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* Narayana Medical College, Nellore
26 26 . As you step into a new threshold of your lives.17 18 .31 TEAM NARAYANA — 1— . ♦ Message from the Chairman ♦ Viva Tips by Mr. Venkata Mohan & Team i 2-8 This journal is a potential roadmap to success for Aspirants appearing for Mock Interview Board Guidance Program in the perspective of UPSC model interview will find a mine of valuable information about the approach of IAS interview. The tips and methodologies provided here for your future career planning. We hope this journal will prive it self as your invaluable guide.PREFA PREFACE/CONTENTS ord Adv Word of Advance Dear Aspirants. Wish you the very best ♦ Role of Verbal & Non Verbal Communication ♦ Presentation ♦ Improving Conversation Skills 8 . it is now imperativbe that your start building a strong conceptual foundation towards your preparation of the Mock Board Interview preparation also focus your attention towards final interview.
3. Did you take any break during schooling/college? Why so? Did you finish college long ago? What are you doing afterwards? What are their professions?Is anyone already in service?Think of possible questions on them. We want you to write your answers. Current affairs review done in the first round will help you follow current issues more intelligently. 4. the first round enables you start in the right way. The second round of coaching will commence after the result. we are starting the Viva course in the first week of March. which the Board will have at the time of your viva.] Any thing special about the schools?Did you change too many schools? Why so? List all possible questions on your college. START NOW At Narayana IAS Academy. You should list out all possible questions. We want to go through some of your answers to see if you are giving your best. 2. Does it coincide with any important event? Why so? (If it is not your mother tongue) Why did you choose those optionals?Why did you not choose one related to your backgroud?What is the relevance of those subjects for civil services?Did you take interest in them?What did you learn from them? [ Detailed questions on a specific optional will be given later. During the course. Each round of coaching has some common elements: 1. You will get to know your problem areas and have time to overcome them. Classes on current affairs and optional specific issues Discussion on right approach to the viva Help in answering bio-data related questions Taking a mock interview Identifying problem areas and working out a strategy to overcome them The advantage in joining us in the first round is that you will get to start your preparation in the right direction. We want to finish one round of coaching before the announcement of result of the written exam. In essence. we want to see if you have in fact identified all the possible questions.VIVA GUIDANCE AT NARAYANA IAS ACADEMY By Venkata Mohan DON’T WAIT FOR THE RESULT. You should closely go through your Mains application form. Any significance to the place? —2— 6 7 schooling College 8 9 parents place of birth . Some of the questions that we have identified include: 1 2 3 4 5 name category date of birth Indian language Optional What is the meaning of your name? Any thing special about your name? Do not expect any questions. 5. START WITH BIO-DATA RELATED QUESTIONS The first step in starting your preparation is working on your bio-data.
be prepared to be asked why you are keen on the service. If you mentioned many) If it is more than 3. we will give a list of questions to reflect on. If you worked/working in a govt. food security Global issues: Recession.] Think of possible questions on your job. you don’t have to justify entire order of preferences. FDI in retail Agriculture: crisis. Rs. At what level did you play the sports mentioned? Do you follow the events/issues associated with the sports? List other possible questions. What you like in the previous jobs. poverty Inflation: food. issues Development: HDI.And why you prefer civil services. Now is the time to resume following news. Value. you can be asked why. On every topic. 13 employment 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Prizes Sports leadership positions hobbies previous attempts previous service college performance CURRENT AFFAIRS NEXT In all likelihood. you can be asked why you don’t continue that subject. We will cover the issues in a way that you see the relationship among the topics. Classes will help you to form your own opinions. ( focus on few. We will give study material. capitalism in crisis(?) International Relations India’s relations with big powers China: its rise. You will have the occasion to reflect on ideas and ideals. And how you are supported. In what activities did you win? List questions associated with that activity. Afghan issue. with US — 3— . eurozone crisis. identify the new issues and keep following them regularly. List all possible questions. Our current affairs classes will give you a good beginning.If very good. issues with India Pak: Kashmir. service. expect more questions on your choice.What you achieved/learnt/ failed to achieve. Some of the current affairs issues that we have so far identified include: Economy • • • • • • • • • Growth: trends. If poor. India’s response. Update the previous. [Do not worry.10 11 12 home state state cadre preferences choice of services Why do you regard that as your home state (If that is not obvious from the previous answers)? What is the rationale of your preferences? [ Don’t have to justify the entire order] What is your first preference? Why that? Why civil services at all? Why are you not going by your academic background? If your first choice is IPS/IFS. oil issues Trade: WTO. Just know about few services. Prepare elaborately. you may have stopped following news a month before the Mains. be prepared to be asked on your experience/knowledge.
mining. we can suggest better approach. But at the same time. you may choose to answer only some aspects of the question. How should he do this? He can’t talk directly about himself. Never fail to convey that you are. There will also be classes on some of the hobbies. Before you answer. apparently it is seeking some knowledge. You may redefine the question. MOCK INTERVIEWS A Board on the pattern of UPSC will conduct a mock interview. Classes will also be arranged on certain state-specific issues. you should never be inattentive to a question. Egypt. but their intention is not to know about Israel but about you – about how you think. some information. comparison with JP. It is all about you. As they ask to know about you. yet he has to convey what he is. So don’t get distracted by the question. AFSPA Optional subjects. Listen first Whatever be your state of preparation. If the question is not clear. They may ask you on Israel. The way is through the answers. Libya. hobbies Experts will take classes on their optional subjects. But you should first give them the impression that you have followed the question. 2. If the question is ambiguously worded. Yes. Israel Arab Spring: Tunisia. 1. climate change Communalism: Muslim reservations Corruption: Lok Pal. your answer should have a purpose. All important optional subjects will be covered. seek clarification. you can inform them which parts you can answer and in what order you intend to answer it. Iraq. they want the Board members to find out if they are suitable to the job. Like they want the doctors to find out if they are ill. Sri Lanka Middle East: Iran. Be proactive Many students approach the Board in the way they subject themselves to some kind of medical examination. Essentially answer in a way that tells something about you. That is how you should make it. Such an approach towards the Board is wrong. Their questions have a purpose. Maoism.• • • S &T • Polity • • • Small neighbors: Nepal. Syria Energy. at the same time don’t get distracted by the wording of the —4— . It should draw attention to something in you. you can first explain how you are taking the question. reflect on the question. you should answer to tell about you. Don’t be irrelevant. You should be giving it. a good listener. the answer should tell something about you. But what can we say is our approach? We hint our approach in these following points. That is a very bad attitude. home states. he should think that it is his task to convince the Board that he is suitable. Based on that. Pay attention to the essence of the question. Bangladesh. Right approach is to be proactive. It means candidate should not think that it is the task of the Board to find out if he is suitable. Most of the candidates simply blurt out something. 2G scam Armed conflicts: Northeast. Your performance will be recorded and closely scrutinized. first and foremost. They want to know about you through questions on various topics. Anna. If the question has parts.
you should learn to be attentive. Do this on all important current issues. So you should take the conversation to a level where good questions are put to you. For that you may be brief or elaborate. Raise the level of discussion If questions test only information. my seniors advised me. Go through the following conversations. (stopped) M: What are the contents? C: It mentions Indian Administration. no tip is relevant for all • • • • • • If you are very talkative. You should not simply accumulate information about them. In viva. If you are convinced that this is what you should do. 3. ‘You’ do not in fact come to exist when the viva is at the level of information. you conveyed yourself. And develop answers that raise the level of discussion. you answer the question. you use the question to tell about yourself. That is how you should steer the conversation. Of course. you should learn to give long answers. they can ask you what one should do to handle food inflation. That can take the conversation to food security and agricultural reforms. If your answers are too brief. Try this on all important current events. Candidate: Sir. How can you do that? Take up a current affairs topic. you will have to put in extra effort to talk. How do we know which way to change? You should feel at the end of the interview. you should cut short. If you are inattentive to the wording of the question. which means you are not suitable. you may have to talk less. Can you tell me why you took this subject.questions. you are bound to be given good marks. (stopped) M: What chapters in Indian administration you found useful? C: District Administration. But you may give too much attention to every word and miss the thrust of the question. ‘What is the current rate of inflation?’ can be an opening question. Apparently you are asked to give only a number. we may suggest a change in your approach. In Mains. Conversation 1 Member: You are a student of Public Administration. Remember. relevant or irrelevant! SCRUTINIZING YOUR PERFORMANCE By providing you the gist of the conversation. To be irrelevant is to convey that you do not listen to the question. So answer in a way that raises the level of discussion. Or we may encourage your approach. you should have a different orientation to the study of current affairs. You are happy that the board got your best. If your answers are too long. (stopped) — 5— . 4. you are not likely to get good marks even if you answer all the questions. ‘You’ come to exist when it is at a higher level. Can you be too attentive? Not really. but should think about what issues lie behind a event. If questions that require sound judgment and understanding are asked and you answer them well. I also liked the contents. you can never be irrelevant. It tells about the working of the Collector. But you can explain the role of food prices. Their questions are based on your answers. If you don’t talk much. list direct questions.
Three questions are put. The candidate has not told anything about himself. interview is a formal occasion and hence the interview board would expect the candidate to be dressed accordingly. we want to give you an update of our viva course. His answers don’t raise the level of discussion. IN REGULAR TOUCH. So join the course.Comment: Candidate’s approach is wrong. If the candidate has dressed up in a very loud manner like bright colour or trendy clothes.blogspot. or having brands logos printed on their clothes candidate is projecting flamboyance and displaying his/her fashion statement inapproriate for a civil sevant. • • • • —6— . Instead the board may assume that candidates is oblivious to the demand of the occasion or deliberately trying to create some kind of impression about himself or trying to win sympathy of the board. Psychology throws light on behavior of man. Conversation 2 M: You have taken Psychology and Public Administration as optionals. Member is very likely to ask ‘how to make people in bureaucracy work better’. Putting up casual shoes without laces is not desirable as it goes against the occasion. Chennai. it does not conveys the same actually.com/IASViva we want to be accessible to you till the day of your viva. what motivates them and how to motivate them. The importance of dress code can be appreciated when we observe how people ridicule and make fun of atudent who dresses formally in the casual gathering of school or college friends in the canteen. OUR FACULTY 1.IASViva.com . They would wish to see if their future officers have sense of dressing and presenting themselves as first class executives of the government. Venkata Mohan Policy B. Mr. Putting clothes which stick to your skin is also not appreciated as such attire does not goes in official settings. Author of Sociological Thought. Dressing up in black trousers or black shirt is not taken positively because black is a symbol of protest. What is the relationship between the two? C: Public Administration studies governance. He wasted 3 questions and 5 minutes.Tech.facebook. He didn’t see that each question is an opportunity to talk more. IIT. without having any second thoughts. TILL YOUR VIVA Through www. Similarly. India’s Foreign HOW TO DRESS UP? Every occasion has a dress code. If the candidates have dressed themselves in a very simple attire in order to convey their humility or simplicity. DON’T DO’S • • Dressing in casual or informal manner not only disappoints the board but also insult them as it conveys denial of authority and decorum of the board. He answered it in a way that a line of conversation is suggested. (didn’t stop) Psychology helps us to know how people in bureaucracy work. Through www. (stopped) Comment: Candidate did not answer the question in a strict logical sense.
Once the board invites you keep your left foot forward and walk gently beside the chair. Always go for tailor-made clothes as per you personal body requirement. The shirt should be tucked inside the trousers after folding the sides of the shirt to avoid wrinkles. The buttons should not be covered and should be visible. The trouser may be of deeper and darker shade with single pleats and uncovered single back pocket. If there is no lady member. tattoos on any part of the body. — 7— . followed by other members. Also avoid glossy ties. Shirts with half sleeves and sports watches may be avoided. This may distract your attention. HOW TO ENTER THE INTERVIEW ROOM? • • • • • Gently open the door and before stepping in seek the permission of the board with short ‘May I’ The question should be accompanied with a mild smile and slightly bowed down gesture. Female candidates may however carry ear rings which do not hang and which are not flashy. Female candidates should not keep their hair open. they should not be too loose not too tight so that you can carry the clothes instead clothes carry you.as it might elicit irritation or allergy to any member. The makeup should not be loud. The female candidates may preferably dress themselves in cotton saree and avoid designer clothes. HOW TO WISH? Wish the lady member (if any) before you wish others like ‘Good morning madam’ followed by ‘Good morning Sirs’. Use the dress two to three time before so that you become comfortable and used to it instead of wearing them for first time on the date of interview and become conscious about it. Your hair should be properly trimmed and should not cover your ears or your forehead. The tie should be deep coloured except Red or yellow and preferably should have stripes.• Having beards on face (except when he is a male sikh) or rings. From the questions The shoes should be black with laces and should not be pointed or blunt from the front. wish the chairman first. The shirt may be lighter in shade without cufflink in the collars or hands. • • • DO’S • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Dress up in clothes which are comfortable as well as give you a smart fit. Both male and female candidates must avoid perfumes and deodorants. also convey that candidate should belong to fashion and not bureaucracy. While wishing the other members make eye contact with mild smile with all the members by slowly turning your head. Avoid checks on your shirt because they are informal. Readymade dresses may be avoided as they might match with that of any of the board members and cause him or her embarrassment. The buttons should not be left open. The belt should of standard width with a simple and sober metallic buckle. Too high heels may be avoided. Preferably do not keep any article except you handkerchief in your trouser or shirt pocket.
This conveys your interest in the question. you understand how difficult it is to process multiple inputs of informa-tion. nonverbal signals are different in different cul-tures. in Tibet people greet their friends by sticking out the tongues. deception is most readily detected through nonverbal signals. Thus. Turn towards the board while holding the door and bow down with a smile. on their own. Research shows that when someone is instructed to tell a lie. Like language. In contrast. 2. Thank the board once again. touching them often. it can be difficult to know whether nonverbal messages are being sent intentionally. For instance. information may be transmitted through gestures. 3. eye contact. 4. Now turn back and open the door. But while answering go back to the original posture and turn your head one by one towards all members including the one who has asked the question. When you are asked to sit. —8— . How often have you seen people proclaim “I’m not angry” even though their bodies shout that they are positively furious? When confronted with such an inconsistency. For example. Al-though some popular books on body language imply otherwise. which message should you believe? Be-cause of their greater spontaneity. After rising hold the back rest of the chair with both the hands from the side. However. Gently close the door without banging it. Thank the board and then take the seat.HOW TO BE SEATED • • • • Wait beside the chair until you are asked to sit. nonverbal signals. HOW TO LEAVE? • • • • • • • 1. even within the same culture. Sit comfortably with your hands crossed and resting over your lap. and vocal tone at the same time. Still. 5. and looking at them frequently. Nonverbal communication conveys emotions. Your back should touch the rest of the chair. Take few steps backward before turning back. but they are most reli-able when accompanied by verbal messages and em-bedded in a familiar cultural and social context. Moreover. If you have ever tried to follow two people speaking at once. pretending to rearrange it in is original position. Thank the board before rising. neither you should lean forward. Sometimes cultural differences can be quite dramatic. you should not lean backwards. While listening to the question you may slightly lean your neck forward. People often communicate their feelings without saying a word-for example. Nonverbal communication may contradict ver-bal messages. verbal communication is limited to a single channel: speech. This means that many nonverbal transmissions can sail by the receiver unnoticed. A shrug or a raised eyebrow can mean different things to differ-ent people. facial expressions. “a look that kills:’ Nonverbal demonstrations of positive feelings include sitting or standing close to those you care for. Nonverbal communication is culture-bound. are not the precise indicators of emo-tional states that they were once believed to be so you should be cautious in mak-ing inferences. ROLE OF NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION Nonverbal communication is multi-channeled. Nonverbal communication typically involves simulta-neous messages sent through a number of channels. Nonverbal communication is ambiguous. nonverbal cues are informative. few nonverbal signals carry universally ac-cepted meanings. you’re probably bet-ter off heeding the nonverbal signs.
sadness. age. there are obvious exceptions. women sit or stand closer together than men do. The size of this mobile zone is related to your cultural background. Personal space is like an invisible bubble you carry around with you in your social interactions. Invasions of personal space rarely go unnoticed. PERSONAL SPACE Proxemics is the study of people’s use of interpersonal space. People of similar status tend to stand closer together than people in an interaction to set the “proper” distance. disgust. and surprise (Ekman. personality. Hence appropriate distance with board should be 4 (four) ft. Invasions of personal space usually produce dis-comfort and stimulate attempts to restore your privacy zone. The appropriate distance between people is also regulated by social norms and varies by culture. happiness. 1984). you may back up. The United States is usually characterized as a medium-contact culture. if a stranger sits down at “your” table in the library and forces you to Share it. such as in crowded subways and elevators. if someone stands too close. place a barrier (for example. Like other aspects of nonverbal communication. but these situations are often experienced as stressful.ELEMENTS OF NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION Nonverbal signals can provide a great deal of informa-tion in interpersonal interactions. Paul Ekman and Wallace Friesen have identified six distinctive facial expressions that correspond with six basic emotions: anger. the more comfortable you feel being physi-cally close to that person. Personal space is a zone of space surrounding a person that is felt to “belong” to that person. and they usually elicit a variety of reactions. To illustrate. Of course. but there is a lot of variability among ethnic groups. Ekman & Friesen. fear. or move to a different table. When talking. FACIAL EXPRESSION More than anything else. The amount of interpersonal distance people pre-fer depends on the nature of the relationship and the situation. social status. Women seem to have smaller personal-space zones than men do. — 9— . For instance. people of Northern European heritage tend to engage in less physical contact and keep a greater distance between themselves than people of Latin or Middle Eastern heritage. and gender. facial expressions convey emo-tions. Or. a stack of books) between you and the invader. Early research involving participants from many countries supported the idea that these six emotions are universally recognized. you may reorient your body away from the intruder. we will focus on what they communicate about interpersonal attraction and so-cial status. personal distance can convey information about status. 1994. As we discuss spe-cific nonverbal behaviors. The general rule is that the more you like’ someone.
Women usually show the lower-status visual pattern because they are typically accorded lower status than men. However.” we will summarize the most relevant findings. Kinesics is the study of communication through body movements. observers may be able to tell an in-dividual’s level of tension or relaxation. there are gender differences in facial expression. Also. as you might expect. For example. while lower-status people behave just the opposite. People who engage in high levels of eye contact are usually judged to have effective social skills and credibility. Gaze also communicates the intensity (but not the positivity or negativity) of feelings. Gener-ally. avoid making eye contact with hostile motorists. Latin America. BODY LANGUAGE Body movements-those of the head.’ an illusion to poker play-ers who are experts at controlling their ex-citement about a good hand of cards (or their dismay about a bad one). women tend to gaze at others more than men do. cou-ples who say they are in love spend more time gazing at each other than other couples do. their posture may indicate a negative attitude or defensiveness. trunk. people engage in more eye contact when they’re listening than when they’re talking. EYE CONTACT Eye contact (also called mutual gaze) is another major channel of nonverbal communication. Culture strongly affects patterns of eye contact. like threat displays among nonhuman primates such as baboons and rhe-sus monkeys. it typically indicates interest and a posi-tive attitude. maintaining moderate (versus constant or no) eye con-tact with others typically generates positive feelings in them.In fact. hands. Higher-status individuals look at the other person more when speaking than when listening. For instance. if you want to avoid road rage inci-dents. These positive feelings may also translate into higher tips! One study found that food servers who squatted down next to their customers to take drink orders got higher tips than servers who stood next to their customers. In the United States. gender and racial differences have been found in eye contact. Whsen people angle their bod-ies away from you or cross their arms. men typically show less facial expression than women do. and feet-also provide nonver-bal avenues of communication. The duration of eye contact is its most meaningful aspect. and gender and status are often con-founded. Posture also conveys information. the increased eye contact and closeness produced more positive feelings. interviewees. legs. speakers. Unpleas-ant interactions. embarrassing situations. frequent touching or scratching suggests nervousness. Japan. Americans should be sensitive to the fact that direct eye contact is perceived as an insult. or invasions of personal space usually trigger this behavior. a finding linked to social pressures for males to inhibit such displays. You are no doubt familiar with the term “poker face. Because there is considerable research on “eye communication. Thus. People also com-municate by reducing eye contact with others. For instance. For example. Similarly. In some Native American tribes and in Mexico. As a rule. For example. a higher-status person will look more relaxed. people from Arab countries look directly into the eyes of their conversational partners for longer pe-riods than Americans are used to. people are better at sending decep-tive messages with their faces than with other areas of their bodies. and experimenters receive higher ratings of competence when they maintain high rather than low eye contact with their audience. Posture can also convey status differences. Also. By contrast. Lean-ing back with arms or legs arranged in anasymmetrical or “open” position conveys a feeling of relaxation. Besides cultural differences. often sitting up straight with — 10 — . the patterning of eye contact also reflects status. When people lean toward you. a lower-status person will tend to exhibit a more rigid body posture. and Africa. a steady gaze becomes a stare that causes most people to feel uncom-fortable. In a negative interpersonal context. People high in self monitoring attend to other facial expression and control or modify their speech accordingly. high self-monitors are better than low self-monitors at managing their fa-cial expressions. Moreover. By contrast. Posture can also indicate someone’s attitude toward you. Supposedly. Through a person’s body move-ments. a stare can convey aggressive intent.
) I really enjoyed myself! (My enjoyment was exceptional. low volume. Thus.” such as claiming to be bet-ter than one actually is or lying to avoid hurting some-one’s feelings. people overestimate their ability to detect liars. and arms close to the body (a “closed” position). that it is easy to assign meanings to voice quality that aren’t valid. Variations in vocal emphasis can give the same set of words very different meanings. and the rhythm and quality of their speech. Again. While it’s true that people in occupations with expertise or an interest in detecting deception (including some types of psychologists) are more accurate judges of liars than others even these individuals are not remarkably skilled at lie detection. For example. just as women display more emotion in their faces than men. but it’s dif-ficult. breathy voice with femininity and youth. :-) indicates a smile and :-( indicates a frown. rapid speech may mean that a person is happy. That is. I had a great time. flat on the floor. Using emoticons (punctuation marks arranged to indicate the writer’s emotions) has also become a common practice. Thus. and low pitch are often associated with sadness. DETECTING DECEPTION Like it or not. men are more likely to exhibit the high-status “open” posture and women the lower-status “closed” posture. e-mailers use vari-ous substitutes for the paralanguage cues used in spo-ken communication. Each of these vocal charac-teristics can affect the message being transmitted. thus. You might point to give directions or slam your fist onto a desk to emphasize an assertion. you can actually reverse the literal meaning of a verbal message by how you say it (such as with sarcasm). lying is a part of everyday life. In fact. Most of these everyday lies are inconsequential “white lies. I did. frightened. People typically tell one to two lies a day.7. observers tend to focus on the face (the least revealing channel) and to ignore more useful information. capital letters are used for emphasis (“I had a GREAT vacation”). Consider the sen-tence “I really enjoyed myself” By varying the word that is accented. however. In cyberspace communication. Regardless. Aspects of vocalization can also communicate emo-tionss. you can speak this sentence in three ways. Slow speech.feet together. status and gender differences are frequently parallel. The appropriate position for interview is given in the corollary. Keep in mind. Loud vo-calization often signals anger. These cues include how loudly or softly people speak. using capital letters throughout a message is viewed as shouting and considered rude behavior. As travelers frequently discover. how fast they talk. People use hand gestures to describe and emphasize the words they speak. Slower speech might be used when people are uncer-tain or when they want to emphasize a point. however. PARALANGUAGE The term paralanguage refers to how something is said rather than to what is said. a circle made with the thumb and forefinger means that everything is “OK” to an American but is considered an obscene gesture in some countries. paralanguage in-cludes all vocal cues other than the content of the ver-bal message itself. the meaning of ges-tures is not universal. you — 11 — .) As you can see from these examples. In Figure 7. such as as-sociating a deep voice with masculinity and maturity and a high. For instance. vocal qual-ity provides another window on someone’s true feel-ings. Is it possible to catch people in a lie? Yes. For example. each resulting in a different meaning: • • • I really enjoyed myself! (Even though others may not have had a good time. you can review the re-search findings on the nonverbal behaviors actually associated with deception. By compelling the second and third columns in the figure. women are more likely than men to use emoticons. even trained experts are not spectacular lie detectors. A relatively high pitch may indicate anxiety. The popular stereotypes about how liars give them-selves away don’t necessarily correspond to the actual clues related to dishonesty. Inter-estingly. or nervous. For instance. ) I really enjoyed myself! (Much to my surprise.
or choosing not to participate when confronted with a voluntary communication opportunity. Visual cues include dilation of the pupils. The physiological responses themselves aren’t the root of communication apprehension. Of course. tell less com-pelling stories. Here they may clam up entirely or say as little as possible. long pauses before speaking. but it does occur. Vocal cues include speaking with a higher pitch. Although such individuals are seen as poor communi-cators. Of course.can see which cues are ac-tually associated with deception and those that are er-roneously linked with deception. but most people who have the problem notice it only when they have to speak before groups. Withdrawal occurs when people unexpectedly find themselves trapped in a communica-tion situation they can’t escape. For example.such a situation. If people believe that speak-ing will make them uncomfortable. and include less unusual content in their stories than truth tellers do. Some people experience communication apprehension in all speaking situations (including one-on-one encounters). That’s because we expect to see it only in those who talk very little. These physiological effects are stress-induced “fight or flight” responses of the autonomic nervous system. That is. make a more negative impression. over -communication may be caused by other factors as well. giving rela-tively short answers. Disruption refers to the inability to make fluent oral presentations or to en-gage in appropriate verbal or nonverbal behavior. and excessive hesitations. concluding that liars say less. It’s also helpful to look for inconsistencies between facial expressions and lower body movements. In contrast. COMMUNICATION APPREHENSION Communication apprehension. An example would be someone who at-tempts to dominate social situations by talking nonstop. how do liars give themselves away? As you may have noted in Figure 7. high scorers on measures of communication apprehension frequently interpret the bodily changes they experience in public speaking sit-uations as indications of fear. Over communication is a relatively unusual response high communication apprehension. — 12 — . low scorers. inadequate communication skills can produce this same behavioral effect. they will typically avoid the experience. So. Bodily experiences associated with communication apprehension can range from “butterflies” in the stom-ach to cold hands. are more tense. and it isn’t always possible for the average person to identify the actual cause of the problem. often chalk up these reactions to the normal excitement in. Researchers have identified four responses to com-munication apprehension. reduced smiling. or lack of eye contact. or anxiety caused by having to talk with others. a friendly’ smile accompanied by a nervous shuffling of feet could sig-nal deception. The most common is avoidance. dry mouth. rather the problem lies in the speaker’s interpretation of these Bodily responses.7. because speakers have a hard time controlling information from these channels. A recent meta-analysis of over 300 studies generally supported these findings. they are not usually perceived to have commu-nication apprehension. lying is not associated with slow talking. excessive shifting of posture. and a racing heart rate. Contrary to popular belief. many of the clues “leak” from nonverbal channels.
MOTIVATIONAL DISTORTION People can hear what they want to hear instead of what is actually being said. Because it is unlikely that you can go though life with-out having to speak in front of a group. a theory of personality and interpersonal relations that empha-sizes patterns of communication. Happily both cognitive restructuring and systematic desensitization are highly effective methods for dealing with this problem. wealth. Similarly. GAME PLAYING “Game playing” is another barrier to effective commu-nication. and at school. DEFENSIVENESS Perhaps the most basic barrier to effective communi-cation is defensiveness-an excessive concern with pro-tecting oneself from being hurt. in which people conceal their real motives. “That’s nothing. she “innocently” inquires.” In the broadest sense. who originated transactional analysis. or power often put receivers on the defensive. motivational distortion. in the receiver. such as politics. listeners feel ignored. or sometimes in both. or abortion. If you try to slip in a word about your problems. Another problem is that they consistently take up more than their fair share of conversation time. brilliance. Thus. Be-cause they are self-focused. After a “conversa-tion” with someone like this. the hidden agenda is to make Carlos feel bad. “Say. indirect. such as when they believe that others are evaluating them or trying to control or manipulate them. Listen to what happened to me!” Further. Game playing was first described by Eric Berne (1964). BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION The barriers to effective commu-nication can reside in the sender. Particularly problematic are repetitive games that result in bad feelings and that erode the trust and re-spect — 13 — . they usually respond only minimally to end the conversation quickly. Defensiveness is also triggered when others act in a superior manner. If they can’t. People usually react defensively when they feel threatened. Common obstacles include defen-siveness. they cut you off by proclaiming. and expectations-that can influence what he or she hears. game. Some individuals do both-talking only about them-selves and going on at great length. If Yvonne’s behavior produces the desired response. For instance. those who flaunt their status. SELF-PREOCCUPATION Who hasn’t experienced the frustration of trying to communicate with someone who is so self-focused as to make two-way conversation impossible? These an-noying individuals seem to talk to hear themselves talk. Needless to say. So when they’re out with others. When someone else is talking. This tendency to distort information oc-curs most often when people are discussing issues they feel strongly about. Some game playing involves “verbal fenc-ing” to avoid having to make clear one’s meaning or in-tent. People with high communication apprehension are likely to have difficulties in relationships. you risk alien-ating others if you ignore the norm that conversations should involve a mutual sharing of information. sexism. homosexuality. she “wins. they’re mentally rehearsing their next comments. it is important to learn to cope with this stressful event rather than avoid it time and again. warranted sympathy. First. racism. One way people avoid such unpleasant feelings is to engage in selective attention.Obviously. self-preoccupation and game playing. and so on) that others find it offensive. Allowing the problem to get out of hand can result in self-limiting behavior. at work. self-preoccupied peo-ple are poor listeners. avoidance and withdrawal tactics are merely short-term strategies for coping with commu-nication apprehension. No wonder people try to avoid such people if they can. are manipulative interactions with predictable outcomes. Self-preoccupied people arouse negative reactions in others for several reasons. Information that contradicts an individual’s own views often produces emotional discomfort. Dogmatic people who project “I’m always right” also breed defensiveness. these individuals are usu-ally oblivious to their negative impact on others. or deceptive statements. their remarks are usually so self-serving (seeking to impress. to gain un. such as refusing a job promotion that would entail public speaking. game playing can include the deliberate (or sometimes unintentional) use of ambiguous. Yvonne knows that Carlos gets upset when her former boyfriend is mentioned. an individual may read meanings that are not intended into statements or jump to erroneous conclusions. has any-one seen Rodrigo lately?” Here. In Berne’s scheme. Each person has a unique frame of reference-certain attitudes. or active choosing to attend to information that supports their beliefs and ignoring information that contradicts them. values.
as in “I tend to work too hard at times:’ Don’t interrupt or contradict your interviewer. Unfortu-nately. To create the right impression. it has been found that interviewees who emit positive nonverbal cues-leaning forward. the employer already knows that you have the necessary training and experience to do the job. because of primacy effects. Best strategy to escape the game is identify the intention and ignore the comment. letters of recommendation. Try to anticipate the questions that will be asked and have some answers ready. If the employment interview IS an important input into the hiring decision-and it usually is-you should recognize that perceptual factors influence who is hired and eventually the quality of an organization’s labor force. because you can always bene-fit from the practice even if you don’t want the job. judgments of the same candidate can vary widely. A final word of advice. interviewers who have formed expectations about a job candidate (based on the resume. even if you feel that the criticism is justified. you must come across as confident. or traits that mark you as an unacceptable risk. If you’ve got-ten this far. Many experts suggest that you never turn down an interview. Even more important. And remember to go easy on the aftershave lotion or perfume.that are essential to good relationships. to do your best in an interview. attitudes. and ambitious. It’s fair to say that few people are hired without an interview. who you think is a good candidate and who I think is one may differ markedly. information elicited early III the interview carries greater weight than does information elicited later. Because interviews are so important. Because interviews usually have so little consistent struc-ture and interviewers vary in terms of what they are looking for in a candidate. the first few minutes of the interview are crucial. whether positive or negative. Your interviewer will attempt to verify that you have the intangible qualities that will make you a good team player. confirmation bias can oper-ate in Interview situations. Above all. that is. Your challenge is to convince the employer that you’re the kind of person who would fit well in the organiza-tion. Finally. In addition. A strong scent can be a real turnoff. especially previous employers. Never go into an interview cold. Thus. Importantly. enthusiastic. POLISHING YOUR INTERVIEW TECHNIQUE The final.9 Studies indicate that most interviewers’ decisions change very little after the. Also. That is. Researchers also find that job candidates who are overweight are rated lower (especially if they are women) than those of average weight. and most crucial. interrater agreement among interviewers is often poor. Remember. Interviewers generally draw early impressions that become very quickly entrenched. research shows that this is not usually the case. and a “good applicant” is probably characterized more by the absence of unfavor-able characteristics than by the presence of favorable characteristics. it tends to be more heavily weighted than if that same information comes out later. lf negative information is exposed early in the interview. Find out all you can about the job before you go. you will not be asked simply to reiterate information from your resume. researchers find that more attractive candidates are usually rated higher than less attractive ones. smiling. and noddingare rated higher than those who do not. you should brush up on your nonverbal communication skills and your impression management tactics. For one thing. visible tattoos or body piercings can create a negative impression at a job in-terview. different interviewers see different things in the same candidate and thus arrive at different conclusions about the applicant. If asked directly what your weaknesses are-a common ployrespond with a “flaw” that is really a positive. — 14 — . you would think that interviewers’ ratings of job applicants are heavily based on job-relevant considerations. and you should avoid any attempts at humor-you never know what might offend your interviewer. A major input into who is hired and who is re-jected in any organization is the employment interview. Advance preparation is also crucial. as are those who dress in a manner consistent with the dress norms in an organization. never give more information than the interviewer requests. Your demeanor should be somewhat formal and reserved. Games in-terfere with effective communication and are a destruc-tive element in relationships. As a result. And don’t ever blame or criticize anyone. Developing an effective interview technique re-quires practice. But the evidence indicates that inter-viewers often make inaccurate perceptual judgments. he or she will try to identify any “red flag” behaviors. step in the process of se-curing a job is the face-to-face interview. Additionally. and the like) often behave in ways that tend to confirm these expec-tations. it is your personal qualities that are being assessed at this point. In general.first four or five minutes of the interview. And remember. especially negative information.
nationality.HALO EFFECT : When we draw a general impression about an individual based on a single characteristic. you will look bad in comparison. In a similar vein. sociability. Instead the board may assume that candidates is oblivious to the demand of the occasion or deliberately trying to create some kind of impression about himself or trying to win sympathy of the board. so when they fi-nally find someone who is. and highly qualified. whether it’s accurate or not. age. These two examples demonstrate how contrast effects can distort per-ceptions. After both of the first two speakers stammered. An illustration of how contrast effects operate is an interview situation in which one sees a pool of job applicants. When interviewers and interviewees engage in projection. STEREOTYPING In organizations. We don’t evaluate a person in isolation. HOW TO DRESS UP? Every occasion has a dress code. and forgot their lines. it does not conveys the same actually. When observing others who actually are like them. assured. your author remembers when he was a college freshman required to give a presentation in a speech class. Why? The common belief is that audiences love children and animals so much. despite the fact that they may not contain a shred of truth or may be irrelevant. They would wish to see if their future officers have sense of dressing and presenting themselves as first class executives of the government. I suddenly got a rush of confi-dence because I figured that even though my talk might not go too well.inaccurate perception based on a false premise about a group. so you take it for granted that other people are equally honest and trustworthy. They tend to see people as more homogeneous than they really are. but rather be-cause they always judge people as being similar to themselves. CONTRAST EFFECTS : An old adage among entertainers who perform in va-riety shows advises. “men aren’t interested in child care”. or appearance. The importance of dress code can be appreciated when we observe how people ridicule and make fun of atudent who dresses formally in the casual gathering of school or college friends in the canteen. that is what they will perceive. Or you’re honest and trustworthy. you assume others want the same. Similarly. Distortions in any given candidate’s evaluation can occur as a result of his or her place in the interview schedule. Stereotyping Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs. I was scheduled to speak third that morning. Obviously. Thus an instructor may be quiet. Our reaction to one person is often influenced by other persons we’ve recently encountered. interview is a formal occasion and hence the interview board would expect the candidate to be dressed accordingly.” From a perceptual stand Point. This tendency to attribute one’s own characteristics to other people-which is called projection can distort perception made about others. and even weight: “Women won’t relocate for a promotion”. Never follow an act that has kids or animals in it. — 15 — . “Asian immigrants are hardworking and conscientious”. we frequently hear comments that represent stereotypes based on gender. Their being widespread may only mean that many people are making the same. This phenomenon frequently occurs when students appraise their classroom instructor. The candidate is likely to receive a more favorable evaluation if preceded by mediocre applicants. one of the problems of stereotypes is they are so widespread. they compromise their ability to respond to individual differ-ences. People who engage in projection tend to perceive others according to what they themselves are like rather than according to what the person being observed is really like. if people expect to see these stereotypes. I was counting on the instructor raising my evaluation after contrasting my speech to those that immediately preceded it. these observers are quite accurate-not because they are perceptive. knowledgeable. he will be rated lower on a number of other characteristics. if you want challenge and responsibility in your job. “older workers can’t learn new skills”. a halo effect is operating. “over weight people lack discipline. PROJECTION : It is easy to judge others if we assume they are similar to us. For instance. If the candidates have dressed themselves in a very simple attire in order to convey their humility or simplicity.. but if his style lacks zeal. stumbled. DON’T DO’S • • Dressing in casual or informal manner not only disappoints the board but also insult them as it conveys denial of authority and decorum of the board. such as intelligence. Students may isolate a single trait such as enthusiasm and allow their entire evaluation to be tainted by how they judge the instructor on this one trait. they are naturally correct. I’d probably get a pretty good grade.
as it might elicit irritation or allergy to any member. Having beards on face (except when he is a male sikh) or rings. they should not be too loose not too tight so that you can carry the clothes instead clothes carry you. From the questions The shoes should be black with laces and should not be pointed or blunt from the front. The tie should be deep coloured except Red or yellow and preferably should have stripes. The trouser may be of deeper and darker shade with single pleats and uncovered single back pocket. Preferably do not keep any article except you handkerchief in your trouser or shirt pocket. Putting up casual shoes without laces is not desirable as it goes against the occasion. Too high heels may be avoided. The buttons should not be covered and should be visible.• • • • • • • • If the candidate has dressed up in a very loud manner like bright colour or trendy clothes. Once the board invites you keep your left foot forward and walk gently beside the chair. Female candidates may however carry ear rings which do not hang and which are not flashy. Female candidates should not keep their hair open. Also avoid glossy ties. Dress up in clothes which are comfortable as well as give you a smart fit. Dressing up in black trousers or black shirt is not taken positively because black is a symbol of protest. tattoos on any part of the body. The shirt should be tucked inside the trousers after folding the sides of the shirt to avoid wrinkles. Readymade dresses may be avoided as they might match with that of any of the board members and cause him or her embarrassment. Avoid checks on your shirt because they are informal. Always go for tailor-made clothes as per you personal body requirement. This may distract your attention. The female candidates may preferably dress themselves in cotton saree and avoid designer clothes. Your hair should be properly trimmed and should not cover your ears or your forehead. Both male and female candidates must avoid perfumes and deodorants. The buttons should not be left open. Shirts with half sleeves and sports watches may be avoided. also convey that candidate should belong to fashion and not bureaucracy. The makeup should not be loud. Putting clothes which stick to your skin is also not appreciated as such attire does not goes in official settings. Use the dress two to three time before so that you become comfortable and used to it instead of wearing them for first time on the date of interview and become conscious about it. Gently open the door and before stepping in seek the permission of the board with short ‘May I’ The question should be accompanied with a mild smile and slightly bowed down gesture. or having brands logos printed on their clothes candidate is projecting flamboyance and displaying his/her fashion statement inapproriate for a civil sevant. The belt should of standard width with a simple and sober metallic buckle. DO’S • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • HOW TO ENTER THE INTERVIEW ROOM? • • — 16 — . The shirt may be lighter in shade without cufflink in the collars or hands.
B: You can implement this hierarchy into specific questions to ask yourself. neither you should lean forward.HOW TO WISH? • • • Wish the lady member (if any) before you wish others like ‘Good morning madam’ followed by ‘Good morning Sirs’. wish the chairman first. Thank the board once again. Gently close the door without banging it. Take few steps backward before turning back. 3. 7. If there is no lady member. The answers to these questions will determine whether you are effectively prepared for the interview or whether you need to make appropriate alterations in your personality projection. 10. etc. 2. Sit comfortably with your hands crossed and resting over your lap.? Has the candidate used appropriate knowledge inputs? Has the candidate communicated intelligently and accurately? Has the candidate made a perspective oriented presentation with a constructive approach? Does the candidate reflect a correct attitude and worldview? What is the confidence or motivation level of the candidate? Does the candidate reveal ‘Officer-Like-Qualities’ (OLQ)? Does the candidate effectively project optimal Administrative or Managerial capabilities? Is the overall personality of the candidate compatible with the systemic image. SOME IMPORTANT CRETONNES FOR SELF CONTEMPLATION HOW TO BE SEATED • • • • HOW TO LEAVE? • • • • • • • There is a standard 13-dimensional evaluation procedure that is followed when your interview is assessed: CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING INTERVIEWS 1. 13. Does it appear that the candidate has understood the question theme and its implications? Has the candidate analyzed the theme of the question correctly? Has the candidate organized the answer into a coherent overall structure? Has the candidate used the appropriate skills. While listening to the question you may slightly lean your neck forward.g. 6. description. argument. After rising hold the back rest of the chair with both the hands from the side. evaluation. Your back should touch the rest of the chair. Thank the board before rising. e. ethos. Wait beside the chair until you are asked to sit. ethics and agenda (objectives)? Where does the candidate figure on the comparative index? N. 4. discussion. you should not lean backwards. But while answering go back to the original posture and turn your head one by one towards all members including the one who has asked the question. 11. This conveys your interest in the question. 5. Turn towards the board while holding the door and bow down with a smile. pretending to rearrange it in is original position. 9. 8. When you are asked to sit. — 17 — . However. Thank the board and then take the seat. While wishing the other members make eye contact with mild smile with all the members by slowly turning your head. followed by other members. 12. Now turn back and open the door.
etc. if this attribute has to be acknowledged in your personality. inclusive of other attributes too. Participative communication generates a sense of involvement and intellectual responsibility. investigative approach as well as systematic evaluation would comprise some of the presentation-related attributes. and thereby circumscribe effectual personality projection as well as impede effective communication. In effect. Remember it has to be your initiative and the effect is only a response. you have been able to avoid ‘negative vibrations’ that are often the cause of ‘distancing’ or alienation. culture. ethnicity. This is a crucial step indeed. antipathy? This is as significant a question in terms of presentability considerations as it is for presentation concerns. as much as the situation allows. so on and so forth. it is also an approach that perseveres on the improvement and advancement aspects of the situation. religion. In the final analysis. Here it is important to know. if possible. To translate that into practice. expression style and gestures. leadership orientation. etiquette. identifying and explaining the crux of the matter? — 18 — . political ideology. • • • Are you able to view situations and issues in perspective without baseless pessimistic thoughts? Are you able to focus on issues with an approach towards understanding them and thinking of improving upon situations? Are you able to comprehend complicated matters in a comprehensive and integrated manner. it means you are not out of context so to say. you need to answer a few pertinent questions. Some of these questions would be relevant in devising an effective overall strategy. How would you use the knowledge acquired about the audience to your advantage in making an impact and achieving your agenda? The trick here is to project an affable demeanour. personal attire. and core content or reality (intrinsic personality traits to be projected and the message of communication) as in the case of presentation. which is conducive for personality acceptance and communicative appeal. which would otherwise tend to obstruct the process of understanding. This means that it is not only about a constructive and integrated approach that focuses on issues in a problem-solving spirit. language. and your preventability is appropriate to your purpose and the occasion. the attractions and aversions of people with whom you would interact.PRESENTA PRESENTATION CALCULATIVE OUTLOOK When we talk of preventability and presentation. etiquette. Now we have the questions that must be answered in the affirmative. economic strata. expression. AFFIRMATIVE IDENTIFICATION The idea of affirmative identification relates to a sense of one-to-one identification between you and your interlocutors or audience. appearance (showcasing of the personality and style of communicating) as in the case of preventability. • • What is the composition of your interlocutors or audience? This question should address the purpose of interaction and ambience (formal or casual. • POSITIVE ATTITUDE A positive attitude has as much to do with the way you look at life and go about it. in overcoming psychological and communication barriers. This is as far as the concept goes. education. or even worse. in terms of your attire. while intelligent ideation. as with the way you are perceived as doing so. style and gestures would constitute crucial preventability aspects. initially itself. while encouraging interactivity and following a co-optive approach. constructive reasoning.). What kind of behaviour would generate affinity and avoid apathy. region. tradition. interests. In that sense. we are talking about the twin critical and inextricable aspects in personality projection and effective communication viz. Essentially that implies your interlocutors or audience should find you acceptable. while encouraging cooperation and instilling confidence.
cautious calculation. • • • • • Are you able to identify proactive attributes in yourself. It is a process that commences with appreciating the core philosophy and rationale underlying everything that occurs within oneself and in the world around. how you initiate your agenda and respond to situations. evolve. innovation. It envisages understanding the ‘first principles’ of anything and everything of consequence and as a prelude. and to what extent do they influence your thoughts and actions – what you say write and do. incorporate. their relevance assessed and a technique of realizing them is formulated. evaluate. its mechanics and dynamics. when we pitch the appropriate questions at the end of this exposition. why things happen the way they do and what can be done about it (?). excel and ascend are obvious corollaries to the concept. free of preconceptions and without being prone to prejudices? Are you able to cope with setbacks and emerge out of them with your confidence intact and your will unaffected? Is the positive attitude reflected in your personality projection and communicative experience? PROACTIVE ATTRIBUTES Initiative. the ability and the urge to explore. do you opt for cautious action or resigned fatalism? INTELLIGENT IDEATION Intelligent ideation is a method of the mind – an exact process through which ideas emerge or are absorbed. issues and people? Are you confident of your initiatives and responses and is your confidence based on actual authenticity and not on virtual imagination? Are you inclined towards making the ‘first effective move’ in a situation of deadlock or logjam and resist the temptation of inertia or awaiting a chance breakthrough? Are you able to avoid opting for a defeatist or an escapist compromise that offers an alluring and convenient ‘path of least resistance’ or the usual ‘run-of-the-mill course’ Whenever you have a choice between action and inaction in a situation of suspense outcome. improvisation are the watchwords pertaining to proactive attributes. A crucial aspect in the entire scheme of ideating is being in consonance with circumstances. It inevitably implies a clear and complete understanding of ideas and the existential environment. while at the same time placing issues. the formulation would come out as practicable. entails discerning between what is of consequence and what is not. reasonable deliberation and enterprising evaluation along with the paramount ‘achieving ingredient’ that intelligent initiative is. Although it may appear complex. It is time for the questions now. A proactive approach needs to be a balanced blend of measured optimism. In a space-time-situation continuum. with the intent of assimilating valid points without acquiring personality complexes? Are you able to preserve your equanimity and psychological equilibrium even in situations of anxiety and adversity? Are you able to take a balanced view over issues and people. Intelligent ideation is about an intelligible thought process.• • • • • • • • Are you able to convince other on the veracity of your arguments and persuade them to participate in your course of action? Are you able to inspire confidence in others to confide in you and cooperate with you even without exercising authority or power? Are you able to influence the thoughts and actions of others and to what extent? Are you able to appreciate a point of view other than your own. and as an attempt is made to answer them. people and situations in the past-present-future perspective. — 19 — .
In the process it is essential to project irrefutable evidence in terms of facts. It is an attempt at consolidating a line of argument as it proceeds. A civilization may comprise of many performers but it is the achievers who have been the beau ideals that symbolize its existence. propositions or proof should be reiterated and so connected with the theme as to ensure overall credibility in influencing the interlocutors or the audience. as explained earlier? Have you tried linking the nuances of ‘logical derivation’ along with ‘persuasive argumentation’ when evolving and enriching your argumentation. say a lackey or an appendage? Do you inspire people working under you to succeed or do you conspire to undercut their progress. those who constitute the crowd and follow the leader. be they your own or someone else’s. we need to understand that there are at least four kinds of people in the world: those who face the crowd and lead it inspirationally. while incessantly attempting excellence and perpetuating a motivational example. in terms of ‘Argument Reinforcing Criteria’ (ARC) as well as ‘Argument Confirming Exposition’ (ACE). The usually unchallengeable observations. while you construct your scheme of arguments? Do you always concentrate on developing an argument contextually and systematically in a manner that it conveys your message convincingly? Did you have your version of the ‘Problem-ERASER-Formula’ or some sort of an organized paradigm. with consecutive points reinforcing the objectives and intensifying the argument towards a ‘crescendo effect as in a symphony. It is a definite perspective – it is not argument for argument’s sake. to the realization of a cause celebre that would include the success of others too. for enhanced impact and convincing communication? — 20 — . When we refer to leadership issues. there could possibly be a resultant compromise on the leader’s inspirational commitment and thereby inhibit the capacity to instill confidence in others. while contemplating an argument? Do you assess the veracity and plausibility of arguments. and those who steer clear of the movement because they feel too many people cannot think together. • • • • • • Are you able to identify leadership roles for yourself in any given situation? Do you consider leadership roles as an enriching experience or as a constraining responsibility? Does the concept of achievement extend for you beyond personal success. those who follow the crowd because they think so many people cannot go wrong. they can only act emotionally and the leader would not encourage independent thinking or questioning. only evoke sentiments emotively. say a pathfinder or a torchbearer. or does a participatory interactive effort make you nervous and feel insecure? Are you comfortable in being a leader. including protégés. it is argument for achieving an agenda. The correct attitude that justifies leadership would be to unerringly infuse confidence in others. If that apprehension intrudes into the leaders psyche. figures and congruent analysis with emphasis on the key elements that are intended to be indelible. It is important that a leader is not afraid of being outclassed or outdone by someone else.LEADERSHIP ORIENTATION The main difference between a ‘conscientious performer’ and a ‘charismatic Achiever’ is that the charismatic achiever not only is a conscientious performer but also an inspiring leader. influencing others and convincing them to agree with you and your viewpoint. • • • • • Have you always adhered to the principle of focusing on the agenda. except to the extent that it serves your purpose and your interests? Is a cause a paramount consideration with you or would you have your personal concerns acquire primacy over everything else including at the cost of the cause? PERSUASIVE ARGUMENTATION The theme of Persuasive Argumentation is in a way. or are you at ease with being a follower.
ought to emanate from the crucial fundamental philosophy that if anything is irrefutable. This implies that the intent is to develop the exposition in a manner that the various techniques that we use bolster our point of view convincingly and creatively. and much less in public. or what are the odds-and-evens in the process of doing so is what generally interests everyone. This is exactly why it is relatively ease to make a point or convey a message precisely and indelibly if it is framed in a problem-solving fashion. ‘logical derivation’ and persuasive argumentation’. wherein your contribution is worth the effort and time. If something is to be done and can be. how one ensures that it is done and done well. while you are proving a point through constructive reasoning. possibly in the ‘one-up-one-over race’. this helps convincing someone over the logical inevitability of your line of thought and action. ‘Possibility-probability as well as probability-possibility’ analysis. In this scheme. Perhaps nothing makes people happier than finding solutions to problems. One aspect of the constructive reasoning process and a very important one at that is CONSTRUCTIVE CRITICISM – the attitude of critiquing with an attempt to resolve a problemissue or with a concrete solution for an obdurate situation.CONSTRUCTIVE REASONING The fine technique of constructive reasoning and it crucial enigmatic auxiliary. The generic characteristics. the cause-and-effect reasoning technique. They would feel their image is being undercut. Another manner of making a point of distinction for the purpose of clarity over a theme is the use of ‘compare-and-contrast’ method. you can attract attention and sustain concentration in an interactive session. it needs to be complemented with enhancement of the positive outcome and not degradation of its of its value. either as a proposition or as questioning a proposition. as we have stressed earlier. wider applicability or any other positive or progressive criteria. which is considered a proof of achieving aspirations and expectations. This is a crucial device in the process of constructive reasoning. Our present concern is over the ‘constructive’ aspect of reasoning. The reasoning aspect of the concept has been amply explained in ‘intelligent ideation’. what are the chances that it will be done well. This can often be used to emphasize a point that is a conspicuous corollary to a particular proposition. Very few people would like to be criticized per se. This method would bring out the similarities and differences relevant to an issue that aid better understanding of the topic under consideration. we need to enumerate and explain the ways and means of engaging in constructive reasoning. People are familiar with problems. as an opportunity and as a clue to enhance their image and even ensure success. needless to say its positive attribute. This is the basic philosophy and logic of constructive criticism. Therefore. The use of illustrations or parallels is one way of establishing a point through precedents and analogy.e. The inviolability of any proposition. Usually people detest problems. Classification or discussing in terms of categories is another devise that enhances comprehension. commonly understood as feasibility assessment is yet another method like the problem-solving one that is usually persuasive. This method facilitates in connecting minds and makes it easier to explain a point. Creativity must be viewed and interpreted in terms of originality. is another related and involving question. Yet many would accept and even appreciate criticism along with corrective ideas or solutions. would help define and explain elements and ideas that are placed within the typology. Similarly if there is even an iota of a chance that something can be done. advanced thinking. greater utility. It is time for the questions now. and the chances are that you will be able to do so. can be effectively accomplished by the causality principle i. CONSTRUCTIVE CRITICISM. if this method is employed appropriately and accurately. When it is convenient. • When you are engaged in reasoning do you attend to the constructive aspect and blend it with your arguments? — 21 — . whatever thought has to registered needs to be communicated in a manner of posing a problem and offering a solution. Addressing the theme of constructive reasoning before taking up its congruent aspect of constructive criticism. which may be already known.
If we add a third one of the forty-three facial muscles. When you make unhappy expressions. Even the flashes of micro-expressions on our faces indicate our authentic sentiments and feelings. displaying a particular emotion on the face would tend to arouse the same feeling in you . in the scheme of your exposition? ACCURATE ARTICULATION When we talk about accurate articulation. That is the conditioning expected through the Art of Achieving. beyond words and beneath words Another researched observation is that expressions alone are good enough to bring about commensurate changes in the autonomic nervous system. in fact read expressions as well? Let us call it the enigmatic facial-expression code. we are referring to controlled behaviour as well as calibrated expressions that are intended to complement articulation for appropriate and effective impact. It is precisely this aspect . or do you overlook this aspect? — 22 — . we are not only speaking about the use of words or word power and the way they are emitted in terms of intonation and modulation. In a sense. calibrated physio-diction (body language) and kinesics (understanding the mind and thoughts through gestures. As you make an angry face your heartbeat will go up. In as much as it reflects attitude. Add to this my concept of physio-diction and you have a mirror that looks into you as it looks at you – a world without words. When we talk of a cultured person or a sophisticate. even if it means more cerebral effort? Are you able to amalgamate logical derivation. eye-contact and body movements) Take a single and simple instance of a speaker that steps out of the lectern area towards the audience and is better received than one who stays behind it – impact of a presentation will improve if one moves amicably towards the audience or leans a little towards ones interlocutors and maintains cordial eye contact.which can allow us to work on how we feel or wish to feel. we have three thousand expressive variations and just about five facial muscles would mean over ten thousand face configurations. • Do you look enough at people to observe the silent responses. This implies being angry and making an angry face or being sad and making a sad face will almost matter as much to you in terms of the real state of your mind. That is the expanse of your facial ingenuity in displaying thoughts and emotions. It has important attitude implications – an essential ingredient of the Art of Achieving. in fact our real-self-in-a-situation and the true motive underlying our initiatives and responses in a certain context. thereby providing an insight into intellectual processes and individual commitments. persuasive argumentation and constructive reasoning. we are concerned about the organization of thoughts and the synchronicity of expression to convey them exactly the way we want them to be.• • Although it is easier to criticize anything or anyone do you realize the worth and the value of constructive criticism. This is the basic idea that needs to be emphasized and worked upon in a conscious effort to be able to reveal as much as we wish to and conceal what we do not desire to disclose. it can be designed to inculcate affirmative attitude too.that just as your face tends to reveal your emotions. you would tend to feel sad. expression in this context goes beyond and beneath words. when we say we need to work on synchronized expression we are talking about modulated articulation. Here are some questions that would be useful in communicating and comprehending in an interactive context. including constructive criticism. In essence. Is it not important then to understand and evolve synchronized expression. The marvelous aspect is that just about two facial muscles have three hundred combinations that reflect variations of expression. You can well imagine what it implies at the end of the permutation-combination process with the all told forty-three facial muscles. into the realm of what we would not wish to reveal. SYNCHRONZED EXPRESSION The entire synchronized and fine-tuned communicating technique encapsulates a complete repertoire of facial and body movements that reflect the conviction and truth of thoughts.
Similarly. including conflict or confusion. These questions also enable understanding the logic of a scheme or the dynamics of organizations and processes. to appreciate. capacity to cope with stress.) INVESTIGATIVE APPROACH Often referred to as the questioning attitude or the scientific outlook. and that means it is investigated thoroughly. to critique. Administrative skills also include the ability to operate effectually on the problems and prospects within available means as well as the ability to expand upon the means and measures for achieving an agenda. to ideate. very distinct from being judgmental. processes and people. the process of answering which would enable a correct and adequate understanding of ideas. the core or the essence. The efficacy of investigating to solve a problem or resolve an intricate situation. an investigative approach is a method of asking appropriate questions and an accurate combination of these. they are precious in constructing foolproof arguments. is generally acknowledged across the board. How (?) and Why (?). processes and situational complexities. a technique of anticipating and overcoming challenges. a discerning attitude. proactive initiative. a sense of priority and proportion. Where (?). These questions we are all familiar with. To quite an extent. ability to manage the time-work interface and characteristically. What exactly is the notion of investigative approach? In its fundamentals. The investigative approach is a matter of intellectual discipline and a method of the mind that are enabling forces in ideating. momentary and minute? Do you observe the intuitive and instinctive gestures that disclose the actual perceptions and reactions of people? Do you identify the spontaneous signals that emanate from the face and body. These are the fundamental questions that aid understanding. It is also believed it is easier to memorize anything if an inherent logic in it can be deciphered. you cannot critique anything with authenticity if it is not systematically and adequately investigated. in fact anything under consideration. receptivity to useful ideas. and thereafter initiating correct measures for whatever the intended purpose. and all of these done in a correct and effective way. plusses-&-minuses or the ifs-&-buts are investigated for the purpose of evaluating. An entire section is dedicated to these attributes and how they can be enhanced.• • • • • Are you focused on what you intend to say next so that your face would reflect the purpose of your mind? Do you pay attention to authentic facial indications that reveal feelings and responses that a person may attempt to conceal? Do you notice micro-expressions in others that are instantaneous. When (?). What (?). Needless to say. the investigative approach a multi-utility technique – to understand. When repeated and in combination they are expected to unravel intricacies until we reach the first principles. there is a definite inseparability about administrative acumen. When these questions are used on thematic issues. It is often believed that the first crucial step in resolving a problem is to investigate in order to understand the problem. The entire process needs to be permeated with a definite judicious evaluation. what often perplexes us is how do we pitch the questions for maximum advantage. The reservoir of these critical questions would include: Who (?). situations. — 23 — . to resolve and to communicate. responsive and responsible approach to people and situations. to remember. the true value and worth of something can be assessed if the pros-&-cons. a little later in ‘Art of Achieving’. ADMINISTRATIVE ACUMEN Administrative acumen includes a set of attributes interwoven in the personality – organizational skills. leadership qualities as well as managerial capabilities. That they are useful in comprehending the mechanics of the mind and for intellectual anticipation or futuristic projections is a fact of life. which a person would suddenly attempt to check the moment he or she becomes conscious of the lapse or accidental disclosure? (The very abruptness of the cover up should be a pointer towards the truth. Administrative acumen is about being able to understand issues people.
diplomatic disposition is also confused with a non-committal attitude. It should not be based on brazen and ignorant authority. resolving. if something can be made less unacceptable or less disagreeable. It is also as pertinent how you are perceived at it. Whether it be actions or reactions in a certain context. the obligatory experience and understanding of themes. What matters as much is how efficiently and effectively the process is undertaken. We’ll take up the questions on the theme now. In whatever that one says or does always ask if it can be made more acceptable or more agreeable. We shall think of the questions now. issues and circumstances. including problems of any kind. It is in fact an interesting intellectual experience and an actionable challenge. especially in interactive mores.Administration is a method of following a procedure or a sequential order that can be accurately summed up as comprehending. along with the ability to understand and analyze the essence and nuances of situations. Remember the Art of Achieving does not prescribe an authoritarian approach. Don’t assume this does not work. • • • • Do you invariably ask yourself questions on the implications of your words and acts and the way in which they are delivered? Whenever you are at something. whether it be initiatives or responses toward people. places. The idea is to seek compliance with your views and perhaps the most effective way of ensuring this is to have people relinquish resistance voluntarily or on being convinced to do so. a diplomatic disposition would be synonymous with being circumspect. This would apply to almost anything. It might appear complicated. write or do is perhaps as important as how you do so and why. This is not to say that rewards and retribution have no place at all in the scheme of things. what you say. ‘roles of responsibility’ that may have come your way and how well you consider you have performed. These are the distinguishing features in the concept of ‘administrative acumen’. and the best way to do that is never refuse to learn. so to say. if it does not work the choice unpleasant decisions always exists. cordial and refined in words and deeds. what it surely recommends is an authoritative one. times and situations. if you have not understood the principles of getting to the crux of the matter. Per se there may be nothing wrong with providential power. evolving and recording. Try it out. These are distorted interpretations and true only in a skewed sense of someone being subtly shrewd with crafty motives. addressing. Administrative prowess is the capability to discern the unique and universal elements in our experience and incorporating them in process of addressing circumstances. people. which may have been providentially vested in you. That is the benchmark and hallmark of a diplomatic disposition. The idea is to be able to persuade people that they do exist and how rewards are a better option than retribution. do you ask yourself if it is the best possible way of going about it and if it is not why not adopt the better method? Have you tried out persuasive techniques with people in getting things done before resorting to coercive measures? Have you ever thought that where persuasion fails it might be disappointing but when coercion doesn’t work it can be disastrous? — 24 — . In the scheme of the Art of Achieving. That implies your approach should be based on requisite knowledge and expertise. provided there is a will to make up for one’s inadequacies. processes. In practical terms it means a few crucial gauging steps that need to be contemplated when you speak write or engage in any activity. depending on the context. with a view to overcome lacunae and enhance your abilities to grapple with future possibilities? DIPLOMATIC DISPOSITION Often misconstrued as deceit attired in deception. • • • • Do you identify the attributes that indicate an administrative acumen in your personality mix? Have you noticed that in many things that we do we are called upon to don leadership roles? Are you conscious of the expectations that are attached to these roles? Do you realize that much of what we do can possibly be done better through managerial skills? Do you make a conscientious effort to apply these techniques with a focus on improving upon them? Do you follow a useful regimen of recording opportunities of.
but it need not necessarily be the prevalent attitude nor does it constitute the only defining criterion. We prefer to interpret the concept of calculative outlook in a constructive sense that is an enabling personality attribute. In thought and in action. It has much to do with intellectual anticipation and the ability to execute ideas and plans with a clinical precision on a real time basis. A calculated approach is one that is relevant to the realities of time. the calculative approach is reminiscent of a chess grandmaster making calculated moves on the chessboard. Which is why we advocate that if a diplomatic disposition is blended with a calculative approach it would indeed be an effective strategy.• Do you look before you leap. PERSONALITY PROJECTION ON THE EDGE: AN INTERVIEW What you know May probably do you advantage. This approach is thoroughly contextual in the sense that not only are thoughts and actions contemplated but the milieu in which they are to be applied is considered as well. This is possibly a facet of a calculative outlook in its negative connotation. It includes an unambiguous understanding of relative power in a competitive configuration as well as the ability to derive maximum advantage in any available situation. But attitude ensures altitude And reason is vision. when you think of a line of thought or a course of action? If you adhere to the calculative approach. are you committed to a professional attitude or do you feel the unease of a guilty conscience? Are you comfortable combining the various attributes that have been defined so far. At its best. But what you don’t May possibly do you damage. course and consequence. think before you speak and use tact while you act after you have thought about it? CALCULATIVE OUTLOOK Yet another much maligned term. The vital point being made here is that all of them in optimum measure need to be incorporated in the admixture we call personality. in real life situations. is often misconceived as being manipulative and machinating. thorough implementation and an accurate estimation of cause. at times associated with even being excessively materialistic and obsessively selfish. people and circumstances. Let us now think of the questions. The ability to maneuver in a manner that effectively exploits the correlation of forces is often the reason for being misperceived as scheming and conspiring. calculative outlook. In this sense it would imply an accent on meticulous planning. • • • Do you subscribe to a calculative approach envisaging an end-to-end understanding of causes. YOU HAVE THE RIGHT TO KNOW ! Aptitude may be fine. Ultimate Success Equation (USE) — 25 — . dispassionately and decisively. in the way you think and act? As a cautionary note it may be mentioned that all the attributes enumerated above have been taken up one by one for analytical convenience in order to bring out their characteristic nuances and subtleties. place. and consequences.
including newscasts. focus on speaking discreetly and listening attentively. The clarificatory approach creates a sense of involvement in all those present. it is a process of assimilating through interaction. However. Yet if you look at it differently. Occasionally rephrase what the other person has said. In effect. communicative interactivity. pronunciation. to quite an extent. Quality telecasts would have an additional value in terms of developing formal expressions and mannerisms). grammar as well as pronunciation. First of all. level of confidence and composure. but you could politely ask for a clarification about what has been said to learn about the other’s point of view. an interview is an opportunity. diction. do not turn your body away from the other person or keep scanning the area behind. analyze and communicate.. What exactly these are. the emphasis is on evaluating certain personality attributes relevant to the professional or job requirements. wit and humour (balanced sense of repartee). Note the other person’s body language.An interview is a classic case of assessing personality. An interview essentially is as much an assessment of your attitude as it is an evaluation of your attributes. The crucial aspects of the world around us that have a beneficial influence on conversational skills need to be taken seriously. aspects such as general or particular knowledge. Maintain eye contact. articulation. awareness and alertness (presence of mind would be appreciated). The three watchwords that characterize and encapsulate the process of enhancing conversational skills are perceptivity. Quite obviously. conduct and etiquette. professional and personal. top stories etc. Also. would quite certainly have a reasonable and positive influence in terms of knowledge (also presentation of information as well as arguments). maintain eye contact. to engage in direct purposive communication. It is that proximity. both for interviewers and interviewees. and ascertain if you have understood it correctly. Respond to what the other person says. 1) Media Impact. IMPROVING CONVERSATIONAL SKILLS Conversational skills of an individual are a product-mix of societal conditioning and conscientious individual efforts. so on and so forth. conceptual clarity and applied imagination. Success at formal occasions. as there are correct ways to use words in writing. along with a personal interest in improving one’s communicative abilities and consistently using them. be it listening or communicating. Managing an interview in an extraordinary manner is vindicating the principles and practice of the Art of Achieving. apart from specific work-oriented requirements. you will appreciate the immediacy of the opportunity and the immense scope for your personality intervention in influencing your prospects and posterity. style. debates. This should provide us with the clues to enhancing conversational skills that include vocabulary. its cutting edge. is the spoken word. Concentrate on other people while they are speaking. and Speech Discreet. such as an interview would. so are there correct ways of speaking them out or using the right words as well as speaking them out correctly. Absorb It … Reputed radio and television programmes. as it is essential. information base and understanding. Do not counter a question with another question or shift the topic suddenly. gestures and overall expression. interalia. intonation. In fact. vocabulary (refined and diplomatic language). which induces a sense of urgency and anxiety as well. When you speak or are spoken to. but don’t stare. depend on systematic preparation and conscious assimilation. As vital as the written word. receptivity. — 26 — . ability to interconnect theory with practical or situational problem resolution. Lean forward slightly. we have already examined exhaustively. This kind of participation will also help you in getting into the habit of assessing people. 2) Keep Eyes and Ears Open. intonation. The evaluation encompasses. capacity to comprehend. there are general or particular characteristics that would be gauged.
not too high). a hand movement can help you tell. not just once. if understanding does not take place as the words are being spoken. Decide on the order in which you wish to use the points. Make a quick outline in your mind before you commence speaking and try to have a logical relationship between the points.3) Active Conversation Mode – How do you communicate in an effective manner with another person – the solution is simple: you must be in command of the situation at all times. notably the interview board. Give attention to your body language (avoid gesticulating or making awkward actions). now a word about the presentation – be positive in your statements and use as many facts as are necessary. wear your neatest attire – when an audience likes what it sees. An added advantage is that confidence enhancement takes place when you realize that others are able to correctly understand what you say. the rest of the contents should relate to the audience’ interest and knowledge i. chances are it never will. Delete any nervous mannerisms or unneeded gestures from your performance.g. simulated practice sessions and rehearsals.everyone will hear better without obstruction. Critique each rehearsal and make appropriate changes. Earlier we spoke of the importance of the attentive listening mode that constitutes receptivity. Finally. Make sure every item is true to your purpose and that the structure of the outline gives a logical flow to the presentation. to understand what you are talking about. As you practice. In addition to adjusting the core contents and the wording. which constitute the audience. and the rest will depend on the performance. too much detail will bore your listeners. Gather information on a continuous basis. Keep sorting the information in your mind even as you express your thoughts and eliminate all that does not advance your purpose. never forget for once to ask yourself how much detail should be included in the exposition. even more so in an interview session. When you interact and actively participate in the communication scenario. too little will decrease your credibility with them. so practice controlling your speed (measured and thoughtful). pitch (not too low. The active conversational mode is a balanced blend of attentive listening and intelligent communicating.e. you achieve this goal through extensive preparation. it is more attentive initially (at least you will make a beginning without any set-back). As you are about to conclude your answer. but several times cannot be overemphasized. a change of posture may only be as acceptable as would appear warranted under the circumstances e. but do not cover any part of your face by a hand – there is no reason for unwanted distraction . and your volume (clearly audible but not jarring).you want people. considerable practice. remember why you are doing so . which is also a confirmation that you have understood the context or the theme and you are able to engage in sensible conversation. the exposition ought to be audience oriented if it has to have an indelible impact. Practice making eye contact. be persuasive and clear. — 27 — . and how you are going to hold their attention while conversing with them. try to be acceptably normal. The interviewers. the process of personality evolution is accelerated. Also try to gauge what they could be interested in. 5) Importance of Rehearsals – The importance of rehearsing. get to hear your words only once and then those words are gone. consider your rate of speaking (nervousness can make you speak too quickly or falter). your introductory lines (initial statements) should make your listeners want to hear what you have to say. 4) Practice Interview Sessions (Mock Interviews) – Always try to know or understand your audience or interlocutors – you need to give considerable thought to what you can make of them.
if this does not happen. it would mean that you have not been able to capture the uninterrupted concentration of the interview board. or both. you are at a risk of appearing dogmatic and unreceptive to change. You could also be suspected of trying to cover up for inadequacy of information or ineptitude at formulation. as far as possible follow interalia. Appearing as one to the absence of the other is not as desirable as being perceived as both. A convoluted style of expression would then raise doubts about the clarity of your thought process. since if this as a dictum is not followed. as fallout. dependable and persuasive. This again is a serious issue. This implies being receptive to views thoughts and ideas. don’t put the weight of your prejudice to tip the scales. — 28 — • • • • • . and that it perhaps occurred because the board found you either uninteresting or incorrect. for what you would say in the remaining part of the interview. by attempting to obfuscate the issue.The crucial point is that rehearsals or simulated practice sessions are a kind of psychological conditioning that prepare the mind. the ‘pros&-cons’ reasoning approach coupled with balanced evaluation – allow the fulcrum to reflect the balance. you could well appear to be unfit for selection and appointment. much of the situation would be salvaged: • It is crucial to maintain the centre of attention. which is if you are not interrupted (if you are stopped you would be denied the opportunity to conclude decisively). in fact the entire personality. i. no matter how good. to the point and possibly participatory. and that could well imply that all that you have said has not been entirely heard. furnish adequate information but not excessive. To explain by analogy. Also. The extended outcome could be that the board would loose interest in what you are saying out of boredom. it could give the impression that either you are not discerning and that you cannot prioritize. 6) Parameters of Evaluation The entire exercise of an interview can be replete with ‘Dos’ and Don’ts’. Be optimal in your exposition. while not being mistaken as gullible or lacking in convictions. that you are being intellectually pompous. A judicious approach would envisage being amenable to reasoning and evidence that you may not be aware or may not know entirely. to reinforce resolve and resilience. If this has not been so. we have decried the tendency of being judgmental . Much of this corrective process would have been accomplished with simulated exercises under competent supervision and evaluation. As a rule. what you have said could possibly not have been completely understood. since if the style is grotesque. You could also well be seen to be inept at time management. whether you co-opt or contend. while pretending to be profound. Obviously. You have to appear authentic as well as convincing. it would never fetch you the scores commensurate with the quality of your exposition. In whatever you do. If you do not.e. or you cannot be concise and comprehensive simultaneously.the inclination to pass value judgements without credible reasons and correct assessment or the tendency to make unsubstantiated allegations. Do not use any complicated parlance or sentences that are too complex. Since. unless absolutely imperative. or at worst. This theme is also related to judicious argumentation. This again is pertinent. whether you agree or disagree. It is absolutely essential to appear genuine and credible. It is for this reason that the conversation ought to be purposive. think of a plausible reason for it and be reasonable in your arguments. both equally indispensable in coping with interview-induced anxiety. by and large. never loose your sense of priority and proportionality – maintain focus on the core theme and the central idea while explaining and expanding as much as it is essential and can be of interest. Yet if certain points are kept in mind. Appear open-minded and as a person of initiative as well. Lack of initiative and reasoning would also be interpreted as deficiency in leadership qualities and limited ability at problem solving. Maintain a pleasant demeanour and overall (‘across the board’) eye contact with the interviewers as you try and address them all in a conversational and cordial manner. the risk of causing disinterest is as much. Earlier.
Answers to these questions must as always be circumspect in terms of the line of thought and simultaneously credible in terms of the content of thought. your congruities and incongruities. if you spoke out your worst mistake. innovate. Remember your intention ought to be accomplishing your agenda with efficiency and elegance. then the whole exercise as far as you are concerned. both in terms of work and activities outside the realm of work areas. affinities and antipathies as well as your peculiarities and angularities. your inclinations as well as disinclinations. These questions also probe into your personality to gauge your ability and proclivity to adapt. This highlights many personality virtues you’ll easily guess. — 29 — . it will prove to be expensive. your comfort-zones as well as your discomfitures. it will disturb your psychological equipoise and that will not only intrude into your thinking. and even if it could be true it would rarely be believed…. and your entire effort has been meaningless. REFLECT IN ADVANCE UPON THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS • • • What would you like to tell about yourself? What are your major strengths? What are your major weaknesses? The next eight questions would attempt to decipher your compatibilities and incompatibilities. If you tend to be emotional about anything. if your resume/CV mentions earlier work experience) Why did you leave your last job? What would make us believe that you would not quit this profession for some other that you might feel inclined in the future? How does your education or experience equip you for this profession? What was your worst mistake or failure? This is a trap question .• Communicate with the aim of attaining your objective. it will also impede your confidence. • • • • • • • • • What type of work do you like to do best? What are your interests outside work? What type of work do you like to do least? What achievements have caused you the greatest satisfaction? What academic courses did you like best or least? What did you like best or least about your last job? (i. improvise and evolve. Then speak of how you have come out of this situation. you may be asked to recall many more of your errors. i. If the interview has not gone in the direction towards accomplishing your objectives. and that is the spirit of the Art of Achieving. The way out of this maze is to focus on failure that could have been caused on account of various imponderables and variables outside your control. it will cost you your interview.e. It serves no purpose to take anything personally or get personal in an argument.e.if you said you never failed it would sound unrealistic. The import of this message is that there is no point in making an issue an ego problem. If you engage in personal affront with the interviewers. the message received and corrective measures taken to possibly avoid such a setback again. wiser by experience.
The gist of the method (previously explained in detail) of doing this is clear-cut. point out how it may not be possible to reverse the time clock. Add a little humour if you can carry it by contemplating this review if it were to be H. Wells’ time machine.G. Then pick out an incident that you could have managed better in retrospect.• What decision(s) in your life do you regret and what would you change in your past if you could? Here. • • What are your life’s ideals and ambitions? How do you plan to achieve these? We wish you all the very best for your future endeavour. Thank You “Team NARAYANA” — 30 — . you can think of getting past these kinds of questions. for instance. With some effort. but also say you do not bear a grudge or possess remorse since that incident was an educative experience. The two questions that follow expect a fine balancing act at its best. The temptation to fly off at a tangent or get carried away can be irresistible but must be checked.
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