Study Guide

Commercial Refrigeration and HVAC/R Maintenance

Contents Contents


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This study guide concludes your course in HVAC/R technology. It first focuses on refrigeration systems, both commercial and domestic. It then provides a more general guide to the types of installation, maintenance, and troubleshooting work carried out by HVAC/R technicians every day. This part of your program is based on the textbook, Fundamentals of HVAC/R. It’s divided into nine assignments; each assignment covers a specific area of the HVAC/R trade. The study material for your program consists of 1. Your textbook, Fundamentals of HVAC/R. It contains the assigned readings and review exercises at the end of each unit. These are assigned as self-check exercises. 2. This study guide, including an introduction to your program and a summary of the material you’ll cover in each lesson. This guide also contains the following features: An assignments page that lists all of the reading assignments for your textbook Introductions to your lessons Listings of the self-check tests you should complete as part of each assignment Answers to the self-check exercises The examinations for each lesson As you now know, your textbook is covered by the reading assignments in this guide. Your textbook, Fundamentals of HVAC/R, is the heart of this program. It’s very important that you read the material in the text and study it until you’re completely familiar with it. This is the material on which your examinations will be based. Each chapter begins with a list of learning objectives. Read through the learning objectives so that you’ll know what to expect when you read through the unit. After you complete each unit, you can use the list of learning objectives to review the important points of the unit.

Instructions Instructions

charts. read the assigned pages in the textbook. This is the first reading assignment of Lesson 1. read the introduction to Assignment 1. This study guide contains a list of your lesson assignments. and diagrams included in the textbook. go back and study the assigned pages in your textbook carefully. Fundamentals of HVAC/R.A STUDY PLAN We’ve divided the contents of your textbook. if you wish. into three lessons for you to study. Write out the answers on a separate piece of paper. Don’t worry about making a mistake. Skim the assigned pages in your textbook to get a general idea of their contents. For each lesson. Pay careful attention to all details. Now. we suggest that you follow these steps: Step 1: In this study guide. you’ll complete an examination on the material you read for the lesson. including the illustrations. Then. Try to answer the questions on your own without looking them up in the textbook. The purpose of answering these questions is to review the material and to help you recognize the areas that you may need to study Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: Step 5: 2 Instructions to Students . if you wish. Be sure to read all the material in both the textbook and this study guide before you attempt to complete your examinations. review what you’ve learned by completing the “Review Questions” in the textbook. you’ll read part of the textbook. Try to see the “big picture” of the material during this first reading. Pay attention to the new ideas and concepts that are introduced. To get the most benefit out of each of your lessons. and carefully note the pages in your textbook where the reading assignment begins and ends. At the end of the reading assignment. Take notes on the important points and terms in a notebook. Next. as well as the lesson examinations.

” look up the answers in the textbook to confirm that you answered the questions correctly. Remember that the lesson examinations are contained in this study guide. After you’ve answered the “Review Questions. Now. Your instructor’s guidance and suggestions will be very helpful as you progress through your program. You may go back to your textbook to review material at any time when you’re working on the examination. Step 6: Repeat Steps 1 through 5 for each of the remaining reading assignments in the lesson. Good luck with your program! Instructions to Students 3 . and provide further explanation of your study materials. you may ask your instructor for help whenever you need it.again. Step 7: Step 8: Remember. Each examination contains a number of multiple-choice questions. submit your answers to the school for grading. Note that the “Review Questions” are provided only for you to review your learning. complete the examination for that lesson. When you’re finished with each examination. and he or she will see to it that you receive the needed information. Take your time as you complete the examination—there’s no time limit. When you’ve finished reading all the assigned textbook pages for the lesson and you’re sure that you’re comfortable with the material. look over the lesson assignments and then begin Lesson 1. provide additional information. Repeat these steps until all three lessons have been completed. Do not send your “Review Questions” answers to the school. E-mail your questions to your instructor. You won’t be graded on the “Review Questions” in any way. If you answered any questions incorrectly. review the material for that topic until you’re sure that you understand it. Your instructor can answer your questions.

NOTES 4 Instructions to Students .

Part 2 For: Assignment 4 Assignment 5 Assignment 6 Read in the study guide: Pages 24–27 Pages 27–30 Pages 30–33 Read in the textbook: Pages 1346–1372 Pages 1373–1387 Pages 1388–1402 Material in Lesson 2 Examination 01488800 Lesson 3: Installing and Maintaining HVAC/R Systems For: Assignment 7 Assignment 8 Assignment 9 Read in the study guide: Pages 40–42 Pages 43–45 Pages 45–47 Read in the textbook: Pages 1403–1419 Pages 1420–1447 Pages 1448–1467 Examination 01488900 Material in Lesson 3 5 .Lesson 1: Commercial Refrigeration Systems. Part 1 Assignments Assignments For: Assignment 1 Assignment 2 Assignment 3 Read in the study guide: Pages 8–11 Pages 12–14 Pages 14–17 Read in the textbook: Pages 1283–1314 Pages 1315–1331 Pages 1332–1345 Material in Lesson 1 Examination 01488700 Lesson 2: Commercial Refrigeration Systems.

NOTES 6 Lesson Assignments .

pressure. When you complete this lesson. and low-temperature systems Explain how a multiple compressor system operates Describe how an evaporative cooling system works Explain how a refrigerator’s defrost cycle operates Size a walk-in cooler or freezer List the various types of transport refrigeration systems Identify the useful features and limitations of the various refrigeration systems found in restaurants and supermarkets Lesson 1 Lesson 1 7 . enhance the operation of commercial refrigeration systems. temperature. This lesson also describes how various types of controls. you’ll continue learning about the functions and operating methods of refrigeration system components. displaying refrigerated products. and other special components used in commercial refrigeration systems. with a particular focus on those components used in commercial refrigeration systems. you’ll be able to Describe the various types of commercial refrigeration systems and the differences between high-. and making ice. medium-. Throughout these assignments you’ll consider the decision process that goes into selecting refrigeration equipment and how individual components are used to fill the needs of specific applications. Your textbook introduces several special-application machines used for flash freezing. filter driers. Part 1 In this lesson. dispensing dairy products. and electrical. including mechanical. You’ll learn about the function of devices such as receivers.Commercial Refrigeration Systems.

not at a residence. Then. Whether it’s a residential (domestic) refrigeration unit or a large commercial application. The process repeats until the temperature of the refrigerated space reaches the desired level. In this assignment. as the refrigerant absorbs heat. the refrigeration process involves liquid refrigerant absorbing heat in one area. You’ll find that commercial systems are installed and maintained by a select group of refrigeration technicians dedicated to these types of systems. Fundamentals of HVAC/R. we’ll begin with a review of the refrigeration process and the industry standards for the four temperature ranges related to commercial refrigeration. Commercial Refrigeration As you’ll recall.ASSIGNMENT 1 Read this introduction to Assignment 1. it boils and changes to a refrigerant vapor. 8 Commercial Refrigeration and HVAC/R Maintenance . The information you learn from this assignment will allow you to better understand how practical refrigeration systems operate and. Commercial refrigeration systems can be found in many configurations that vary from single stand-alone units to complex applications requiring multiple refrigeration systems. the refrigerant vapor condenses back into a liquid. study Unit 76. Stated simply. The major difference between residential and commercial refrigeration is that the refrigeration equipment is located at a commercial business. The refrigerant vapor is pumped to another area where the absorbed heat transfers out of the refrigerant vapor. “Commercial Refrigeration Systems” on pages 1283–1301 and Unit 77. With the absorbed heat rejected. in the textbook. refrigeration is the transfer of heat from one space to another. the process is the same. “Commercial Refrigeration Equipment” on pages 1303–1314. therefore. better diagnose system problems.

while the open case offers the consumer unrestricted access. which is usually Lesson 1 9 . The configurations that the display takes are almost limitless. If the refrigerated space is below freezing. The added heat might be an advantage in the winter (reducing heating costs).Reach-in Refrigeration Merchandising Reach-in refrigeration units add convenience and enhance sales for merchandise on display. the compressor and condenser are contained within that one piece of equipment. heat rejected by the condenser goes back into the building. It can be installed as a prefabricated knockdown type. First. Additional fan and liquid line controls may be required to improve efficiency and protect the compressor from slugging. The only requirement is that an adequate electrical supply needs to be provided. Proper slope of drain lines with attached traps are required to ensure proper condensate removal. The units can be placed together or they can be used as stand-alone displays. but adds to the air-conditioning load of the building during summer. and are available in high-. or as a permanent installation. They can be vertical or chest type. With a stand-alone unit. with an assortment of shelving options. Walk-in coolers must have condensate drains that lead out of the cooled space. Walk-in Refrigeration Walk-in refrigeration is available in various sizes and configurations. which can be disassembled and relocated. These types of refrigeration systems can have an open or closed display case. This allows the unit to be placed or moved wherever it’s needed. and low-temperature ranges. Evaporators and fans are carefully placed to minimize cooling loss when any door is opened. medium-. the drains and traps inside the refrigerated space will require heat. The closed case has a slight advantage in efficiency. The self-contained reach-in fixtures have several characteristics that need to be considered before they’re selected. Construction methods and materials used for either type depends on the temperature inside the refrigerated area and the estimated life of the system.

the coil is above freezing. A medium-temperature refrigeration system maintains a conditioned space at 34°F–45°F. consider the different types of defrosting cycles. While a single evaporator system requires a simple T connection at the expansion valve to allow hot-gas defrosting. causing the evaporator coil to defrost. The supplied heat comes from either internal or external sources. Usually. First. which translates to an evaporator coil that’s 10°F–15°F cooler than the space it occupies.and medium-temperature refrigeration systems. A planned defrost cycle must be used for systems that don’t have reserve capacity. The Defrost Cycle This assignment also introduces the different defrost methods and equipment needed for low.supplied by heat tapes. This means that during the cooling cycle. Now. This is called off-cycle defrosting and can occur on a random or planned schedule. Their installation is similar to that of a home window air conditioner. defrosting of the evaporator coils occurs naturally. In this case. On systems that use forced 10 Commercial Refrigeration and HVAC/R Maintenance . let’s look at different methods used to defrost low-temperature systems. Since the space and the coil are above freezing at least part of the time. Prepackaged wall or ceiling refrigeration units for walk-in coolers are available. For planned defrosting. the evaporator fan continues to run during the defrost cycle to accelerate defrosting. Low-temperature designs exist in refrigeration systems that never get above freezing. a planned defrost cycle is scheduled when the least cooling load is expected. the compressor is turned off for a brief time to allow defrosting to occur. some form of heat is added to defrost the evaporator coils. injects hot gas from the compressor’s discharge line into the evaporator coil. multiple evaporator systems require that the hot gas be injected between the expansion valve and the refrigerant distributor to ensure equal distribution of the hot gas. whereas during a portion of the off cycle. A random defrost cycle can be taken advantage of only if the refrigeration system has reserve capacity to cool more than its anticipated load. Internal-heat defrost (also referred to as hot-gas defrost). the coil is below freezing.

3. Lesson 1 11 . 2. The evaporator fans turn off. 4. Drain pan heaters are energized as required. Drain pan heaters are energized as required. The hot-gas solenoid opens. The timer is set to end the defrost cycle in the event that the temperature sensor fails. The compressor shuts down. External-heat defrost requires heat generated by another source to defrost the evaporator coils. A successful hot-gas defrost requires that specific actions occur in the proper sequence. the defrost cycle is usually initiated by a timer and stopped either by a timer or when a predetermined temperature is reached. The hot-gas defrost cycle continues for a predetermined time. After you’ve read pages 1283–1314 in the textbook Fundamentals of HVAC/R carefully and completed the “Review Questions” on pages 1301–1302 and 1314. The evaporator fan stops. 2. 3. 5.air to cool the space. The sequence for external heat defrost is as follows: 1. check your answers against those provided in the back of this study guide. The heat usually comes from electric heating coils placed near or imbedded in the evaporator coils. The compressor must continue to run. stops the defrost process as soon as a predetermined temperature is reached. The electric heaters are energized. a timer usually controls the defrost cycle. When you’re sure you completely understand the material from Assignment 1. Since this method uses additional energy. move on to Assignment 2. To end the external heat defrost cycle as soon as practical. a temperature sensor. These actions are as follows: 1. 4. used in conjunction with the timer.

2. “Special Refrigeration Components” on pages 1315–1331 in the textbook. Solenoid Valves One of the most popular devices used to control fluid or vapor flow is the solenoid valve. The following introduces a few of these components while your textbook covers these and several more in detail. Solenoid valves are considered snap-acting devices since they open or close rapidly when the coil changes state. a technician should consider two things. This assignment explains the purpose of many components found throughout complex systems of all types. A solenoid valve that has the flow going in the wrong direction can allow flow to leak by the valve. Then read Unit 78. Usually. which in turn controls liquid or vapor flow through larger pipes. When installing a solenoid valve. including commercial refrigeration systems. Fundamentals of HVAC/R. 12 Commercial Refrigeration and HVAC/R Maintenance . Solenoid valves can be configured normally open (allows flow when the coil is de-energized). The solenoid valve must be installed so that the flow through it goes in the proper direction. the valve might not close after the coil de-energizes. The solenoid valve consists of an electromagnetic coil and a movable plunger that moves in response to the coil being energized and de-energized. The angular position of the solenoid valve must be considered. Usually. the correct flow direction is indicated on the valve body. 1.ASSIGNMENT 2 Read this introduction to Assignment 2. A pilot-operated solenoid valve uses the pressure from a smaller line (controlled by the solenoid valve) to control a larger valve. solenoid valves are installed with the coil positioned on top. or normally closed (doesn’t allow flow when the coil is de-energized). If the solenoid is positioned so that the plunger allows gravity to affect it.

so does the system pressure. As the temperature drops. To use a low-pressure switch as a low-temperature sensing device. Typically. lowers to the desired level. Let’s look at how each type of pressure switch is used to control electrical current to a refrigeration device. and an oil safety switch. Typical uses for this type of switch are to detect a low refrigerant charge or a low temperature. Resetting a highpressure switch can be done manually or automatically. low-pressure switches reset once the low-pressure or low-temperature condition is corrected. a high-pressure switch prevents a compressor from operating with excessive head pressures. which is the compressor’s outlet pressure minus its suction pressure. The last pressure switch we’ll discuss is the oil pressure safety control. If a low refrigerant charge is detected.Pressure Switches A typical refrigeration system has low-pressure switches. This device is used on larger compressors to ensure that adequate oil pressure is present when the compressor is running. A low-pressure switch closes (conducts) when the pressure rises above a predetermined level. Once the pressure reaches a predetermined level. high-pressure switches. the switch closes. Normally. the system stops and the temperature (and pressure) begin to rise. the low-pressure switch opens. low ambient control switches. the pressure switch disables the compressor control to prevent the system from going into a vacuum until the system is recharged to its proper level. with manual reset offering the greatest protection for equipment. The pressure switch operates on a principle of net oil pressure. When the temperature (in a cooler for example). starting the system to once again cool the space. Lesson 1 13 . a correlation between system pressure and the desired temperature must be calculated. A high-pressure switch opens (stops conducting) when the pressure rises above a predetermined level.

14 Commercial Refrigeration and HVAC/R Maintenance . The spring-loaded relief valve will open to relieve excessive pressure. After you’ve read pages 1315–1331 in the textbook Fundamentals of HVAC/R carefully and completed the “Review Questions” on pages 1330–1331. study Unit 79. and have an insulated but non-refrigerated storage section below the refrigeration unit.Relief Valves Relief valves protect a refrigerant system from an uncontrolled rupture by releasing refrigerant at a predetermined maximum pressure. ASSIGNMENT 3 Read this introduction to Assignment 3. When you’re sure you completely understand the material from Assignment 2. while your textbook covers several other types of specialized equipment in more detail. the spring-loaded relief valve is used most often. let’s begin by making a distinction between ice-making (package ice) and ice-holding machines. Ice-Making Equipment. Packaged Type First. Fundamentals of HVAC/R. This assignment introduces refrigeration equipment that’s unique to the restaurant and supermarket industries. We’ll discuss small commercial ice-making machines that operate between 10°F and 32°F. produce their own ice. Our introduction focuses on just one type of specialized equipment. The onetime relief valve (also called fusible plugs) opens in response to excessive temperature and is unable to close after relieving pressure. Relief valves are available as either spring-loaded or one-time valves. move on to Assignment 3. Due to environmental concerns related to releasing refrigerants into the atmosphere. then automatically close.” on pages 1332–1345. Then. “Restaurant and Supermarket Equipment. which makes ice. Fusible plugs are usually located in the suction line near the compressor to prevent the compressor shell from rupturing during a fire. A relief valve is always placed in a vapor line (not a liquid line). in the textbook. check your answers against those provided in the back of this study guide.

The sheet of ice is placed on resistive heating cutting wires. Cube ice can be made in several ways using different processes. Ice-holding machines. simply store ice that’s made at another location. This is accomplished by using a tube within a refrigerated tube. An auger. With all of these cube ice–making systems. Lesson 1 15 . and then moved to storage. the refrigeration system is turned off.These units are self-contained and require only an electrical supply. and the water pressure pushes the ice cylinder out. defrosted slightly to release. which is generally accomplished by using hot refrigerant gas that’s diverted to the low-pressure areas of the evaporator. The evaporator is then defrosted enough for the ice sheet to release. and a drain for melted ice and condensate. Another method of making cube ice requires water to flow into preformed cups where it’s frozen. Water is pumped into the inner tube. Ice is made and harvested on a continuous basis as long as power is connected to the machine. the evaporator is defrosted slightly. turned constantly by a gear motor and drive unit. When the water pressure reaches a predetermined level. on the other hand. which cut the ice into a predetermined shape. Flake ice is formed by flowing water in a vertical refrigerated cylinder. a water supply. Ice-holding machines typically maintain the storage temperature well below freezing. The water is chilled. then frozen by the refrigerated cylinder. The water can be sprayed from below into the preformed cups. The ice is forced upward towards a discharge chute where it falls into a storage bin. Making Flake and Cube Ice Package ice machines make either flake ice or some form of solid ice. The correct water level inside the refrigerated cylinder is maintained by a float system. the ice is released using defrost. shaves the ice off the inside surface of the cylinder. Flat ice is formed to a specified thickness. Ice can also be made in a cylindrical form.

several factors must be considered. Most ice-packaging machines are designed to operate between 40°F and 115°F. 16 Commercial Refrigeration and HVAC/R Maintenance .Water and Ice Quality The water quality. Units located outside when temperatures are below 40°F should be shut off and the water drained to prevent permanent damage. manufacturers dictate water filtration requirements for their machines. the water flow rate. Refrigeration circuit troubleshooting is divided into high-pressure side and low-pressure side. Low-pressure problems involve checking the water delivery system. First. refrigerant delivery system. and the electrical circuit. and compressor. the temperature of the incoming water must be checked. Units installed indoors in confined areas may need an air-circulating fan over the condensing coils. Electrical problems may cause defrost irregularities and hot high-voltage conductors. and the water level are critical to the proper operation of the unit and should match the manufacturer’s instructions. High-pressure problems involve checking the operation of the condenser and verifying that the correct refrigerant charge exists. As the temperature of both the water and ambient air goes up. Troubleshooting Ice Makers Troubleshooting an ice-packaging machine is divided into three categories: the water circuit. The type and level of filtration required depends on the quality of the water supply. To eliminate problems of mineral buildup and defrosting problems within ice-packaging machines. Electrical problems may also cause low-voltage devices to malfunction. the refrigeration circuit. Package Ice Machine Location To ensure that the ice-packaging machine can perform its function properly. the capacity of the ice-packaging machine goes down. as well as the ambient air temperature.

complete the Lesson 1 Examination. check your answers against those provided in the back of this study guide.After you’ve read pages 1332–1345 in the textbook Fundamentals of HVAC/R carefully and completed the “Review Questions” on page 1344–1345. Lesson 1 17 . When you’re sure you completely understand the material from this lesson.

NOTES 18 Commercial Refrigeration and HVAC/R Maintenance .

retail stores. hospitals. D. They’re easier to stock with products. go to http://www. They’re more reliable. They can be used in heating mode to maintain hot food. you must use the number above. Evaporative cooling is commonly used for commercial refrigeration applications located in and submit your answers online.takeexamsonline. schools. Submit your answers for this examination as soon as you complete it. B. What refrigeration component makes it possible to use a single compressor to maintain multiple cases at different temperatures? A. 3. you can phone in or mail in your exam. 2. C. For the quickest test results. B. If you don’’t have access to the Internet. Suction line accumulator Crankcase pressure regulator Liquid solenoid valve Evaporator pressure regulator 19 . Do not wait until another examination is ready.takeexamsonline. Customers find them more When you feel confident that you have mastered the material in Lesson 1. 1. Part 1 EXAMINATION NUMBER Examination Examination 01488700 Whichever method you use in submitting your exam answers to the school. D. C. What advantage do glass door frozen-food cases have over open display frozen-food cases? A. B. D. go to http://www. C. greenhouses. Questions 1––20: Select the one best answer to each question.Lesson 1 Commercial Refrigeration Systems.

C.4. Rotary C. and supplemental loads B. the box temperature. select the compressor because all other components will be sized to match it. Heat transmission. 20 Examination. 200 CFM per 1000 Btu D. 7. 400 CFM per 1000 Btu B. B. perform a heat load calculation to determine the required BTU capacity of the system. D. 165 CFM per 1000 Btu 5. C. Lesson 1 . and ceiling D. Compressors won’t operate correctly if the compression ratio is too low. product. D. a generator operated from the wheels of the trailer. Why is it necessary to have controls for maintaining a minimum high-side pressure on outdoor air-cooled condensers? A. 6. Semi-hermetic reciprocating 9. B. What type of compressors do protocol refrigeration systems use? A. A trailer-mounted refrigeration system’s compressor is often powered by A. solar panels mounted to the top of the trailer. The volume of the case. B. the temperature to be maintained. What is the approximate ventilation requirement for low temperature. 265 CFM per 1000 Btu C. air infiltration. Refrigeration metering devices require a minimum pressure drop to operate. D. C. and the air changes per hour C. and the type of refrigerant 8. floor. a separate diesel engine. The chemical components in the refrigerant will separate if the pressure is allowed to drop below the normal minimum operating pressure. compile a list of component prices to determine how large a system the customer can afford. Scroll B. The style of the evaporator. compile a list of components already in inventory so you can see what you’ll have to choose from. a large bank of batteries. air-cooled condensing units? A. Hermetic reciprocating D. The refrigerant won’t condense if it’s excessively cooled. Heat gain through the walls. What must be considered when performing a heat load calculation for a walk-in cooler or freezer? A. The first step in selecting commercial refrigeration equipment for a new installation is to A.

D. C. Evaporator pressure regulator is simply another name for thermostatic expansion valve.10. 40ºF to 50ºF 11. even if the suction pressure is higher. through normal use from customers opening and closing the doors. solenoid valve. C. 12. This device is probably a(n) A. B. B. 32ºF to 40ºF D. 16. If a reach-in freezer’s evaporator is coated with a large quantity of ice. It won’t allow the pressure in the evaporator to rise above its setpoint. cheese. The defrost cycle of a low-temperature refrigerated case is often accomplished A. automatic expansion valve. C. by leaving the case fans operating and shutting off the compressor. the operation of the system isn’t affected because the coil is still below freezing. C. evaporator pressure regulator. It’s used in place of a more traditional refrigerant expansion device. crankcase pressure regulator. crankcase pressure regulator. D. C. D. What is the normal storage temperature for food items like milk. B. it operates more efficiently because the ice provides free cooling. D. 15. fan-cycling pressure switch. A. Examination. A flow control device stops or allows the flow of refrigerant based on an electric signal. B. Where is the refrigerant piping run from a rack system to the individual refrigerated cases? A. even if the suction pressure is lower. 1ºF to 32ºF B. 13. 25ºF to 35ºF C. fresh fruits. B. B. water regulator valve. On top of the floor under a protective metal cover In trenches under the floor Through an exterior wall Refrigerant piping isn’t necessary because rack systems are self contained 14. it operates less efficiently because the ice acts as insulation. C. the system’s refrigerant level should be checked because the evaporator shouldn’t freeze up. D. D. by shutting off the compressor and bypassing hot gas to the evaporator. A water-cooled condenser’s high-side pressure can be maintained by a A. What function is performed by an evaporator’s pressure regulator? A. and vegetables? A. by shutting off the compressor and energizing electric defrost heaters. Lesson 1 21 . fan speed control. It won’t allow the pressure in the evaporator to drop below its setpoint.

magnetic field across the opening prevents the cold air from escaping. C. liquid receiver. sight glass. How do open display cases maintain the temperature within the case without any doors? A. Multiple parallel compressors make it possible to use multiple refrigerants in a A. sealing in the refrigerated air. Moisture indicators are normally part of a A. A strong. 20. 18. B. suction accumulator. A refrigeration compressor’s net oil pressure is found by A. parallel multi-compressor system. 22 Examination. filter-drier. cascade system. 19. C. The cold air tends to stay in the display case due to the engineered air baffles that prevent cold air from leaving the case.17. B. adding the crankcase pressure and the oil pump discharge pressure. C. Clear plastic sheets hang down in front of the product. C. subtracting atmospheric pressure from the oil pump discharge pressure. compound multistage compressor system. two-stage cooling system. D. Lesson 1 . subtracting the crankcase pressure from the oil pump discharge pressure. D. A curtain of cold air separates the product from the warmer store air. D. B. B. measuring the pressure leaving the oil pump. D.

including transport. When you complete this lesson. capacitors. and air cargo. you’ll be able to Discuss how ice is formed on an ice rink List a variety of applications for cryogenic refrigeration Provide examples of applications where cascade-type refrigeration systems are used Explain how a drinking-water cooler operates Explain the purpose and methods of quick freezing and refreezing Discuss the operations that take place in food processing plants. you’ll learn about special applications for commercial refrigeration. including those that make ice cream Illustrate the features inherent in refrigerator and freezer cabinet design Maintain refrigerators and freezers Explain troubleshooting techniques for defective compressors. You’ll learn about the construction of a refrigerator and how the temperatures of the freezer and fresh-food portions of the refrigerator are maintained. Part 2 In this lesson. relays. marine. and condensers Understand how to search for leaks in a refrigeration system Lesson 2 Lesson 2 23 . You’ll then study domestic refrigerators and freezers.Commercial Refrigeration Systems. The lesson finishes with an in-depth discussion of refrigeration system troubleshooting. trucking.

While colder refrigeration temperatures exist in this range. 24 Commercial Refrigeration and HVAC/R Maintenance . Each has its own operational challenge that it must overcome. you’ll learn about special applications of commercial refrigeration systems. the higher the quality the food will be. Different foods and packaging requirements require different fast-freeze rates. The blast freeze method uses very low-temperature air delivered at a high velocity to quick-freeze the product.” on pages 1362–1372 in the textbook. ice crystals form then rupture. Fundamentals of HVAC/R. on pages 1346–1361 and Unit 81. In this assignment. To achieve these lower temperatures. When foods are frozen slowly. The purpose of our discussion is to learn how these lower temperatures are achieved. and Quick Freeze Refrigeration Extra-low-temperature refrigeration is a process that maintains a product below 0°F. “Refrigeration Applications”. Cascade. temperatures. The faster a food is frozen. To preserve foods at the highest quality requires very low temperatures and a process called quick freezing. spoiling the original quality of the product. since using a standard single-stage compressor would result in excessively high and damaging compression ratios. To achieve even lower temperatures. thereby increasing the efficiency of the compressor. Cascading systems use a different refrigerant in each stage of refrigeration to achieve very cold temperatures. study Unit 80. Using multiple stages of compression reduces the compression ratio. Extra-Low-Temperature.ASSIGNMENT 4 Read this introduction to Assignment 4. refrigeration systems are connected in series. with the first stage partially compressing the refrigerant and the second stage compressing the refrigerant to its final pressure. Then. they’re used mainly to fast-freeze products. and processes. with the condenser of one system transferring heat to the evaporator of the next system. Either conveyor systems or tunnels can be used to quick-freeze a product individually or in quantity. multiple stages of compression are used. “Food Preservation.

This method can maintain temperatures just above freezing only. thermostatically controlled. Liquid nitrogen and liquid carbon dioxide can produce very cold temperatures without the problems associated with regular ice or dry ice. controlled. A thermostat in the cargo area controls the flow of the liquid to a distribution manifold located at the top of the cargo area. ships. and the product must be protected from water damage as the ice melts. and reliable temperatures in both the low and medium refrigeration ranges. The control allows both liquid nitrogen and liquid carbon dioxide to provide stable. or aircraft can be involved in moving these products. Ice is the simplest way to maintain a cool temperature in an insulated space for a short period. Truck refrigeration systems can range from packing a product in ice to microprocessor-controlled stand-alone refrigeration systems. Since goods must be transported through all types of climates. and the product must be protected from dehydration. is an effective way to refrigerate an insulated space to very cold temperatures. mechanical refrigeration systems to maintain a low or medium temperature in a cargo space. Trucks may also use self-contained. Self-contained systems have the advantage of not needing a remote refrigeration system or power source. Larger trucks use stand-alone nose-mount or underbelly refrigeration systems. Smaller mechanical refrigeration systems can be used in conjunction with cold plates. Lesson 2 25 . Dry ice is also difficult and somewhat hazardous to handle. An insulated tank located under the truck stores the liquefied gas. While dry ice is very effective. controlling the temperature of the refrigerated space isn’t easy. Trucks. Dry ice.Transport Refrigeration Transport refrigeration refers to various ways products that require a conditioned environment can be moved from one location to another. trains. refrigeration systems must be able to adapt to maintain the quality of the product. These systems have proven to be an acceptable alternative to mechanical refrigeration systems. made from solidified and compressed carbon dioxide.

Since truck refrigeration systems don’t have excess cooling capacity. All of these systems must have some means to defrost the evaporators. or a separate gas or diesel engine can be used to drive a generator that produces electricity to power a compressor motor. Mechanical refrigeration systems will use some type of fan to circulate the conditioned air inside the refrigerated space.A compressor can be driven by the truck’s engine or a separate gasoline or diesel engine with an electric clutch to engage or disengage the compressor. plate type. in most respects. or bare tube. large-capacity systems might drive the compressors using steam turbines powered by steam from the ship’s boilers. if not. The diesel-powered units operate. the entire cargo space must be properly insulated and mechanically maintained (seals intact. the product should be at the correct refrigerated temperature before being placed in the cargo area. and no holes allowing outside air to infiltrate the cargo space). The axle-driven unit isn’t used much anymore. To minimize heat infiltration. The compressor capacity can be controlled by changing the speed of the compressor or by loading or unloading its individual cylinders. One major concern of transport refrigeration systems is refrigeration component weight. Most modern refrigeration systems take advantage of lightweight materials to provide reliable. Small-capacity systems might drive the compressors using electrical motors powered from the ship’s electrical system. The most common ways are to use a diesel-driven motor generator to drive the compressor or use the older axle-driven compressor unit. For large refrigeration systems. The refrigeration system on a ship must be able to adapt to various product-cooling requirements. filtered seawater can be sprayed on 26 Commercial Refrigeration and HVAC/R Maintenance . efficient service with the least weight impact. since active refrigeration is available only when the car is moving and it requires an external power source when the car is parked. Refrigeration is possible in rail cars using two methods. exactly as the larger truck refrigeration systems that we already discussed. hot gas may be used to defrost if the evaporators are close enough to the compressor. with the method used to power the compressor dependent on the capacity and load on the system. Evaporators can be forced draft.

” on pages 1373–1387 in the textbook. Refrigerators known as over-and-under units have the freezer located either above or below the fresh food area. ASSIGNMENT 5 Read this introduction to Assignment 5. high-side piping runs. called side-by-side refrigerators.the evaporators to remove the ice. Check your answers with those provided at the back of this study guide. refrigeration is removing unwanted heat from one area and moving it to another area where the heat isn’t a problem. The common refrigerator normally has two doors. but since seawater is corrosive. Fundamentals of HVAC/R. the refrigerator is an electrical appliance designed to preserve foods through cooling or freezing. The refrigerator consists of an insulated box that uses the same principles and components for cooling as you learned about in your previous studies. Seawater may also be used to cool the condensers. go on to Assignment 5. Basically. As you’ll remember from your previous lessons. In this assignment. “Domestic Refrigerators and Freezers. and colors. Secondary refrigeration systems are sometimes used to reduce oil return problems associated with long. Smaller individual topside containers can have stand-alone refrigeration systems that connect to the ship’s electrical system for power. one for the freezer and one for the fresh-food area. special materials must be used and periodic cleaning is required. you’ll learn about domestic refrigerators. Other refrigerators. Lesson 2 27 . have the fresh-food area and freezer alongside each other. When you’re sure that you understand the material from Assignment 4. Refrigerator Design and Construction Modern refrigerators are available in a variety of designs. layouts. complete the “Review Questions” on pages 1361–1361 and 1372. After you’ve carefully read pages 1346–1372 in the textbook. Fundamentals of HVAC/R. Then study Unit 82.

you’ll find that domestic refrigerators don’t have ports to attach gages. and the use of gages shouldn’t normally be required. failure of condensate to completely drain during defrost. In cases where the use of gages is necessary. making them easy to clean. Various compartments in the refrigerator may be designed to keep certain types of foods slightly warmer or colder than the main food area. ice and water dispensers may be mounted in the door for convenience. Heaters around the doors can be used to keep the door’s external surface above the dew point and reduce sweating around the door. Older units may require replacement of door gaskets. This is done to cause the door to automatically swing shut if accidentally left open. which have become unserviceable due to age and use. The interior surfaces of a modern refrigerator are normally plastic. Servicing Refrigerators It’s important that you have the proper tools available before taking any refrigerator repair call. When installing a refrigerator. These models reduce the number of times that the door is opened (which allows unwanted roomtemperature air to enter and increases operating time). 28 Commercial Refrigeration and HVAC/R Maintenance .Refrigerator doors are usually made with hinges that can be easily changed so that the door can swing open in the opposite direction. Compression type seals and magnetic-strip gaskets around the doors prevent air leakage. such as overflow of the icemaker. This feature allows the refrigerator to be quickly altered to fit into a specific room layout. the levelers are usually adjusted so that the refrigerator tilts slightly to the back. When troubleshooting refrigerant lines and components. The first step when going on a repair call is to try to determine whether the problem is mechanical or electrical. The domestic refrigerator system is sealed during manufacture. On some models. Mechanical problems such as cabinet problems are sometimes very easy to fix. and problems with doors can be attributed to improper leveling of the box. Many problems. care must be taken to use them properly as described in your textbook.

The vapor then condenses on the evaporator and is removed from the freezer during the defrost cycle. ice crystals will form in the product cells. Some freezers have a quick-freeze rack or compartment where food can be initially placed in the freezer. If a lot of food is to be frozen. such as by putting a side of beef in a domestic freezer. Freezer burn occurs when moisture is able to escape as vapor from the food into the air inside the freezer. the upright and chest. Both the refrigerator and freezer are stand-alone food storage appliances that can be moved between locations and operate from standard residential power. The major differences are that the freezer is a singletemperature device that’s usually located in an area other than the kitchen. Food should be frozen as quickly as possible. If food is frozen too slowly. and isn’t opened nearly as often as the refrigerator. Lesson 2 29 . as occurs in a flash freezer found in commercial food processing plants. Freezer burn doesn’t destroy food. with a door that swings open and may be hinged on either side. Another asset of the upright freezer is that sometimes food can be found and accessed with less trouble than in a chest freezer. due to its relatively low capacity. making it good for residences where space is limited. The upright freezer takes up less floor space than a chest freezer. The outside of the box is normally made of sheet metal. The inside is often made of plastic but may also contain metal that’s painted or porcelain-coated. The freezer is designed for longer-term food storage. The domestic freezer can present a problem when initially freezing food.Domestic Freezers Domestic freezers are very similar to refrigerators in general purpose and design. requiring that the food be properly wrapped to prevent freezer burn. damaging the cells and altering the food taste and quality. it’s best to chill it first before placing it in the freezer. but the dehydration changes the appearance and can alter the flavor. The freezer cabinet is constructed similarly to the refrigerator. Two types of domestic freezers are available. The upright type of freezer is similar in appearance to a refrigerator.

We’ll finish this assignment by reviewing several common refrigeration system problems and the correct approach a technician should follow to solve them. “Troubleshooting Refrigeration Systems” on pages 1388–1402 in the textbook. or repairing a refrigeration system. Removable baskets store food in the upper half of the freezer. move on to Assignment 6. 30 Commercial Refrigeration and HVAC/R Maintenance . Structured Troubleshooting Before you begin adjusting. you must have both a thorough understanding of how each component of the system should normally operate and a complete understanding of how the total system should work. pressures. In this assignment. On one end of the interior of the chest freezer is the area containing the compressor. The chest freezer has a lid that’s raised from the front and hinged in the back. check your answers against those provided in the back of this study guide. you’ll learn about typical operating conditions and proper troubleshooting techniques related to refrigeration systems. servicing. The baskets can be removed to allow access to foods stored in the bottom of the freezer. study Unit 83. You should also perform a complete inspection of the system to help properly diagnose the problem. Your inspection should include sampling system temperatures. We’ll start by looking at how to get organized to logically resolve a problem. After you’ve read pages 1373–1387 in the textbook Fundamentals of HVAC/R carefully and completed the “Review Questions” on page 1387. A forced-air fan coil may also be located at this end for fast freezing. Gaskets are used around the lid.The chest type of freezer is usually considered more efficient than the upright freezer because the cold air stays in the freezer when it’s opened. Fundamentals of HVAC/R. When you’re sure you completely understand the material from Assignment 5. Then. ASSIGNMENT 6 Read this introduction to Assignment 6.

a low refrigerant charge causes both the suction and discharge pressure gauges to indicate low pressure. Since it’s uncommon for two or more refrigeration components to fail at the same time. While you inspect each component. If a thermostatic expansion valve is present. An experienced technician can determine if a low refrigerant charge exists by feeling temperature variations throughout the system. a low refrigerant charge will cause the compressor to run hotter than normal. Lesson 2 31 . a light film of oil may cloud the sight glass. current draws. voltages. Typical Refrigeration System Problems The following problems are common to all refrigeration systems: Low refrigerant charge Excess refrigerant charge Ineffective evaporator Inefficient condenser Restriction in the refrigerant circuit Inefficient compressor Let’s take a brief look at each of these problems and how they affect the system. Newly developed refrigerants will cause problems for inexperienced refrigeration technicians who can’t correlate the refrigerant temperatures and pressures to the specific application.ambient air temperature. Finally. A low refrigerant charge reduces the system’s capacity by limiting the evaporator’s ability to absorb heat. With the exception of systems that use automatic expansion valves. a low refrigerant charge causes it to hiss when refrigerant is flowing through it. you should look for obvious problems first. particles resembling air bubbles will be visible. If only vapor remains in the system. On systems with sight glasses. and checking all air-moving devices. you must consider what other problem might have caused the failure.

A visual inspection may not allow you to locate a physically damaged line if it’s hidden from view. blocked. For instance. An inefficient condenser (whether air. A restriction in a liquid line may cause it to act like an expansion device.An excess refrigerant charge causes high discharge pressure and. System symptoms can be caused by an accumulation of dirt on the coil. While gauges will indicate that a restriction exists. An ineffective evaporator has low suction pressure and can’t absorb heat properly. a superheat check of the evaporator should be completed to ensure that adequate refrigerant is reaching it.or water-cooled) doesn’t properly transfer heat out of the system. A technician should look for improper. blocked or incorrect airflow. Suction pressure at the thermostatic expansion valve may also be excessive. the head pressure increases. Note: To prevent permanent damage to refrigeration components. Capillary tubes will flow excessive amounts of refrigerant as a result of the high suction pressure. as a result. A restriction causes a pressure drop and a temperature change across the restriction. A restriction in the refrigerant circuit may occur in the liquid or vapor line and result in a partial or complete blockage of refrigerant flow. an ineffective cooling fan. Finally. A malfunctioning evaporator may also cause liquid refrigerant to get back to the compressor. or a negatively influenced airflow. Different adverse symptoms will occur depending on the location of the restriction. with the exception of systems that use automatic expansion valves. a new structure or building addition might change the prevailing wind and airflow pattern through the condenser. Some liquid line restrictions will require you to use a thermometer to determine the location. icing. The technician should carefully check the relationship between the boiling temperature of the refrigerant and the temperature of the ambient air entering the coil. The overcharge condition can be bad enough to allow liquid refrigerant to reach the compressor (slugging). never knowingly allow a system with a restriction to operate for an extended time. they can’t pinpoint where the restriction is located. or a defective expansion valve. can cause high suction pressure. An indication of an ineffective evaporator is sweating or frosting of the suction line at the compressor. A plugged filter or line 32 Commercial Refrigeration and HVAC/R Maintenance .

and orderly. check your answers against those provided in the back of this study guide. the cost. remember that it’s a vapor pump that draws refrigerant vapor in from the suction (low) side. complete the Lesson 2 Examination. Obviously. determining its pumping effectiveness may prove more difficult. An inefficient compressor may be difficult to diagnose. Lesson 2 33 . then forces it out pressurized on the high side of the system. courteous. it’s easy to determine the problem. Inspection of all strainers or filter screens is a must. When you’re sure you completely understand the material from this lesson. When troubleshooting a running compressor. You should always be considerate.drier may cause a restriction that occurs quickly after startup. and how long the job will take. If you do these things. if the compressor doesn’t run at all. Control valves that don’t open or close completely or are improperly positioned may cause restrictions in the system. the customer will consider you a true professional and will call you when the need arises. Always interact with and inform the customer about what you’re doing. The way you present yourself and act when working on a job contributes to the overall satisfaction of the customer. Educate customers on preventive-maintenance tasks and routine inspections that they can do to prevent unnecessary breakdowns and to help control expenses. But if the compressor does run. Moisture or other contamination can cause control valves to malfunction. Let’s finish this assignment by reviewing some sound fundamental business practices that you should follow to improve your relationship with customers. After you’ve read pages 1388–1402 in the textbook Fundamentals of HVAC/R carefully and completed the “Review Questions” on page 1402.

NOTES 34 Commercial Refrigeration and HVAC/R Maintenance .

C. 10.takeexamsonline. C. 1 ohm. you can phone in or mail in your exam. For the quickest test results. a tank flooded with liquid nitrogen that the product is dipped in. a high-current-draw thermoelectric cooling plate. A blast freezer freezes products as they pass through using A. If you don’’t have access to the Internet. 1.Lesson 2 Commercial Refrigeration Systems.000 ohms. 250 ohms. Part 2 EXAMINATION NUMBER Examination Examination 01488800 Whichever method you use in submitting your exam answers to the school. B. high-velocity low-temperature air that’s blown across the product. When you feel confident that you have mastered the material in Lesson 2. go to http://www. B. Do not wait until another examination is ready. Submit your answers for this examination as soon as you complete it. 35 . 2. a fine mist spray of liquid nitrogen. Questions 1––20: Select the one best answer to each and submit your answers online. 50 ohms. you must use the number above. D. go to http://www. The coil of a potential relay used with a small singlephase compressor found in a refrigerator should have a resistance of A.

under capacity. electric compressor that operates while the truck is parked overnight. and three phasing. A small amount of liquid is allowed to boil off to keep the remaining liquid cold. or blown. C. B. D. compressor that’s turned by a belt on the truck engine. measure the phase displacement between the two power legs. and unbalanced. To To To To produce a bright green color and a pleasing appearance soft-freeze them prior to hard freezing them extend their freshness by killing bacteria and halting enzyme action reduce the amount of energy required to freeze them C. B. D. The three major electrical defects in compressor motors that can be identified using an ohmmeter are A. D. coils of piping below the surface containing liquid nitrogen that’s released to the air after evaporating. When troubleshooting single-phase compressor motors. check the frequency of the power source. D. phased. coils of piping below the surface containing a brine that’s cooled with a chiller. C. D. D. conduction freezers. Why are vegetables blanched before they’re frozen? A. small diesel engine that runs an open compressor. or grounded. blast freezers.3. C. 9. unbalanced. 7. Lesson 2 . B. C. 4. D. it’s important that the technician A. C. What is the most common method for keeping liquefied natural gas (LNG) liquefied at temperatures of –260ºF during transport? A. single phasing. open. a large thermoelectric grid beneath the surface of the ice. The refrigeration system freezes the ice for rinks by using A. Freezers that freeze the product by dipping the food directly in the refrigerant are called A. B. and run capacitor. The thermal banks in smaller trucks used for local deliveries are recharged by a(n) A. C. DC-powered electric compressor that operates off the truck battery. cryogenic freezers. 6. 5. dual phasing. B. B. check for phase reversal between L1 and L2. The LNG is cooled with large centrifugal chillers. check the start relay. 8. coils of piping below the surface containing a saturated mixture of liquid and vapor refrigerant being circulated by a centrifugal chiller. lock. The LNG is packed in dry ice. B. shorted. LNG is naturally cold and doesn’t require any refrigeration. start capacitor. 36 Examination. immersion freezers.

stored at room temperature to preserve its texture and spread ability. 15. immersion freezers. is grounded. metal components inside the compressor will start to melt. The center post 16.10. 12. is shorted. C. C. Examination. The jamb C. kept in hydrated containers at a temperature of 50ºF. –10º to –20ºF 13. –20ºF to –30ºF D. This indicates that the winding most likely A. When checking the resistance of the compressor start winding. C. C. has continuity and is good. D. is open. B. Slow down the ripening process Kill microorganisms Hasten the ripening process Prevent excessive drying of the food 11. cryogenic freezers. Lesson 2 37 . C. Freezers that place products between horizontal or vertical refrigerated plates are known as A. D. D. conduction freezers. The header B. 14. stored at temperatures just above freezing because its quality is ruined when frozen. B. B. To preserve its quality during long-term storage. 0º to 10ºF C. butter should be A. B. The mullion D. B. the technician’s multimeter shows 31 ohms. What is the panel called between a domestic refrigerator/freezer’s freezer and cooler compartments? A. What is the purpose of refrigerating fruits and vegetables? A. blast freezers. D. refrigerant starts to fractionate above 300ºF. 0º to –10ºF B. The temperature inside a refrigeration system’s compressor should be kept under 300ºF because the A. D. stored in bulk at temperatures below –20ºF. refrigerant starts to boil inside the compressor above 300ºF. compressor oil starts to break down above 300ºF. At what temperature would you expect an ice cream hardening room to be maintained? A.

through the suction line. automatic motorized door operator isn’t functioning correctly. B. Lesson 2 . D. So the refrigerant can travel out of the cap tube. To provide a more leakproof seal than with mechanical connection B. A hole in the outer shell of a refrigerator or freezer can be a problem because A. D. Why is the capillary tube soldered to the outside of the suction line on many domestic refrigerators? A. B. reducing the operating efficiency. moisture can enter. C. 19. cold air can leak out. For heat exchange between the cool suction line and the warmer capillary tube C. 20. refrigerator isn’t properly leveled when it’s installed.17. C. and reduce its insulating ability. D. the refrigerant trapped between the inner and outer wall can escape. refrigerator is properly leveled when it’s installed. The doors on a new refrigerator will close by themselves when let go if the A. For heat exchange between the warm suction line and the cooler cap tube 38 Examination. B. automatic motorized door operator is functioning correctly. soak the insulation. the magnetic field that produces the cooling effect can be reduced. and into the evaporator D. C. Which freezer arrangement is the most efficient? A. Chest-type freezer Upright freezer The freezer section of a side-by-side refrigerator Under-counter front-door freezer 18.

you’ve learned a great deal about all of the components found in HVAC/R systems and how they operate. disconnect. and overcurrent protection Determine the correct charge for a new air-conditioning installation List system operational safety concerns that should be addressed on planned service calls Explain how to address common questions asked by customers Outline a general approach to troubleshooting Identify common refrigeration system performance indicators Explain how to use manufacturer provided troubleshooting aids Lesson 3 Lesson 3 39 . They’re installation. concentrates on the three categories of “everyday tasks” you’ll encounter while working in the field.Installing and Maintaining HVAC/R Systems At this point in your studies. which covers the last section of your textbook. you’ll be able to Discuss the factors affecting equipment placement Demonstrate how to select and size the power wiring. This last lesson. When you complete this lesson. and troubleshooting. maintenance.

The NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) publishes the NEC (National Electrical Code). piping installation. Once all the necessary preparatory steps have been taken. Airconditioning and refrigeration standards have been put forth by several organizations including the AHRI (Air-Conditioning Heating and Refrigeration Institute) and ASHRE (American Society of Heating. Before beginning the actual installation. and Air-Conditioning Engineers). evacuation and charging. 40 Commercial Refrigeration and HVAC/R Maintenance . Preparing for Installation A successful installation depends on more that simply opening the shipping crate and assembling the unit. Most importantly. local and national codes should be researched along with standards of professional organizations. Preparation is essential. Structural installation principles have been developed by the IRC (International Residential Code). study Unit 84. receivers.ASSIGNMENT 7 Read this introduction to Assignment 7. which is the nationally accepted standard for electrical installation practices. and starting and checking. you’ll most likely follow these installation practices in this order: equipment placement. before installation the technician needs to verify that the system is correctly sized and efficiently meets the customer’s needs. beginning with reading the manufacturer’s installation instructions. Refrigeration. The instructions contain specifications for electrical power requirements as well as information regarding placement and start-up procedures. and coolers are the concern of the ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers).” on pages 1403–1419 in the textbook. Fundamentals of HVAC/R. The Underwriters Laboratory (UL) tests and reviews electrical components. Then. Pressure vessels such as boilers. electrical connections. ductwork installation. and a UL approval may be required for some HVAC/R products according to local building codes. “Installation Techniques.

which includes choosing the correct torch and gas for the type of tubing being joined. Electrical Connections The installation technician is often responsible for the electrical wiring that connects to the unit. It’s never safe to assume that a circuit-disconnect device is functioning as intended. it’s unprofessional and unfair to take a “let the next guy worry about it” attitude when considering unit access. Also the technician must always use correct soldering techniques for joining piping. Even if your job description only requires you to install and not to service systems. Care must also be taken to ensure there’s sufficient space for air movement. and you can review those units if necessary. first make sure that there’s sufficient structural strength to support the unit’s weight. The three important elements of this process are sizing the wire. Wire sizes are determined by consulting the NEC.Equipment Placement When deciding where to place equipment. All of these elements are important to protect the equipment as well as the safety of the occupants and installation technician. As a rule of thumb. isolation pads. The importance of planning ahead for the location and orientation of these systems as well as securing them properly can’t be over emphasized. with the use of isolators. Sound and vibration issues must be addressed as well. the disconnect rating is 115% of the circuit’s minimum ampacity. sizing the overcurrent protection. Ductwork and Piping Installation Sizing and installing ductwork and piping has been discussed thoroughly in earlier lessons. and choosing the type of disconnect. Always use Lesson 3 41 . and springs where necessary. The unit’s data plate provides overcurrent protection information. One very important issue that’s often overlooked is to make certain you’ve allowed ample space for service access. An essential part of piping and ductwork installation includes checking the system for leaks. especially around condensers and fans or blowers.

check your answers against those provided in the back of this study guide. Starting and Checking When starting and checking a unit. move on to Assignment 8. check the data plate to confirm the type and amount of refrigerant required. 42 Commercial Refrigeration and HVAC/R Maintenance . which can be safely released into the atmosphere. After you’ve read pages 1403–1419 in the textbook Fundamentals of HVAC/R carefully and completed the “Review Questions” on page 1418–1419. these recommendations include checking clearances. damage to the unit.a meter to test for power before working on electrical components. adjust the volume to compensate for the refrigerant-line length. Also make sure that all electrical connections are secure and correctly sized connectors are installed. and electrical connections. mechanical components. When you’re sure you completely understand the material from Assignment 7. it’s very important to follow a set routine so that all pre-start inspection requirements are completed in the correct order. but in some cases catastrophic failure. Most manufacturers include their recommendations for startup in the unit’s shipping container. When charging split systems. Before charging. Cooling systems are therefore evacuated and normally tested using nitrogen gas. One missed step or incorrectly sized component could result in not only inefficient operation. A system’s ability to operate efficiently and according to design specifications depends on a correct installation process. or danger to the occupants. it’s essential to check a system for leaks before starting it. Typically. Evacuation and Charging As you already know.

After completing the pre-start inspection.ASSIGNMENT 8 Read this introduction to Assignment 8. and troubleshooting and correction. Fundamentals of HVAC/R. and combustion standards if applicable. In addition. the next step is the pre-start inspection. Troubleshooting and correction of any problems is the final stage of a scheduled maintenance call. This begins by looking at the unit’s data plate and noting operational specifications such as its voltage rating. After installing the unit. saving your customers money and preventing callbacks. amperage draw of motors. There are four main components of a scheduled maintenance service call: routine maintenance. planned maintenance helps to keep small problems from becoming large issues. During the operation check. cooling system maintenance is scheduled in the spring and heating system maintenance in the fall to prepare for the operating seasons. “Planned Maintenance” on pages 1420–1447 in the textbook. Typically. What Is Planned Maintenance? Simply stated. The technician will also listen for any sounds from motors or fans. the technician operates the unit. Routine maintenance consists of checking and replacing parts such as filters or fluids on a regular basis. Then study Unit 85. pre-start inspection. which might indicate a mechanical problem. operation check. an HVAC/R technician must also maintain it. planned maintenance is performing regularly schedule maintenance at pre-planned intervals to keep a unit functioning efficiently within its design specifications. items such as the operating voltage and current as well as temperatures and pressures are compared to system specifications. Once routine maintenance is completed. Planning a maintenance schedule at the time the unit is installed helps ensure that it continues to function efficiently and reach its maximum lifespan. Lesson 3 43 .

During the pre-start inspection. inspect the combustion chamber. inspect and change filters as necessary. and check water flow rate to evaluate water pump operation. replace the nozzle and clean the cad cell sensor. Once the unit is started. and tighten belts as needed. Equally 44 Commercial Refrigeration and HVAC/R Maintenance . observe the flames of gas burners for correct combustion. determining a path to safety before a problem occurs. Check the condenser and evaporator. Importance of Safety When you began your studies. stack temperature. During operation. you’ll often work in an unfamiliar environment. For all combustion type furnaces. and tighten fan belts. there are numerous measurements that should be taken. lubricate motors. clean their coils and look for damage. and evaporator pressure drops. Regardless of fuel type. Check and manually adjust the barometric damper. During operation. you learned how to keep yourself safe by using correct techniques when handling tools and equipment.Cooling-System Maintenance Scheduled maintenance of air-conditioning and refrigeration units calls for some special attention. measure motor(s) amperage draw. Heating-System Maintenance Annual heating-system checks should include both prestart and operational tasks. Temperature-pressure relief valve function should be checked yearly. Change filters when necessary. For oil-burning furnaces. The temperature rise will also be measured and checked against specifications. you should inspect all piping and tanks for water leaks. and carbon dioxide levels. superheat and subcooling. During a routine maintenance call. lubricate motors and fans. It’s important to be aware of your surroundings and take note of possible danger areas. Compare your results to design specifications. including the oil pump pressure. hydronic heating systems require some additional maintenance tasks. low-side and high-side pressures. Obviously. You’ll typically employ a draft gauge to measure draft readings.

After you’ve read pages 1420–1447 in the textbook Fundamentals of HVAC/R carefully and completed the “Review Questions” on page 1447.important. move on to Assignment 9. system designs. diagnose their causes. Fundamentals of HVAC/R. ASSIGNMENT 9 Read this introduction to Assignment 9. check your answers against those provided in the back of this study guide. all of this knowledge has limited value if you can’t communicate with your customers. However. Communicating with Customers By this time in your studies. and adequate ventilation and appropriate clearances from structures and storage materials. Once you’ve diagnosed a problem and decided on the corrective measures necessary. proper support and structural integrity of components. The new sophisticated technologies used in today’s HVAC/R systems offer the advantages of increasing efficiency and reducing operating costs. the next Lesson 3 45 . and operating principles. Safety should always be your first and foremost consideration. and perform corrective measures in a safe and efficient manner. “Troubleshooting” on pages 1448–1467 in the textbook. However. they also can make troubleshooting these systems more difficult. A well-trained and competent HVAC/R technician uses problem-solving skills to correctly identify deficiencies. Then study Unit 86. the gas laws of physics. perform appropriate safety checks to protect the health and well-being of the customer. When you’re sure you completely understand the material from Assignment 8. This may include items such as the correct wiring and grounding of equipment. you’ve spent countless hours learning about all types of components.

What tests were performed to determine the cause of the problem? You might choose to give details about how certain measurements vary from normal operating conditions and briefly describe what tools were used. What is the equipment doing wrong? Once you explain the problem. Good communication goes a long way to eliminating misunderstandings and avoiding conflicts. how can this be corrected? In some instances there may be several solutions to choose from. which includes understanding how all of the components are interrelated. This is why your early studies covered so many theories and fundamental principles. These questions generally fall into six different categories. your explanation of the problem or your proposed solution won’t mean much. enabling you to analyze all of the possible problems and choose the most probable 46 Commercial Refrigeration and HVAC/R Maintenance . the next question arises naturally. depending upon whether short term or long term issues need to be addressed. depending on your employer’s policy. or using technical jargon with which the client is unfamiliar. What is the cause of the problem? This may be the most difficult question to answer since you need to briefly explain the cause without being too lengthy. might require that the customer sign a cost proposal with itemized pricing for both parts and labor. this is the most important question for most clients. After the customer has a basic understanding of how the system works and what the problem is. How much will this cost? Obviously. Basic Troubleshooting A good technician understands how an entire system operates.step is explaining them to your customer and answering their questions. Part of your answer. their next question will most likely be. These include: How is the equipment supposed to operate? Unless the client has a basic understanding of how the system is designed to function.

However. Lesson 3 47 . Use of these charts requires a general knowledge of how the system is intended to operate. There are several basic stages or phases of the troubleshooting process. When you’re sure you completely understand the material from this lesson.ones. provided by equipment manufacturers. This process is known as a systems approach to troubleshooting. there are also trouble-shooting charts. while others utilize flow charts indicating how the technician can conduct tests to eliminate possible failure causes. Some are simply lists of symptoms. which are invaluable diagnostic tools. After you’ve read pages 1448–1467 in the textbook Fundamentals of HVAC/R carefully and completed the “Review Questions” on pages 1466–1467. there are various testing instruments and traditional hand tools used by a technician during the troubleshooting process. check your answers against those provided in the back of this study guide. which are Understanding system operation sequence Preliminary system inspection Collecting operational data Recognizing what is operating incorrectly Testing to isolate the cause Recommending corrective action Troubleshooting Tools Naturally. complete the Lesson 3 Examination.

NOTES 48 Commercial Refrigeration and HVAC/R Maintenance .

Questions 1––20: Select the one best answer to each question. B. you can phone in or mail in your exam.takeexamsonline. you must use the number above. go to http://www. the oil should always be purchased in large containers. Submit your answers for this examination as soon as you complete it.Lesson 3 Installing and Maintaining HVAC/R Systems EXAMINATION NUMBER Examination Examination 01488900 Whichever method you use in submitting your exam answers to the school. To ensure that the refrigeration oil being added is clean and dry. and submit your answers online. and used as needed. 49 . If you don’’t have access to the Internet. the oil should only be purchased in containers that will be used up after opening.takeexamsonline. For the quickest test results. go to http://www. When you feel confident that you have mastered the material in Lesson 3. the oil container should remain open for at least an hour prior to use to ensure that all volatile organic compounds have evaporated. stored. D. A. additives such as acid reducer and moisture inhibitors should be added to the oil before every use. Do not wait until another examination is ready.

7. When installing a typical split system small commercial refrigeration system. D. the date. Lesson 3 . The disconnect current for a piece of air-conditioning equipment should be equal to A. control voltage. C. including a set length of lines. just a nitrogen-holding charge. This most likely is displaying A. 3 feet D. B. line voltage. C. Fast-blowing fuses for added safety One-time fuses Time-delay fuses Air-conditioning equipment doesn’t require overcurrent protection because of its inherent thermal protectors. the technician should first check A. the suction pressure—32 psig. The diagnostic board on a system is flashing three short flashes. enough refrigerant for both the condensing unit and the evaporator. C. 4 feet. no refrigerant. C. The minimum clearance to allow from the service access panel of a piece of equipment is A. D. D. ohm out all electrical components. 4. perform both a mechanical and electrical pre-check routine. check the system superheat. Before checking the switches in the circuit to a nonfunctioning load. but not the refrigerant lines. What type of fuses should be used for overcurrent protection of air-conditioning equipment circuits? A. D. B. enough refrigerant for just the condensing line alone. Before starting a new air-conditioning unit. C. the resistance of all the devices in the same circuit with the nonfunctional device. B. the condensing unit normally contains A. and voltage to the nonfunctional component. C. pausing. B. the sum of the compressor RLA and the FLA of all fan motors. then flashing two long flashes. D. B. 6. 2 feet. B. D. 50 Examination. the resistance of the nonfunctioning device. 115% of the maximum overcurrent rating listed on the equipment data plate. the minimum circuit ampacity listed on the equipment data plate. C. 8.2. check the unit amp draw. fault code 32. 1 foot. 3. B. enough refrigerant for the entire system. 5. the technician should A. the ICM is faulty. 115% of the minimum circuit ampacity listed on the equipment data plate. the current draw of the nonfunctioning device.

C. Examination. The side where air exits the coil 10. A. C. recovering the system refrigerant using piercing pliers and installing permanent braze on service valves. 14. What is the purpose of checking the supply voltage after starting the system? A. checking the temperature rise across the indoor coil. condenser coil is frozen also. To To To To determine which power leg is positive and which is negative determine the voltage drop in the motor determine the refrigeration coefficient of performance verify that the supplied voltage is within the manufacturer’s specifications 13. 12. B. Lesson 3 51 . B. A technician needs to check the heating operation of a heat pump that has no gauge access ports. C. The side where air enters the coil Dirt won’t build up on an air-conditioner evaporator coil. C. The technician should start by A. Both sides build up dirt equally. D. D. the crankcase should be pressurized to facilitate quick oil removal. installing bolt on piercing valves on both the gas line and the liquid line. D. the compressor should be started to make sure the oil is warm while it’s being drained. B. What side of an air-conditioning evaporator coil generally collects dirt? A. The technician can reasonably assume that the A. refrigerant charge is high. 11. D. Before opening an oil fill crankcase plug on a semi-hermetic compressor. The customer will receive money saving coupons to purchase new equipment. C. refrigerant charge is low. C. The customer can apply for the federal air-conditioning maintenance tax credit. B. B. Reduced operational cost and longer equipment life Most air-conditioning contractors perform seasonal maintenance at no or reduced cost as a public service. pressure should be removed from the compressor crankcase.9. evaporator coil is also frozen. B. How does performing planned maintenance save the customer money? A. installing bolt on piercing valves on both the high and the low side of the compressor. D. D. A technician notes that an operating air-conditioning system has ice formed on the suction line at the condensing unit. an oil defector shield should be in place to handle the small amount of oil spray that will come out when the plug is removed.

B. Higher-efficiency filters have a higher pressure drop. An air-conditioning system that’s undercharged will operate with a A. D. high evaporator airflow. B. Most customers aren’t concerned with the cost. low evaporator airflow. Why should caution be exercised when replacing a low-efficiency air filter with a higher-efficiency air filter? A. Why should service technicians be familiar with company pricing policies? A. D. B. Air-conditioning coils depend on a certain amount of small particulates to help moisture precipitate out of the air. 20. D. The lower pressure drop across high-efficiency filters can cause the blower motor to draw high amps. low condenser airflow. C. To To To To verify that the supplied voltage is within the manufacturer’s specifications figure out where to connect the power wiring to the unit determine the voltage drop in the wire determine which power leg is positive and which is negative 19. A problem that can look like refrigerant overcharge if a service technician ignores subcooling and superheat is A. When installing a split system. what should be done prior to opening the installation valves? A. low subcooling and a low superheat. Evacuate the lines and coil. leaving the technician entirely in charge of repair costs. high subcooling and a high superheat. Add a small quantity of water to prevent the O-rings in the valves from drying out. Lesson 3 . It’s possible for air that’s too clean to increase the occupant’s sensitivity to allergens. D. D. B. low subcooling and a high superheat. C. B. 52 Examination. Technicians should always try to use parts and refrigerant that are on sale first. C. C. What is the purpose of checking the supply voltage before operating the system? A. C.15. high subcooling and a low superheat. B. Cost is often the foremost question in the customer’s mind. 18. 16. 17. C. an overfeeding expansion device. D. which can cause poor airflow. The technician should always try to sell the service customer new equipment. Purge the lines and coil with nitrogen to ensure that they’re clean. Heat the valve body with a torch to loosen it so it’ll turn freely.

Evaporative cooling systems 15. A secondary refrigerant is a fluid cooled by direct refrigeration and used to transfer cooling to a distant area where cooling is needed and long direct expansion lines aren’t practical or economical. 16. a suction pressure cut-out control. Multiple compressor systems 13. Conventional thermostat. condenser fan. and the process must be operated to comply with the laws relating to protecting the environment. receiver tank. a minimum amount of energy must be used to perform the operation. High. Multiple evaporator systems 10. Brines 17. and evaporator 8. The equipment design must ensure that the quality of the product being cooled remains satisfactory. Cryogenic methods 7. N-type and P-type Answers Answers 53 . filter drier. Calcium chloride. sodium chloride. thermostat. A check valve 11. Frozen foods 5. condenser. 2. Low temperature 6. evaporator fan. medium. suction to liquid line heat exchanger. 14. Compressor. The discharge from the second compressor goes to the condenser. low.Unit 76 1. and suction line accumulator 9. The suction line from the evaporator feeds the first compressor. High/low pressure control. metering device. and glycerin 18. Below 40°F and above 32°F 4. and cryogenic temperatures 3. ethylene and propylene glycols. methyl alcohol. Then the discharge from the first compressor enters the suction of the second compressor. or an evaporator pressure regulator 12.

A defrost cycle can be terminated based on temperature. High-temperature applications are systems designed to maintain case temperature of 47°F to 60°F. Mediumtemperature applications are systems designed to maintain case temperature of 28°F to 40°F. resistive heaters. otherwise it will begin to insulate the surface of the evaporator and prohibit the transmission of heat from the product to the refrigerant within the evaporator. dry-cleaning processes. To prevent some of this warm air from entering the case. 6.19. These systems can be classified as high-temperature. A drain line from the evaporator’s drain is connected to a floor drain. pressure. This frost must be removed on a regular basis. Using the air within the case. frost will accumulate on an evaporator surface. 3. or low temperature applications. and pneumatic control systems 2. 8. Absorption systems 21. 4. Unit 77 1. discharge vapor from the compressor 7. Since most refrigeration systems operate at evaporating temperatures below 32°F. Low-temperature applications are systems designed to maintain case temperature of 0°F to –20°F. or it may be fed into a heated pan. An expendable refrigerant is one that performs cooling by permitting the liquid refrigerant to boil at atmospheric pressures and is released to the atmosphere after the cooling operation is completed. Food service. 20. This means it changes from a solid to a gas without a liquid phase. medium-temperature. Average usage and heavy usage 54 Review Question Answers . some systems will have a door switch that will shut off the fans when the door is opened. printing industry. 5. or time.

(5) The location of the condensate drains should provide for minimum pipe length. 12. (2) Never install an evaporator above a door. (4) The evaporator should be installed in a location that will provide the shortest possible distance between it and the condensing unit. Liquid chillers are available with reciprocating. Refrigerated air driers are designed to lower the temperature of the air below its dew point temperature so water will condense out of it. the required BTU capacity of the system must be determined by performing a heat load calculation. Cooling a secondary refrigerant for a building air conditioning system. Heat transmission. or centrifugal compressors. and supplemental loads 10. ice rinks 15. and an electric generator to operate any other system components. A health switch is a temperature switch that alerts a customer that the machine is operating above a safe operating range for a period of time. The condensing unit will also need some means of keeping the high-side pressure above a minimum value during low outdoor temperatures. 13. These systems can either use a separate diesel or gas engine or the vehicle’s engine to operate the compressor. Before any of the system components can be selected. (3) Don’t install an evaporator coil in an area where it will interfere with the cooler’s aisles or storage racks. Low-temperature condensing units will require approximately 200 CFM per 1000 BTU. scroll.9. Medium-temperature units will require approximately 165 CFM per 1000 BTU. 16. product load. 14. air infiltration. screw. 19. Increases efficiency 18. (1) The air pattern of the evaporator must envelop the entire room. 17. or the entire system can be powered from a land line when the truck isn’t on the road. 11. Review Question Answers 55 .

2. They’re normally used to either stop or start a motor during its normal cycle or on a fault condition. which through a mechanical linkage will open or close on a mechanical switch. A crankcase pressure regulator (CPR) is a common accessory added to many low-temperature refrigeration applications such as walk-in and reach-in freezers. 7. As more or less pressure is applied to the diaphragm of its bellows. 3. A mechanical pressure control is basically an electrical switch controlled by a pressure bellows. It’s a close-on-rise regulator. They’re normally used as safety controls. 11. A solenoid valve is a flow control device that stops or allows the flow of a refrigerant in a refrigeration system. The fluid pressure is then transmitted to a diaphragm.20. As the temperature of the sensing element changes. It’s a close-on-rise pressure control. a mechanical linkage will cause the electrical switch to either open or close. 10. 8. Mechanical temperature controls will have a sensing element filled with some type of fluid. Normally there will be an arrow stamped on the body of the valve to indicate the direction of refrigerant flow. Some train refrigeration systems will use an absorption system or steam jet system to refrigerate their products. Unit 78 1. An oil pressure control shuts down a compressor if an insufficient amount of oil is being fed to the bearings within a compressor. An evaporator pressure regulator (EPR) is a refrigerant flow control device that prevents the refrigerant pressure in the evaporator from operating below a minimum value. 5. 9. 56 Review Question Answers . 4. 6. the pressure of the fluid in the sensing element will also change.

The ability to satisfactorily clean the equipment. A sight glass Unit 79 1. provide adequate temperature control. when they’re serviced. 14. One method of elevating the system discharge pressure is to control the operation of the condenser fan motors. 19. It maintains a desired high-side pressure and also provide a means of completely stopping the flow of water during the off cycle. A suction-to-liquid line heat exchanger can be added to a system to improve its efficiency and help to prevent liquid from returning to the compressor. A suction line accumulator is a safety device that helps prevent liquid refrigerant from returning to the compressor. Because there’s a relationship between the coil temperature and temperature of the air entering the evaporator 13. An automatic relief valve and a one-time relief valve 15. 16. technicians don’t have to interfere with the kitchen operation.12. The disadvantages of remote systems are: they’re not easily relocated. their initial cost to install is more expensive. A receiver is a vessel that allows a system to store excess refrigerant that it doesn’t currently need. 18. An oil separator is used to separate and collect some of the oil in the discharge line as it leaves the compressor and return it to the compressor’s crankcase. their condensers aren’t located in a greasy environment. and product pressure Review Question Answers 57 . they use more refrigerant and refrigerant piping. Another method of maintaining a minimum condensing pressure is the use of a pressure regulator with a builtin bypass feature. 2. The advantages of remotes systems are: they won’t add additional heat to the kitchen. 20. 17.

8. (3) it’s more difficult to reclaim some of the heat for use in the store. The basic system consists of a hopper. 18°F to 22°F 6. 58 Review Question Answers . Some carbon dioxide gas needs to be added to most direct draw systems to maintain a pressure between 14 and 16 psi. and a freezing cylinder. a mix-feed system. usually resulting in higher operating costs. Also. 11. such as for space heating the store or for heating hot water. An operator must not exceed the draw of the machine. a refrigerant monitor should be used to alert the owner or service company of the problem. Uneven 12. the product will be too soft to stand up. A disadvantage of parallel systems is that a single leak can shut down a sizable number of cases. If the designed draw rate is exceeded. such as a refrigerant leak. Mix-feed systems automatically meter liquid mix into the freezing cylinder to replace that which has been drawn off. There are several disadvantages to this design: (1) many more compressors are needed. 9. The pressure controls the speed of the draw at the faucet. and therefore unsatisfactory. 4. the operator must clean the machine on a regular basis. 25°F with a satellite suction temperature of –33°F 13. 5. Beer barrels are delivered at a pressure of 12 to 15 psi. 7.3. When possible. 10. Batch freezers are designed to produce large quantities of ice cream instead of a single serving like a soft-serve freezer. only that system is affected. (2) the initial cost to install may be higher since it requires more equipment. The advantage to this design is that when a problem arises with the system. These beer lines can be cooled by air or by a refrigerated coolant. a beater.

frost and ice. The evaporator will be shaped in a form to produce the shape and size of the ice cube to be produced.14. Because of this. Three 19. it lowers the initial installation costs. freezing. Air films. Piping from a rack system to the individual cases is carried in trenches underneath the floor or overhead using hangers. it reduces the amount of refrigerant piping needed. 15. requiring longer and more frequent defrosting. cooling and holding the mix. noncondensable gases. 17. it provides load matching with multiplexed compressors. abnormal temperature differentials. Unit 80 1. scale. 16. poor air circulation. and foreign particles Review Question Answers 59 . clogged sprays. The basic design of most cubed ice machines is to begin water into a trough and pump it over an evaporator. it decreases or eliminates the need for EPR valves. They rely on an air curtain(s) to provide a barrier between the store’s environment and the product. Pasteurizing. The machine will sense when the correct size ice cube is formed and then drop these ice cubes into a bin. Open display cases at low temperatures are more sensitive to the store’s environment. Their evaporator coils tend to freeze up more quickly. it eliminates the need for a central area for refrigeration equipment. reach-in glass door freezers are more often chosen to display frozen food products since they’re more reliable and less troublesome at low temperatures. The advantages of a protocol system are: it reduces the total refrigerant charge for the store. and then hardening 2. In the discharge air stream of the case 18. slow liquid circulation. homogenizing. –20 to –30°F 3. 20.

21.4. –238°F 12. The product is passed through a shallow liquid nitrogen bath or immersed in a low-temperature brine solution. High-velocity low-temperature air is blown across the product so that it’s frozen as it leaves the tunnel. Storage of ingredients. controlling the temperature of the dough during the mixing process. for figure skating 26°F. Because these food products. aluminum alloys. contain insect eggs that when not stored under refrigerated conditions will hatch and contaminate the product 6. The straight dough process and the sponge dough process 7. 90°F room temperature. The cold salt water is then pumped back into the fish holds. Dewar flasks 13. 16. 8. 10. 9. propane. Methane. storing and freezing the products 5. Process cooling 11. Bread is frozen at temperatures between 16 and 20°F and stored at temperatures below 0°F. ethane. Nitrogen and carbon dioxide flushing systems 20. 17. The product is placed on a conveyor belt that passes through a blast freezer. A detachable truck trailer that has a stand-alone refrigeration system 18. This is used on fishing vessels where seawater comes into direct contact with pipes containing refrigerant. Dry ice and gel packs 60 Review Question Answers . and nitrogen 15. Truck bodies lined with eutectic plates 19. and nickel steel 14. and 50°F drinking water temperature 22. and for recreational skating 26 to 28°F. like all natural food products. pentane. Stainless steel. 90°F supply water temperature. The temperature of ice for ice hockey is 22°F. The ice on ice skating rinks is produced in layers.

Poultry has a particularly high level of salmonella. Sanitation is the most important factor in controlling bacteria. this is called freezer burn. Oxidation changes: These are caused by atmospheric oxygen coming in contact with the food. vegetables. the blended liquid must not rise above 45ºF. it’s again cooled in a heat exchanger (a plate or tubular unit) to 40ºF or lower. 5. 3. These are picked green and must be ripened for marketing. molds. and packaged. the bags must have holes. and fungi enzymes. Banana rooms must be airtight. Milk is stored in insulated or refrigerated silo type tanks that maintain a 40ºF temperature. A design temperature difference of 15ºF and a refrigerant temperature of 40ºF are considered good practice. 2. Refrigeration is provided by using a refrigerant other than ammonia. Mechanical refrigeration begins to cool it even during milking. After milk is pasteurized and homogenized. fruits. Microbiological: These include bacteria. Suffocation: Certain fresh vegetables must have air. When sealed in cellophane bags. The purpose of refrigeration is to slow down the ripening process so that these products can reach consumers before spoiling. Poultry spoils much faster. 8.Unit 81 1. Perishable foods can be classified into six groups: meats. poultry. from 90º to 50ºF within the first hour. and dairy products. As more milk is added. Seafood 6. They’re chemical in nature and don’t deteriorate. and from 50º to 40ºF within the next hour. producing discoloration and rancidity. 4. seafood. Review Question Answers 61 . Surface dehydration: In freezing. 7. Wilting: This applies to vegetables that lose their crispness.

By packaging in airtight containers or by waxing or glazing the product. 10. 14.9. Cold air at high velocities is circulated over the product. If stored improperly. Fruits are often glazed with a sugar syrup to prevent oxidation. 15. and low pH (high acid) of salted butter. 12. the quality of butter deteriorates from absorption of atmospheric odors. This consists of placing the product in boiling water or steam to kill bacteria and to stop enzyme action. loss of weight through evaporation. ice glazing is used to prevent surface drying of fish. growth of microorganisms and resulting activity of enzymes. surface oxidation. 11. Special handling requirements Capacity Freezing times Quality consideration Yield Appearance First cost Operating costs Automation Space availability Upstream/downstream processes 13. The air removes heat from the product and releases it to an air refrigerant heat exchanger before being recirculated. The ideal storage temperature range for various types of cheese is in the range of 30–34ºF for natural cheeses and 40–45ºF for processed cheeses. Maximum temperatures range from 45–60ºF for the natural cheeses while the processed cheeses may be kept on open shelves at 75ºF. 62 Review Question Answers . The temperature would need to be 45ºF and the relative humidity 75–80%.

door infiltration protection devices. filling. Preparation. insulation. Energy-saving measures include floating head pressure controls with oversized evaporative condensers coupled with two-speed fans. and unit operations Assembly. season. The product should be heated sufficiently to kill these destructive agents before refreezing. glycol chillers are used by some plants to circulate propylene glycol to evaporators located in the production areas. highly purified refrigerant. These records should show conditions for time of day. evaporator temperature. variable speed pumps for glycol chiller systems. 17. 19. The product is then removed and the freezing process completed in a mechanical freezer. ice builders to compensate for peak loads. processing. 20. and casing Finishing: storage and shipping 21. freezing. Entering temperatures Duration of storage Required product temperature for maximum/minimum protection Uniformity of temperatures Review Question Answers 63 . To avoid the hazard of a potential ammonia spill to workers in the plant. Cryogenic freezers utilize both convection and/or conduction by exposing food to temperatures below –76°F in the presence of liquid nitrogen or liquid carbon dioxide refrigerants. and equipment type/function. Products are frozen by immersion in a boiling. and computerized control systems.16. and packaging Cooling. 23. single-stage refrigeration for small areas and loads. Products are placed on or between horizontal or vertical refrigerated plates that provide efficient heat transfer and short freezing time. on/off shift production. 22. 18. 24.

The mullion 11. The chest-type arrangement is more efficient. The mullion heaters keep the surfaces of the mullion warm to prevent condensation or freezing of water on their surfaces. moisture would enter the space and soak into the insulation. The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics 7. If a hole should occur in the outer or inner shell. 10. Refrigerator/freezer thermostats react to changes in temperature. 64 Review Question Answers . The Association of Food and Drug Officials (AFDO) Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) U. –10°F to 0°F 5. Boxes can be found that are cooling only. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Unit 82 1. No 4. In the last few passes of the condenser 8. 6. 12. 35°F to 40°F temperature range. By slowing down the reproduction of bacteria and enzyme actions 2. freezing only. Convection currents where cool air is heavier and falls and warm air is lighter and rises 3. Heat is absorbed by a refrigerant as it changes from a liquid to a gas.S. 9.Air movement and ventilation Humidity Traffic in and out of storage space Sanitation Light 25.

The voltmeter. defrost heater. Dehumidifying is one effect of refrigerating that harms lettuce. Unit 83 1. and the defrost thermostat. then freezing of the coil can occur. 23. The head pressure will go up. Voltmeter 4. The crisper’s purpose is to maintain an area of higher humidity around certain produce. 14. If the thermostat is kept too low. 19. 18. and the evaporator shut off during a call for defrost. If the refrigerator/freezer isn’t leveled properly the doors won’t close or open properly. 24. The compressor. and contactors). The differential is 4°F. the ammeter. Temporary taps can be installed to access the system. The three main components are the defrost timer. and (2) electrically diagnosing loads (coils. Frost forms on the freezer coil due to the coil temperature being below 32°F. Ammeter Review Question Answers 65 . and compressors) 2.13. and produce won’t sit level on the shelves. condenser fan. The defrost timer keeps track of the compressor run time. 22. 21. 20. fan motors. water could spill out of the ice-maker tray. 16. relays. 17. (1) Electrically diagnosing controls (switches. and the ohmmeter 3. The built-in gasket will pull and hold the door closed. 15. then permanent taps can be installed after all the refrigerant has been recovered from the system.

Hold relay in the upright position. 66 Review Question Answers . To test a current relay using an ohmmeter: 1. 2. One possibility is the motor windings of the compressor are open. Mechanical defects are problems that affect the operation of the mechanical pump inside the compressor. 5. 2% 9. 6. If the ohmmeter reads approximately one ohm. the coil of the relay is electrically okay. 6. Place the ohmmeter leads on the “L” and “M” terminals of the relay. Rated-load amps 10. 12. or grounded. the coil is open and the relay needs to be replaced. Another possibility is the starting components (start relay and/or capacitors) of the compressor are defective. 11. shorted. Zero the ohmmeter (if using an analog). 8. 7. 3. Mechanical and electrical. 4. A technician must compare the compressor’s actual amperage draw to the amperage draw as stated by the manufacturer.5. If the meter reads an infinite reading. place the ohmmeter leads on the “M” and “S” terminals of the relay. Set an ohmmeter to its lowest scale. 8. Next. Electrical defects are those problems that affect the electrical operation of the motor inside the compressor. Read the ohmmeter. 7. Discover why the original compressor failed. Cylinder temperatures exceeding 300ºF will begin the breakdown of the oil. The third possibility is the incorrect voltage is applied to a compressor. Remove the relay from the circuit.

The contacts should be closed.000 ohms). 13. it is electrically open and the relay needs to be replaced. 2. 1. the coil of the relay is electrically okay. 4. the contacts are defective and the relay needs to be replaced. If the meter reads a resistance. 4. Remove the capacitor from the circuit. Next. If the coil reads infinite. If the ohmmeter reads an infinite resistance. Set an ohmmeter to high scale. the contacts are stuck closed. 10.000 to 14. 3. 5. Place the ohmmeter leads on the capacitor terminals. Discharge capacitor with a bleed resistor or a volt meter. The relay will need to be replaced. 2. 14. showing a zero resistance on the ohmmeter. the contacts are closed— as they should be. Set an ohmmeter to its lowest scale. 3. To test a capacitor using an ohmmeter. Zero the ohmmeter (if using an analog). 5. Zero the ohmmeter (if using an analog). Sometimes this test will fail even on a good relay. 1. place the ohmmeter leads on the “1” and “2” terminals on the relay. the contacts are open—as they should be. Watch for one of the following indications of the conditions of the capacitor: Good—Needle will swing toward zero and then slowly return to infinity Review Question Answers 67 . If the ohmmeter reads a high resistance or an infinite resistance. Place the ohmmeter leads on the “2” and “5” terminals of the relay. Remove the relay from the circuit. 6. If the ohmmeter reads a high resistance (approximately 6. If the ohmmeter reads zero. Try turning the relay upside down and shake. but it’s worth trying.9.

or high temperature. Using water is the best method. 68 Review Question Answers . (We’ll refer to this as the EAT—Entering Air Temperature). A medium-temperature system is one that operates at an evaporating temperature of between 0°F and 25°F. A low-temperature system is one that operates at an evaporating temperature of 0°F and below. The method used is as follows: Step 1—Measure the dry-bulb temperature of the air entering the condenser. 8. Next. If the test shows an open or shorted capacitor. 16. higher resistance scales may need to be used for an accurate test. Step 3—Using a pressure/temperature (P/T) chart. Make a second test by reversing the leads of the ohmmeter. medium temperature. 15. convert the suction pressure to its equivalent saturation temperature. Depending on the capacitance and the meter used. Step 2—Measure the system’s operating suction pressure. repeat the test on higher resistance scales to verify the capacitor is truly defective. but isn’t always practical since the water will need to be drained away. a heat gun usually works well. test the other lead of the capacitor. A high-temperature system is one that operates at an evaporating temperature of between 25°F and 45°F. For run capacitors. place one of the ohmmeter leads on a terminal of the capacitor and one lead on the body. Step 4—Determine the system’s application: low temperature. If the ohmmeter reads a resistance. If water can’t be used easily. 7.Shorted—Needle will swing toward zero and remain there Open—Needle will stay at infinity 6. the capacitor is grounded and needs to be replaced.

3. Step 7—Once the condensing temperature is known. liquid. determine the appropriate temperature rise (TR). Review Question Answers 69 .Step 5—Using the chart below. The converted temperature should be within a few degrees of the measured discharge. This will be the correct operating discharge pressure of the system. When all three temperature probes (discharge line. 6. 9. Connect a pressure gauge on the system to measure the pressure of the refrigerant in the condenser. Place a third temperature probe to measure the temperature of the air entering the condenser. 2. there are non-condensables in the system that need to be removed. Step 6—The Condensing Temperature (CT) can then be determined by adding the EAT and the TR. convert the measured pressure to its saturation temperature. The method used is as follows: 1. Using a P/T chart. 8. CT = EAT + TR. Electrically disable the compressor and allow the condenser fan to operate. its equivalent saturation pressure can be determined using a P/T chart. 4. Attach a temperature probe to both the discharge line and liquid line. The TR is the difference between the EAT and the condensing temperature of the refrigerant in the condenser. and air entering the condenser) read the same temperature. record the pressure of the refrigerant in the condenser. Determine the type of refrigerant in the system. 5. and air entering temperatures. liquid line. 7. 17. If the converted temperature is higher than the measured temperatures by more than a few degrees.

4.18. rate. using soap bubbles. 20. ARI—Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute ASHRAE—American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers ASME—American Society of Mechanical Engineers UL—Underwriters Laboratories NFPA —National Fire Protection Association 2. and apply to their hardware. The Underwriters’ Laboratories (UL) is a testing and code agency that specializes in the safety aspects of electrical products. The institute’s most important function is to establish product or application standards by which the members can design. Equipment placement Ductwork installation Piping installation (both refrigerant and water) 70 Review Question Answers . Some of the various ways to search for a refrigerant leak are performing a visual inspection. 3. using an electronic leak detector. A technician should use a short refrigeration gauge on systems containing a small amount of refrigerant. Unit 84 1. and using refrigerant dyes. Some common causes of an evaporator with a low superheat and a high suction pressure are Oversized valve TXV seat is leaking Low superheat adjustment Sensing bulb making poor thermal contact Wrong thermostatic charge Incorrectly located external equalizer 19.

Electrical connection Evacuation and charging Start and check 5. Ample space must be provided for air movement around air-cooled condensing equipment to and from the condenser. All major components must be installed so they may be serviced readily. When an assembly isn’t easily accessible for service, the cost of service becomes excessive. Vibration isolation must always be considered, not only in regard to the equipment itself, but also in relation to the interconnecting piping and sheet metal ductwork. All manufacturers supply recommendations of the space required; these recommendations should be followed. 6. Copper pipe and fittings should be cleaned before assembly. Nitrogen should be trickled through the system before, during, and after brazing. Plastic and other parts that can be damaged by heat should be protected. The joint should be heated evenly using an oxyacetylene torch. A brazing rod should be applied to the joint away from the flame. 7. Minimum circuit ampacity 8. Maximum fuse size 9. The wire should be sized for the minimum circuit ampacity 31.5. 10. The disconnect should be sized at 115% of the minimum circuit ampacity 1.15 × 31.5 = 36.225. Since disconnect sizes jump from 30 amps to 60 amps, a 60 amp disconnect will be needed. 11. The circuit breaker should be no larger than the maximum size on the data plate 50 amps. 12. Dual element time-delay fuses or HVAC/R rated circuit breakers 13. UL 181 rated tape and or mastic

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Spring or rubber mounts for compressors and fans Vibration isolation pad Vibration eliminators in refrigerant lines Canvas flexible connectors on duct

15. 40 feet – 25 feet = 15 feet additional line 16. 0.6 ounces (from Table 84.1) = 9 additional ounces required 12 lbs 8 ounces + 9 ounces = 12 pounds 17 ounces = 13 pounds 1 ounce 17. Oil may be poured in as shown on the left. Oil may be drawn in under the vacuum. Oil may be forced in using an oil pump. 18. Front seated, run all the way in clockwise 19. Evacuate the lines and coil.

Unit 85
1. Routine maintenance, pre-start inspection, operational checks, troubleshooting 2. The initial voltage check verifies that the supplied voltage is within the manufacturer’s specifications. The comparison of the voltage check after startup and the initial voltage check determines the voltage drop in the wire. 3. Combustion air, vent system integrity, CO levels in flue gas and around unit 4. Check for voltage drop in power wire, voltage drop across contactor contacts, amp draw, airflow, system pressures, superheat, subcooling, temp drop across evaporator coil. 5. Higher-efficiency filters have a higher pressure drop, which can cause poor airflow. 6. Reduced operational cost and longer equipment life 7. Prevent breakdowns by replacing worn parts and making needed adjustments on a regular schedule.


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8. Look on the unit data plate to find the nominal, minimum, and maximum unit voltage. 9. Checking the temperature rise across the indoor coil and comparing it to a manufacturer’s performance chart 10. Power wire is too small, or poor connections at either end of the power wire 11. Blue 12. Shaft alignment, pulley alignment, shaft bearings, belt condition, belt tension 13. Hard glazed sides, cracks, frays 14. Pull the lever and look for water at outlet of discharge pipe. 15. Monitoring the ultrasonic bearing sound can identify when bearings need lubricating and or replacing. 16. Planned maintenance is based on a schedule, while predictive maintenance is based on monitoring key performance indicators, like ultrasonic and thermal measurements. 17. The side where air enters, usually hidden in “A” coils 18. By paying attention to the directional arrow on the filter. The arrow points in the direction of airflow, which should be towards the unit. 19. Combustion air grills in the case of gas and oil appliances, mechanical components properly supported, ductwork insulated, suction line insulated, service clearance in front of the unit, drains running downhill 20. By measuring the water flow in the system, either using a flowmeter built into the system or by measuring the pressure drop across the water pump and comparing it to a pumping performance chart

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Check the thermostat setting. 1. Check the system control voltage. After replacing the fuse. Understanding system operational sequence Preliminary system inspection Collecting operational data Recognizing what’s operating incorrectly Testing to isolate the cause Recommending corrective action 5. not an isolated part of it. 2. check the amp draw of each major load individually. Check the system operating voltage. 74 Review Question Answers . How is the equipment supposed to operate? What is the equipment doing wrong? What is the root cause of the problem? What specific tests or procedures determined this? How can this be corrected? How much will this cost? 2. 4. Check for adequate airflow or water flow (depending on the type of unit). Technicians are called to work on the entire system. Finally. 6.Unit 86 1. 3. check the system amp draw and compare it to the data plate rating. Check all major loads for shorts and grounds. Check the air filter clean. 4. 3. Low evaporator airflow can cause low system pressures. Service technicians must understand the inter-relationship between different system components and be aware of the effect one process has on the rest of the system. 5.

3. Broken igniter. R control power to thermostat Y compressor Evaporator float switch Liquid low-pressure switch High-pressure switch Anti-short cycle timer Compressor contactor Defrost control Run capacitor 14. 8. Check voltage to the nonfunctional component. Inadequate GPM (water flow) Water too hot 12.7. Line voltage below 75 volts. After replacing the fuse. Check all low-voltage controls for shorts and grounds. Check control voltage. check the voltage output of the secondary side of the transformer. 9. 1. Then monitor that voltage while running the system through its different operating cycles. 4. Loose or open leads in compressor circuit 11. 10. 13. OR: Open igniter circuit. Check line voltage to the unit. and moving one lead from point to point in the circuit towards the nonfunctional load until the voltage is lost. Improper main ground. 2. This technique works by starting at a point where there’s correct voltage. Check circuit to the nonfunctional component. Liquid restriction Underfeeding metering device Low capacity compressor Review Question Answers 75 .

diagnostic boards. 20. The cost is the foremost question in the customer’s mind and the service technician needs to be able to address the customer’s concerns. and system performance tests. Sources of information on the system sequence of operation include the manufacturer’s installation and operation and manuals. 76 Review Question Answers . general observation. 164–201 psig 19. 16. unit charging charts. unit wiring diagrams.15. On-board diagnostics can only report issues that it has inputs for. Check the draft pressure switch. Sources for the current system operational data include the homeowner. 17. and general textbooks. Check for obstructions in the vent. Check to see if the vent has the correct draft. 18.