Rotating Machines (Generators)

Parallel Resonance (between cap bank and power Parallel Resonance (between cap bank and power

equipment)

IEEE Std 519 provides recommended limits of harmonic

distortion at the point-of-common-coupling (PCC) with the

utility. y

Harmonics

Harmonics

Harmonics

Resonance

When a number of harmonic current sources are injecting currents

into the supply and the frequency of one of the harmonics coincides

with the resonant frequency of the supply transformer and with the resonant frequency of the supply transformer and

Power Factor Correction capacitor combination, the system

resonates and a large circulating harmonic current is excited

between these components The result of this is that a large between these components. The result of this is that a large

current at this harmonic flows in the supply transformer, this

resulting in a large harmonic voltage distortion being imposed upon

the load voltage.

Harmonics

A study should be performed to determine levels of harmonics on a y p

system to determine if any filters are necessary when installing a

capacitor bank.

Care should be taken to determine if the filtered capacitor bank will

introduce any resonance problems. If resonance problems exist, the

fil d i b dj d filter design must be adjusted.

Harmonics

An example of a 13 8 kV harmonic filter An example of a 13.8 kV harmonic filter

Capacitor Bank Design Considerations

Design Considerations

So how do we size a capacitor bank?

D t i i l Determine your primary goal

Voltage support

Lower utility bill (avoid penalties)

Increase capacity of system

It can be all three, or any combination of the above. It can be all three, or any combination of the above.

Note that correcting to unity power factor at maximum load is

tl d t b costly and may not be necessary.

Design Considerations

For a 20 MVAload at 0 88 power factor (17 6 MW 9 5 MVAR) For a 20 MVA load at 0.88 power factor (17.6 MW, 9.5 MVAR)

To achieve 95% power factor, a 3.72 MVAR bank is required

To achieve 98% power factor, a 5.93 MVAR bank is required

To achieve unity power factor, a 9.50 MVAR bank is required

Design Considerations

Determine if current limiting reactors or tuning reactors are Determine if current limiting reactors or tuning reactors are

required.

Harmonics and resonance may dictate tuning reactors

Back-to-back switching may require current limiting reactors Back to back switching may require current limiting reactors

(unless another method is used to mitigate the switching surges,

i.e. pre-insertion closing resistors/reactors, zero-crossing

breakers etc) breakers, etc)

Design Considerations

Determine the proper voltage.

Capacitors are very susceptible to voltage transients and

harmonics. Increasing the rated voltage increases the protective

margin on the insulation. margin on the insulation.

The voltage at the capacitor terminals will be higher than bus

lt if t tili d It i i t t t t f thi voltage if reactors are utilized. It is important to account for this

voltage difference.

Determine the voltage swing of the system. Will the capacitors

remain on-line while the facility is lightly loaded.

Design Considerations

We listed some reasons for specifying higher than bus nominal We listed some reasons for specifying higher than bus nominal

rating of capacitors. However, care must be taken to ensure that

the kVAR rating is properly adjusted as a result.

Three (6) 150 kVAR, 7960 V wye-connected capacitors provide a

nominal 901 kVAR when connected to a 13.8 kV bus.

Three (6) 150 kVAR, 8320 V wye-connected capacitors provide a

nominal 825 kVAR when connected to a 13 8 kV bus nominal 825 kVAR when connected to a 13.8 kV bus

Design Considerations

Determine optimal size and number of stages.

D di i i l t l d i l b k i d f f ll Depending on swing in plant load, a single bank sized for full

plant capacity may not be the answer.

IEEE 1036 recommends limiting the voltage change to 2-3%. The

delta voltage can be estimated by:

MVAR

Switch of a capacitor applies high stresses to the insulation

% 100 = A

SC

MVA

MVAR

V

Switch of a capacitor applies high stresses to the insulation.

Limiting the number of stages and limiting the frequency of

switching will increase the life. Ideally, a capacitor is switched

on and left on.

Design Considerations

Determine best location for the installation The most effective Determine best location for the installation. The most effective

placement for power factor correction capacitor banks is at the

load. However, this is not always practical or cost effective.

Typically, a capacitor bank is installed on each bus of a main-tie-

main switchgear. main switchgear.

If capacitors are installed at the motor pecker head (running

capacitors) ensure that the capacitor VAR rating does not exceed capacitors), ensure that the capacitor VAR rating does not exceed

90% of the motor no-load VAR. Otherwise, it is possible to

damage the motor by overexcitation.

Design Considerations

Use caution when sizing motor running capacitors.

Logic would suggest that installation of a power factor

correction capacitor at the motor terminals sized to provide

unity power factor makes sense. y p

THIS IS NOT THE CASE. Do not exceed 90% of the

motor no load kVAR demand Exceeding this value can motor no-load kVAR demand. Exceeding this value can

result in damage to the motor insulation as a result of

overexcitation.

Design Considerations

As an example for a 4000 V, 4000 hp motor:

100% load current = 495 A @ 89.7% pf

100% load kVAR = 1516 kVAR

No load current = 117 A @ 6.3 % pf

No load kVAR = 809 kVAR

Max size of running capacitor is 0 90 x 809 kVAR = 728 kVAR Max size of running capacitor is 0.90 x 809 kVAR = 728 kVAR

Design Considerations

M: Motor Magnetizing Curve M: Motor Magnetizing Curve

C1: Capacitor size at 100% motor mag current

C2: Capacitor sized > 100% motor mag current

C4: Capacitor sized < 100% motor mag current

If the capacitive reactance of the capacitor is less less than that of the motor reactance (this occurs

when to large of a capacitor is chosen). This combination of reactance will result in a resonant

frequency below 60 hertz Therefore as the motor slows in speed the frequency of the motor frequency below 60 hertz. Therefore, as the motor slows in speed, the frequency of the motor

terminal voltage will decrease from a value of near 60 hertz toward zero. When the motor's terminal

voltage frequency passes through the resonant frequency setup between the capacitor reactance and

the motor reactance, the terminal voltage will become very high, only limited by the properties of the

iron Depending on the inertia of the motor this resonance (or high voltage) may be present for a iron. Depending on the inertia of the motor, this resonance (or high voltage) may be present for a

considerable period of time.

Design Considerations

Determine the most optimal type of installation Determine the most optimal type of installation.

Will the capacitor bank be installed within a fenced substation?

Metal-enclosed, pad mount, or open rack may be good choices

Will the capacitor bank be installed in a process area? Will the capacitor bank be installed in a process area?

Metal-enclosed or pad mount may be good choices

Will the capacitor bank be pole mounted on a distribution line? Will the capacitor bank be pole mounted on a distribution line?

Bank Failures

Design Considerations

Consider the impact to personnel safety adjacent equipment when

deciding between a metal-enclosed and open-rack system.

Porcelain can resemble shrapnel when a capacitor bushing fails.

Design Considerations

Determine the most optimal configuration.

Higher reliability costs more.

2400 kVAR, 13800 V, wye-grounded (1) 800 kVAR per phase , , y g ( ) p p

bank will be a smaller footprint and cost less than

2400 kVAR 13800 V wye ungrounded (8) 100 kVAR per 2400 kVAR, 13800 V, wye-ungrounded (8) 100 kVAR per

phase bank.

H h li bili f h d d b k i However, the reliability of the wye-ungrounded bank is

significantly higher

Design Considerations

Determine the switching equipment

When breakers are used for switching capacitors (single bank

or back-to-back switching), the breakers must be rated for

capacitor switching. p g

IEEE C37.99 provides the equations for calculating the inrush

current and frequency current and frequency.

Design Considerations

Design Considerations

Consider a single 4800 kVAR wye-ungrounded bank switched

(with nominal inductance from equipment):

3253A pk @ 600 Hz, the product is 0.20 x 10

7

Switching a second similar bank on the same bus without

current limiting reactor:

24,058 A pk @ 7.66 kHz, the product is 18.4 x 10

7

B ddi 100 H li i i h i h i By adding a 100 mH current limiting reactor, the inrush is:

7254 A pk @ 2.31 kHz, the product is 1.7 x 10

7

p @ , p

Design Considerations

Design Considerations

Design Considerations

Energization of a single capacitor bank.

Design Considerations

B k b k i hi f h i Back-to-back switching of the same unit.

Design Considerations

E l f b k i h i i i Example of breaker with pre-insertion resistor.

Design Considerations

Another application. Another application.

Design Considerations

A Pre-Insertion Manufactures Perspective. p

Design Considerations

Another concern is voltage amplification as a result of switching a

second capacitor bank.

Design Considerations

Design Considerations

Consider other accessories:

Disconnect switch

Grounding switch

Kirk-key interlock y

Ventilation requirements

Control power

Design Considerations

Design Considerations

Design Considerations

Be aware that larger medium voltage motors may include

surge packs. g p

The surge pack will decrease the crest voltage and rate of

rise of the impending surge High rates of rise damage end rise of the impending surge. High rates of rise damage end

turns while high crest voltage damage winding to core

insulation.

Typically the capacitance of the is small enough that it can

be neglected, but this should be verified. g

Design Considerations

Typical Surge Pack Application

Design Considerations

Do not confuse Harmonic Filter Banks with Power Factor

Correction Banks Correction Banks.

The voltage ratings of harmonic filter banks are substantially

higher because they are connected on the back end of a tuning

reactor where the voltage is substantially higher. As a result of

the higher voltage, the installed kVAR can be anywhere from e g e vo ge, e s ed V c be yw e e o

25% to 40% higher than nominal design.

The capacitor cans must be capable of this output The capacitor cans must be capable of this output.

Grounding of Wye Banks

If multiple wye-grounded banks are in close proximity, use

peninsula grounding or single-point grounding. p g g g p g g

Single-Point Grounding

The neutrals of all banks of a given voltage are connected The neutrals of all banks of a given voltage are connected

together with insulated cable/bus and tied to the ground

grid only at one point. This prevents high-frequency

(d b k b k i hi ) f fl i i currents (due to back-to-back switching) from flowing into

the ground grid.

Grounding of Wye Banks

Peninsula Grounding

One or more isolated ground grid conductors are carried g g

underneath the capacitor rack of each phase and tied to the

station ground grid at one point at the edge of the capacitor

area All capacitor bank neutral connections are made to area. All capacitor bank neutral connections are made to

this isolated peninsula ground grid conductor.

Grounding of Wye Banks

Grounding of Wye Banks

References

IEEE Std. 18

IEEE C37.99

NEMA CP-1

IEEE Std 1036

IEEE Std 399 (Brown Book) IEEE Std 399 (Brown Book)

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