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(Schwahn & McGarvey, 2011)
THE Question: How is the learner outcome best learned? This focuses on the student not the teacher. Principles: things we don’t want to lose ● Students learn in different ways ● Prior knowledge impacts learning new knowledge ● There are many ways to be intelligent ○ allow students to learn in different ways ○ make learning styles and the application of differing intelligences the variable , and the demonstration of learner outcomes the constant ● Students learn in different time frames ● motivation is key to learning ○ relevance is key to motivation ● success equals more success, self-esteem, attitude, motivation ● mistakes are part of the learning process ● specific feedback enhances learning - must be done in the here-and-now and can be customized to individual students ● complex reasoning skills need to be taught (deductive, abstract, problem solving, analyzing perspectives and constructing support reasoning) ● real world problems/context enhance learning - less is more if we use real world concepts ● learning is social ○ teachers who enjoy younger learners often see learning from their perspectives ○ not cheating to work collaboratively ● technology as teacher ○ use it to teach necessary but mundane skills, concepts, knowledge ○ will give teachers more time to teach important outcomes that require interaction, demonstration, coaching ● schools/teachers control conditions for student success ○ can’t blame society, students ○ must be empowered by taking charge of the situation ○ belief you have the power to help students be successful ● Focus should be on the learner students should have choice, challenge, competence ● students should be able to achieve their goals ● students should cultivate creativity, independence, self-actualization ● content, (student interests), should be variable; demonstrating the learning outcome should be constant ● students learn in spurts, increase and decrease motivation ● LEARNER OUTCOMES ARE CONSTANT: LEARNING STYLES AND CONTENT (SS. INTERESTS) SHOULD BE VARIABLE