Name: Sandesh Kumar K.V Guide: Dr.Syed Shakeeb Ur Rehman Prof. R. Kiran The steel trusses comprise the maximum steel structures that are designed and put in to use in the most varied and versatile forms in the Indian Steel Construction industry. The analysis and design of the steel trusses often require a great deal of structural analysis to determine the loads acting on the trusses and its effect on the truss as a whole due to the geometry of truss. The member design in the truss is affected not only by the type of sections used but also the geometry of the truss that is the arrangement of the three hinged triangular panel in the truss. The member design of truss also requires the proficient design to arrive at the most economical design as it is influenced by connection methodology and the fabrication ease required to mill the member and put the truss in particular required geometry. Working out the designs from the fundamentals is always tedious and time consuming. This cannot be resorted to in the design offices these days, where time plays an important role. This is all more relevant in the case of design of steel structures. Hence this project has been compiled to assist the design engineers involved in steel designs to give a simpler, faster and safer approach for designing of steel trusses. The Beaureau of Indian Standard had published SP 38 in the year of 1987 for the design of “A Frame Trusses” based on the working stress method. The above mentioned Handbook has been helping the steel design engineers in a great way for the design of the truss and its subsidiary support elements for the industrial building.

This project is attempted to make design tables for “A Frame Truss System” based on the limit state design and in accordance to IS 800 – 2007 steel design code The project would be essentially executed in a complete computer aided analysis and design environment to complete the objective.

INTRODUCTION: The most common use of trusses in buildings is to provide support to roofs, floors and such internal loading as services and suspended ceilings. The type of truss adopted in design is governed by architectural and client requirements, varied in detail by dimensional and economic factors. A structure that is composed of number of line members pin jointed at the ends to form a triangulated framework is called truss. If all the members lie in the plane it is termed as a planar truss. In a truss the members are so arranged that all the loads and reactions occur only at the joints. The primary principles underlying the use of truss as a load carrying structure is that arranging the elements into triangular configuration leads to a stable shape. Any deformations that occur in this stable structure are relatively minor and associated with small changes in member length caused by the forces in the member and external loads. Similarly, the angle formed between two members remains relatively unchanged under load. In the simple roof systems three dimensional framework can be subdivided into planar components for analysis as planar trusses, purlins, etc, without seriously compromising the accuracy of the results. The external loads (applied at the joints) produce only tensile or compressive forces in the individual members of the truss. The common trusses with vertically acting loads, compressive forces are usually developed in the top chord members and tensile forces in the bottom chord members. Though the forces in the web members of a truss may be either tension or compression, there is often an alternating pattern of tensile and compressive forces present. When the external loads reverse in direction for example as in the case of wind loads the top chord will be in tension and bottom chord will be in compression. Hence it is often necessary to design various members of a truss both for tension and compression and select the member size based on the critical force. It is extremely important to note that when the loads are applied onto truss members themselves (as in the case of intermediate purlins) bending stresses will also develop in those members in addition to the basic tensile or compressive stresses. This results in complicated design procedures (they should be designed as per the provision of beam column) and the overall efficiency of the truss is reduced.

TYPES OF TRUSSES AND TRUSS CONFIGURATIONS: A variety of truss types have been used successfully and some of the truss systems known popularly are King and queen post trusses are used for very small span. The designations Pratt, Howe and warren were originally used with parallel chord trusses, but now they are used to distinguish more between web systems in either flat or sloped chord trusses. Pratt, Howe and Warren were nineteenth century designers who developed and popularised these forms. In Pratt truss the diagonals which are longer and more heavily loaded than the adjacent verticals, are tension under gravity loading; whereas in the comparable Howe truss they are in compression. However the wind uplift may cause the reversal of stresses in the member and nullify this benefit. Hence Pratt type truss is more desirable than Howe type of truss.

The long span pitched roof, some depth of truss is provided at the ends, resulting in trapezoidal configuration for the trusses. This type of configuration results in the reduction of axial forces in chord members adjacent to the supports.

The pitched Fink truss usually proves to be economic since the web members are arranged in a fashion to obtain shorter members. The compound fink truss is used for longer spans, in these types of subdivided trusses by placing two secondary members in each panel, the unsupported lengths of long diagonal and compression chord members are reduced. The fink configuration also reduces the bending moments in chord members resulting from placing the purlins at the junction of the panel points. OBJECTIVE: The project consists of design tables to be prepared in complete conformity with various stipulations in Indian Standards, IS 800: 2007 (code of practice for General Construction in Steel). The tables will cover the designs for pitched roof trusses covering spans of 15m, 18m, 24m & 30m each in four different slopes 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 and 1:6. The designs for the trusses have been done under six different wind loading conditions of 55 m/s, 50m/s, 47 m/s, 44 m/s, 39m/s and 33m/s. These designs are based on the limit state code as enunciated in the Indian standards mentioned above.

The tables will be tabulated in such a way that the designer has a ready reckoned to give the section details and its geometry by viewing the table by all itself. METHODOLOGY: The analysis will be done by using STAAD PRO package & the results of which is dragged into the excel platform for making the designs. These analysis & designs will be made by considering the Purlin spacing of 2m & with varied truss spacing’s of 4m, 5m & 6m with the permeability of 15% & 30%. The overall iterations will be 144 for each span of truss which involves a repetitive range of analysis & designs for each iteration. At last, a comparison is carried out for few spans in random b/w LSM & WSM. This will be between the design tables published in SP-38 1987. The comparison results will be purely based on the economy of the truss in terms of weight of steel used, which will be represented graphically. REFERENCES: 1] Design of steel structures by N.Subramaniam. 2] Design of steel structures by S.Duggal. 3] IS 800-2007 code of practice for general construction in steel (BIS) 4] IS 875-1987 code of practice for design loads for buildings & structures. 5] SP 38 hand book on typified design for steel roof truss (BIS) 6] Closed structural designers manual, TATA steel.