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Animus hominis est anima scripti

BONUS JUDEX SECUNDUM AEQUUM ET BONUM JUDICAT STRICTO JURI PRAEFERT Justice is preferred than to a too strict interpretation of the law which will cause injustice. DE NON APPARENTIBUS, ET NON EXISTENTIBUS, EADEM EST RATIO Of things that do not appear and things which do not exist, the rule in legal proceedings is the same - the law acts only on things which has been proven. For example, statutes, parliamentary proceedings, privileges of Congress (Vol. X, 31 March 1996, The Lawyers Review). EI INCUMBIT PROBATIO QUI DICIT, NON QUI NEGAT He who asserts must prove, not he who denies (U.S. vs. de la Torre, 42 Phil. 65; Reyes vs. Manaot, 63 O.G. 76; Rosaba vs. Balili, 11637- SP, 25 Feb. 1981). EI INCUMBIT PROBATIO QUI DICIT, NON QUI NEGAT He who asserts must prove, not he who denies (U.S. vs. de la Torre, 42 Phil. 65; Reyes vs. Manaot, 63 O.G. 76; Rosaba vs. Balili, 11637- SP, 25 Feb. 1981). INTERPRETARE ET CONCORDARE LEGIBUS EST OPTIMUS INTERPRETANDI The best method of interpretation is that which makes laws consistent with other laws. - Manny

IN DUBIIS REUS EST ABSOLVENDUS All doubts should be resolved in favor of the accused (People vs. Federico Geronimo alias Cmdr. Oscar, G.R. No. L-8936, 23 October 1956, EN BANC, 100 Phil. 90; and People vs. Ong Kee, 38 O.G. 2334). - PATRICK MEMO CUM ALTERIUS DETRIMENTO LOCUPLETARI POTEST No person should unjustly enrich himself at the expense of another (Mercantile Insurance Co. vs. Felipe Ysmael, Jr., Inc., 169 SCRA 66, 72 (1989) and Francisco vs. IAC, 181 SCRA 731, 737, (1990) cited in Latin and French in Philippine Jurisprudence, page 16, The Lawyers Review, Vol. XII, No. 10, 31 October 1998, Mla., Phil., Atty. Baldomero S.P. Gatbonton, Jr.). - MARGE NULLUM CRIMEN, NULLA POENA, SINE LEGE There is no crime where there is no law punishing (POTENCIANA M. EVANGELISTA vs. THE PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES and THE HONORABLE SANDIGANBAYAN, G.R. Nos. 108135-36, August 14, 2000). - CASSIDY QUAE AB INITIO NON VALENT, EX POST FACTO CONVALESCERE NON POSSUNT Things that are invalid from the beginning are not made valid by a subsequent act. JAMES QUI FACIT PER ALIUM FACIT PER SE. He who acts through another acts himself. QUI TACIT CONSENTERE VIDETUR Silence means consent. This must be applied with caution. For example if you propose to a lady and she remains silent, you must not assume that she consents. On the contrary, the implication is that she does not, unless the silence is accompanied by acts capable of only one construction. Refer to Section 23, Rule 130, 1997 Rules of Civil Prodedure. QUOD TACITE INTELLIGITUR DEESE NON VIDETURE What is tacitly understood is not wanting. QUOD NULLUM EST, NULLUM PRODUCIT or QUOD NULLUM EST, NULLUM PRODUCIT EFFECTUM A nullity produces no effect whatsoever (Tongcoy vs. CA, L-45645, June 28, 1987; 123

SCRA 119 and Edwards vs. McCoy, 22 Phil. 598; Manila vs. Agustin, G.R. No. 45844, Nov. 29, 1937, 36 O.G. 1355). - Manny QUOD SUBINTELLIGITUR NON DEEST What is understood is not wanting. VERBA INTENTIONI, NONE CONTRA, DEBENT INSERVIR Words should be made subservient to the intent not contrary to it. - MANNY