The Ivane Javakhishvili Institute of History and Ethnology (Tbilisi, Rep.

of Georgia) With the rights of a manuscript LEVAN Z. URUSHADZE The Questions of History of Georgia and the Caucasus of the XVIII-XX centuries in the Georgian Emigrant Literature

Authors abstract of the Dissertation Thesis for the scientific degree of Doctor of Historical Sciences (Dr. Habil.) Tbilisi 2006

The General Characterization of the Work Urgency of the problem Despite the fact that several works have been published recently in Georgia on the distinguished representatives of the Georgian political emigration, research of different issues reflected in the literature of emigrants have remained as "white spots" until today. How the issue of the Georgian and Caucasian history have been reviewed in the emigrant literature is one of the abovementioned questions. Research of this and other questions from this point of view is extremely significant for the Georgian historical science. Namely, it will contribute to the correction of those gross "mistakes" which had been made by the so-called "Soviet historiography" during 70 years of the soviet domination. All the more, such distinguished scholars as Mikheil (Mikhako) Tsereteli, Zurab Avalishvili, Shalva Beridze, Grigol Peradze, Michael Tarkhnishvili, Kalistrate Salia, Markoz Tugushi, Alexsandre Manvelishvili, Mikheil Mouskheli (Muskhelishvili), etc. lived in emigration. The objective of the present work is to fill the existed gap. Namely, we have studied how the questions of the history of Georgia and the Caucasus of the XVIII-XX centuries were

presented in the Georgian emigrant literature. Objective, impartial representation of the abovementioned topic is extremely important especially today, when Georgia has entered the irreversible path of strengthening of the national statehood again, when objective representation of 200 years history of the Georgian national liberation movement should play a crucial role in bringing up of the future generations with patriotic aspiration. The objective and goals of the research The objective of the presented work is to study how some important questions of the history of Georgia and the Caucasus of the XVIII-XX centuries have been reflected in the Georgian emigrant literature. Besides the basis of the source studies used by the emigrant authors is given as well. For this purpose we have studied a number of works of the foreign authors as well as the documentary sources. Besides, how the Georgian emigrant authors reviewed the notion of a nation, the nations rights and the question of the nation's self-determination is shown in the work. These topics are presented on the examples of Georgia and the Caucasus. Significant attention is paid to the aspects of the history of relations between the Europe and Georgia. Scientific novelty of the work In 1990 when we were on official business trip in France we have collected the emigrant periodicals and scientific publications that had been unknown or less known in Georgia before with the support of the Georgian Diaspora in France and the

administration of the Georgian estate Leville. Very important works of the noted western political annalists and lawyers as well as the distinguished representatives of the Azerbaijan and the north-Caucasian political emigration that had been translated by the Georgian emigrants into Georgian and published in the Georgian emigrant periodicals is given in the present work. The Russian language Caucasian emigrant journals "Kavkaz" and "Obyedinionny Kavkaz" deserve some attention as the articles of the Georgian emigrants used to be published very often in them. Material presented in the work contains significant information and considerations about history of the XVIII-XX centuries of Georgia and the Caucasus. Particularly often such questions are discussed as relations of Georgia and other Caucasian nations with Russia and Turkey, the Caucasian peoples' genocide, the attempts of creation of antiBolshevik block by the Caucasian political emigration, the question of the Caucasian autochthonic nation's unity, the historical-legal evaluation of the Georgievsk Treaty (1738) and the Russian - Georgian treaty of 1920, the legal evaluation of the Kars treaty, etc. The presented work is the first monographic research, which implies the survey of how the significant questions of the history of Georgia and the Caucasus of the XVIII-XX centuries is presented in the Georgian emigrant literature, how the Georgian emigrant authors evaluate so-called "Georgievsk Tractate" of 1783, the

Russian-Georgian treaty of 1920 and violation of both of them by Russia, the RussiaTurkey so-called Kars Treaty, the Russian-Georgian and Turkey-Georgian relations and many other burning issues. It is also very important that many works of emigrant authors are important primary sources as the authors are eyewitnesses and participants of the described events. As to those representatives of the Georgian political emigration presented in this work, it is necessary to state that: we have concentrated our attention on those persons whose activity was unknown or less known for the Georgian public at large, or on those aspects of the activity of well-known emigrants which are unknown or less known as well. Of course we have materials on many other Georgian emigrants too, but we do not write concerning their activity, as their life is quite well known in Georgia. Theoretical and practical importance of the work The material and the results of the research given in this work create a certain scientific basis that should be taken into consideration while creating the textbooks of the history of Georgia and the Caucasus of the XVIIIXX centuries and while studying the history of the Georgian political emigration. Besides, the results of the research could be used for conducting the special courses and seminars at the Institutes or Universities as well. Publications 10 scientific-research works, among them 1 monograph have been published on the basis of material of the presented thesis.

Approbation of the thesis material On 1993-1994 we were elaborating the following topic: "For the history of the Caucasian peoples' unity (On the basis of emigrant literature)" and 4 reports have been presented to the session of the Department of Source Studies of the Ivane Javakhishvili Institute of History and Ethnology of the Georgian Academy of Sciences. Besides, in 1998 we organized the International Scientific Conference "Genocide of the Caucasian peoples" on which we presented the report "Genocide of the Chechen people and Georgian political emigration". Structure and volume of the work. The thesis consists of: 1.. Introduction; 2.. Sources and references overview; 3.. The source studies methods of the Georgian emigrant authors; 4.. A nation, the nations rights and selfdetermination of the nations as a basis of the national statehood; 5.. Some unknown aspects of the Georgian emigrants' activity (Ekvtime Takaishvili and Grigol Robakidze); 6.. The problems of the history of the GeorgianCaucasian relations; 7.. Some questions of the history of the RussianGeorgian relations in the XVIII-XIX centuries and in the first quarter of the XX century; 8.. Some questions of the history of the TurkeyGeorgian relations in the first quarter of the XX century; 9.. Some questions of the history of the XX century of Georgia and the Caucasus; 10.. Some questions of the history of the EuropeanGeorgian relations; 11.. Conclusions.

The work is done on 312 printed pages; The List of references is attached (275 titles). Contents of the work . The material we studied includes: 1.. The complete sets of the emigrant magazines and newspapers: "Tavisupali Sakartvelo", "Kavkasioni", "Samshoblo", "Kartlosi", "Sakartvelo", "Kartveli Eri", "Sakartvelos Damoukidebloba", "Sakhalkho Sakme", "Damoukidebeli Sakartvelo", "Bedi Kartlisa", "Ornati", "Mkhedari", "Iveria", "Akhali Iveria", "Tavisuplebis Tribuna", "Gushagi", "Tetri Giorgi", "Momavali", "Mebrdzoli Sakartvelo", "Kartuli Azri"; 2.. The works of the distinguished figures of the Georgian political emigration: Ekvtime Takaishvili, Zurab Avalishvili, Mikheil (Mikhako) Tsereteli, Grigol Robakidze, Giorgi Gvazava, Victor Nozadze, Shalva Beridze, Kalistrate Salia, Rapiel Ivantski-Ingilo, David (Data) Vachnadze, Konstantine Kandelaki, Petre Surguladze, Ivane Zurabishvili, Vlasa Mgeladze, Giorgi Kvinitadze, Solomon Zaldastanishvili, Ivane (Vano) Nanuashvili, Grigol Uratadze, Elise Pataridze, Markoz Tugushi, Tamar Papava, Samson Pirtskhalava, Isidore Mantskava, Alexandre Nikuradze (A. Sanders), Alexandre Manvelishvili, Revaz (Rezo) Gabashvili, Karlo Inasaridze, etc. Introduction. It includes urgency of the topic, the objectives and goals of the research. Chapter I - "Overview of the basic sources and references". The sources and

special references used in the dissertation are reviewed in it. Specifically, the works of such distinguished representatives of the Georgian political emigration as: Zurab Avalishvili, Ekvtime Takaishvili, Mikheil (Mikhako) Tsereteli, Grigol Robakidze, Samson Pirtskhalava, Varlam Cherkezishvili, Ivane Zurabishvili, Revaz Gabashvili, Konstantine Kandelaki, Giorgi Kvinitadze, David (Data) Vachnadze, Shalva Amirejibi, Alexandre Asatiani, Tamar and Akaki Papavas, Vlasa Mgeladze, Victor Nozadze, Elise Pataridze, Markoz Tugushi, Alexandre Tsomaia, Grigol Uratadze, Ivane (Vano) Nanuashvili, Kalistrate Salia, Alexandre Manvelishvili, Mikheil Mouskheli (Muskhelishvili), Isidore Mantskava, Solomon Zaldastanishvili, Rapiel Ivanitski-Ingilo, Ilia Kuchukhidze (the same Mindia Lashauri), Givi Gabliani, Karlo Inasaridze. We have considered those historical written (documentary) sources that had been used by the Georgian emigrant authors. The sources that had been included in the collection compiled by P. Butkov (P. Butkov 1869) and by Al. Tsagareli (1891), in the collections: "Documents and Materials of the history of the Foreign Policy of the Trans-Caucasus and Georgia" (1919) also in "The Acts of the Archeological Commission of the Caucasus (1868-1870)"and "The Legal Acts of the Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918-1921)". Different works of the following foreign authors that had been used in the dissertation are presented in the chapter as well: R. Duguet, L. Le Four, Von List, I. Marten, A. D. Smith, B. Anderson, E. Gellner, P. Manchini, E. Niss, O. Nipold, G. Gotlieb, M. Hroch, T. Eriksen, D. Miller, E. Renan, O. Bauer, A. Pechei, I. Ortega Y Grasset,

S. Telbot, R. Konstanza, R. Gattrey. Works of the following Georgian authors have been used as well: Iv. Javakhishvili, S. Kakabadze, A. Bendianishvili, A. Menteshashvili, L. Toidze, P. Lomashvili, N Jorjikia, V. Itonishvili, I. Inaneishvili, M. Sioridze, G. Tskhovrebadze, Z. Davitashvili, V. Guruli, M. Vachnadze, D. Shvelidze, N. kirtadze, A. Tsotskolauri, P. Piranishvili, N. Javakhishvili, L. Javakhishvili, M. Svanidze, Sh. Goginashvili, R. Grdzelidze, G. Mamulia, A. Surguladze, K. Surguladze, A. Aslanishvili, P. Sikharulidze, M. Dgvilava, E. Narimanidze, L. Saralidze, R. Tsukhishvili, D. Jojua, N. Tevzadze, E. Antia, R. Kavrelishvili, D. Chumburidze. Chapter II - "Methods of source studies of Georgian emigrants". The methods of source studies of the Georgian emigrant authors and the basis of their source studies are considered in this chapter. Specifically for this purpose works of the following authors have been studied: Mikhako Tsereteli, Zurab Avalishvili, Samson Pirtskhalava, Ivane Zurabishvili, Alexandre Asatiani, Kalistrate Salia, Shalva Amirejibi, Alexandre Manvelishvili, Petre Surguladze, Tamar Papava, Data Vachnadze, Konstantine Kandelaki, Markoz Tugushi, Victor Nozadze, Elise Pataridze, Isidore Mantskava, Ivane Nanuashvili, Karlo Inasaridze, etc. Several major issues are emphasized while considering of methods of source studies and the basis of it: 1. The notion of a nation, nation's rights and self-determination issues; 2. The questions of the history of the XVIII-XIX centuries of Georgia and the Caucasus, 3. The questions of the history of Georgia and the Caucasus of the XX centuries.

The Georgian emigrant authors use the following sources while consideration of the first topic: Chronicles of the Collection of old Georgian historical chronicles "Kartlis Tskhovreba" ("Life of Georgia"), the work of Ioane-Zosime "Kebay da Didebay Kartulisa Enisa" ("Praise and glory of the Georgian language". The X century), the work of Giorgi Merchule "Life of Grigol from Khandztda" (VIII century), the correspondence of the last King of Kartl-Kakheti (Eastern Georgia) Giorgi the XII (1798-1800) with the Russian military figures. Among modern Georgian and foreign authors they use works of Ilia Chavchavadze, Niko Marr, Ivane Javakhishvili, Giorgi Javakhishvili, Alexandre Javakhishvili, Ivane Jabadari, Giorgi Zdanovich (Maiashvili), Niko Khizanishvili, A. Bergson, O. Bauer, E. Nyss, E. Reclus, W. Zombardt, P.Manchini, R. Springer, W. von Freigangs, H. De. Mann, A. Bailly, H. Spenser, I. Leconte, C. Huysmans, K. Renner, L.Le Four, J.-J. Rousseau, F. von List, Von Ulmann, etc. When reviewing the history of Georgia and the Caucasus, the emigrant authors referred to the works of M. Brosset, Vakhushti Bagrationi, Al. Tsagareli, To "Georgievsk Tractate" of 1783, Russian-Georgian Treaty of 1920, Kars Treaty of 1921, the "Acts of the Caucasian Archeographical Commission" in many volumes, the collection published by B. Butkov, travel notes of E. Spenser, the scientific works of Ivane Javakhishvili, Simon Esadze, Giorgi Gozalishvili, Mikheil Tamarashvili. Chapter III - "A nation, nation's rights and selfdetermination of the nations as the basis of the national statehood". In

accordance to the modern understanding the nations, people rights are the indivisible part of human rights and basic freedoms. It is an extremely important question particularly for those nations, which are fighting for freedom today. Besides it is directly connected with such concept as "Nationalism". The obvious, unvarnished presentation of this problem is very important for the Caucasian peoples. First of all, definition of the concept "nationalism" is given, what is particularly important for deliberating on the Rights of the Nations, especially in current, post Soviet society. During the previous 70 years we used to be convinced that "Nationalism" is something very destructive and is equal to chauvinism and isolationism. They have even named it as "Fighting Nationalism" and have given a label of "Bourgeois" "Reactionary" ideology to it. In the present chapter of the work considerations of the following distinguished representatives of the Georgian emigration are given: Vakhtang Tsitsishvili (1937), Mikheil (Mikhako) Tsereteli (1910, 1956), Grigol Robakidze (1954), Victor Nozadze (1934), Vladimer Emukhvari (1937), Isidore Mantskava (1934, 1944), Spiridon Kedia (1932), Markoz Tugushi (1952), Alexandre Manvelishvili (1935, 1955, 1970) and the distinguished foreign scholars: E. Renan, D. Miller, B. Anderson, P. Manchini, D. Korn, P. Trenor, R. Gattrey, E. Gallner, M. Hroch, A.D. Smith, G. Gotlieb, T. Eriksen, etc. It is very notable how the sense of a nation

was defined by the representatives of the Georgian political emigration and how they saw the national statehood and the ways of its development. It was especially conspicuous the reflection of Mikhako Tsereteli, Alexandre Manvelishvili, Mikheil Muskhelishvili (Mouskheli), Victor Nozadze, and Kalistrate Salia. M. Tsereteli offers us his own definition of a nation, based on his historical and sociological research: "A nation is a social super-organism or a hyper-organism consisting of a homogeneous or a heterogeneous ethnic and social material, which is able in a certain period of history to create one outwardly organized common life with its elements, the single society with all of its organs: language, religion, morals, law and politics, - the society with its special history, type and self-awareness, with the full individuality" ("Nation and Mankind" 1910).

The works of Alexandre Manvelishvili "National Formation of Georgians" (1955) also implies a very interesting definition of a nation: "A nation is the society of individuals as a result of a prolonged historical process, ended and fastened together with the united common spiritual life and aspirations, with the common territory and the common political organization. A series of the spiritual values have been created on the base of a common life, which used to promote rallying and strengthening of the nation for their part." Then the author underlines the main factors of a nation's existence:

1.. Common origin, 2.. Common language, 3.. Common religion, 4.. Common culture, 5.. Common territory, 6.. Relations with other peoples. A. Manvelishvili denies possibility of creation of "the one common to all mankind organism" as this contradicts to the evolution of a man and society.

On the basis of research implemented in this chapter we have elaborated our own definition of the nation: A nation is community of the people united by means of unity of common origin, common territory, history, tradition, statehood, culture, literary language, having the characteristic, unique features. Assembly of nations of the whole world forms the international community while the union of the national cultures forms the world civilization

Chapter IV - "Some unknown sides of activity of the Georgian emigrants". Some aspects of the activity of distinguished representatives of the Georgian political emigration Ekvtime Takhaishvili and Grigol Robakidze are discussed in the present chapter, the aspects, which are unknown for the general public. 4.1 "The activity of the "Fund of Edition of the Georgian Archaeological and Cultural Materials" (1937-1939)". "The Fund of the Georgian Archaeological and Cultural Materials" was founded by the distinguished Georgian historian and public figure, professor Ekvtime Takaishvili in Paris in the second half of 1930-es.

The Fund undertook to carry out a very important mission: to bring to light and to publish the old Georgian relics and monuments dispersed abroad.

Ekvtime Takaishvili published the "Address to Georgian emigration" in the first issue of the Georgian emigrant magazine "Kartlosi" in Paris In 1937, where main objectives of creation and activity of the above-mentioned fund are formulated very clearly. Actually creation of this fund served to the same mission, which had been undertaken previously by the "Historical and Ethnographic Society of Georgia" and even before that by "The Society for Spreading of literacy among Georgians".

The Fund's activity was reviewed in its periodical reports, which had been published in the different issues of the emigrant's newspaper "Damoukidebeli Sakartvelo" of 1937-1939 in Paris.

Using the donated sums the fund published the following works: "Archaeological Expedition in Lechkhum-Svaneti in 1910" (Paris, 1937, 440 pages.); "Archaeological Expedition in Kola-Oltisi and Changle in 1907 (Paris 1938, 87 pages.); "The Chronicle of the Kings' and the Catholicos' souls in the manuscript of Ninotsminda" (Paris, 1939, 16 pages.) And other important works published in the western periodic scientific publications. The author of all these works was Ekvtime Takaishvili himself.

In 1929 E. Takaishvili was one of the founders of the St. Nino Georgian Orthodox church in Paris.

4.2 "Grigol Robakidze as the Public and Political figure" . The portrait of the great Georgian writer and patriot Grigol Robakidze (1882-1962) as a political and public benefactor is represented on the basis of the publications of distinguished representatives of the Georgian political emigration: Ioseb Gogolashvili (1964), Severian Chirakadze (1964), Kalistrate Salia (1953), Karlo Inasaridze (1984) and letters and works of Grigol Robakidze himself ("The letter to Irakli Abashidze", "The ruined soul", "The history of Lamara's creation", "Appeal to the Georgian people"). Particularly, his role in the activity of the parliamentary delegation of the democratic Republic of Georgia at the Paris Peaceful Conference in 1918 and in the foundation of the Georgian Legation in Istanbul in the same year is ahown.

S. Chirakadze recalleced the active struggle of Grigol Robakidze against the anti-Georgian activity of the Bolshevik Russia after the occupation and actual annexation of Georgia in 1921. ("The fate of Kartli" Kartli-means Georgia N 47, 1964)

Gr. Robakidze recalleced himself how had he greeted the national rebellion in Georgia in 1924. ("The fate of Kartli" Kartli-means Georgia N 17, 1954)

The writer was the member of the editorial board of the newspaper "Sakartvelo" and the magazine "Kartveli Eri" issued in Germany in the early 1940-es. He used to publish different articles on the national political issues under the pen-name "Givi Gollend".

The role of Grigol Robakidze was very considerable in the activity of the "Georgian Allied Staff" in liberating the Georgian prisoners of war from the German concentration camps. Besides, it has been shown that acting for liberation of his motherland, he had never been the member of Nazi party or served the Nazi ideology as it had been presented by the so-called "Soviet historiography"

Gr. Robakidze was the distinguished representative and one of the founders (in 1942) of "The Union of the Georgian Traditionalists", headed by the Head of the Georgian Bagrationi Royal House in Europe, H.R.H., Prince Irakli Bagration-Mukhraneli (1909-1977) in emigration.

Chapter V - "Problems of the History of GeorgiaCaucasus Relations ". Different important issues of Georgian-Caucasian relations are given in the present chapter on the basis of Georgian emigrant literature and other sources and publications.

5.1 "The question of the unity of the Caucasian peoples for the history" . The history of the idea of unity of the Caucasian autochthonic peoples and

the importance of this unity for the development of this region from the standpoint of the emigrants is presented on the basis of the emigrant periodical publications: "Obyedinionny Kavkaz", "Kavkaz", "Kavkasioni", "Tetri Giorgi", "Ornati", "Damoukidebeli Sakartvelo", "Samshoblo", "Sakartvelo", "Momavali" and the works of the Georgian emigrants: Alexandre Manvelishvili, Revaz Gabashvili and Samson Pirtskhalava. This important question has always been a burning problem for the Caucasus as Russia and Turkey always declared their claims on this region. If at present the Turkish-Georgian relations has become more civilized and some indications of equal partnership are obvious in different fields, the danger from Russia still exists and is as great as it was before.

The history of the movement for the unity of the Caucasian peoples from the end of the XIX century up to the middle of the XX century as well as considerations of the Georgian emigrant authors on this problem are successively presented in the present chapter on the basis of the Georgian emigrant literature.

Unfortunately, the historical past of the Caucasus obviously shows that the unity of the Caucasian peoples was possible only when Georgia obtained a zenith of its power. In other cases some contradictions and conflicts used to occur among the Caucasian peoples that used to make the accomplishment of that goal impossible.

5.2 "Some questions of the history of the liberation movement of the

Caucasus in the XVIII-XIX centuries in the Georgian emigrant literature" . The subchapter consists of three parts: 1. The liberation movement of the autochthonic peoples of the Northern Caucasus against Russia headed by Sheikh Mansur (the second part of the 18th century), 2. The Kakhetian rebellion of 1802 and 3. The activity of Prince Alexandre Bagrationi (1770-1844), one of the leaders of the nationalliberation movement of Georgia and the Caucasus in 1800-1832. The material is fully based on publications of the distinguished representatives of the Georgian political emigration: Alexandre Manvelishvili, Giorgi Magalashvili, David (Data) Vachnadze, Shalva Amirejibi, Tamar and Akaki Papavas.

5.3 "The questions of the history of Georgia and the Caucasus on the pages of the Georgian emigrant magazine "Kavkasioni" . In 1929 "Kavkasioni" -emigrant literature and scientific magazine was created by the noted Georgian scholar, public and political figure, Doctor Victor Nozadze created in Paris. He has been its editor-in-chief and publisher until his death (1976). The first issue of the magazine was published in 1929 and the last one the 21 st. issue - in 1986. The fiction as well as different scientific works used to be published in the magazine.

Survey of different works on history of Georgia and the Caucasus published in "Kavkasioni" are reviwed in the present subchapter. We intentionally review this magazine as in

spite of its importance it's still less known to the Georgian readers.

Different articles published in the abovementioned magazine by the following distinguished representatives of the Georgian political emigration are reviewed in the present subchapter: Stephane Kasradze, Ekvtime Takaishvili, Shalva Amirejibi, Eduard Papava, Victor Nozadze, Alexandre Shatirishvili, Tamar and Akaki Papavas, Isidore Mantskava, Raphiel Ivanitski-Ingilo, Giorgi Nozadze, Razhden Arsenidze, Markoz Tugushi, Alexandre Manvelishvili, Akaki Kvitaishvili, Givi Kobakhidze, Shalva Beridze, Sosipatre Asatiani, Vakhtang Gambashidze, David Vachnadze, Elizbar Makashvili, Severian Chirakadze, Archil Donauri, Alexandre Tatishvili, Nikoloz Tokhadze, Dimitri Shalikashvili (Father of the distinguished generals of the US Army Otar and John-Malkhaz Shalikashvili), Ilia Kuchukhidze (the same Mindia Lashauri), David Vashadze, Mikheil Kavtaradze, Giorgi Sharashidze, Karlo Inasaridze.

Chapter VI - "Some questions of the history of Russian-Georgian relations of the XVIII-XIX centuries and I quarter of the XX century". Significant attantion was paid to different aspects of some questions of the history of Russian-Georgian relations of the XVIII-XIX centuries and the I quarter of the XX century in the publications and works of the following distinguished representatives of the Georgian political emigration: Ekvtime Takaishvili, Zurab Avalishvili, Mikhako Tsereteli, Alexandre

Manvelishvili, David Vachnadze, Victor Nozadze, Alexandre Tatishvili, Ivane Nanuashvili, Grigol Uratadze, Markoz Tugushi, Samson Pirtskhalava, Karlo Inasaridze, etc.

We have basically reviewed the legal aspects of the Russian-Georgian treaties of 1783 and 1920 years, violation of these treaties by Russia, which twice annexed and occupied Georgia; unknown and less known information proving the genocide implemented against the Georgian people, etc.

As to legal evaluation of the "Georgievsk Tractate" of 1783 in accordance with the standards of International Law, different works of the Georgian authors Z. Avalishvili, K. Inasaridze, Gr. Veshapeli, M. Tsereteli, Al. Manvelishvili as well as the views of the distinguished foreign scholars in the field of International Law of those times Louis Le Four, Otfrid Nipold, Ernest Niss and Vattel are presented in this chapter.

As to the 1783 treaties, the majority of the authors used to observe that the Kingdom of Kartl-Kakheti (Eastern Georgia) had not lost its status of the subject of International Law by means of the abovementioned treaty, but due to this treaty a certain regime of the limited protectorate had been established between Russia and Georgia. The famous European scholars in the field of the International Law, professors Otfrid Nipold and Louis Le Four, the member of the French Academy of Sciences and others confirmed the same. But Dr. Karlo Inasaridze did not agree with them.

According to his view the regime of full protectorate was established between Russia and Eastern Georgia and the Kingdom of Kartl-Kakheti did lost the status of the subject of International Law.

Most of the works of the Georgian emigrant authors as well as of the above-mentioned European scholars enable us to conclude that by means of the Georgievsk Treaty of 1783 the Kingdom of Kartl-Kakheti had not lost its status of the subject of International Law. The analogous situation took place in February-March, 1921, when the Bolshevik Russia had occupied and actually annexed the Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918-1921) roughly violating the standards of International Law.

Chapter VII - "Some questions of history of the Turkish-Georgian relations in the Ist quarter of the XX century" . We have reviewed in this chapter how different aspects of the Turkish-Georgian relations of 1918-1920 had been reviewed in the Georgian emigrant literature. There are some considerations on the well-known Kars Treaty on the basis of which the last Georgian-Turkish Treaty (of 1992) had been concluded, the treaty that caused quite natural resentment of considerable part of the Georgian society.

From the point of view of relations with Turkey, the very first year of the independence after liberation of Georgia from 117 years of the Russian domination (1918) turned out to be the gravest for the country, when in May-June, 1918, the Turkish-Georgian Treaty

was concluded in Batumi (Administrative center of the Ajarian Autonomy of Georgia). According to this treaty the border between Georgia and Turkey was defined in accordance with the Russian-Turkish border identified in the Adrianopol Treatise.

We should mention the Brest-Litowsk Treaty, which was made on March 3, 1918. During preparation process of this treaty the perfidious character of the Russian foreign policy as well as complete unreadiness of the Social-Democratic government of the Democratic Republic of Georgia has become obvious.

The Brest-Litowsk peaceful negotiations and Treaty were reviewed by V. Nozadze, Gr.Uratadze, A. Donauri and other Georgian emigrant authors.

On March 1921 the Bolshevik Russia passed on Turkey about 13 thousand square kilometers of the historical Georgian territory: A part of Batumi district and the territories of Artvin and Artaani (Ardagani) districts behind the Georgian people's back.

Thus, it's quite obvious that making of a new agreement with Turkey on the basis of the Kars Treaty gives Turkey possibility to intervene roughly in any field of life of the Ajarian Autonomy, its religious economic and cultural life. That is equal to intervention in internal affairs of the sovereign Georgian state-that is, absolutely inadmissible. Moreover, Acting this way Georgia acknowledges itself as legal successor of so-called

"Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic" in the field of the relation with Turkey that is evident nonsense.

Chapter VIII - "The questions of history of the XX Century of Georgia and the Caucasus" . Some important topics of history of the XX Century Georgia and the Caucasus are reviwed in the present chapter.

8.1 "Bolshevizm-Menshevizm and the Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918-1921)". The fact that policy of both the Bolshevik Russia and, unfortunately, the governing Georgian SocialDemocratic Party was anti-Georgian is shown in the present chapter on the basis of very noteworthy data of the Georgian emigrant literature and the documentary sources reflecting the history of the Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918-1921). Besides the anti-Caucasian policy of Turkey and Russia, which had been coordinated between them, should be mentioned as well. All the abovementioned circumstances as a whole stipulated collapse of the Democratic Republic of Georgia in FebruaryMarch, 1921, when the Bolshevik Russia had occupied and actually annexed Georgia.

The fact that Georgian Social-democrats continued their anti-national activity even in the emigration is reviewed in this chapter.

A clear example of which was their participation in the negotiations with the representatives of the Russian and non-Russian

(national minorities) emigration in Wiesbaden and than in Munich. Finally, the results of the abovementioned negotiations have been officially legalized in the resolution signed on October 16, 1953 in Munich.

"The Coordinating Centre of the Anti-Bolshevik Peoples" was established. They signed the Statute of the centre, in accordance with it the "anti-Bolshevik peoples" which had been the part of the former Tsarist Empire, would have given up the part of their sovereignty to Russia in case of victory of the movement.

The distinguished lawyer, Professor of the Strasbourg University, famous representative of the Georgian Political Emigration Mikheil Mouskheli (Muskhelishvili) wrote in 1954 concerning this issue: "Signing of this statute by the Georgians meant of course that Georgia had lost the status of the sovereign state, which Georgia had gained in 1918-1921. It means that Georgia will not be able to demand its sovereignty, and independence as its right, which had been taken away by the illegal action. Consequently, this means that we should not speak about restoration of this right, now we have to speak about regaining it from the very beginning" (A magazine "Bedi Kartlisa", No: 16, 1954).

8.2 "Some questions of history of Georgia and the Caucasus of the I half of XX century" . Some significant questions of the history of Georgia and the Caucasus of the XX century are reviewed in the present chapter on the basis

of the works of the following distinguished representatives of the Georgian political emigration: Alexandre Asatiani (1937), Markoz Tugushi (1965), Kalistrate Salia (1948, 1962), Varlam Cherkezishvili (1918), Shalva Karumidze (1935), Victor Nozadze (1965), Mikheil Tsereteli (1935, 1955), Revaz Gabashvili (1957), Zurab Avalishvili (1935) Givi Kobakhidze (1944), Tamar papava (1967) Solomon Zaldastanishvili (1938), Valiko Chubinidze (1953), Ivane Nanuashvili (1966, 1973), Konstantine Kandelaki (1953), Karlo Inasaridze (1984), Giorgi Magalashvili (1954), David Vachnadze (1952, 1954), etc.

The subchapter is divided into 3 parts: 1. Struggle of the Georgian people for the restoration of state independence in 1900-1917; 2. The National-Liberation movement in Georgia in 1921-1924; 3. The tragedy of the peoples of the Northern Caucasus of 1944.

The activity of Giorgi Dekanozishvili and his group in the 1900-es, the activity of "The Committee of Independence of Georgia" (1908-1918), rebellion of Georgian people in 1924 and its importance, and bloody repressions implemented by the Soviet regime in 1944 against Chechens, Ingushes and other peoples of the Northern Caucasus are reviewed in this chapter.

8.3 "The tragedy of April the 9th, of 1989" . The publications of the Georgian emigrant press dedicated to Tbilisi tragedy of April the 9th, of 1989 are review in this chapter.

8.4 "Some questions of the history of Georgia of the 1990-es on the pages of the Georgian emigrant magazine "Gushagi" . In 1973-1984 the magazine "Tavisuplebis Tribuna" was being published in Paris, Giorgi Tsereteli, the distinguished representative of the Georgian political emigration (1917-1993) was the editor in chief of this magazine. Total number of the published issues of the magazine was 42. In 1984 on the basis of this magazine the new magazine "Gushagi" was created by the same person Giorgi Tsereteli who became its editor-in-chief as he had been before. It's necessary to mention that "Gushagi" was the beyond party publication and it didn't serve the interests of any party or political trend. Of course, "Gushagi" couldn't calmly observe the military-criminal coup d'etat that took place in Georgia in December-January, 1991-1992, and the events that took place after that. How the abovementioned events have been reflected on the pages of this magazine is the topic of this subchapter. With this purpose the issues of "Gushagi" from number 27 to 30 have been reviewed.

It's necessary to note that its editorial staff took very principal position with regards to the coup. G. Tsereteli himself was in Georgia in autumn, 1991.

The editorial staff of "Gushagi" was very principal when evaluating the events that took place after the coup.

It would be enough to mention their evaluation of the parliamentary election of October the 11th, 1992: "The elections of October the 11th was the mockery at democracy. It promoted neither legitimating of the State Council nor the political unity of the Georgian people, what should have been the main objective of parliamentary elections".

Chapter IX - "Some question of the history of relations of Europe and Georgia" . Several aspects of interrelations of some European countries and Georgia are represented in the chapter. This material is completely based on the articles published in the Georgian emigrant press and the certain publications.

The chapter is divided into the following subchapters: 1. The Georgian politologists of the West; 2. The Georgians in the European armies; 3. The distinguished scholar and writer Vasili Karist (Vasil Kharischirashvili); 4. The distinguished kartvelologist (Andro Gugushvili); 5. The distinguished historian (Alexandre Manvelishvili); 6. The solicitous of the Georgian culture (Professor Shalva Beridze); 7. The true friend of the Georgian people (Juseppe Motta); 8. The protector of the rights of the Georgian people (Jean Martin).

Despite the fact that a certain part of the Georgian political emigration did serve in German Wehrmacht of the III Reich, but their sole goal was to liberate Georgia from the Soviet tyranny

and not to serve for the Nazi ideology. So-called "Soviet historiography" has represented their activity in absolutely distorted way

The basic conclusions

1.Considering the notion of a nation, the rights of the Nations and the issue of the national self-determination, the problems of interrelations between a nation and the state, the representatives of the Georgian political emigration (Mikhako Tsereteli, Vakhtang Tsitsishvili, Victor Nozadze, Ivane Zurabishvili, Markoz Tugushi, Isidore Mantskava, Alexsandre Manvelishvili, Alexandre Asatiani, the leaders of the Georgian National-Democratic Party (was founded in 1917) and the National-patriotic political organization "Tetri Giorgi" ("The White Giorgi") pointed out, that a nation is a result of a prolonged historical process, the society of individuals of the common origin, having common language, common culture and faith, and common territory. They came also to the conclusion that political system of the state must be based on the equal rights and duties of the whole people, whole nation. The state should not turn into a weapon of a certain social class, but it should represent the whole nation, implementer of its interests and protector of its rights.

Reaserches of the following foreign authors (E. Renen, E.Gellner, E-D.

Smith, G. Gottlib, T. Eriksen ect.) alongside with works of emigrant authors have been used in the present work. There is our own definition of Natiogiven in it.

2. Those fields of activity of the distinguished public figure, famous scholar Ecvtime Takaishvili and the writer Grigol Robakidze, that are unknown or less known to the general public is presented in the work. Namely, very productive publishing activity of the prominent historian Ekvtime Takaishvili, who had published his major scientific works ("Archaeological expedition in Lechkhum-Svaneti in 1910", "Archaeological expedition in Kola -Oltisi and Changle in 1907", "The Chronicle of the Kings and the Catholicoses in the manuscript of Ninotsminda", etc.) are reviewed in the work. All these works have already been identified as the assets of the Georgian historical science. As to Grigol Robakidze, great Georgian writer and public figure, he is presented as the public and political figure.

3. Considering the question of unity of the autochthonic Caucasian peoples the Georgian emigrants authors (Victor Nozadze, Leo and Giorgi Kereselidze, Mikhako Tsereteli, Revaz Gabashvili, Alexandre Manvelishvili, Samson Pirtskhalava, etc.) pointed out that the main guarantee of the development and security of the Caucasian people is their unity, their coordinated policy that would be based on the mutual understanding. But, in reality, the

historical past of the Caucasus shows that, unfortunately, the Caucasus managed to unite only when Georgia reached the zenith of her power. In other cases various contradictions used to eppear between the Caucasian peoples.

4. The National-Liberation movement of Georgia and the Caucasus in the 18-20th centuries was one of the main topics of the Georgian emigrant authors (Alexandre Manvelishvili, Shalva Amirejibi, Tamar and Akaki papavas, etc.). The liberation movement of Sheikh Mansur, uprising in Kakheti in 1802, the liberation movement headed by Prince Alexandre Bagrationi (1770-1844), the son of the King of Kartl-Kakheti Irakli the II are reviewed in the present work.

5.Such significant Georgian emigrant publications as the magazine "Kavkasioni" (the editor-publisher Victor Nozadze) was almost unknown for the Georgian public at large. The important questions of history of Georgia and the Caucasus reviwed on the pages of "Kavkasioni" are represented in the present work.

6. The questions of history of the Russian-Georgian relations of the 18-19th centuries and the Ist quarter of the 20th century, had been deeply reviewd in the works of the Georgian emigrant authors (Zurab Avalishvili, Mikhako Tsereteli, Grigol Veshapeli, Alexandre Manvelishvili, Markoz Tugushi, David

Vachnadze, Victor Nozadze, Ivane Nanuashvili, Karlo Inasaridze, etc.) They paid particular attention to the legal assesment of socalled "Georkievsk Tractate" of 1783, the Russian-Georgian Treaty of 1920, and so-called Kars Treaty. As to the treaty of 1783, the majority of the above-mentioned authors pointed out that the Kingdom of KartlKakheti had not lost its status of the subject of International Law as a result of this treaty and the regime similar to the limited protectorate had been established between Russia and Georgia. Famous European scholars in the field of International Law, professor Otfrid Nipold and the member of the French Academy of Sciences Louis Le Four had the same opinion concerning the abovementioned issue. We have the similar situation in FebruaryMarch, 1921, when Bolshevik Russia occupied and actually annexed the Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918-1921). This was the greave violation of the standards of International Law as well.

7. Many Georgian emigrant authors (Victor Nozadze, Grigol Uratadze, Archil Donauri, Elise Pataridze, Alexandre Manvelishvili, etc.) examined the history of Turkish-Georgian relations in 1918-1921. They came to unanimous conclusion on the bais of the analysis of these relations: Having come to an agreement with Bolshevik Russia, behind Georgia's back Turkey played a very negative role in the newest history of Georgia. With the support of Turkey the Bolshevik Russia occupied and actually annexed Georgia in February-March 1921. While the Russian-Turkish so-called Kars Treaty was the obvious

violation of territorial integrity of Georgia. According to this treaty Turkey had received about 13 thousand square kilometers of the historical Georgian territory, which was rude violation of the standards of International Law.

8. The Russian-Georgian relations and, namely, the relations between the Bolshevik Russia and the Democratic Republic of Georgia in 1918-1921, always were in the lime light of the Georgian emigration. Besides the role of the Georgian Social-Democrats (Mensheviks) in the creation and history of the first Republic of Georgia are considered here as well. Of course, we mean the attitude of the Georgian national political emigration, which was very critical towards the Bolsheviks as well as to the Mensheviks. Significant attantion is paid to these questions in the works of Victor Nozadze, Archil Donauri, Ivane Zurabishvili, Revaz Gabashvili, Giorgi Kvinitadze, Valerin Tevzadze, Nikoloz Matikashvili, Mikheil Kvaliashvili, Alexandre Manvelishvili, Shalva Kalandadze, Elese Pataridze, D. Sindikeli, Alexandre Asatiani, Ivane Nanuashvili and others.

9. Some significant questions of the history of Georgia and Caucases of the 20th century that had been reviewd in the works of the Georgian emigrant authors are represented in the present work: (Markoz Tugushi, Alexandre Asatiani, Mikheil Tsereteli, Varlam Cherkezishvili, Kalistrate Salia, Victor Nozadze, Shalva Karumidze, Revaz Gabashvili, Zurab Avalishvili, Givi

Kobakhidze, Tamar Papava, Ivane Nanuashvili, Alexandre Kargareteli, Shalva Amirejibi, Solomon Zaldastanishvili, Valiko Chubinidze, Karlo Inasaridze, David Vachnadze, Giorgi Magalashvili, Giorgi Tsereteli). Namely, the questions of the struggle of Georgian people for the restoration of state independence in 1900-1917, the National-Liberation movement in Georgia in 1921-1924, the tragedy of the North-Caucasian peoples 1944, the tragedy of Tbilisi of April the 9th, 1989 are reviewed. In the process of reviewing of these topics some of those aspects are emphasized that were unknown or less known for the public at large. In particular, many important details of the history of the National-Liberation movement of the Georgian people in 1900-1917 and in 1921-1924.

10. The newest history of Georgia, namely the 1990es is marked with lots of significant milestones, which had played crucial role in restoration of state independence and formation of national statehood of the country. (The first democratic and multiparty, non-Soviet Parliamentary Elections on October 28, 1990, the National Referendum on March 31, 1991 and adoption of the Act of Restoration of the State Independence of Georgia on April the 9thof the same year, the first Presidential Elections on May, 26, 1991). Unfortunately, the same 1990es were noted by that villainous event as well (the military-criminal coup d'etat in DecemberJanuary, 1991-1992), which led to the 12 years dictatorship and violation of the territorial integrity of Georgia in 1992-1993. How these events have been reflected on the pages

of the emigrant magazine "Gushagi" (the Editorpublisher Giorgi Tsereteli) is represented in the present work.

11.Some material which clearly illustrate that the Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918-1921) maintained close contacts with the European states and the Georgian political emigration kept in touch with the European countries are reviewed in the present work on the basis of the Georgian emigrant literature. Namely, the contribution of the Georgian political analyst and military figures to the European politology and military affair, as well as productive scientific activity of the emigrant scholars Vasili Karist (Kharischirashvili), Andro Gugushvili and Alexandre Manvelishvili. The huge services that the remarkable European statesmen Juseppe Motta (Switzerland) and Jean Martin (Switzerland) had rendered to Georgia is reviewed. The list of published scientific works concerning the dissertation thesis: 1.. L. Urushadze. About the history of the question of unity of the Caucasian peoples.- J. "Amirani", XIII, MontrealTbilisi, 2005, pp. 109-124 (in Georgian, English summary); 2.. L. Urushadze. Prince Alexandre Bagrationi the Leader of the Liberation Movement of the Georgian People."Perspective - XXI", VI (Studies Volume in Honour of Professor Mzia Andronikashvili), Tbilisi, 2004, pp. 278-282 (in Georgian, English summary); 3.. L. Urushadze. Some Questions of the History of the Russian-Georgian Relations of XVIII-XIX Centuries and I Quarter of the XX Century in the

Georgian Emigrant Literature.- J. "Historical Verticals", Number 7, Tbilisi, 2005, pp. 9-22 (in Georgian, English summary); 4.. L. Urushadze. About the fighting of the Georgian People for the Restoration of State Independence of Georgia in 1900-1917.- J. "Historical Verticals", Number 7, Tbilisi, 2005, pp. 44-58 (in Georgian, English summary); 5.. L. Urushadze. Grigol Robakidze as the Politician.- J. "Prometheus", 5 (17), Tbilisi, 2005, pp. 172-175 (in Georgian, English summary); 6.. L. Urushadze. The Activity of the Istanbul FeriKvey Cloister of the Georgian Catholics in the Cultural-Enlighten Path.J. "Religion", 7-8-9, Tbilisi, 2005, pp. 92-96 (in Georgian, English summary); 7.. L. Urushadze. Some Questions of History of Georgia and the Caucasus in the Georgian Emigrant Literature. Edited by Prof. G. Alasania. Publishing House "Ena da Kultura", Tbilisi, 2005, 115 pp. (a Monograph. In Georgian, English summary); 8.. L. Urushadze. Some Questions of History of Georgia in the Georgian Emigrant Literature.- Bull. Georg. Acad. Sci., Vol. 172, No: 2, 2005, pp. 356-358 (in English); 9.. L. Urushadze. Some Questions of the Cultural and Publishing Activity of Academician Ekvtime Takaishvili in Emigracy.J. "Historical Verticals", Number 9, Tbilisi, 2005, pp. 9-14 (in Georgian, English summary); 10.. L. Urushadze. Some questions of history of the Turkish-Georgian relations in the 1st quarter of the 20th century."Historical Studies", VI, Tbilisi, 2005, pp. 140-148 (in Georgian, English summary).

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