INTRODUCTION

Diabetes is a disease by which there is too much glucose or sugar in the blood stream due to human body is unable to properly use or produce enough insulin which is produced by an organ, pancreas. It is an incurable and a life-long disease.

There are several types of Diabetes. The common types are type 1 and type 2. However, focus of this proposal is type 2 diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes emerged as a human body’s organ, pancreas produces insufficient insulin or the human body is unable to properly use the insulin due to several factors which include insufficient insulin receptors or dysfunction of receptors which delayed glucose to enter the muscle, hence, result to high glucose level in the blood.

Factors which contribute to risk of type 2 diabetes include: family history of diabetes (heredity), overweight, inactivity, stress, poor eating habits, age above 30 or 40, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diet with a high fat and glucose, and gestational diabetes – a woman was diagnosed of affected with diabetes but fully recovered as the woman gave birth.

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes may be in form of: increased hunger, increased thirst, increased urination, weight loss, blurred eyesight, feeling tired or fatigue, numbness or tingling in hands or feet, frequent infections, slow healing cuts or sores, irritation or itchy in the private areas which include the vagina area for women, impotence or sexual problems.

Although these are common symptom of type 2 diabetes but in some cases, some people may develop mild symptoms or no symptoms at all because onset of Type 2 develop gradually and slowly, as a result, the disease may be diagnosed several years as a severe complications has arisen. Whereas onset for type 1 develop rapidly and faster, as a result, type 1 diabetes can easily be noticed or detect.

2002). Furthermore. insulin action or both”. However. Type 1 is rare and the International Diabetes Institute (IDI) estimated that among all reported diabetes cases.000. . (International Diabetes Institute.5% of participants have high fasting blood glucose level … more than 5. a consultant endriconologist and physician from Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saliha (RIPAS) hospital.1). according to dr. 2005). Brunei Darussalam’s Ministry of health defined Diabetes or Diabetes mellitus as “a metabolic disorder characterized by the presence of hyperglycemia due to defective insulin secretion. Besides that. Diabetes Mellitus ranked third for chronic disease leading to death in Brunei Darussalam (Amiruddin. only 10% to 15% is a Type 1. p. Alice Yong (2011). According to Dr Harliza Hj Harris from the Pg Anak Puteri Rashidah Sa'adatul Bolkiah (PAPRSB) at University of Brunei Darussalam (UBD). reported cases for Diabetes had reached 30. (WHO. 2011).6mmol/L” (Yong.1 mmol/L.STATING THE PROBLEM Diabetes or Diabetes Mellitus has been a serious problem in various regions of the world and WHO estimated that more than 30 million people have been affected by Diabetes. Type 2 is a more common epidemic in the world including Brunei Darussalam and reported cases for type 2 in Brunei Darussalam has been increasing each year (Yong. “a data from Integrated Health Screening (IHS) of civil servants between 2007 to 2009 showed that 14. 2011).5% civil servants affected with type 2 diabetes. The optimum range of blood glucose level is between 4. 2010). 2007. there are higher chances and risk for the 14.4 to 6. but from the data. (Brunei Darussalam’s Ministry of Health. in 2010. according to Brunei Darussalam’s Ministry of Health (MOH).

OBJECTIVE The objectives of this study are as follow: a) Identify and validate what cause type 2 Diabetes to increase in Brunei Darussalam through survey. an endocrinology expert from Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saliha (RIPAS) hospital stated during an event. there is a need to study the cause for high risk in prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). this may burden the government in the future if the number keep increasing. this will cause Brunei’s government to increase expenses on health and medical. that prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes has increased to children who are obese. Children are Brunei’s valuable assets. if children were to be diagnosed with T2DM at early age. the individual will or may develop complexity associated with T2DM and as a result. b) Investigate on how individuals perceive their health. Obese is one of contributing factors to develop T2DM. suffer from kidney failure or need amoutation by which this will burden his or her family member. the children will experience a troublesome and complex life as they have to monitor their blood glucose level on daily basis that is for the case of children. Therefore.Furthermore. 2010). . “Diabetes at National Level Public Symposium" at the Suri Seri Begawan Hospital in Kuala Belait. he or she may be blind. if an individual diagnosed with T2DM does not control or monitor their food consumption and blood glucose level. according to Datin Dr Hjh Haslinda Hj Hassan (Roslan. If prevalence of T2DM to increase in both children and adults. Besides that.

Open questions 4. Data Type 1. Random sampling 4.c) Identify the lifestyle of individuals d) Suggest on how to make individuals aware of their health. Sample size is approximately 100 to 150 3. Closed questions 3. Assistance on the questionnaire will be given to respondent who is illiterate or unable to understand the question given. closed 19 March 2. METHODOLOGY The survey will be based on convenience sampling and self-administered questionnaire. Demographic 2. . Respondents are allowed to provide general comments EXPECTED RESULTS The expected results are to have a better understanding in the situation for why type 2 Diabetes increasing each year and daily lifestyle of individuals in Brunei Darussalam. Survey launched 20 February. Multiple choice question Survey Characteristics 1.

bt. Type 2 Diabetes: A Practical Targets and Treatments.htm . July 22). (2010. Clinical Practice Guidelines: Diabetes Mellitus. Z. 2007. Chapter I: Introduction.gov. 2011. Diabetes Epidemic: Obesity to be blamed? [PowerPoint Slides]. (p. Diabetes Care: Check Quality of Life. Melbourne.bn/index. 2012.bn/news-national/2010/07/22/diabetes-care-checkquality-life Brunei Darussalam’s Ministry Of Health (MOH). A. Brunei Times. (p.. Brunei Darussalam: GlaxoSmithKline. from http://moh.BIBLIOGRAPHY Amiruddin.1) WHO (World Health Organisation). 2012. 1) Yong. Retrieved on January 22. Australia: International Diabetes Institute. Retrieved on January 20. from http://www.com. 2005.

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