department of electrical engineering

Mini project on Application of diodes as gates

Submitted by: Manu raj Sunil kumar banra Sushant nayak Vikash kumar b090696ee b090 b090 b090706ee

The shape of the curve is determined by the transport of charge carriers through the so-called depletion layer or depletion region that exists at the p-n junction between differing semiconductors. This unidirectional behavior is called rectification. However. Current–voltage characteristic A semiconductor diode’s behavior in a circuit is given by its current–voltage characteristic. diodes can have more complicated behavior than this simple on-off action. Typical diode packages in same alignment as diode symbol. both hole and electron vanish.Diodes : Fig. and to extract modulation from radio signals in radio receivers. or I–V graph (see graph below). the diode can be thought of as an electronic version of a check valve. conduction band (mobile) electrons from the N-doped region diffuse into the P-doped region where there is a large population of holes (vacant places for electrons) with which the electrons ―recombine‖. leaving behind an immobile positively charged donor (dopant) on the N-side and negatively charged acceptor . the most common type today. In electronics. and to produce light (light emitting diodes). Tunnel diodes exhibit negative resistance. a diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts electric current in only one direction. The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass in one direction (called the diode's forward bias direction) while blocking current in the opposite direction (the reverse direction). to generate radio frequency oscillations (tunnel diodes). When a mobile electron recombines with a hole. The term usually refers to a semiconductor diode. to electronically tune radio and TV receivers (varactor diodes). Thin bar depicts the cathode. A vacuum tube diode (now little used except in some high-power technologies) is a vacuum tube with two electrodes: a plate and a cathode. These are exploited in special purpose diodes that perform many different functions. which can be tailored by varying the construction of their P-N junction. specialized diodes are used to regulate voltage (Zener diodes). and is used to convert alternating current to direct current. which makes them useful in some types of circuits. This is due to their complex non-linear electrical characteristics. Thus. When a p-n junction is first created. This is a crystalline piece of semiconductor material connected to two electrical terminals. For example.

and a negatively charged dopant ion is left behind in the P-doped region. light.3 V for Germanium and 0. Thus. Figure : I–V characteristics of a P-N junction diode (not to scale). if the polarity of the external voltage opposes the built-in potential. for instance.e. the depletion zone continues to act as an insulator. However. the width of the depletion region (called the depletion width) cannot grow without limit. The avalanche diode is deliberately designed for use in the avalanche region.e. the built-in potential is approximately 0. For silicon diodes. The region around the p-n junction becomes depleted of charge carriers and thus behaves as an insulator. However.7 V (0. In the . an increasing electric field develops through the depletion zone which acts to slow and then finally stop recombination. At this point. beyond the peak inverse voltage or PIV. At very large reverse bias. If an external voltage is placed across the diode with the same polarity as the built-in potential. As recombination proceeds more ions are created. about 0. a process called reverse breakdown occurs which causes a large increase in current (i. a positively charged dopant ion is left behind in the N-doped region.(dopant) on the P-side. resulting in substantial electric current through the p-n junction (i. recombination can once again proceed. substantial numbers of electrons and holes recombine at the junction). there is a ―built-in‖ potential across the depletion zone. A diode’s 'I–V characteristic' can be approximated by four regions of operation.7 V will be developed across the diode such that the P-doped region is positive with respect to the N-doped region and the diode is said to be ―turned on‖ as it has a forward bias. preventing any significant electric current flow (unless electron/hole pairs are actively being created in the junction by. This is the reverse bias phenomenon. For each electron-hole pair that recombines.2 V for Schottky). a large number of electrons and holes are created at. if an external current is passed through the diode. and move away from the pn junction) that usually damages the device permanently. see photodiode).

and the diode presents a very low resistance. The value is different for other diode types — Schottky diodes can be rated as low as 0. a substantial amount of reverse current can be observed (mA or more).4 V and 4. at reverse biases more positive than the PIV. The current–voltage curve is exponential. and red or blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) can have values of 1. this is temperature dependent. Power supply filter 4. Diodes 2. However. Applications of diodes  Signal rectifier  Diode gate  Diode clamps .6 to 0. the diode current becomes appreciable (the level of current considered ―appreciable‖ and the value of cut-in voltage depends on the application). there is reverse current for a short time. however. the arbitrary ―cut-in‖ voltage is defined as 0.25-0.3 V. Germanium diodes 0.zener diode. Diode and Diode Application 1. The second region. In the reverse bias region for a normal P-N rectifier diode. and avalanche does not occur.2 V. The third region is forward but small bias. Also. Both devices.0 V respectively. I. and at suffiently high temperatures. has only a very small reverse saturation current. the concept of PIV is not applicable.7 volts. such that the reverse voltage is ―clamped‖ to a known value (called the zener voltage). following the end of forward conduction in any diode. As the potential difference is increased above an arbitrarily defined ―cut-in voltage‖ or ―onvoltage‖ or ―diode forward voltage drop (Vd)‖. the current through the device is very low (in the µA range). Rectification 3. In a normal silicon diode at rated currents. do have a limit to the maximum current and power in the clamped reverse voltage region. The device does not attain its full blocking capability until the reverse current ceases. where only a small forward current is conducted. A zener diode contains a heavily doped p-n junction allowing electrons to tunnel from the valence band of the p-type material to the conduction band of the n-type material.

B.. Y. Switch B pulls the diode and output low. Diode logic was used in early digital computers. which is low (0). At (b) switch A pulls the cathode of the connected diode low. The inputs are given on the left. The inputs and output are customarily recorded in a ―truth table‖ at (c) to describe the logic of a gate. pulling output Y low (0. the inputs are called A. This is recorded in the third line of the truth table. In this case. If the switch is down. It is unaffected by open switches. This is recorded in the last line of the truth table at (c). It only finds limited application today. the input is effectively high (1).7 V). which lists all the possible combinations of inputs next to their outputs. and the outputs are on the right. The second line of the truth table describes the output with the switches reversed from (b). There are many kinds of logic gate. and may A Q give different ouputs for the same inputs. The way the logic gate processes different inputs is given in a truth table for that gate. is high (1) due to the V+ on the top of the resistor. Logic Gates Logic gates are devices that can combine multiple inputs at independent logic Input Output levels and come up with an output accordingly. 0 1 Logic Diodes can perform digital logic functions: AND. The output depends on the combination of inputs at A and B. At (a) all inputs are high (1). or low. and the distinction lies in that each kind processes the inputs differently. there are only two possible inputs. and the output is labelled Q. An 1 0 example is given for a simple one-input gate with the function of giving the opposite logic level at the output to the one at the input. Diode AND gate An AND gate is shown in Figure above. Logic gates have inputs and an output (Y) which is a function of the inputs. Sometimes it is convenient to fashion a single logic gate from a few diodes. say 10 V. In the figure. etc. it connects a diode cathode to ground. and OR. The inputs to the gate are high (logic 1). 0 V (logic 0). but logic gates can have any number of inputs. C. The output. If a switch is up.Diodes can perform switching and digital logic operations. Generally. The first line of the truth table recordes the Output=0 . 1 or 0. the logic levels are generated by switches.

Summary: both inputs A and B high yields a high (1) out. new VCR yes. even during a power failure.for both input low (0). old VCR no. the battery powers the load. the diode(s) conduct(s). pulling the output Y high. The diodes must be in series with the power sources to prevent a failed line supply from draining the battery. the line supply voltage drops to 0 V. The truth table describes a logical AND function. In the event of a power failure.) . (b) Third line TT. A two input OR gate composed of a pair of diodes is shown in Figure below. With AC power present. Does your PC computer retain its BIOS setting when powered off? Does your VCR (video cassette recorder) retain the clock setting after a power failure? (PC Yes. Summary: any input ―high‖ is a high out at Y. This logic zero is recorded in the first line of the truth table at (c). A backup battery may be OR-wired with a line operated DC power supply in Figure above (d) to power a load. the line supply powers the load.‖ the output Y is pulled low by the resistor. If one of the inputs is high as at (b). If both inputs are logic low at (a) as simulated by both switches ―downward. truth table (TT). OR gate: (a) First line. or the other input is high. and to prevent it from over charging the battery when line power is available. assuming that it is a higher voltage than the battery. (d) Logical OR of power line supply and back-up battery. These results are reordered in the second through fourth lines of the truth table. or both inputs high.

and will thus be a logic 0 as well. 4 in no. This in turn will force the output up to logic 1. "To the right (above) is the equivalent AND gate. output Z will be at logic 1. For this example. . PCB CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: 470ῼ 2 in no. although other voltages can just as easily be used. so this circuit performs the logical AND function. However. Both inputs must be logic 1 in order for the output to be logic 1. or zero volts. Now. In this figure. output Z will also be held at zero volts by the resistor. +V = +5 volts. if both inputs are unconnected or if they are both at logic 1. and a logic 0 is represented by ground. that diode will conduct and will pull the output down to logic 0 as well. Resistance 2. but the diodes are reversed and the resistor is set to pull the output voltage up to a logic 1 state.AIM: Application of diode as gates MATERIALS REQUIRED: 1. its diode will become forward biased and will therefore conduct. We use the same logic levels. THEORY AND PROCEDURE: To the left (above) you see a basic Diode Logic OR gate. We'll assume that a logic 1 is represented by +5 volts. if both inputs are left unconnected or are both at logic 0. this gate correctly performs a logical OR function. Hence. If both inputs are logic 1. if either input is raised to +5 volts. If either input is grounded (logic 0). the output will still be logic 1. RESULT: Diode application as gates was verified successfully. Si diodes 3.

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