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The Ivane Javakhishvili Institute of History and

Ethnology (Tbilisi, Rep. of Georgia)

With the rights of a manuscript

LEVAN Z. URUSHADZE

The Questions of History of Georgia and the


Caucasus of the XVIII-XX
centuries in the Georgian Emigrant Literature

Authors abstract of the Dissertation Thesis for the


scientific degree of Doctor of Historical Sciences
(Dr. Habil.)

Tbilisi
2006
The General Characterization of the Work

Urgency of the problem Despite the fact that


several works have been
published recently in Georgia on the distinguished
representatives of the
Georgian political emigration, research of different
issues reflected in the
literature of emigrants have remained as "white
spots" until today. How the
issue of the Georgian and Caucasian history have
been reviewed in the
emigrant literature is one of the abovementioned
questions. Research of this
and other questions from this point of view is
extremely significant for the
Georgian historical science. Namely, it will
contribute to the correction of
those gross "mistakes" which had been made by the
so-called "Soviet
historiography" during 70 years of the soviet
domination. All the more, such
distinguished scholars as Mikheil (Mikhako)
Tsereteli, Zurab Avalishvili,
Shalva Beridze, Grigol Peradze, Michael
Tarkhnishvili, Kalistrate Salia,
Markoz Tugushi, Alexsandre Manvelishvili,
Mikheil Mouskheli
(Muskhelishvili), etc. lived in emigration. The
objective of the present
work is to fill the existed gap. Namely, we have
studied how the questions
of the history of Georgia and the Caucasus of the
XVIII-XX centuries were
presented in the Georgian emigrant literature.

Objective, impartial representation of the


abovementioned topic
is extremely important especially today, when
Georgia has entered the
irreversible path of strengthening of the national
statehood again, when
objective representation of 200 years history of the
Georgian national
liberation movement should play a crucial role in
bringing up of the future
generations with patriotic aspiration.

The objective and goals of the research

The objective of the presented


work is to study how some important questions of
the history of Georgia and
the Caucasus of the XVIII-XX centuries have been
reflected in the Georgian
emigrant literature. Besides the basis of the source
studies used by the
emigrant authors is given as well. For this purpose
we have studied a number
of works of the foreign authors as well as the
documentary sources.

Besides, how the Georgian emigrant authors


reviewed the notion
of a nation, the nations rights and the question of the
nation's self-determination is shown in the work. These
topics are presented on the
examples of Georgia and the Caucasus.

Significant attention is paid to the aspects of


the history of relations between the Europe and Georgia.

Scientific novelty of the work In 1990 when we


were on official business
trip in France we have collected the emigrant
periodicals and scientific
publications that had been unknown or less known
in Georgia before with the
support of the Georgian Diaspora in France and the
administration of the Georgian estate Leville.

Very important works of the noted western


political annalists
and lawyers as well as the distinguished
representatives of the Azerbaijan
and the north-Caucasian political emigration that
had been translated by the
Georgian emigrants into Georgian and published in
the Georgian emigrant
periodicals is given in the present work. The
Russian language Caucasian
emigrant journals "Kavkaz" and "Obyedinionny
Kavkaz" deserve some attention
as the articles of the Georgian emigrants used to be
published very often in them.

Material presented in the work contains


significant information
and considerations about history of the XVIII-XX
centuries of Georgia and
the Caucasus. Particularly often such questions are
discussed as relations
of Georgia and other Caucasian nations with Russia
and Turkey, the Caucasian
peoples' genocide, the attempts of creation of anti-
Bolshevik block by the
Caucasian political emigration, the question of the
Caucasian autochthonic
nation's unity, the historical-legal evaluation of the
Georgievsk Treaty
(1738) and the Russian - Georgian treaty of 1920,
the legal evaluation of the Kars treaty, etc.

The presented work is the first monographic


research, which
implies the survey of how the significant questions
of the history of
Georgia and the Caucasus of the XVIII-XX
centuries is presented in the
Georgian emigrant literature, how the Georgian
emigrant authors evaluate
so-called "Georgievsk Tractate" of 1783, the
Russian-Georgian treaty of 1920
and violation of both of them by Russia, the Russia-
Turkey so-called Kars
Treaty, the Russian-Georgian and Turkey-Georgian
relations and many other burning issues.

It is also very important that many works of


emigrant authors
are important primary sources as the authors are
eyewitnesses and
participants of the described events.

As to those representatives of the Georgian


political emigration
presented in this work, it is necessary to state that:
we have concentrated
our attention on those persons whose activity was
unknown or less known for
the Georgian public at large, or on those aspects of
the activity of
well-known emigrants which are unknown or less
known as well. Of course we
have materials on many other Georgian emigrants
too, but we do not write
concerning their activity, as their life is quite well
known in Georgia.

Theoretical and practical importance of the work

The material and the


results of the research given in this work create a
certain scientific basis
that should be taken into consideration while
creating the textbooks of the
history of Georgia and the Caucasus of the XVIII-
XX centuries and while
studying the history of the Georgian political
emigration. Besides, the
results of the research could be used for conducting
the special courses and
seminars at the Institutes or Universities as well.

Publications 10 scientific-research works, among


them 1 monograph have been
published on the basis of material of the presented
thesis.
Approbation of the thesis material On 1993-1994
we were elaborating the
following topic: "For the history of the Caucasian
peoples' unity (On the
basis of emigrant literature)" and 4 reports have
been presented to the
session of the Department of Source Studies of the
Ivane Javakhishvili
Institute of History and Ethnology of the Georgian
Academy of Sciences.
Besides, in 1998 we organized the International
Scientific Conference
"Genocide of the Caucasian peoples" on which we
presented the report
"Genocide of the Chechen people and Georgian
political emigration".

Structure and volume of the work.


The thesis consists of:

1.. Introduction;
2.. Sources and references overview;
3.. The source studies methods of the Georgian
emigrant authors;
4.. A nation, the nations rights and self-
determination of the nations as
a basis of the national statehood;
5.. Some unknown aspects of the Georgian
emigrants' activity (Ekvtime
Takaishvili and Grigol Robakidze);
6.. The problems of the history of the Georgian-
Caucasian relations;
7.. Some questions of the history of the Russian-
Georgian relations in the
XVIII-XIX centuries and in the first quarter of the
XX century;
8.. Some questions of the history of the Turkey-
Georgian relations in the
first quarter of the XX century;
9.. Some questions of the history of the XX
century of Georgia and the Caucasus;
10.. Some questions of the history of the European-
Georgian relations;
11.. Conclusions.
The work is done on 312 printed pages; The List of
references is attached (275 titles).

Contents of the work .

The material we studied includes:

1.. The complete sets of the emigrant magazines


and newspapers:
"Tavisupali Sakartvelo", "Kavkasioni",
"Samshoblo", "Kartlosi", "Sakartvelo",
"Kartveli Eri", "Sakartvelos Damoukidebloba",
"Sakhalkho Sakme",
"Damoukidebeli Sakartvelo", "Bedi Kartlisa",
"Ornati", "Mkhedari", "Iveria",
"Akhali Iveria", "Tavisuplebis Tribuna", "Gushagi",
"Tetri Giorgi",
"Momavali", "Mebrdzoli Sakartvelo", "Kartuli Azri";
2.. The works of the distinguished figures of the
Georgian political
emigration: Ekvtime Takaishvili, Zurab Avalishvili,
Mikheil (Mikhako)
Tsereteli, Grigol Robakidze, Giorgi Gvazava, Victor
Nozadze, Shalva Beridze,
Kalistrate Salia, Rapiel Ivantski-Ingilo, David
(Data) Vachnadze,
Konstantine Kandelaki, Petre Surguladze, Ivane
Zurabishvili, Vlasa Mgeladze,
Giorgi Kvinitadze, Solomon Zaldastanishvili, Ivane
(Vano) Nanuashvili,
Grigol Uratadze, Elise Pataridze, Markoz Tugushi,
Tamar Papava, Samson
Pirtskhalava, Isidore Mantskava, Alexandre
Nikuradze (A. Sanders), Alexandre
Manvelishvili, Revaz (Rezo) Gabashvili, Karlo
Inasaridze, etc.

Introduction. It includes urgency of the topic, the


objectives and goals of the research.

Chapter I - "Overview of the basic sources and


references". The sources and
special references used in the dissertation are
reviewed in it.
Specifically, the works of such distinguished
representatives of the
Georgian political emigration as: Zurab Avalishvili,
Ekvtime Takaishvili,
Mikheil (Mikhako) Tsereteli, Grigol Robakidze,
Samson Pirtskhalava, Varlam
Cherkezishvili, Ivane Zurabishvili, Revaz
Gabashvili, Konstantine Kandelaki,
Giorgi Kvinitadze, David (Data) Vachnadze, Shalva
Amirejibi, Alexandre
Asatiani, Tamar and Akaki Papavas, Vlasa
Mgeladze, Victor Nozadze, Elise
Pataridze, Markoz Tugushi, Alexandre Tsomaia,
Grigol Uratadze, Ivane (Vano)
Nanuashvili, Kalistrate Salia, Alexandre
Manvelishvili, Mikheil Mouskheli
(Muskhelishvili), Isidore Mantskava, Solomon
Zaldastanishvili, Rapiel
Ivanitski-Ingilo, Ilia Kuchukhidze (the same Mindia
Lashauri), Givi
Gabliani, Karlo Inasaridze. We have considered
those historical written
(documentary) sources that had been used by the
Georgian emigrant authors.
The sources that had been included in the collection
compiled by P. Butkov
(P. Butkov 1869) and by Al. Tsagareli (1891), in the
collections: "Documents
and Materials of the history of the Foreign Policy of
the Trans-Caucasus and
Georgia" (1919) also in "The Acts of the
Archeological Commission of the
Caucasus (1868-1870)"and "The Legal Acts of the
Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918-1921)".

Different works of the following foreign


authors that had been
used in the dissertation are presented in the chapter
as well: R. Duguet, L.
Le Four, Von List, I. Marten, A. D. Smith, B.
Anderson, E. Gellner, P.
Manchini, E. Niss, O. Nipold, G. Gotlieb, M.
Hroch, T. Eriksen, D. Miller,
E. Renan, O. Bauer, A. Pechei, I. Ortega Y Grasset,
S. Telbot, R. Konstanza,
R. Gattrey. Works of the following Georgian
authors have been used as well:
Iv. Javakhishvili, S. Kakabadze, A. Bendianishvili,
A. Menteshashvili, L.
Toidze, P. Lomashvili, N Jorjikia, V. Itonishvili, I.
Inaneishvili, M.
Sioridze, G. Tskhovrebadze, Z. Davitashvili, V.
Guruli, M. Vachnadze, D.
Shvelidze, N. kirtadze, A. Tsotskolauri, P.
Piranishvili, N. Javakhishvili,
L. Javakhishvili, M. Svanidze, Sh. Goginashvili, R.
Grdzelidze, G. Mamulia,
A. Surguladze, K. Surguladze, A. Aslanishvili, P.
Sikharulidze, M. Dgvilava,
E. Narimanidze, L. Saralidze, R. Tsukhishvili, D.
Jojua, N. Tevzadze, E. Antia, R. Kavrelishvili,
D. Chumburidze.

Chapter II - "Methods of source studies of Georgian


emigrants". The methods of source studies of the Georgian
emigrant authors and the basis of their
source studies are considered in this chapter.
Specifically for this purpose
works of the following authors have been studied:
Mikhako Tsereteli, Zurab
Avalishvili, Samson Pirtskhalava, Ivane
Zurabishvili, Alexandre Asatiani,
Kalistrate Salia, Shalva Amirejibi, Alexandre
Manvelishvili, Petre
Surguladze, Tamar Papava, Data Vachnadze,
Konstantine Kandelaki, Markoz
Tugushi, Victor Nozadze, Elise Pataridze, Isidore
Mantskava, Ivane Nanuashvili, Karlo Inasaridze, etc.

Several major issues are emphasized while


considering of methods
of source studies and the basis of it: 1. The notion of
a nation, nation's
rights and self-determination issues; 2. The
questions of the history of the
XVIII-XIX centuries of Georgia and the Caucasus,
3. The questions of the
history of Georgia and the Caucasus of the XX centuries.
The Georgian emigrant authors use the
following sources while
consideration of the first topic: Chronicles of the
Collection of old Georgian historical chronicles "Kartlis
Tskhovreba" ("Life of Georgia"), the
work of Ioane-Zosime "Kebay da Didebay Kartulisa
Enisa" ("Praise and glory
of the Georgian language". The X century), the
work of Giorgi Merchule "Life
of Grigol from Khandztda" (VIII century), the
correspondence of the last
King of Kartl-Kakheti (Eastern Georgia) Giorgi the
XII (1798-1800) with the
Russian military figures. Among modern Georgian
and foreign authors they use
works of Ilia Chavchavadze, Niko Marr, Ivane
Javakhishvili, Giorgi
Javakhishvili, Alexandre Javakhishvili, Ivane
Jabadari, Giorgi Zdanovich
(Maiashvili), Niko Khizanishvili, A. Bergson, O.
Bauer, E. Nyss, E. Reclus,
W. Zombardt, P.Manchini, R. Springer, W. von
Freigangs, H. De. Mann, A.
Bailly, H. Spenser, I. Leconte, C. Huysmans, K.
Renner, L.Le Four, J.-J.
Rousseau, F. von List, Von Ulmann, etc.

When reviewing the history of Georgia and


the Caucasus, the
emigrant authors referred to the works of M.
Brosset, Vakhushti Bagrationi,
Al. Tsagareli, To "Georgievsk Tractate" of 1783,
Russian-Georgian Treaty of
1920, Kars Treaty of 1921, the "Acts of the
Caucasian Archeographical
Commission" in many volumes, the collection
published by B. Butkov, travel
notes of E. Spenser, the scientific works of Ivane
Javakhishvili, Simon
Esadze, Giorgi Gozalishvili, Mikheil Tamarashvili.

Chapter III - "A nation, nation's rights and self-


determination of the
nations as the basis of the national statehood". In
accordance to the modern
understanding the nations, people rights are the
indivisible part of human
rights and basic freedoms. It is an extremely
important question
particularly for those nations, which are fighting for
freedom today.
Besides it is directly connected with such concept as
"Nationalism". The
obvious, unvarnished presentation of this problem is
very important for the Caucasian peoples.

First of all, definition of the concept


"nationalism" is given,
what is particularly important for deliberating on the
Rights of the
Nations, especially in current, post Soviet society.
During the previous 70
years we used to be convinced that "Nationalism" is
something very
destructive and is equal to chauvinism and
isolationism. They have even
named it as "Fighting Nationalism" and have given
a label of "Bourgeois" "Reactionary" ideology to it.

In the present chapter of the work


considerations of the
following distinguished representatives of the
Georgian emigration are
given: Vakhtang Tsitsishvili (1937), Mikheil
(Mikhako) Tsereteli (1910,
1956), Grigol Robakidze (1954), Victor Nozadze
(1934), Vladimer Emukhvari
(1937), Isidore Mantskava (1934, 1944), Spiridon
Kedia (1932), Markoz
Tugushi (1952), Alexandre Manvelishvili (1935,
1955, 1970) and the
distinguished foreign scholars: E. Renan, D. Miller,
B. Anderson, P.
Manchini, D. Korn, P. Trenor, R. Gattrey, E.
Gallner, M. Hroch, A.D. Smith,
G. Gotlieb, T. Eriksen, etc.

It is very notable how the sense of a nation


was defined by the
representatives of the Georgian political emigration
and how they saw the
national statehood and the ways of its development.
It was especially
conspicuous the reflection of Mikhako Tsereteli,
Alexandre Manvelishvili,
Mikheil Muskhelishvili (Mouskheli), Victor
Nozadze, and Kalistrate Salia.

M. Tsereteli offers us his own definition of a


nation, based on
his historical and sociological research: "A nation is
a social
super-organism or a hyper-organism consisting of a
homogeneous or a
heterogeneous ethnic and social material, which is
able in a certain period
of history to create one outwardly organized
common life with its elements,
the single society with all of its organs: language,
religion, morals, law
and politics, - the society with its special history,
type and self-awareness, with the full individuality"
("Nation and Mankind" 1910).

The works of Alexandre Manvelishvili


"National Formation of
Georgians" (1955) also implies a very interesting
definition of a nation: "A
nation is the society of individuals as a result of a
prolonged historical
process, ended and fastened together with the united
common spiritual life
and aspirations, with the common territory and the
common political
organization. A series of the spiritual values have
been created on the base
of a common life, which used to promote rallying
and strengthening of the
nation for their part." Then the author underlines the
main factors of a nation's existence:
1.. Common origin,
2.. Common language,
3.. Common religion,
4.. Common culture,
5.. Common territory,
6.. Relations with other peoples.
A. Manvelishvili denies possibility of creation of
"the one common to all
mankind organism" as this contradicts to the
evolution of a man and society.

On the basis of research implemented in this chapter


we have elaborated our
own definition of the nation: A nation is community
of the people united by
means of unity of common origin, common
territory, history, tradition,
statehood, culture, literary language, having the
characteristic, unique
features. Assembly of nations of the whole world
forms the international
community while the union of the national cultures
forms the world civilization

Chapter IV - "Some unknown sides of activity of


the Georgian emigrants".

Some aspects of the activity of distinguished


representatives of the Georgian
political emigration Ekvtime Takhaishvili and
Grigol Robakidze are discussed
in the present chapter, the aspects, which are
unknown for the general public.

4.1 "The activity of the "Fund of Edition of the


Georgian Archaeological and
Cultural Materials" (1937-1939)". "The Fund of the
Georgian Archaeological
and Cultural Materials" was founded by the
distinguished Georgian historian
and public figure, professor Ekvtime Takaishvili in
Paris in the second half of 1930-es.
The Fund undertook to carry out a very
important mission: to
bring to light and to publish the old Georgian relics
and monuments dispersed abroad.

Ekvtime Takaishvili published the "Address


to Georgian
emigration" in the first issue of the Georgian
emigrant magazine "Kartlosi"
in Paris In 1937, where main objectives of creation
and activity of the
above-mentioned fund are formulated very clearly.
Actually creation of this
fund served to the same mission, which had been
undertaken previously by the
"Historical and Ethnographic Society of Georgia"
and even before that by
"The Society for Spreading of literacy among
Georgians".

The Fund's activity was reviewed in its


periodical reports,
which had been published in the different issues of
the emigrant's newspaper
"Damoukidebeli Sakartvelo" of 1937-1939 in Paris.

Using the donated sums the fund published


the following works:
"Archaeological Expedition in Lechkhum-Svaneti in
1910" (Paris, 1937, 440
pages.); "Archaeological Expedition in Kola-Oltisi
and Changle in 1907
(Paris 1938, 87 pages.); "The Chronicle of the
Kings' and the Catholicos'
souls in the manuscript of Ninotsminda" (Paris,
1939, 16 pages.) And other
important works published in the western periodic
scientific publications.
The author of all these works was Ekvtime
Takaishvili himself.
In 1929 E. Takaishvili was one of the
founders of the St. Nino
Georgian Orthodox church in Paris.

4.2 "Grigol Robakidze as the Public and Political


figure" . The portrait of
the great Georgian writer and patriot Grigol
Robakidze (1882-1962) as a
political and public benefactor is represented on the
basis of the
publications of distinguished representatives of the
Georgian political
emigration: Ioseb Gogolashvili (1964), Severian
Chirakadze (1964),
Kalistrate Salia (1953), Karlo Inasaridze (1984) and
letters and works of
Grigol Robakidze himself ("The letter to Irakli
Abashidze", "The ruined
soul", "The history of Lamara's creation", "Appeal
to the Georgian
people"). Particularly, his role in the activity of the
parliamentary
delegation of the democratic Republic of Georgia at
the Paris Peaceful
Conference in 1918 and in the foundation of the
Georgian Legation in
Istanbul in the same year is ahown.

S. Chirakadze recalleced the active struggle


of Grigol Robakidze
against the anti-Georgian activity of the Bolshevik
Russia after the
occupation and actual annexation of Georgia in
1921. ("The fate of Kartli"
Kartli-means Georgia N 47, 1964)

Gr. Robakidze recalleced himself how had


he greeted the national
rebellion in Georgia in 1924. ("The fate of Kartli"
Kartli-means Georgia N 17, 1954)
The writer was the member of the editorial
board of the newspaper "Sakartvelo" and the magazine
"Kartveli Eri" issued in Germany in
the early 1940-es. He used to publish different
articles on the national
political issues under the pen-name "Givi Gollend".

The role of Grigol Robakidze was very


considerable in the
activity of the "Georgian Allied Staff" in liberating
the Georgian prisoners
of war from the German concentration camps.
Besides, it has been shown that
acting for liberation of his motherland, he had never
been the member of
Nazi party or served the Nazi ideology as it had
been presented by the so-called "Soviet historiography"

Gr. Robakidze was the distinguished


representative and one of
the founders (in 1942) of "The Union of the
Georgian Traditionalists",
headed by the Head of the Georgian Bagrationi
Royal House in Europe, H.R.H.,
Prince Irakli Bagration-Mukhraneli (1909-1977) in
emigration.

Chapter V - "Problems of the History of Georgia-


Caucasus Relations ".

Different important issues of Georgian-Caucasian


relations are given in the
present chapter on the basis of Georgian emigrant
literature and other sources and publications.

5.1 "The question of the unity of the Caucasian


peoples for the history" .
The history of the idea of unity of the Caucasian
autochthonic peoples and
the importance of this unity for the development of
this region from the
standpoint of the emigrants is presented on the basis
of the emigrant
periodical publications: "Obyedinionny Kavkaz",
"Kavkaz", "Kavkasioni",
"Tetri Giorgi", "Ornati", "Damoukidebeli
Sakartvelo", "Samshoblo",
"Sakartvelo", "Momavali" and the works of the
Georgian emigrants: Alexandre
Manvelishvili, Revaz Gabashvili and Samson
Pirtskhalava. This important
question has always been a burning problem for the
Caucasus as Russia and
Turkey always declared their claims on this region.
If at present the
Turkish-Georgian relations has become more
civilized and some indications of
equal partnership are obvious in different fields, the
danger from Russia
still exists and is as great as it was before.

The history of the movement for the unity of


the Caucasian
peoples from the end of the XIX century up to the
middle of the XX century
as well as considerations of the Georgian emigrant
authors on this problem
are successively presented in the present chapter on
the basis of the Georgian emigrant literature.

Unfortunately, the historical past of the


Caucasus obviously
shows that the unity of the Caucasian peoples was
possible only when Georgia
obtained a zenith of its power. In other cases some
contradictions and
conflicts used to occur among the Caucasian
peoples that used to make the
accomplishment of that goal impossible.

5.2 "Some questions of the history of the liberation


movement of the
Caucasus in the XVIII-XIX centuries in the
Georgian emigrant literature" .
The subchapter consists of three parts: 1. The
liberation movement of the
autochthonic peoples of the Northern Caucasus
against Russia headed by
Sheikh Mansur (the second part of the 18th
century), 2. The Kakhetian
rebellion of 1802 and 3. The activity of Prince
Alexandre Bagrationi
(1770-1844), one of the leaders of the national-
liberation movement of
Georgia and the Caucasus in 1800-1832. The
material is fully based on
publications of the distinguished representatives of
the Georgian political
emigration: Alexandre Manvelishvili, Giorgi
Magalashvili, David (Data)
Vachnadze, Shalva Amirejibi, Tamar and Akaki
Papavas.

5.3 "The questions of the history of Georgia and the


Caucasus on the pages
of the Georgian emigrant magazine "Kavkasioni" .
In 1929
"Kavkasioni" -emigrant literature and scientific
magazine was created by the
noted Georgian scholar, public and political figure,
Doctor Victor Nozadze
created in Paris. He has been its editor-in-chief and
publisher until his
death (1976). The first issue of the magazine was
published in 1929 and the
last one the 21 st. issue - in 1986. The fiction as well
as different
scientific works used to be published in the magazine.

Survey of different works on history of


Georgia and the Caucasus
published in "Kavkasioni" are reviwed in the
present subchapter.
We intentionally review this magazine as in
spite of its importance it's still less known to the Georgian
readers.

Different articles published in the


abovementioned magazine by
the following distinguished representatives of the
Georgian political
emigration are reviewed in the present subchapter:
Stephane Kasradze,
Ekvtime Takaishvili, Shalva Amirejibi, Eduard
Papava, Victor Nozadze,
Alexandre Shatirishvili, Tamar and Akaki Papavas,
Isidore Mantskava, Raphiel
Ivanitski-Ingilo, Giorgi Nozadze, Razhden
Arsenidze, Markoz Tugushi,
Alexandre Manvelishvili, Akaki Kvitaishvili, Givi
Kobakhidze, Shalva
Beridze, Sosipatre Asatiani, Vakhtang
Gambashidze, David Vachnadze, Elizbar
Makashvili, Severian Chirakadze, Archil Donauri,
Alexandre Tatishvili,
Nikoloz Tokhadze, Dimitri Shalikashvili (Father of
the distinguished
generals of the US Army Otar and John-Malkhaz
Shalikashvili), Ilia
Kuchukhidze (the same Mindia Lashauri), David
Vashadze, Mikheil Kavtaradze,
Giorgi Sharashidze, Karlo Inasaridze.

Chapter VI - "Some questions of the history of


Russian-Georgian relations of
the XVIII-XIX centuries and I quarter of the XX
century".

Significant attantion was paid to different aspects of some


questions of the history of
Russian-Georgian relations of the XVIII-XIX
centuries and the I quarter of
the XX century in the publications and works of the
following distinguished
representatives of the Georgian political emigration:
Ekvtime Takaishvili,
Zurab Avalishvili, Mikhako Tsereteli, Alexandre
Manvelishvili, David
Vachnadze, Victor Nozadze, Alexandre Tatishvili,
Ivane Nanuashvili, Grigol
Uratadze, Markoz Tugushi, Samson Pirtskhalava,
Karlo Inasaridze, etc.

We have basically reviewed the legal aspects


of the Russian-Georgian treaties of 1783 and 1920 years,
violation of these
treaties by Russia, which twice annexed and
occupied Georgia; unknown and
less known information proving the genocide
implemented against the Georgian people, etc.

As to legal evaluation of the "Georgievsk Tractate"


of 1783 in accordance
with the standards of International Law, different
works of the Georgian
authors Z. Avalishvili, K. Inasaridze, Gr. Veshapeli,
M. Tsereteli, Al.
Manvelishvili as well as the views of the
distinguished foreign scholars in
the field of International Law of those times Louis
Le Four, Otfrid Nipold,
Ernest Niss and Vattel are presented in this chapter.

As to the 1783 treaties, the majority of the


authors used to
observe that the Kingdom of Kartl-Kakheti (Eastern
Georgia) had not lost its
status of the subject of International Law by means
of the abovementioned
treaty, but due to this treaty a certain regime of the
limited protectorate
had been established between Russia and Georgia.
The famous European
scholars in the field of the International Law,
professors Otfrid Nipold and
Louis Le Four, the member of the French Academy
of Sciences and others
confirmed the same. But Dr. Karlo Inasaridze did
not agree with them.
According to his view the regime of full
protectorate was established
between Russia and Eastern Georgia and the
Kingdom of Kartl-Kakheti did lost
the status of the subject of International Law.

Most of the works of the Georgian emigrant


authors as well as of
the above-mentioned European scholars enable us to
conclude that by means of
the Georgievsk Treaty of 1783 the Kingdom of
Kartl-Kakheti had not lost its
status of the subject of International Law. The
analogous situation took
place in February-March, 1921, when the Bolshevik
Russia had occupied and
actually annexed the Democratic Republic of
Georgia (1918-1921) roughly
violating the standards of International Law.

Chapter VII - "Some questions of history of the


Turkish-Georgian relations
in the Ist quarter of the XX century" .

We have reviewed in this chapter


how different aspects of the Turkish-Georgian
relations of 1918-1920 had
been reviewed in the Georgian emigrant literature.
There are some
considerations on the well-known Kars Treaty on
the basis of which the last
Georgian-Turkish Treaty (of 1992) had been
concluded, the treaty that caused
quite natural resentment of considerable part of the
Georgian society.

From the point of view of relations with


Turkey, the very first
year of the independence after liberation of Georgia
from 117 years of the
Russian domination (1918) turned out to be the
gravest for the country, when
in May-June, 1918, the Turkish-Georgian Treaty
was concluded in Batumi
(Administrative center of the Ajarian Autonomy of
Georgia). According to
this treaty the border between Georgia and Turkey
was defined in accordance
with the Russian-Turkish border identified in the
Adrianopol Treatise.

We should mention the Brest-Litowsk Treaty,


which was made on March 3, 1918.
During preparation process of this treaty the
perfidious character of the
Russian foreign policy as well as complete
unreadiness of the
Social-Democratic government of the Democratic
Republic of Georgia has become obvious.

The Brest-Litowsk peaceful negotiations and


Treaty were reviewed
by V. Nozadze, Gr.Uratadze, A. Donauri and other
Georgian emigrant authors.

On March 1921 the Bolshevik Russia passed


on Turkey about 13
thousand square kilometers of the historical
Georgian territory: A part of
Batumi district and the territories of Artvin and
Artaani (Ardagani)
districts behind the Georgian people's back.

Thus, it's quite obvious that making of a new


agreement with
Turkey on the basis of the Kars Treaty gives Turkey
possibility to intervene
roughly in any field of life of the Ajarian
Autonomy, its religious economic
and cultural life. That is equal to intervention in
internal affairs of the
sovereign Georgian state-that is, absolutely
inadmissible. Moreover, Acting
this way Georgia acknowledges itself as legal
successor of so-called
"Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic" in the field of
the relation with Turkey that is evident nonsense.

Chapter VIII - "The questions of history of the XX


Century of Georgia and
the Caucasus" .

Some important topics of history of the XX Century Georgia


and the Caucasus are reviwed in the present chapter.

8.1 "Bolshevizm-Menshevizm and the Democratic


Republic of Georgia
(1918-1921)". The fact that policy of both the
Bolshevik Russia and,
unfortunately, the governing Georgian Social-
Democratic Party was
anti-Georgian is shown in the present chapter on the
basis of very
noteworthy data of the Georgian emigrant literature
and the documentary
sources reflecting the history of the Democratic
Republic of Georgia
(1918-1921). Besides the anti-Caucasian policy of
Turkey and Russia, which
had been coordinated between them, should be
mentioned as well. All the
abovementioned circumstances as a whole
stipulated collapse of the
Democratic Republic of Georgia in February-
March, 1921, when the Bolshevik
Russia had occupied and actually annexed Georgia.

The fact that Georgian Social-democrats continued


their anti-national activity even in the emigration is
reviewed in this chapter.

A clear example of which was their


participation in the
negotiations with the representatives of the Russian
and non-Russian
(national minorities) emigration in Wiesbaden and
than in Munich. Finally,
the results of the abovementioned negotiations have
been officially
legalized in the resolution signed on October 16,
1953 in Munich.

"The Coordinating Centre of the Anti-Bolshevik


Peoples" was established.
They signed the Statute of the centre, in accordance
with it the
"anti-Bolshevik peoples" which had been the part of
the former Tsarist
Empire, would have given up the part of their
sovereignty to Russia in case
of victory of the movement.

The distinguished lawyer, Professor of the


Strasbourg
University, famous representative of the Georgian
Political Emigration
Mikheil Mouskheli (Muskhelishvili) wrote in 1954
concerning this issue:
"Signing of this statute by the Georgians meant of
course that Georgia had
lost the status of the sovereign state, which Georgia
had gained in
1918-1921. It means that Georgia will not be able to
demand its sovereignty,
and independence as its right, which had been taken
away by the illegal
action. Consequently, this means that we should not
speak about restoration
of this right, now we have to speak about regaining
it from the very
beginning" (A magazine "Bedi Kartlisa", No: 16, 1954).

8.2 "Some questions of history of Georgia and the


Caucasus of the I half of
XX century" . Some significant questions of the
history of Georgia and the
Caucasus of the XX century are reviewed in the
present chapter on the basis
of the works of the following distinguished
representatives of the Georgian
political emigration: Alexandre Asatiani (1937),
Markoz Tugushi (1965),
Kalistrate Salia (1948, 1962), Varlam
Cherkezishvili (1918), Shalva
Karumidze (1935), Victor Nozadze (1965), Mikheil
Tsereteli (1935, 1955),
Revaz Gabashvili (1957), Zurab Avalishvili (1935)
Givi Kobakhidze (1944),
Tamar papava (1967) Solomon Zaldastanishvili
(1938), Valiko Chubinidze
(1953), Ivane Nanuashvili (1966, 1973),
Konstantine Kandelaki (1953), Karlo
Inasaridze (1984), Giorgi Magalashvili (1954),
David Vachnadze (1952, 1954), etc.

The subchapter is divided into 3 parts: 1.


Struggle of the
Georgian people for the restoration of state
independence in 1900-1917; 2.
The National-Liberation movement in Georgia in
1921-1924; 3. The tragedy of
the peoples of the Northern Caucasus of 1944.

The activity of Giorgi Dekanozishvili and


his group in the
1900-es, the activity of "The Committee of
Independence of Georgia"
(1908-1918), rebellion of Georgian people in 1924
and its importance, and
bloody repressions implemented by the Soviet
regime in 1944 against
Chechens, Ingushes and other peoples of the
Northern Caucasus are reviewed in this chapter.

8.3 "The tragedy of April the 9th, of 1989" . The


publications of the
Georgian emigrant press dedicated to Tbilisi tragedy
of April the 9th, of
1989 are review in this chapter.
8.4 "Some questions of the history of Georgia of the
1990-es on the pages of
the Georgian emigrant magazine "Gushagi" .

In 1973-1984 the magazine


"Tavisuplebis Tribuna" was being published in
Paris, Giorgi Tsereteli, the
distinguished representative of the Georgian
political emigration
(1917-1993) was the editor in chief of this
magazine. Total number of the
published issues of the magazine was 42. In 1984 on
the basis of this
magazine the new magazine "Gushagi" was created
by the same person Giorgi
Tsereteli who became its editor-in-chief as he had
been before. It's
necessary to mention that "Gushagi" was the beyond
party publication and it
didn't serve the interests of any party or political trend.

Of course, "Gushagi" couldn't calmly observe the


military-criminal coup
d'etat that took place in Georgia in December-January,
1991-1992, and the events
that took place after that. How the abovementioned
events have been
reflected on the pages of this magazine is the topic
of this subchapter.
With this purpose the issues of "Gushagi" from
number 27 to 30 have been reviewed.

It's necessary to note that its editorial staff


took very principal position with regards to the coup. G.
Tsereteli himself was in Georgia in autumn, 1991.

The editorial staff of "Gushagi" was very principal when


evaluating the events that took place after the coup.
It would be enough to
mention their evaluation of the parliamentary
election of October the 11th,
1992: "The elections of October the 11th was the
mockery at democracy. It
promoted neither legitimating of the State Council
nor the political unity
of the Georgian people, what should have been the
main objective of parliamentary elections".

Chapter IX - "Some question of the history of


relations of Europe and Georgia" .

Several aspects of interrelations of some


European countries and
Georgia are represented in the chapter. This material
is completely based on
the articles published in the Georgian emigrant
press and the certain publications.

The chapter is divided into the following


subchapters: 1. The
Georgian politologists of the West; 2. The
Georgians in the European armies;
3. The distinguished scholar and writer Vasili Karist
(Vasil Kharischirashvili); 4. The distinguished
kartvelologist (Andro Gugushvili);
5. The distinguished historian (Alexandre
Manvelishvili); 6. The solicitous
of the Georgian culture (Professor Shalva Beridze);
7. The true friend of
the Georgian people (Juseppe Motta); 8. The
protector of the rights of the
Georgian people (Jean Martin).

Despite the fact that a certain part of the


Georgian political
emigration did serve in German Wehrmacht of the
III Reich, but their sole
goal was to liberate Georgia from the Soviet tyranny
and not to serve for
the Nazi ideology. So-called "Soviet
historiography" has represented their
activity in absolutely distorted way

The basic conclusions

1.Considering the notion of a nation, the rights of


the Nations and the
issue of the national self-determination, the
problems of interrelations
between a nation and the state, the representatives
of the Georgian
political emigration (Mikhako Tsereteli, Vakhtang
Tsitsishvili, Victor
Nozadze, Ivane Zurabishvili, Markoz Tugushi,
Isidore Mantskava, Alexsandre
Manvelishvili, Alexandre Asatiani, the leaders of
the Georgian
National-Democratic Party (was founded in 1917)
and the National-patriotic
political organization "Tetri Giorgi" ("The White
Giorgi") pointed out,
that a nation is a result of a prolonged historical
process, the society of
individuals of the common origin, having common
language, common culture
and faith, and common territory. They came also to
the conclusion that
political system of the state must be based on the
equal rights and duties
of the whole people, whole nation. The state should
not turn into a weapon
of a certain social class, but it should represent the
whole nation,
implementer of its interests and protector of its rights.

Reaserches of the following foreign authors (E.


Renen, E.Gellner, E-D.
Smith, G. Gottlib, T. Eriksen ect.) alongside with
works of emigrant authors
have been used in the present work. There is our
own definition of Natiogiven in it.

2. Those fields of activity of the distinguished


public figure, famous
scholar Ecvtime Takaishvili and the writer Grigol
Robakidze, that are
unknown or less known to the general public is
presented in the work.
Namely, very productive publishing activity of the
prominent historian
Ekvtime Takaishvili, who had published his major
scientific works
("Archaeological expedition in Lechkhum-Svaneti
in 1910", "Archaeological
expedition in Kola -Oltisi and Changle in 1907",
"The Chronicle of the Kings
and the Catholicoses in the manuscript of
Ninotsminda", etc.) are reviewed
in the work. All these works have already been
identified as the assets of
the Georgian historical science. As to Grigol
Robakidze, great Georgian
writer and public figure, he is presented as the
public and political figure.

3. Considering the question of unity of the


autochthonic Caucasian peoples
the Georgian emigrants authors (Victor Nozadze,
Leo and Giorgi Kereselidze,
Mikhako Tsereteli, Revaz Gabashvili, Alexandre
Manvelishvili, Samson
Pirtskhalava, etc.) pointed out that the main
guarantee of the development
and security of the Caucasian people is their unity,
their coordinated
policy that would be based on the mutual
understanding. But, in reality, the
historical past of the Caucasus shows that,
unfortunately, the Caucasus
managed to unite only when Georgia reached the
zenith of her power. In other
cases various contradictions used to eppear between
the Caucasian peoples.

4. The National-Liberation movement of Georgia


and the Caucasus in the
18-20th centuries was one of the main topics of the
Georgian emigrant
authors (Alexandre Manvelishvili, Shalva
Amirejibi, Tamar and Akaki papavas,
etc.). The liberation movement of Sheikh Mansur,
uprising in Kakheti in
1802, the liberation movement headed by Prince
Alexandre Bagrationi
(1770-1844), the son of the King of Kartl-Kakheti
Irakli the II are reviewed in the present work.

5.Such significant Georgian emigrant publications


as the magazine
"Kavkasioni" (the editor-publisher Victor Nozadze)
was almost unknown for
the Georgian public at large. The important
questions of history of Georgia
and the Caucasus reviwed on the pages of
"Kavkasioni" are represented in the present work.

6. The questions of history of the Russian-Georgian


relations of the 18-19th
centuries and the Ist quarter of the 20th century,
had been deeply reviewd
in the works of the Georgian emigrant authors
(Zurab Avalishvili, Mikhako
Tsereteli, Grigol Veshapeli, Alexandre
Manvelishvili, Markoz Tugushi, David
Vachnadze, Victor Nozadze, Ivane Nanuashvili,
Karlo Inasaridze, etc.) They
paid particular attention to the legal assesment of so-
called "Georkievsk
Tractate" of 1783, the Russian-Georgian Treaty of
1920, and so-called Kars
Treaty. As to the treaty of 1783, the majority of the
above-mentioned
authors pointed out that the Kingdom of Kartl-
Kakheti had not lost its
status of the subject of International Law as a result
of this treaty and
the regime similar to the limited protectorate had
been established between
Russia and Georgia. Famous European scholars in
the field of International
Law, professor Otfrid Nipold and the member of the
French Academy of
Sciences Louis Le Four had the same opinion
concerning the abovementioned
issue. We have the similar situation in February-
March, 1921, when Bolshevik
Russia occupied and actually annexed the
Democratic Republic of Georgia
(1918-1921). This was the greave violation of the
standards of International Law as well.

7. Many Georgian emigrant authors (Victor


Nozadze, Grigol Uratadze, Archil
Donauri, Elise Pataridze, Alexandre Manvelishvili,
etc.) examined the
history of Turkish-Georgian relations in 1918-1921.
They came to unanimous
conclusion on the bais of the analysis of these
relations: Having come to an
agreement with Bolshevik Russia, behind Georgia's
back Turkey played a very
negative role in the newest history of Georgia. With
the support of Turkey
the Bolshevik Russia occupied and actually annexed
Georgia in February-March
1921. While the Russian-Turkish so-called Kars
Treaty was the obvious
violation of territorial integrity of Georgia.
According to this treaty
Turkey had received about 13 thousand square
kilometers of the historical
Georgian territory, which was rude violation of the
standards of International Law.

8. The Russian-Georgian relations and, namely, the


relations between the
Bolshevik Russia and the Democratic Republic of
Georgia in 1918-1921, always
were in the lime light of the Georgian emigration.
Besides the role of the
Georgian Social-Democrats (Mensheviks) in the
creation and history of the
first Republic of Georgia are considered here as
well. Of course, we mean
the attitude of the Georgian national political
emigration, which was very
critical towards the Bolsheviks as well as to the
Mensheviks. Significant
attantion is paid to these questions in the works of
Victor Nozadze, Archil
Donauri, Ivane Zurabishvili, Revaz Gabashvili,
Giorgi Kvinitadze, Valerin
Tevzadze, Nikoloz Matikashvili, Mikheil
Kvaliashvili, Alexandre
Manvelishvili, Shalva Kalandadze, Elese Pataridze,
D. Sindikeli, Alexandre
Asatiani, Ivane Nanuashvili and others.

9. Some significant questions of the history of


Georgia and Caucases of the
20th century that had been reviewd in the works of
the Georgian emigrant
authors are represented in the present work:
(Markoz Tugushi, Alexandre
Asatiani, Mikheil Tsereteli, Varlam Cherkezishvili,
Kalistrate Salia, Victor
Nozadze, Shalva Karumidze, Revaz Gabashvili,
Zurab Avalishvili, Givi
Kobakhidze, Tamar Papava, Ivane Nanuashvili,
Alexandre Kargareteli, Shalva
Amirejibi, Solomon Zaldastanishvili, Valiko
Chubinidze, Karlo Inasaridze,
David Vachnadze, Giorgi Magalashvili, Giorgi
Tsereteli). Namely, the
questions of the struggle of Georgian people for the
restoration of state
independence in 1900-1917, the National-Liberation
movement in Georgia in
1921-1924, the tragedy of the North-Caucasian
peoples 1944, the tragedy of
Tbilisi of April the 9th, 1989 are reviewed. In the
process of reviewing of
these topics some of those aspects are emphasized
that were unknown or less
known for the public at large. In particular, many
important details of the
history of the National-Liberation movement of the
Georgian people in 1900-1917 and in 1921-1924.

10. The newest history of Georgia, namely the


1990es is marked with lots of
significant milestones, which had played crucial
role in restoration of
state independence and formation of national
statehood of the country. (The
first democratic and multiparty, non-Soviet
Parliamentary Elections on
October 28, 1990, the National Referendum on
March 31, 1991 and adoption of
the Act of Restoration of the State Independence of
Georgia on April the
9thof the same year, the first Presidential Elections
on May, 26, 1991).
Unfortunately, the same 1990es were noted by that
villainous event as well
(the military-criminal coup d'etat in December-
January, 1991-1992), which
led to the 12 years dictatorship and violation of the
territorial integrity
of Georgia in 1992-1993. How these events have
been reflected on the pages
of the emigrant magazine "Gushagi" (the Editor-
publisher Giorgi Tsereteli) is represented in the present work.

11.Some material which clearly illustrate that the


Democratic Republic of
Georgia (1918-1921) maintained close contacts with
the European states and
the Georgian political emigration kept in touch with
the European countries
are reviewed in the present work on the basis of the
Georgian emigrant
literature. Namely, the contribution of the Georgian
political analyst and
military figures to the European politology and
military affair, as well as
productive scientific activity of the emigrant
scholars Vasili Karist
(Kharischirashvili), Andro Gugushvili and
Alexandre Manvelishvili. The huge
services that the remarkable European statesmen
Juseppe Motta (Switzerland)
and Jean Martin (Switzerland) had rendered to
Georgia is reviewed.

The list of published scientific works concerning the


dissertation thesis:

1.. L. Urushadze. About the history of the question


of unity of the
Caucasian peoples.- J. "Amirani", XIII, Montreal-
Tbilisi, 2005, pp. 109-124
(in Georgian, English summary);
2.. L. Urushadze. Prince Alexandre Bagrationi -
the Leader of the
Liberation Movement of the Georgian People.-
"Perspective - XXI", VI
(Studies Volume in Honour of Professor Mzia
Andronikashvili), Tbilisi, 2004,
pp. 278-282 (in Georgian, English summary);
3.. L. Urushadze. Some Questions of the History of
the Russian-Georgian
Relations of XVIII-XIX Centuries and I Quarter of
the XX Century in the
Georgian Emigrant Literature.- J. "Historical
Verticals", Number 7, Tbilisi,
2005, pp. 9-22 (in Georgian, English summary);
4.. L. Urushadze. About the fighting of the
Georgian People for the
Restoration of State Independence of Georgia in
1900-1917.- J. "Historical
Verticals", Number 7, Tbilisi, 2005, pp. 44-58 (in
Georgian, English summary);
5.. L. Urushadze. Grigol Robakidze as the
Politician.- J. "Prometheus", 5
(17), Tbilisi, 2005, pp. 172-175 (in Georgian,
English summary);
6.. L. Urushadze. The Activity of the Istanbul Feri-
Kvey Cloister of the
Georgian Catholics in the Cultural-Enlighten Path.-
J. "Religion", 7-8-9,
Tbilisi, 2005, pp. 92-96 (in Georgian, English summary);
7.. L. Urushadze. Some Questions of History of
Georgia and the Caucasus in
the Georgian Emigrant Literature. Edited by Prof.
G. Alasania. Publishing
House "Ena da Kultura", Tbilisi, 2005, 115 pp. (a
Monograph. In Georgian, English summary);
8.. L. Urushadze. Some Questions of History of
Georgia in the Georgian
Emigrant Literature.- Bull. Georg. Acad. Sci., Vol.
172, No: 2, 2005, pp. 356-358 (in English);
9.. L. Urushadze. Some Questions of the Cultural
and Publishing Activity
of Academician Ekvtime Takaishvili in Emigracy.-
J. "Historical Verticals",
Number 9, Tbilisi, 2005, pp. 9-14 (in Georgian,
English summary);
10.. L. Urushadze. Some questions of history of
the Turkish-Georgian
relations in the 1st quarter of the 20th century.-
"Historical Studies", VI,
Tbilisi, 2005, pp. 140-148 (in Georgian, English summary).

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