Anticipation of Bandung Waste. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2006 | Water Resources | Waste Management

Information Media for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Published by: Working Group for Water Supply and

Sanitation Advisor: Director General for Urban and Rural Development, Department of Public Works Board of Trustee: Director of Human Settlement and Housing, National Development Planning Agency Republic of Indonesia Director of Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Health Director of Water Supply Development, Department of Public Works Director of Natural Resources and Appropriate Technology, Director General on Village and Community Empowerment, Department of Home Affairs Director for Facilitation of Special Planning Environment Management, Department of Home Affairs Chief Editor: Oswar Mungkasa Board of Editor: Supriyanto, Johan Susmono, Indar Parawansa, Poedjastanto Editor: Maraita Listyasari, Rewang Budiyana, Rheidda Pramudhy, Joko Wartono, Essy Asiah, Mujiyanto, Andre Kuncoroyekti, Reski D. Design/Illustrator: Rudi Kosasih Production: Machrudin Distribution: Agus Syuhada Address: Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat Phone/Fax.: 62-21-31904113 http://www.ampl.or.id e-mail: redaksipercik@yahoo.com redaksi@ampl.or.id oswar@bappenas.go.id Unsolicited article or opinion items are welcome. Please send to our address or e-mail. Don't forget to be brief and accompanied by identity. This magazine can be accessed at Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Website at www.apml.or.id

Editorial Readers' Voice Headlines Anticipation of Bandung waste Onsite Waste Reduction Options of Bandung Waste Management Concept Mayor of Bandung City: Nothing More to do with Traditional Way Lesson Learned from Bandung Waste Emergency Situation Interview Director of Water Resources and Irrigation, Bappenas Java needs New Storages Innovation Multitasks Water Filter Regulation Government Regulation No. 16 of 2005 On Drinking Water Supply System Development Telescope District Water Corporation, Blend of Commitment and Management District Head of Sragen, H. Untung Wiyono: District Water Corporation Should Be Professional IATPI Clinic Story Latrine Heroines Abstract Insight The Meaning of AMPL Institution For Sustainable Facility Waterworks Technological Civilization By Time Development and Empowerment Around AMPL Around WASPOLA Book Info CD Info Sites Info Agenda

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Percik magazine can be accessed through WSS website http://www.ampl.or.id This “Percik” English edition is originally translated from “Percik” Indonesian edition

E D I TO R I A L

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enselessly, we have been three years with you, precisely since August 2003 ago. At the time, Percik was only 24 black & white pages, few column, simple layout, and limited distribution. Percik was at the time printed 500 exemplars. You in the local level possibly do not know what Percik 1st edition looks like. Now, Percik has published 14 editions. Numbers of rearrangements are carried out including column addition, page coloring, and layout improvement. Percik has been distributed in all districts/cities nationwide including NGOs, universities and embassies and some community. It seems that Percik gets its own position among water and sanitation (AMPL) stakeholders. Percik goals to be AMPL stakeholders' information and communication media have come true. Nevertheless, we haven't satisfied yet and we will always make improvement. In the next edition we will release Percik Junior (Percik for children), which will contain information on water and sanitation especially for children so that they concern and care about water and sanitation as well. Curious about Percik Junior? Just wait the the next edition. In this anniversary edition, we present topic about Bandung waste issues. In our opinion, this is an interesting topic. Until today, waste issues in the city have not finished. The available solution is only temporary

as there is a conflict of interests. Moreover, everyone knows that large fund is prepared for solution of the issues. Usually 'people will come to a pleasant place'. Lesson we learnt from this Bandung waste case is we don't give any serious concern about cleanliness, especially relating with waste. We just focus on other aspects. In fact, cleanliness brings significant impact to health and beauty. Ignorance of sanitary landfill, for example, has proven to claim individual loss. Indisposed waste has proven to disturb people and affect city beauty. Waste management is not easy; it needs cooperation and coordination among regions. Bandung waste tragedy shows that city government cannot address the issues itself and even provincial and

national government should take action. So, this is the lesson for other cities in Indonesia to prevent recurrence. Unfortunately, when we're making this paper, again waste tragedy took place in Bantar Gebang, Bekasi. In innovation column, we present a surprising water filter technology found discovered by a grandfather in Bandung. This water filter can handle and purify many types of water. It is possible that this technology can be developed as solution to water problems in Indonesia. In telescope column, we present a new breakthrough in water supply management. The breakthrough is made by Local Government of Sragen District, which always makes breakthroughs in governmental administration. In story column, we present privy heroines from some regions. They have successfully established and implemented free open defecation program and as model by community empowerment and stakeholders for the successful development even though they are not paid for that. Another interesting topic is that we are allowed to interview Director of Water Resources and Irrigation Bappenas concerning drought that is taking place in some regions in Indonesia. In fact, water management is the cause of the problems in addition to natural and environmental conditions. Finally, we wish you success in taking benefit from Percik of this edition.

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R E A D E R S ' VO I C E
Hadits CLTS
CLTS training was held on 16-20 May 2006 involving three districts in Lombok Island (Lotim, Loteng and Lobar Districts). Each district involves three villages for field tryout. Especially for Lombok Timur District, CLTS training was held on 16-18 May 2006 in Hotel Meliwis, Jl. Labuhan Haji - Lombok Timur. During RTL in the classroom (last day of 18 May 2006) participants from three tryout villages were present, namely from Sikur, Kerongkong and Teros villages. Participants were shaken up with one of participants from Sikur village, namely Ustadz Mohamad Saleh (Head of Segire/ Binong Hamlet) which presented hadits narrated by Muslim and Abu Daud in relation to CLTS, namely God will curse the human being who defecate on the road or others' shelter. Meaning of the abovementioned hadits is: 1. "Watch out of two things that will bring God's curse", Prophet Mohammad's friends asked: "What are the two things that will bring curse, Oh God's Prophet? The prophet said: "They are who defecates on the road or others' shelter" (HR. Muslim and Abu Daud) 2. "Anyone who defecates should be in the closed rather than open place (HR. Abu Daud) 3. "Do not harm yourself and other" (HR Ibnu Majah and Ad-Daruqutni)
CARICATURE BY RUDI KOSASIH

There is an interesting thing from one of the women participants from Teros village, namely Mrs. Murni (Posyandu cadre and community health coordinator/TKM Health promotion of Taros village). She told that she was triggered to make the closet by herself without having to wait her husband's help as she holds principles that motivation should begin from her own self and to be model for another.

Sugito, Lombok Timur

Noise and Stink
I, representing people of Dago Tol Vila, Serua Village, Ciputat Sub-district of Tangerang District, Banten, inform you that a rubber factory and hog farm are built in our residence, precisely in front of our houses block which only bordered by river flow separating Ciputat and Serpong. Presence of the places causes problems, namely: 1. 1. Noise generated from rubber and

water machines from morning till late at night (currently almost 24 hours operation) 2. Stink coming from one or both of the places For the reason, we hope that Pokja AMPL can inspect operation feasibility of the rubber factory and hog farm, either from aspect of tolerated noise and odor or environmental impact analysis. We are concern that this will affect people's health especially our family in the short or long term. People have previously claimed this problem to the local authority (RT/RW) but there is no follow up until today. We do hope that Pokja AMPL will give attention and find out solution.
A. Cholid, SIP (021) 74701362

Thank you for your attention. We will forward your letter to the relevant authority in your residence, namely Bapedalda of Tangerang District. We hope this problem will be addressed immediately. (Editorial)

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Because of waste, Bandung becomes the dirtiest city in Indonesia. Some actions have been taken for solution. Is it sustainable? What measures are taken for solution in the future?
f Leuwigajah tragedy never existed on 21 February 2005, we might not give focus on waste issue. The incident has awaken us to focus on waste issue more seriously. In fact, we don't have sufficient facilities, either physical or nonphysical (regulations), to solve the problem in local or national level. The most horrible tragedy in Indonesia took place and claimed 146 individual losses. Besides, the tragedy left new problem, especially for Bandung city and surrounding area. Closing of Leuwigajah landfill caused the city cannot dispose of their waste anymore. Waste in Bandung city is left in amid the city. Paris van Java has changed into waste city. Stink and flies spread everywhere. Waste stacks disrupt the traffic. Unsurprisingly, Ministry of Environment gave Bandung a predicate as the dirtiest city in Indonesia during commemoration of World Environment Day, the embarrassing predicate. Emergency Response Plan Based on prediction, each people of Bandung and surrounding area produces 7,500 m3 waste. Since

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closing of Leuwigajah landfill, wastes are disposed of temporarily in TPA Jelekong, Cicabe and Pasir Impun as emergency landfills. This must be inevitable because in such a condition, Bandung city should be host of 50th Anniversary of Asia-Africa Conference. Resumption of these existing landfills is not easy. People around the landfill areas reject reopening of these landfills; additionally their capacity is limited. TPA Jelekong on 10 ha area which was reopened on March 2005 was closed on 31 December 2005. As substitute, waste was disposed of to TPA Cicabe on 9 January 2006. Some other was disposed of to TPA Pasir Impun, which has been closed since 1990, in order to commemorate 50th Anniversary of Asia-Africa Conference. Finally both landfills cannot accommodate Bandung waste and since 15 April 2006 there is no more landfill. Indeed, Government of Bandung City has also attempted to reduce onsite waste dump such as issuance of Circular Letter of Bandung Mayor No. 658.1/SE 055-BPOD dated 28 April 2005 regarding proactive measures of Bandung waste management through 3R program and circular letter of Bandung Mayor No. 658.1/SE.135-PD.KBR dated 27 Decem-

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ber 2005 regarding optimization of Circular Letter of Bandung Mayor No. 658.1/SE 055-BPOD. Various people's activities have been conducted (see: People's waste management activity in Bandung). This activity can only reduce 10% of total waste dump. In line with that, Government of Bandung City is attempting to find out empty land owned by government, people and corporation to be used as waste dump area. The locations found include Regol (200m2), Cibenying Kaler (50m2), Kiaracondong (400m2), Bandung Kidul (50m2), Sumur Bandung (60m2), Bandung Kulon (264 m2) and Arcamanik (1,800m2). The locations are full by waste dump. This condition makes Government of Bandung City to seek alternatives but this is not easy. There are 31 locations expected for new or emergency landfills. From such number, three become nominees, namely Blok Cimerang, Citatah village of Bandung District; Blok Legonk Nangka, Nagrek Sub-district of Bandung District; and Sumur Bandung village, Cipatat Subdistrict of Bandung District. Nevertheless, they are hampered by permit and people around the locations reject the scheme. Government of West Java Province takes action. Moreover, central government gives serious attention to condition of Bandung city. Provincial Government, together with Muspida, Government of Bandung City, Government of Bandung District, Government of Cimahi City, Perum Perhutani unit III West Java, Kodam III Siliwangi and PTP VIII through a series of discussions, have agreed three locations for temporary landfill, namely Blok Cikubang, Sumur Bandung Village, Cipatat Sub-district of Bandung District (owned by TNI AD) on 1.5ha area; Blok Cigedik, Sarimukti Village, Cipatat Sub-district of Bandung District (owned by Perum Perhutani) on 21.2 ha area; and Blok Gunung Hejo, Cianting Village, Sukatani Sub-district of Bandung District (owned by PTP VIII). The latest blok is not applicable yet. Blok Cikubang was used from 26 May to 11 June 2006, while Blok Cigedik was used on 28 May 2006 until today. During 15 April 2006-26 May 2006, the waste dump was increasing with the volume about 400 thousand m3. This waste has been relocated to Blok Cigedig, Sarimukti by maximizing the existing fleet about 140 dump trucks from Bandung Cleaning Agency, rented truck and assistance from army. For temporarily, waste problem can be addressed. City Government's Long Term Planning Bandung is clean now. Predicate of the dirtiest city can be omitted. But it doesn't mean that waste problem in the city has been finished. The outstanding homework is how to manage city waste in the long-term period. Or otherwise, this can be time bomb for the people at anytime. The city government itself is about to establish waste management plant after Mayor visit to Shanghai of China and Singapore to view closer waste management in both cities. It shows that waste management plant is established amid the city to produce energy with the process not leaving any waste. "Bandung city will refer to this approach," said H. Dada Rosada recently. To meet the demand, City Government has attempted new land as plant area, which is situated downtown, in East Bandung area on an area of 20 ha divided into 5 ha for plant, 5 ha for reserve area and 10 ha for revegetation. According to Mayor, the location doesn't bring any problem as it is owned by only one person who doesn't mind of the plan. Proposal of Bandung city government is based on waste management strategy, namely (i) change in viewpoint and perception of (waste producer
SOURCE:MUJIYANTO

Emergency Landfill: TPA Sarimukti.

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and management) on waste, from disposable or destroyed thing to sustainable resources, (ii) maintaining service sustainability as management system will minimize likeliness of congestion or saturation of operational link, i.e. disposal system. Congestion or saturation of disposal link will stop other service links such as waste collection and transportation and this will cause waste dump in the dump area and other places. While going to realize the goal, city government in cooperation with Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB) will develop small scale waste management plant. Everyday this plant will process 24 ton waste and produce 500 kWh energy. This energy is considered too small and inefficient. This plant will in turn produce 25-30 megawatt energy and obtain 1,500 ton waste intake per day. This plant will also produce steam and ash for concrete brick. And the electric power will be sold to the people. This plan seems to be realized. City government has associated with PT. Bandung Raya Indah Lestari (BRIL) and Daarut Tauhid, ITB and PLN. City government will serve as waste producer, PT. BRIL and Daruut Tauhid as waste management and PLN as electric power buyer and seller, while ITB provides the waste technology. If there is no obstacle, the plant will be established next year. In management aspect, city government prepares concept. Firstly, calculation of business operability in accordance with market mechanism (business feasibility), with plant management referred to private company. Secondly, if the plant cannot operate as per market mechanism (proceeds of sale is insuffi-

WASTE PHYSICAL CONDITION IN BANDUNG CITY PER DAY
NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. COMPONENT Weight (ton) Organic Waste Paper Textile Plastic Fragile Metal Others Total 1.11 223 10 236 26 28 236 1.875 WEIGHT AND VOLUME % Weight 59,5 11,9 0,5 12,6 1,4 1,5 12,8 100,0 Vol (m3) 3.592,5 2.235 112,5 697,5 60 292,5 525 7.500 %Vol 47,9 29,8 1,5 9,3 0,8 3,9 7,0 100.0

Source: Pemkot Bandung

cient for plant operation), plant management will be handled jointly by private company and city government with subsidy mechanism. According to Bandung Mayor, this plan will not affect the Greater Bandung Waste Management Corporation (GBWMC). He considered that Bandung waste is abundant. "We will keep implementing the program," said Dada. Ad Hoc Committee's Policy Waste management in Bandung city cannot be imposed only on city government. Many stakeholders involve in this issue, including regional government around the capital of West Java Province. So the management should be inevitably integrated with all stakeholders either for shortterm (until end 2007), mid-term (2-3 years) and long-term period (10 years). Accordingly, central government established ad hoc committee on 23 June 2006. The committee consists of local team (Bandung city government, district government, Cimahi, and ITB) and central team (Bappenas, Ministry of Public Work, Ministry of Environment and BPPT).

The committee is responsible for formulating strategic measures in the effort of waste reduction in Bandung Metropolitan as well as establishing cooperation and coordination. Through a series of meetings, the ad hoc committee establishes the following strategic principles: 1. Waste reduction through 3R (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) in order to minimize collection, transportation and disposal 2. Polluter pays principle, namely any polluter is liable pay waste management 3. Landfill is still necessary for city waste management 4. Regional cooperation to find landfill location and joint waste management 5. Further development plan, namely waste use for other interests and effective reduction, such as implementation of Waste to Energy. For short-term plan, onsite waste management will be conducted through household-scale sorting, 3R, and composting. Therefore, socialization, training and

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establishment of KSM (Kelompok Swadaya Masyarakat/Self-support Community Group), household composting and law enforcement will be carried out. In temporary disposal site (TPS), increase in waste coverage will be implemented by enhancing transportation fleet, TPS inventory and revitalization, GIS (Geographic Information System) based route regulation and schedule, regional composting program, and study and construction of TPS. While in final disposal site, TPA Sarimukti will be revitalized (landfill 21.2 ha) through Detailed Engineering Design (DED) and development of composting plant together with operation and maintenance in addition to positioning of Integrated Waste Management Plant, land acquisition, environmental impact analysis, DED, TPA Citiis/Legok Nangka; identification of action plan as per GBWMC result and settlement of legal status of TPA Leuwigajah. Mid-term plan, onsite level, includes replication of sorting program, 3R, household composting and punishment. In temporary disposal site (TPS), increase in transport coverage, replication of regional composting program and study and construction of landfill. In final disposal site level, feasibility study, environmental impact analysis and DED of TPA Citiis/Legok Nangka; socialization of Reusable Sanitary Landfill (RSL) and Sanitary Landfill (SL) technology in TPA Leuwigajah; feasibility study of Regional Sanitary Landfill; interregional cooperation; cooperation with private company; DED of integrated waste management, pilot project waste to (i) energy, (ii) organic fertilizer and Pilot Project Landfill Gas to Energy (LFGTE). Meanwhile, long-term plan includes onsite waste management, similar to previous plan. In temporary disposal site (TPS) level, efficiency and capacity building of waste management, full cost recovery achievement and pilot project of regional composting. In final disposal site (TPA) level, implementation of RSL and SL technology for TPA Leuwigajah, construction of Integrated Waste Management (capacity 100m3/day on an area 1,500 ha with investment Rp. 2.3 billion); Waste to Energy - Pilot Project Waste to Energy (100 ton/day), supervision of Pilot Project Waste to Energy and evaluation. Waste management by ad hoc committee seems result of compilation and compromised ide-as of stakeholders. (see: Options of Waste Management Concept in Bandung City). Theoretically, the policy is promising. But, is it applicable? The question is necessary since implementation involving many relevant parties is usually inapplicable as expected. Hopingly it is just an apprehension. Now we just wait which action will anticipate Bandung waste. Mujiyanto.

GBWMC

P R O G R A M AT
WASTE MANAGEMENT

GLANCE
WASTE MANAGEMENT PHASE
Phase - 1 Phase - 2 Phase - 3

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reater Bandung Waste Management Corporation (GBWMC) is a corporation established for waste management in Bandung City (and surrounding area). This establishment is based on MoU of Bandung Waste Management dated 7 March 2005, Decision of Governor of West Java Province regarding Establishment of Formulation Team of Bandung Waste Management and Joint Decision regarding Establishment of Collective Waste Management in Bandung City dated 27 December 2005. Local government involving in this GBWMC includes Bandung City, Cimahi City, Bandung District, Garut District, and Sumedang District. Two other districts, Purwakarta and Cianjur, have not given any confirmation. The GBWMC implementation strategy adopts 3 principles namely: 1. Technical a. Onsite waste prevention: residential area, farm, stores, including offices and schools (regulations and enforcement) b. Sanitary landfill is still necessary 2. Institution and human resources a. Waste is public management b. Capacity building of public services or outsourcing 3. Culture and spirit a. Physical waste is resulted from nonphysical waste b. Approach: culture/model and spirit (campaign/socialization) There will be two sanitary landfills in Bandung City, namely one for east region and other for west region. Based on survey, there are two selected locations, namely Citiis (100 ha) and Legok Selong (70ha), while phases of waste management are described as follows:

Area 1 TPA 100 ha PHASE 100 ha 100 ha Life Period 20-25 years >>> 25 years > 25 years TPA Waste TPA Storage TPA Management Sanitary Recovery Storage Waste to Energy Model Landfill ---Products - gas, compost - electric, chemical Rp. 0 Rp. YYY Revenue Rp. XXX

Implementation of GBWMC (Sanitary landfill and onsite waste reduction) requires capital cost Rp. 385 billion. There are four financing scenarios, (i) central-province-district/city sharing, (ii) province-district/city sharing, (iii) province-district/city-investor sharing, (iv) World Bank loan by involving private company as operator. GBWMC plans to establish collective waste management not later than 27 December 2006. Governor of West Java Province is expected to having issued decision on the designation of sanitary landfill location. MJ

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Onsite Waste Reduction
n addition to seeking alternative landfill, Bandung Cleaning Agency has established cooperation with stakeholders for waste reduction onsite or in temporary disposal site (TPS). The standing partnership will be

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composting in Ex TPA Pasir Impun and recycling of PET and PE (plastic bottles and glasses of mineralized water) and plastic recycle to dustbin. The activities include:

Composting by Bitari Foundation in Ex TPA Pasir Impun Area = 2,000 m2 Waste volume = ± 20m3/day Compost production = 660kg/day

Self-support activities PT PINDAD Area = 600 m2 Waste volume = 9 - 10 m3/day Compost production = 500 - 1000 Kg/Day Type of waste: 90% leaves, 10% office refuse (paper + food remnant). Inorganic residues are incinerated.

Plastic recycle by CV. Fajat in ex TPA Pasir Impun and Jl. Holis Area = 2,000 m2 Volume of plastic waste = ± 0,5 - 1 ton/day Production = chips and containers

RW 1 1 C i b a n g k o n g Area = ± 400 m2 (including land for revegetation pilot project) Waste volume ± 400 m2 Compost production = 1 - 1,5 ton/Day Inorganic residues are sorted and sold. J h o n Pi e t e r s Location: RW 06 and Jl. Cipamokolan No. 77 Cipamokolan Village, Rancasari Area = ± 2.500 m2 Plastic waste volume = ± 6 ton/day Metals waste volume = ± 8 ton/day Product: plastic pellet Composting with Green Phoskko RW 04 Cipadung village, Cibiru Sub-district Area = ± 100 m2 Waste volume ± 2 m3/day Compost production = ± 0.35 m3/day Inorganic residues are sorted and sold Leachate is used for making liquid fertilizer Composting with Green Phoskko RW 14 Palasari village, Cibiru Sub-district Area = ± 100 m2 Waste volume = ± 1,2 m3/day Compost production = ± 0,2 m3/day Inorganic residues are sorted and sold Inorganic residues are incinerated, ash is used for bricking.

Besides, other activities are implemented through WJEMP-CEF program, from which the work having been carried out is composting in 5 RW of Gegerkalong village, Sukasari Sub-district Area = ± 300 m2 Waste volume = ± 2-3 ton/day Compost production = ± 1 - 1,5 ton/day Inorganic residues are sorted and sold

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HEADLINES

OPTIONS OF BANDUNG WASTE MANAGEMENT CONCEPT
n fact, Bandung waste has been anticipated even just temporarily. This tragedy calls stakeholders for brainstorming in solving the problems. There are at least three institutions contributing their concepts in addition to Bandung city government itself. The concepts are suggested by Technological Studies and Implementation Board (BPPT), Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB) and Ministry of Environment. The following are concepts of each institution:

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ITB
Integrated waste management, namely: Household composter Composting in RT/RW level about 10 RT : 3 waste cart with volume 4.5-5m3/day Integrated waste management, capacity 100m3/day; requiring 1,500 m2 area; main hangar, composting hangar, greenhouse, conveyor belt, organic waste quantifying machine, composting aeration system, gasification and biogas reactor, compost filter, incinerator, brick casting machine, weighing scale, etc. Operating cost at minimum capacity (20m3) is Rp. 27,000/m3 and at maximum capacity (100 m3) is Rp. 5,400/m3.

22.66% (total transported waste 3,200 m3/day). Implementation of 3R concept for long term period may achieve 30-60% of total dump. Capital cost required during 2006 will be Rp. 2 billion.

BPPT

BANDUNG CITY GOVERNMENT
Short-term before application of waste management technology Community participation through 3R (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) Composting, small scale incineration Local dump Advanced waste management Development of waste management plant to produce energy, organic fertilizer or other products; plant capacity 1,500 ton/- day; 24 hours operation; energy output 30 M watt Management is designated to private company if business calculation is suitable with market mechanism. If not, the plant will be jointly operated by city government and private company

Scenario 1 Rehabilitation TPA Leuwigajah (if applicable) into reusable sanitary landfill and 3R-based integrated waste management. Management cost per ton waste is Rp. 79,074 Scenario 2 Implementation of reusable sanitary landfill (if TPA Leuwigajah is inapplicable and new adequate landfill area is found) and 3Rbased integrated waste management. Two RSL locations are MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT required with capacity 13,000 Implementation of 3R concept by m3/dasy and 7,000 m3/day. maximizing 6 potential dump area Management cost will be Rp. during 2006. This method is expect87,079 per ton waste ed to reduce 725 m3 waste or about Scenario 3 Implementation of waste to enerFOTO:MUJIYANTO gy through incinerator, small scale RSL and 3R-based integrated management (if TPA Leuwigajah is inapplicable and new but small landfill area is found). Incinerator will have capacity 1,000 ton waste per day equipped with heat to energy system. It requires 5 ha and two RLS areas with capacity 8,000m3/day, respectively. Cost management per ton waste will be Rp. 124,870. MJ

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Mayor of Bandung City, H. Dada Rosada

Nothing More to Do with Traditional Way
C
an you explain waste management in Bandung before emergency response? So far, waste management is carried out traditionally, namely sanitary landfill to maximally control landfill. In sanitary landfill, waste is disposed and leveled at a certain location, while in control landfill, waste is disposed of, leveled and overburdened with soil. Either sanitary or control landfill will bring serious problems if they're left unmanaged. Sanitary landfill needs wide area. If the land is small, the waste dump will in turn cause accident. For example, TPA Leuwigajah tragedy. If we overburden it with soil, the result remains the same because of leachate and potential collapse. We cannot even dump it vertically. With the Leuwigajah incident, we have to do better and do not repeat the same mistake, which will just cause incident and loss to people and city government. What will local government do after Leuwigajah collapse? Upon Governor's verbal approval, around March 2005, we invited 15 investors who have concern of waste management that produces compost, fertilizer, energy, briquette, brick, cement, etc. They come from domestic and foreign investors. To select them, we established a formulation team consisting of city government, environmental specialists and Unpad representative. The team worked hard and selected five and finally three inSOURCE:MUJIYANTO

vestors. The three investors made consortium called PT. Bandung Raya Indah Lestari (BRIL). On September 2005, we executed MoU with the company, in which they should seek an area and acquire it for factory. Previously, on July-August 2005, we visited Shanghai China for comparative study to see waste management plant in the city. So we will adopt their technology although Head of Bandung District and I have ever been trained about waste management so that I can complement the comparative study in Japan and China. On September 2005, BRIL sought the area and it seemed uneasy. Some government agreed but the people disagreed. So it is not easy. The last, we still disposed of waste in Jelekong, Bandung District, and then closed. We also have landfill area 7 ha in Pasir Impun but it was closed, also we have in Cicabe but it was closed on 14 April. So, on 15 April no more landfill at all. Until

waste dump raised on 26 May 2006, which lasted 41 days. There was 7,500 m3 waste everyday and, if multiplied by 41 day, produced 400 thousand m3 waste. Therefore I asserted that Bandung is under waste emergency. And this is not national issue but also international. I kept attempting solution. On 26 May, Governor and Commander of Kodam III Siliwangi took action to provide us with 21 ha area in Sarimukti owned by Perhutani. In the meantime, we used Kodam land area of 2.5 ha in Cikubang but it was applicable only for 10 days. Now we use land in Sarimukti. In Sarimukti, Governor executed MoU with Perhutani on 7 August as legality for the land use. That waste produced by Bandung district, Cimahi, Bandung city will be processed as compost based on ideas of the team established by Minister of National Planning and Development/Head of Bappenas, State Minister of Environment, Minister of Research and Technology. The government granted Rp. 14 billion to build compost plant in Sarimukti. After visit to Singapore one week ago, I found that there is a downtown waste management to energy, water treatment. We have four locations and for power energy, Bandung city is potential because it uses only 5 ha area for plant, 15 ha for greenbelt and 5 ha for reserve, and 10 ha for revegetation. Based on experiences from visiting some countries, the waste management remains no residue at all because waste is

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ILLUSTRATION BY: RUDI KOZ

Local G o v t.

the important thing is ACTION, man....

processed continuously. Bandung city will refer to thee approaches. I hope, if realized, this will be the first in Indonesia. Does city government only cooperate with private company? On 31 July ago, cooperation of Bandung city government was extended with ITB, PLN san Darut Tauhid. The decision: City Government is waste producer; PT. BRIL and Darut Tauhid are management, PLN is energy buyer and seller, and ITB provides design and technology. Previously ITB and PLN have made small-scale joint-operation of 24 ton waste/day producing 500 Kwh electric power. This was considered too small so that PLN suggested cooperation with city government as the latter has abundant waste supply. We plan to change 1500 ton waste per day into 25 megawatt electric power. What kind of regional cooperation you establish with local government? Cooperation with government of Bandung district and Cimahi city

results in collective landfill in Sarimukti, Bandung District. Bandung district and Cimahi have less waste. Bandung city produces 7,500 m3 per day while Cimahi produces only 450 m3 per three months. We are who want the waste changed into electric power. By chance, PLN has not been able to serve all people. Where will the plant be established? It will be established in Bandung Timur. It is under process now. Insya Allah we don't have any problem because the land is owned by one person and he has agreed with. We hope the plant establishment will not be the same as in Bojong. We have made socialization to our community and they agree with our plan. How do you think of budget? It will be given gradually. How much will it be allocated? We haven't fixed it yet. All to do now is legality. We haven't prepared the business plan as we are encountering many problems, for example

difficulty in finding out the plant area. From the waste tragedy, does Bandung still maintain the existing master plan or prepare the new one? We prepare the new master plan. The existing one is sanitary landfill, isn't it? It is inapplicable anymore. Now we're preparing a new master plan, which consists the location points, while in RT/RW and RDTRK, we plot Bandung Timur as non-pollutant industry and warehousing area. What you just explained refers to how management of final waste is. How's community empowerment in waste reduction? We encourage the community to sort their household waste as applicable in the developed countries. At least, they sort between organic and inorganic waste. We then pick up and bring their waste to the depot. And there, the waste is sorted again. In the management plant, we will prepare casual until skilled workers. How is your cooperation with private company?

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We refer the work to them. They invest and operate the plant; we give our waste and pay them so they take profit from our payment. Besides, they sell waste energy to PLN. What is impact of waste management plant to performance of Bandung Cleaning Service Agency? Well, we'll make it gradually; probably we involve them in the operation. The plant will be returned to city government if BOT or BTO is completed, won't it? How long the work agreement with private company? Well, minimally 20 years Does local government prepare special regulations to legalize this agreement? Yes, it does. The local regulation has been issued. It regulates Waste Management, transport from houses to temporary disposal site (TPS) is conducted by RT/RW community and

transport from the TPS to final disposal site (TPA) without any treatment. Community should pay retribution for waste transport we conduct from TPS to TPA. Is there any special regulation on this agreement? It is just MoU. It means that legality must be prepared for this? Yes, it must. Moreover, this agreement involves ITB, PLN and Darut Tauhid. How much budget will be required for this waste management? We obtain Rp. 20 billion from local government. But charge imposed on Cleaning Service Agency for retribution is only 53% of budget demand of more than Rp 20 billion. Do you have any suggestions for other cities to prevent the similar
SOURCE:MUJIYANTO

incident as Bandung has? Firstly, there must be behavioral change. We should not dispose of waste carelessly. We should sort wastes, and local government should not adopt traditional waste management, such as sanitary landfill. What should other local government do if they were to encounter waste emergency? They should refer to high technology waste management, either collective (joining with other local governments) or individual management. Do you mean, in emergency? Yes, we with all levels of community implement 3R, reduce, reuse and recycle. But it is highly emergency and it didn't work maximally. During 41 days we're facing about 400 thousand m3 waste. By implementing 3R, we could only reduce 10 thousand m3. Besides, the process will not immediately bring revolution. This model is only for long-term plan. Not all people can implement waste management in their houses. So change in waste management from traditional way to high technology is a must. When will the plant be operated? Construction is under way this year. It needs 1 year. And for the period of time, we dispose of waste in Sarimukti and so far so good. Is your plan not causing conflict with GBWMC program? It doesn't matter with GBWMC. We keep following the GBWMC program. Moreover, Bandung waste is abundant. So there is nothing to worry about with Sarimukti. MJ.

Corner of Bandung city that is already clean.

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Lesson Learned from Bandung Waste Emergency Situation

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aste in Indonesia has been so apprehensive, signalized by numbers of waste pollution and get the peak when TPA Leuwigajah collapsed on February 2005 ago which claimed 146 victims and followed by hot debate and blaming each other. Nevertheless, as commonly happening in out country, Leuwigajah tragedy is not followed by adequate improvement, either technical or political. The incident seems to be lowest anticlimax in Indonesia waste management. Although government of Indonesia makes official announcement of waste "emergency" in Bandung, the fact shows that since May 2006, after Leuwigajah collapse, a total of

By: Endang Setyaningrum*
300,000 m3 waste was retained downtown as no other landfill will accommodate the waste of 4,000m3 per day, or precisely, people's strong resistance against alternative landfills (TPA Jelekong, TPA Babakan, etc.). With such a condition, it is sure that Bandung, which is known as cool and beautiful city has now changed into the city of stink and disgusted wastes and even potential diseases spreading everywhere. Whether there is or not waste emergency statement officially from government, we should admit that the condition has been supercritical and
SOURCE:ENDANG SETYANINGRUM

Waste piles up at temporary disposal site (TPS)

needs immediate actions. Eventually, not less than four ministers (Minister of Public Work, Minister of Environment, Bappenas and BPPT) and even ITB were rushed with waste emergency response plan even though Presidential Instruction was referred only to Minister of Environment. In this emergency response plan, Indonesian Army also took action to evacuate waste out of the city (certainly with assistance of local government personnel and cleaning service agency) by deploying personnel, heavy equipments and providing dump location in Cikubang, Darangdan Subdistrict of Purwakarta District (4 ha area). This was probably referred to emergency situation as similar to war condition where TNI was in the front line as well as establishment of Taskforce and Ad Hoc Committee. Besides, the waste was also dumped in plantation area owned by Perhutani in Sarimukti village (21 ha), CipatatRajamandala Sub-district, Bandung District. Actually there are optional locations for emergency landfill but upon people's resistance against the waste, governor chose 3 locations: - Cikubang (4 ha), 28km from Bandung city, an area owned by Army in Purwakarta District - Sarimukti (21 ha), 42 km from Bandung city, an area owned by Perhutani in Bandung District - Gunung Hejo (8 ha), 33km from Badung city, an area owned by PTP VIII in Purwakarta District

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Disposal in Cikubang area was conducted by army using adequate 'emergency disposal' namely cut and fill method. I think that army personnel understand not only military but also familiar with the "cat method". Unfortunately, waste dumped in Cikubang was only about 50,000 m3 (land area used was only 1.5 ha of 4 ha area) for 30 days. Meanwhile, disposal in Sarimukti is more emergency because it relied only on open dumping with compaction (without backfilling as implemented in Cikubang) with disposal capacity 800m3/day (today it accommodates 70,000 m3). Actually land use permit in Sarimukti area is for composting but due to emergency situation, composting has not been commenced yet until today. In the meantime, land use in Gunung Hejo (8 ha, and 5.5 ha usable) situating in the edge of Cipularang toll road, has not been implemented. Although quick detailed engineering design has been implemented for better waste disposal due to presence of spring around the area, Local House of Purwakarta rejected the land use although water supply requirements for people around the area (Cibentar and Pasirmalaka village) have been fulfilled by Ministry of Public Work. Even access permit via toll road was being under process by Minister of Public Work. Cost of Emergency Response Plan Emergency response plan, which initially expected to finish for 1 month pursuant to Presidential Instruction, takes 3 months. During the period, there have numbers of cost payable by several parties for the following items: - Transport cost (Rp. 750,000/trip) of 180 dump trucks (2 trips/day)
SOURCE:ENDANG SETYANINGRUM

Waste trucks stand in line to enter TPA Cikubang

Currently only Rp. 15,000.-/m3 is available far below reasonable cost of waste management. And finally we just make suppositions.
for 3 months equals Rp. 8.1 billion - Disposal cost in Cikubang (heavy equipments, personnel and safety infrastructures) - Disposal cost in Sarimukti (heavy equipments, personnel and repair of access road to location) - DED Cost of Sarimukti - Preparation cost of Gunung Hejo location (DED, water supply) - Seven units of heavy equipments costing Rp. 11 billion - Cost of water supply in the Gunung Hejo location Such costs do not include those difficult to estimate such as land cost either in Cikubang or Sarimukti, coor-

dination cost, waste delivery cost, which was repeatedly rejected by people, cost of ill people due to waste pollution in the city, cost for reduced local tourists which cancelled their visit to Bandung, etc. What expensive a waste emergency situation in Bandung is. Were TPA Leuwigajah not to collapse; were TPA Leuwigajah able to be operated with appropriate sanitary landfill; were fund allocation adequate (currently only Rp. 15,000.-/m3 is available far below reasonable cost of waste management). And finally we just make suppositions. When will waste emergency situation last? After 3 months passes and based on calculation of waste volume having been evacuated from Bandung and Cimahi to emergency landfill, there are in fact tens of thousands m3 waste retained in the city even it is not as dirty as it was. Bandung gradually returns back to be clean and even crowded by tourists from Jakarta, especially during holiday and weekend.

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Does it mean that emergency response plan ends? How is continuity of landfill improvement in Sarimukti which is conducted only through open dumping method and possible contaminating by leachate? How is continuity of integrated composting in Sarimukti (as per Perhutani permit)? There is still a number of problems requiring follow up to prevent "waste emergency volume 2". Scenarios After Emergency Response For scenario post emergency plan, infrastructure improvement in Cikubang and Sarimukti is recommended to overcome contamination likely visible in Sarimukti, especially leachate contamination and preparation of integrated waste management (composting and recycling). Further step is returning back to GBWMC scenarios consisting of: - Socialization to community and stakeholders to prevent social conflict as it was - Land acquisition (Citiis and Kebon Nangka-Nagrek) with appropriate compensation - Preparation of adequate landfill area and waste management facility especially relating to preparation of buffer zone, environmental conservation facility, etc. - Landfill operation in professional ways and causing adverse impact or social conflict as well as TPA Leuwigajah management after collapse and TPA Jelekong. Lessons Learned Although storm (of waste) has

Executives and legislatives should not be reluctant in allocating budget for better waste management

been alleviated from Bandung, we should think and learn lessons from Bandung incident as starting point toward spirit of better waste management. People awareness of waste reduction by means of composting and recycling should be supported, for example, by giving them incentives.

Executives and legislatives should not be reluctant in allocating budget for better waste management, especially for improving landfill quality after emergency response (TPA Sarimukti) and actualizing large-scale integrated composting plant. Finally, waste master plan should be prepared as long-term reference for stakeholders, including spatial allocation for landfill area complete with buffer zone and application of "landfill borderline". Landfill allocation is also for long-term investment because we will obtain "new land" after landfill, possibly as green open land.
* Staff at the Directorate of Settlement Sanitary Development, Directorate General of Human Settlement, Ministry of Public Work.
SOURCE:ENDANG SETYANINGRUM

Entered condition to TPA Cikubang

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Director of Water Resources and Irrigation, Bappenas, Ir. M. Dony Azdan, MA, MS, PhD

Java Needs New Storages
SOURCE: EXCLUSIVE

Drought is occurring several regions in Indonesia recently which brings significant losses. Amazingly, the regions are flooded during rain. This is an interesting phenomenon to be discussed. Why does it happen and is this merely natural phenomenon or human intervention? Accordingly, Percik is allowed to interview Director of Water Resources and Irrigation Bappenas, M. Dony Azdan in his office as quoted below.

water to the river when rain and retain it when dry. Irrigation pattern in Indonesia is commonly gravitational irrigation. So, it only dams up and raise water level. There is no water control except dam. That is what big dams do for. It is full control. But most our irrigations are semi control, meaning irrigation by raising water level. What kind of environmental intervention will be? Talking about environment, we do nothing but recommendation such as no cutting forests. Low-income farmers in the upper catchments area usually plant crops such as cassava and corn, which are unsuitable with the river flow as the crops are not capable of retaining water. Many developers forget that the new settlements they build are parking area of the water. For example, Jakarta was used to have a lot of swamps, which retain water before flowing to the sea. Now, the area is developed and raised, etc. so that water has no place to stay and this often causes flood. Is there relationship between drought and river characters? Rivers in Java are commonly steep but short so that they have rapid flushing. In the meantime, we have no storages to save water for dry season. Today we have 120 dams. But if we observe, especially in Java Island, we can only save 10% water, while other

rought is hitting Indonesia. What causes it? There are three main causes; firstly global climate change because rain and dry take place outside the fixed months. Secondly, environmental factors. Thirdly, water infrastructure. Environmental factors are clear; there are significant factors outside water system such as forestry, dry farm, etc. so that capacity of natural or artificial water flow will deplete. We can see dams with very high deposits. How about infrastructures? For infrastructures, we have investment of almost Rp. 10 billion in water resources including irrigation, river control and swamp development in the beginning of New Order era. The largest investment is allocated for irrigation as the time being we were encouraged to food self-support and this made irrigation was developed

D

progressively. Until today we have technical irrigation of 4.6 million ha in full control. There are also semi technical and simple irrigation of almost 7.2 million ha. There is also the so-called rained irrigation, which is usually applied in the rural area without technical irrigation. How far does it affect drought? If we talk about drought, it looks like two-sided coin. One side is drought and another side is flooded. This indicates change in ability of a river to retain sufficient water as the catchment area has been destroyed, etc. What we're focusing in our research is whether the dry area is flooded during rain. In fact, big rivers commonly act so. But for development areas such as irrigation areas, the fact is not necessary like that. This refers to control. Artificial irrigation areas will release

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90% is never used until the water reaches the sea. Thus, it has steep and short flow, rapid flushing and too bad that we have no storages. Until 1990s, we have developed numbers of dams. Since early 1980s to end 1990s, many conflicts arose from friends of environmental ministry to build dams with reasons that it will change environment, etc. that it is so difficult to build dams. They compare with US or Europe. The US has 25 thousand dams while we have only hundreds. Indeed, there are two influential factors, land acquisition and environmental change, but I personally consider the storages to be necessary. If we need to build dams, it means we should do it because it is really necessary. Does it mean, we could predict the drought based on natural condition? From all regions in Indonesia, there are two regions with potential water deficit, namely Java and Nusa Tenggara, while others are based on global water balance, not deficit. Unfortunately, we see it locally. In essence, if we see by island, the Java Island has potential water deficit. According to our global calculation, based on study of water resources management in Java Island, Java is water deficit 5 billion m3 per year. This means saving level should be raised. We need large storages. The current strategy is, because of many conflicts from environmental factor arise in building the dams, we should build large number of small and medium scale dams such as embungembung. Each district, for example, should have one dam. Could you explain what con-

dition Java Island has based on the study? We have regencies with potential water deficits based on hydrology and demand for agricultural and industrial sectors. A total of 77% districts in Java are water deficits. Such deficits are divided into three categories, namely light category between 0-3 months per year; moderate category between 3-6 months per year and severe category more than 6 months per year. If this condition is left without infrastructure intervention, then in 2015, 78% regions will undergo deficit, with light to moderate or to severe category will increase. Location will not significantly change but deficit is severer. In 2025, deficit may reach 80.5%. And if we list the available information, there are 26 regions, which will subject to dry, for example Bandung. This region is quite severe. Garut has light deficit. Indramayu is severe. Kebumen is quite severe. Wonosobo is unusual. It should not be deficit, but the fact shows that it is deficit. So there is a problem of water management. Semarang is light deficit. Purbalingga should not be deficit as it obtains water from Comal and Serayu rivers, but the fact shows that it is dry. This is due to water management, and this is what we're studying now. Which management should be implemented to prevent the drought? Let's take an example of Jatiluhur with full control. It has west channel for Jakarta supply, east channel for Indramayu and surrounding areas, and north channel for coastal areas. Actually in the end or mid of rainy season, we can see whether this year is

wet or dry. If this year is dry, all outlets are closed to allow water raise to optimum level rather than releasing it at anytime. If this year is wet, some outlets are opened. Let's say this year we have storage, then we will have planting pattern, especially in the terminate area. So, in Karawang and Purwakarta districts will have definite water supply according to planting acreage. For regions with small water debit, we make classification. Until certain extent, if water is depleted, there should be predetermined planting pattern. In Indramayu for example, because water debit is small, rice planting is delayed. Then planting classification is provided, for example from rice-rice-intercrops to rice-intercrops-intercrops. This planting management was previously controlled by ulu-ulu with strict authority. But in the present, farmers are difficult to be controlled. Although they know it is dry season, they plant rice. And when water supply is insufficient, they get angry. Indeed, farmers may not take water along the bed channel because it is allocated for the terminate areas. Everyone will get quota. Sometimes, they pump water into their rice field and then terminated area will dry earlier. What do you think of enforcement? It is difficult to implement nowadays. Previously farmers followed uluulu instruction, now they don't. This water management has slightly changed with regional autonomy. Who will hold responsibility? Although regulations have been applicable, responsibility for irrigation over 3 thousand ha lies on central government, 13 thousand ha lies on provincial res-

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ponsibility and below one thousand ha lies on district responsibility; the question: is institution ready? Over 3 thousand ha for example, who holds responsibility in the central level? Inevitably there should be seconding assignment to local level. In that case, region holds more responsibility. Likewise, provincial level has not prepared person in charge, and finally seconding assignment is required. These units are changing. Previously, although from central level, the personnel can be used by district/ provincial level. Therefore, it is still under improvement if seen from management point. How much storage do we need? Java Island needs 5 billion m3. As illustration, Indramayu is a dry region. It is supplied from Jatiluhur. So there is a design for Cimanuk, namely Jatigede dam. If Jatigede dam has been built, the storage will be used for Indramayu and Sumedang regions and this will minimize consumption of Jatilihur water supply. And we allocate Jatiluhur supply more to west or north. For example, if Jatigede water volume is almost 500 million m3, it will need 10 dams as large as Jatigede region. But we can also build small dams. It is ideal if we have embungembung in district or sub-district level. Even there is a brilliant idea: dam is provided per hectare. The problem is: owners in Java have small areas, averagely 0.25 hectare and so are fertile lands, almost 100% have no problems with water. But in the arid land, water is difficult to find. For example, someone have to find water until 23 km long; if storage is provided in the area, water resources may or may not be available.
SOURCE:MUJIYANTO

Water storage in Situ Cibereum, Bandung, is decreasing.

How is our water infrastructure nowadays? From infrastructure aspect, we have problems with operation and maintenance. It is fact that if we build construction in one place, we often forget maintenance in the previous place. Operation and maintenance have been problems since 1980s. For example, the existing irrigation network has limited maintenance period so that it must be repaired in 5 years. If we have good planning, rehabilitation should be carried out in 15 years. This is the problem in water infrastructure and our priority forward. We understand that our government itself cannot conduct the operation and maintenance; there should be ownership system. In our approach, the most benefited person is farmer because he knows which is to be maintained first. It is different from service staffs where they only see physical appearance of the infrastructure although they don't know its function. Therefore since 1990s we have introduced our approaches that for operation and maintenance, we involve farmers. We even wanted to deliver it to the farmers but serious complaints occurred. However, it is applicable only to tertiary channel, the primary

and secondary one remains on government control and that is prone to conflict because the users are not only farmers. We hope that farmers will be responsible for this tertiary channel by establishing farmers group to maintain the infrastructure. In case of financing, government will give aid. How is composition of water use? Irrigation is actually 89-94 percent; DMI municipal and industry is between 4-11 percent; developing region is 8-9 percent. For example Bekasi and Karawang. So, large proportion is still available for irrigation. It means that agricultural sector will bear loss of dry? Dry brings significant impact to agricultural sector but it is not always the case. There are regions, which are dry previously, for example Pacitan or Indramayu. The question: if we talk about municipal or industry, especially municipal, water quality becomes problem. Our major problem changes from agricultural to urban area, from which water cannot be automatically transformed. For dry urban or rural areas, people depend highly on aquifer. Aquifer and surface water is high-

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ly different where layers between 3060m subsurface may have contact with surface. But if it is more than 60m deep, aquifer will have no contact with surface water and it is possibly difficult for recovery. In the remote area, it is difficult to find surface water as well as make well. Aquifer basin has catchment area in the upstream; maintenance of the upstream area will bring two advantages; clean water and good capacity and good percolation so that we can maintain the aquifer level for the depth 3060m. For 125m deep, for example, water sources will be difficult to reach as it may lies behind other catchment areas. How is cooperation established with relevant institution to maintain our natural resources? In 2001, TKSDA (Tim Koordinasi Sumberdaya Air/Water Resources Coordinating Team) was established based on Presidential Decree No. 123, which chaired by Coordinating Minister for Economy, Finance and Industry and deputy chairman being Head

of Bappenas; daily director being Minister of Public Work and 11 ministers as members. This team is aimed in discussing intersectoral water issue. There are Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources, Minister of Health, Minister of Environment, Minister of Communication, etc. So that all problems can be solved accordingly. This team made draft regulations; one of them is Law No. 7 on Natural Resources. In this Law No. 7, we have introduced authority of central to district government as well integration between exploitation and management of the natural resources as well as appointed person for natural resource management. This will be elaborated into PP (government regulation) on rivers, PP on irrigation, etc. as well as ministerial and presidential decrees. This integration requires involvement of relevant sectors. Besides, there is also GNKPA (Gerakan Nasional Kemitraan Penyelamatan Air/National Partnership for Water Salvation); we hope this will come into implementation. The program focuses on river rehabilitation. This involves not only government but also
SOURCE:EXCLUSIVE

stakeholders. Besides, we are introducing integrated water resource management and we focus on the implementation. We should be aware that everything will strongly relate to water. Do we have grand design on water? Yes, participation. The most important thing is that this is not only government responsibility. It is the people who can manage water appropriately. The important thing is how to make them aware of water. If necessary, we introduce it to education level. Water salvation is not only physical activity; it must be imparted since childhood. We will make design and plan along catchment areas. Each river should have one design and plan. We are used to have master plan for Bengawan Solo containing procedures how to build dam, embankment, dredging and other physical works. The design is aimed at arranging sustainable water source management. In the plan we do not focus only on physical works and this is being implemented in Citarum River. We are making design on sector with relevant work and district with relevant responsibility. What will you recommend to the people? I hope they will follow workshops and trainings, especially farm extension. If the region capacity is possible, we should build water storages, although small. I hope that people will be aware of water saving from now on. This is the case of culture. They regard river a disposal place. This is still prominent in Java. People should also control water use and water disposal to the river. If necessary, we sue the perpetrator. MJ

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Multitasking Water Filter Ala H. Ali Dinar

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ou possibly understand active sand filter, which is composed of gravel, charcoal, sand, dust, and palm fibers. It is used to purify dirty/turbid water. However, the result is not satisfactorily. As consequence, people will buy factory-made water filter, either local or imported one with high cost and sometimes less durable. In fact, right composition will result in best water filter. Any water can be filtered ready to drink. You won't believe it, will you? But this has been proven by H. Ali Dinar, people of Cipamokolan, Bandung. This equipment is called "Water Filter Ala H. Ali Dinar". According to H. Ali, this equipment consists of three major compositions namely dust, sand and palm fibers. However, he has his one recipe in blending this composition to filter any types of water. Today, the equipment, which has been applied since 2003 is being patented. Besides major composition, it has additional natural blend, which is easily found in the market, such as red cement, lime and wood adhesive. "The use of these materials depends on water type to be filtered", said H. Ali, the 58 years old grandfather. This equipment is not sold immediately in the market; it must be ordered in advance. Why? Because each water in an area has its own characteristics. The filter is also different for each water resource. Then H. Ali will make experimental filtering of the

sample. He will compose the right composition then. Of the test result is good, he will produce the filter, either in individual or mass. Previously he also tested water quality in the laboratory to ensure it is ready to drink. "For quality assurance", said the grandfather who is not graduated from elementary school. This water filter is cylindrical, 6" diameter, 30cm height and 2cm thickness. For capacity 500 liter, this filter is only 1 kg weight. Filter size can be adjusted according to water volume. "It can work on water with any volume", he said. Test of this equipment was firstly done in 2004 upon grant of Head of Rancasari Sub-district. Quality control was conducted by Health Service

of Bandung City. At the time being, the water was taken from Sub-district office nearby from H. Ali's house. Test result is presented in the following table. This multitasking water filter has been distributed throughout regions, from Jakarta, Karawang, until Riau. The users know this filter from rumor. And the production achieves more than one thousand units. Today, H. Ali is designing water filters for three districts along Siak River of Riau Province, which is being ordered by large oil company. "They're waiting for the product", he said. H. Ali collects sample from nine stations in the region. "This water is black like lube oil. It's easy for me,

TEST RESULT OF INITIAL WATER FILTER OF H. ALI DINAR
No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Parameter A. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Odor Total Absolved Solid Turbidity Taste Temperature Color B. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Al Fe Fl Cd Hardness Cl Mn Nitrate, as N Nitrite, as N pH Cyanide Sulphate Copper Lead Unit mg/L Scale NTU Celcius Scale TCU mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L Maximum Tolerance Level 1.000 5 Temperature 3º C 15 0,20 1,0 1,5 0,025-1,0 500 250 0,05 10 1,0 6,5-9,0 0,002-0,1 400 0,05-2,0 0,01-5,0 Test Result Odorless 0.00 Tasteless 1,5 0,00 0,03 0,30 0,00 10 7 0,00 0,05 0,002 7,8 0,04 60 0,35 0,0

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even easier than water available in Cipamokolan", he said. He designed the water filter in the house, assisted by two men. Result of filtering is delivered to laboratory in Jakarta. He also confirms that he is able to design saltwater filter. This water filter costs Rp. 1.2 million for 500 liter capacity and Rp. 1.5 million for 1,000 liter capacity, while for the use in mosque, he gives it free of charge. It is one-year money back guarantee and this equipment may last for five years. Although getting success with the finding, he is continuously developing the product. Currently he is trying to filter used soft drink such as Fanta and coca cola. Result indicates that these liquids can be filtered successfully. "The color is transparent and tasteless, so it is like plain water," he said while asserting that for addition of filter, he uses pulverized
SOURCE:MUJIYANTO

H. Ali with his water filter in front of his house.

building ruins. Besides inventing water filer, H. Ali also has successfully developed simple indicator for water quality control. This indicator is invented by

his wife from her observation to the fishpond, which is composed of guava leaves, salmon leaves and the secret roots. With this blend, we can determine water quality.

Inspired Dream
f scientists invented something from a long, tiring and costconsuming research, H. Ali invents this water filter from dreaming. At the beginning, this family was difficult to find clean water in 2002. To overcome the problem, they bought imported water purifier. However, this equipment didn't work well until H. Ali's family bought the same equipment for three times with costs Rp. 2 million, Rp. 2.5 million and Rp. 750 thousand. However, those filters cannot purify the ground water taken from beside of their house. This fact made his wife, Hj. Dedeh, got angry. "She forced me to buy the water purifier costing Rp. 8 million. I didn't want," he remembered. And quarrel began. The spouse has their bed separated. In such a situation, said H. Ali,

I

SOURCE:MUJIYANTO

his wife was visited by an elder who ordered her to make water filter from ash, sand and palm fibers. The dream was told to me. "In the following morning I did what has been told to my wife," said H. Ali. The effort failed. "Water is clear but containing ash." Without desperation, he was

trying how to prevent ash from being flowed into the filtered water. And he succeeded in that day. "But I'm not sure whether this water is potable. We only use it for bathing while we buy the drink water," he said. In 2004, he met with Head of Rancasari Sub-district who asked him to filter the water in the subdistrict office. The very dirty water was successfully filtered into clean and clear water. The Head of Subdistrict suggested H. Ali to check his filtered water to the laboratory. "I asked, what for?" he said. According to Head of Sub-district, result is satisfied because it seems clear physically. Head of Sub-district then granted H. Ali for the finding. The result is very satisfactorily. Hence, H. Ali Dinar developed his invention until now. Mujiyanto

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R E G U L AT I O N

Government regulation No. 16 of 2005 On Drinking Water Supply System Development
s a follow-up of Article 40 of Law No. 7 of 2004 on Water Resources, the government stipulates Government Regulation on Drinking Water Supply System Development. This regulation on Drinking Water Supply System Development is intended to realize quality drinking water management and service at affordable price; attain equal interest between subscribers and service management; and improve efficiency and scope of drinking water service. This Government Regulation covers Drinking Water Supply System Management, Standard Water Protection; Implementation; Authorities and Responsibilities; Drinking Water Supply System Development Supporting Agency; Financing and Rate; Tasks, Responsibilities, Roles, Rights, and Obligations; Development and Supervision; Administrative Sanctions; and Transitional Provisions. This Government Regulation consists of nine chapters and 79 articles. By virtue of this government regulation, Drinking Water Supply System Development must be integrated with Sanitation Facility and Infrastructure Development relating to drinking water-namely waste water and matters pertaining to solid waste-as well as based on principles of conservation, equality, public use, integrity and harmony, sustainability, justness, independence, accountability as well as transparency. Drinking water of Drinking Water Supply System Development consumed by the users/subscribers fulfill

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quality requirements pursuant to ministerial regulation in health sector. No unqualified drinking water is distributed to the community. In addition to drinking water, the standard water thereof must also fulfill the given quality standard for drinking water supply in accordance with provisions. The government and regional administration are responsible for securing the availability of this standard water. Standard water exploration for the purpose of drinking water exploration must be based on water business concession permit. In respect of Drinking Water Supply System Development, the Government and Regional Administration must be responsible for securing rights of every people to receive drinking water as a basic requirement to fulfill healthy, clean, and productive life. State-Owned Corporation or Regional-Owned Corporation specifically formed has to manage the same. Cooperative, private corporation, and/or the community may participate in case the State-Owned Corporation or Regional-Owned Corporation fails to improve service quality and quantity. Particular for rate and dues, this government regulation stipulates that drinking water rate is drinking water service and waste water service fees. Drinking water rate calculation and fixing must be based on affordability and justness; service quality; cost recovery; water consumption efficiency, transparency and accountability; and standard water protection principles. While, cost components so calculated

are operation and maintenance cost; depreciation/amortization cost; loan interest cost; any other costs; and fair profit. Regional Head must fix this rate by virtue of recommendation of board of directors, after approval by Supervisory Board. In relation to roles of the cooperative, private corporation, and community, this Government Regulation limits only to any areas or regions not yet reached by State-Owned Corporation/Regional-Owned Corporation service. In addition, they must transfer their entire assets in case of termination of agreement. What makes this regulation advanced is the existence of rights of the subscribers, in addition to obligations. The subscribers are entitled to receive Drinking water service fulfilling quality, quantity, and continuity requirements in accordance with the given standard, obtain information on structure and amount of rate and bill; file suit for any service harming them before the court of justice, obtain proper compensation in consequence of service negligence; and receive waste water disposal and sewage mud suction. This regulation asserts that all Drinking Water Supply System Development organizers must possess master plan. Otherwise, they must complete the same within not later than January 1, 2010. While, those already possessing the master plan, they shall adjust to this Government Regulation within not later than January 1, 2008. MJ

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TELESCOPE

District Water Corporation Sragen

Blend of Commitment and Management
istrict Water Corporation (PDAM) is usually identical with losses, debts, low company's performance, unprofessional management, and un-quality human resources. Various reasons base this condition. For several District Water Corporations, such a myth seems to be hard to change. Consequently, most of the District Water Corporations are unable to revive from their fall. They still have a lot of debts. Then, will this condition still continuously occur? When are the District Water Corporations able to be healthy companies and regional pride? District Water Corporation Sragen is one of the District Water Corporations exerting to change such a myth. In three years, the company previously suffering a loss has been able to gain profit simultaneously pay its debts. This success is not irrespective of a strong commitment of District Head of Sragen H. Untung Wiyono, to make District Water Corporation Sragen a pure business institution. "Business" must be managed professionally," he asserted. Therefore, he takes measures probably uncommon to any other District Water Corporation in Indonesia namely by taking over debts of the District Water Corporation and settle the same in 2003 to Ministry of Finance. In addition, he finds professionals to manage the same. Since 2003, the outsider has been controlling District Water Corpo-

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SOURCE:MUJIYANTO

ration Sragen. He is Joko Supriyanto, SE, MM, a professional selected in fit and proper test held by District Administration Sragen. The District head fully authorizes him to manage the District Water Corporation professionally. Improvement Those already accustomed to a condition are sometimes hard to take a change. "It is like one asks us to run while we sleep. We must be startled," said Siswanto, Head of Personnel Department of District Water Corporation Sragen. But, whether or not we like it, steps of a new locomotive must be followed by all cars. The new president director of District Water Corporation Sragen highly realizes that gaps between the existing culture and the expected culture still exist. It is a serious challenge to encounter, including how to equalize perception of company's missions and visions to make proper strategies and implementation emergence. Steps taken in this preliminary phase are, firstly formulating company's core values to take such as honesty, discipline, anti corruption, col-

lusion and nepotism, best result-oriented, etcetera; secondly redesigning cultural system development, such as restructuring, rotation, extension of study and incentive facilities, recruitment of special staff of contract system, etcetera. In addition, the company reformulates its determinations and missions in concrete forms, namely (i) being a reliable clean water provider, (ii) optimising company's profit, and (iii) improving human resources and welfare. Change of this cultural system is apparently uneasy. It at least takes a year to gain the result. Joint commitment of around 115 employees emergences. "We have a strong commitment. Our death, life, welfare depend on how we work," explained Supardi, Head of Planning Department of District Water Corporation Sragen. Work motivation is also jacked up. Company's incentives, such as gradual pay and old age security are fulfilled. Several persons are sent to higher level school. "In the past, we have a minimum fund for human resources," said Supardi while adding that the company's attention to human resources is highly prominent. To A Healthy Company Since 1997, rate of District Water Corporation Sragen never increases. The rate is around Rp. 425 per cubic meter. It is not surprising if the company always suffers a financial loss. This condition can not be neglected if a company intends to be a healthy company. The

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TELESCOPE

Income Statement of District Water Corporation Sragen 2001-2005 (in million)
NO ESTIMATION 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Operation Income Operation Direct Expense Operation Gross Profit (Loss) Indirect expense Operation Profit (Loss) Other Incomes (Expenses) Profit (Loss) Before Tax Net Profit (Loss) 2001 4.550 2.896 1.654 1.807 (153) 87 (66) (66) 2002 4.572 3.311 1.261 2.197 (936) 89 (847) (847) 2003 4.776 3.813 963 1.985 (1.022) 94 (928) (928) 2004 5.355 3.964 1.390 1.547 (156) 98 (58) (58) 2005 7.907 4.774 3.133 2.626 507 99 606 606

step to take is by increasing the rate. But, this step is also uneasy as encountered by any other District Water Corporations in Indonesia. It encounters many obstacles and barriers from various parties. Moreover, the proposed increase is quite high from Rp. 425 to Rp. 1,300. therefore, a breakthrough to the increase in rate is required. The District Head proposes that the increase is implemented starting 2005, 2006, and 2007 and the management agrees the same. The management prepares socialization strategies amidst the community. One of the strategies is by using radio frequency. The District Water Corporation holds talk shows every Sunday for a full year. At the same time, the company improves red spots (leakage areas) as well as its services. On another occasion, District Water Corporation facilitates all stakeholders to discuss the increase in rate at District pendopo. The result is achievement of goal in respect of the increase. "Complaints are only 0.05 percent," said Supardi. The increase in rate directly gives a positive impact on the company's condition. In 2005, District Water Corporation can obtain a considerable company's profit by Rp. 605,615,652.77.

The fact makes the District Water Corporation able to pay its debts to District Administration. In 2007, all debts of the District Water Corporation will be settled. Therefore, the District Water Corporation has become a reliable source of income by the district administration. Moreover, it is predicted that the District Water Corporation will gain profit by more than 2 billion rupiah next year. Development Challenges This year, the District Water Corporation Sragen has a determination to produce water ready to drink. It has

made various preparations to attain the ideal. It is planned that in September the water ready to drink can be enjoyed by around 1,000 subscribers. Next year, the service will reach 4,500 new subscribers. In addition, the District Water Corporation still encounters various obstacles. Life time of transmission pipelines of 300 mm diameters along 4,551 meters has expired (installed age is 26 years). It is not surprising if the underground pipelines are broken or its rubbers are worn-out. At least three points of leakage are found in three locations every month. Disturbance also occurs to collecting and distributing pipelines. Repair of all these ACP pipelines take a considerable investment. The current homework of the District Water Corporation is providing the subscribers with service. The subscribers to the same increase more and more but the installed capacity does not yet fulfill the demand. The efforts to construct production wells simultaneously dam are hampered by considerable investment cost. But the determination to continuously serve the community never ends. (MJ)

Technical Data on District Water Corporation Sragen 2001-2005
NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 DESCRIPTION Installed capacity Production capacity Water production Distributed water Sold water Water loss Served community Subscribers Employees VOLUME Liter/second Liter/second m3 m3 m3 m3 Individual Customer Person 2001 346,50 267,25 6.434.266 6.225.341 5.388.313 947.028 169.124 27.481 114
: : : : :

2002 335,35 274,14 7.814.004 7.748.894 6.064.776 1.684.118 170.324 28.270 114

2003 366 288 8.127.869 8.030.926 6.327.604 1.800.185 173.151 28.761 116

2004 373 293 8.945.614 8.943.288 6.850.579 2.095.035 170.073 29.725 114

2005 398 332 3.085.863 3.085.863 2.277.308 808.555 181.306 30.132 113

Scope of service in Sragen City Total scope of service Total deep wells Springs Service area

90 percent 65 percent 21 units 2 units 14 sub-districts of the existing 20 sub-districts

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TELESCOPE

District Head of Sragen, H. Untung Wiyono

District Water Corporation Should Be Professional W
hat makes you take a policy to appoint a person from outside of the bureaucracy to manage District Water Corporation Sragen? Firstly, the core of District Water Corporation is business. Business should be professional. We find a professional outside if we could not be. Secondly, business should be managed on business basis. The management should also be business management regardless of who manages it.
SOURCE:MUJIYANTO

correct administration system. Thirdly, maintenance, how long live time of the installed pipeline. Only a few people know it. Fourthly, service to the community. Fifthly, economic system, financial management. It is the absolute one. Those running a business should be balanced. It is usually uneasy to control a lot of customers. Therefore, internal control, auditing control should be created. So, it is not just a manager's figure, isn't it? No. it isn't. How is the process of selecting new management in District Water Corporation Sragen? We made a test. They should have experiences. We tested their visions. No corruption, collusion, and nepotism What is the impact of this change on the community? They are more responsive, they can lodge complaints, etcetera. What is your response to management of any other water corporations? Everything relies on the management's commitment. Every district head is entitled apply its own systems and punishment. So, it depends on decision maker. Can any other water corporations be better? Yes, they can. They have clear customers. No one is in arrears. Some bills can be scheduled and estimated. MJ

Doesn't your breakthrough encounter bureaucrat obstacles from those enjoying their positions all this time? No, it doesn't matter. It's professional. Any other regional administrations do not dare take the breakthrough, do you have any comment? Well, I don't have any comment. District Water Corporation Sragen used to suffering a financial loss, but now it gains profit. Water rate is also not high. We precisely give priority to public service. We only fix Rp. 600 per cubic meter. But, we still can gain profit. It's a matter of management system. How to manage. We should be professional. We also settle our 2003's debts. Now, we do not have any debt, even we can contribute to district pure revenues quite significantly. They say District Administration Sragen took over debts of District Water Corporation in those days, can you explain it? I want the company's balance is clean, and in our calculation the com-

pany can pay its debts, therefore District administration Sragen settled its debts first to third parties. That's what we did. Doesn't the breakthrough burden district budget? No, it absolutely doesn't burden district budget. We settle the debts first as we can be imposed with penalty if we borrow a loan from the central government and it means a high cost. How far do you authorize the professional? We give him a freedom to do anything because we already have district regulations stipulating limitations. He can make innovations or anything else, we only control him. How about his subordinates? No problem. In fact, it's good because he has correct personnel system, more orderly finance, better public service, better and serious maintenance. What do you thing about the problems met by water corporations in Indonesia? There are five problems. Firstly, very high operational cost. Secondly, thousands of subscribers requiring a

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I AT P I C L I N I C

Drinking Water Treatment at User Level Post Disaster or In Emergency Situation

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isaster comes unexpectedly as already occurred in several places in Indonesia. Information on handling post disaster is also significant as that on how to anticipate disaster moreover that on drinking water supply being the basic requirement. The following article describes drinking water treatment at user level that can be made after disaster or in an emergency situation. This treatment covers water taken from all sources, but generally can only eliminate physical and biological contamination. Usually, chemical contamination can not be eliminated with this process for requiring a more specific advanced treatment. Filtering Filtering water by using a clean cotton cloth will eliminate sediment and dissolved material. Using a clean cotton cloth is highly important because a dirt cloth will add contamination. If available, a special cloth able to filter organisms, such as tapeworm, can be used, this cloth is called "copepods". It must be used at the same filtering level and can be cleaned by washing the same with soap and clean water. Aeration Aeration is a treatment process by making the water contact with the air intended to increase oxygen degree in

Filtering Storage/Sedimentation

Filtration

Desinfection
Diagram 1 General Steps on Water Treatment at Domestic Level

the water. The increasing oxygen degree will: Eliminate any gases making the water odorous and taste Make dissolved minerals, such as iron and manganese oxidized that can further be eliminated with sedimentation and filtration processes. Contact between water and air can be made with various methods. For example, by quickly shacking a half-filled water storage place (for example jerrycan) for around 5 minutes further letting it for 30 minutes to make the dissolved materials settle. For a bigger scale, aeration can be made by channeling water in a perforating tank divided in small parts containing pebbles. Further, also letting water collected in collecting tank for approximately 30 minutes to settle the dissolved materials.

Storage and Sedimentation When the water is stored for a day in a safe/clean condition, more than 50 percent of bacteria will die. In addition, the dissolved materials and part of pathogenic bacteria (the cause of disease) will settle on storage bed during the storage. Place used for storing and settling should be capped to avoid re-contamination but an opening for gradual washing should exist, for example bucket with cap. Water should be taken from upper part of storage place, a part where the cleanest water and fewest containing pathogenic bacteria. The longer the storage place, the better the water quality. Household can maximize benefit of storage and sedimentation by using "three places system" as described in the following: Filtration Filtration is a filtering process by channeling water through porous media (for example sand), this process uses a natural cleaning principle. There are several methods of filtration, namely: 1. Simple sand filter Simple filter for household can be made of earthenware/ clayey soil, metal, or plastic container/tank. This container is filled with sand and gravel layer also furnished with several pipes enabling water to flow above or

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I AT P I C L I N I C

For Drinking Water: Always taking from place No. 3, this water has been stored for at least 2 days and the quality has been better. This place should be cleaned gradually and if possible sterilized with hot/boiling water. Every day when water from the source is brought home: (a) Slowly putting water stored in place 2 into place 3, clean place 2 (b) Slowly putting water stored in place 1 into place 2, clean place 1 (c) Pour water taken from the source (bucket 4) into place 1, it is recommended to filter the same with a clean cloth. To prevent sedimentation from being brought, it is recommended to use a flexible plastic hose to remove or take the water.

on the contrary through the layer. This filter can also be made at a big scale by using a drum at capacity of 200 liters. This filter should be cleaned gradually from any dirt or mud adhering to the sand or gravel. Cleaning frequency depends on water turbidity level. The more the water is turbid the more frequent the filter is cleaned. This filter is not effective to eliminate pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, a filtration water should be disinfected or stored for at least 48 hours. 2. Carbon/charcoal filter Carbon/charcoal is known quite effective to eliminate taste, odor and color. Carbon/charcoal usually available at local market can be used as a media, but active carbon is known more effective despite more expensive price. But, if the carbon is not replaced gradually or if the filter is not used for several times, it is suspected that the carbon or the filter can become breeding places for hazardous bacteria.

3. Ceramic filter Some filters are coated with certain substances/materials functioning as disinfectant but the price is relatively more expensive. Currently, there are many local ceramic filters. Filtered water should remain boiled or disinfected before consumption. Desinfection It is important that drinking water to consume should be free from hazardous organisms. Storage, sedimentation and filtration can reduce hazardous bacteria but none of them can ensure that bacteria can be totally eliminated. Desinfection is a process of securing that drinking water to consume is free from hazardous organisms or pathogenic bacteria. Several methods of disinfecting water at domestic level are: 1) Boiling Boiling is a very effective method of eliminating hazardous bacteria, such as viruses, spores, and worm

eggs even though this method relatively consumes the energy. Better letting the water to boil for at least 5 minutes to kill all pathogenic/hazardous bacteria. 2) Using chlorine Chlorine is a chemical agent mostly used for disinfecting drinking water as it is relatively easy to use, quite effective, easy to obtain and its price is less expensive. In case of correct use, chlorine will kill all viruses and bacteria but several types of protozoa can remain surviving. Chlorine should be added in a sufficient amount and allowed to contact with water for at least 30 minutes. 3) Using sunlight This method can be made by putting the water in transparent plastic container and drying the same under the sunlight for 5 hours (or 2 days in case of cloudiness).
Contributor:Lina Damayanti (linadamayanti2002@yahoo.com) and Winarko Hadi (winces@cbn.net.id)

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S TO RY

Latrine Heroines

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upini is her name. She is from Dusun Kali Gedog, Village of Margourip, Sub-district of Ngancar, District of Kediri. She has three children. The first son is in the first grade of junior high school and two others are still in elementary school. Her husband works in Surabaya. She lives with her three children. Such a condition does not make her fainthearted. Her face shows never ending spirit to face the life. She has been accustomed of living independent and being free from her fa-

mily since adolescence. According to her, she even ever worked overseas even though she did not graduate elementary school. One day at her village, Dusun Kali Gedog was used as a place of triggering Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) by CLTS orientation participants of WSLIC-2 location in east Indonesia zone situated at Insumo Hotel Kediri. She was one of the participants. She followed the event thoroughly. The result is, she was motivated because her family and all her neighbours defecate on the river
SOURCE:DPMU KEDIRI

Supini is explaning her experience in constructing latrine

flowing precisely in front of her house. After the triggering activity, Supini was chosen to participate in a discussion attended by Director General of P2PL, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia. Upon returning home form the evaluation meeting, this young mother thought that she must make a latrine whatever the form is so that she and her family can be protected from any disease and live cleanly and healthily. The next morning, she realized her intention. She took a mattock and any other supporting equipment. With her three children, she began to dig a hole behind her house. At a short time, she dug a hole of 150 cm deep. On the following day, she felled several melinjo trees bearing no fruits. These trees' stems are used as a buffer of latrine hole cover. As a wall, she also planted puring flowers around the latrine to avoid other people from seeing them defecating there. She and her three children left their old habit thereafter. She is proud of her own latrine. With her capability, she can also educate her children to change their attitude. Her youngest son sitting in second grade of elementary school says that he won't defecate on the river as he could get itch and already has a latrine. At one time, Supini was given an opportunity by DPMU Kediri to explain her experience before social

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S TO RY
organizations and the community in Kediri participating in CLTS orientation program. Unexpectedly, she sang a song she composed, namely "Fighting For Making Latrine". This creativity made the participants unnerved. Away from Kediri, a young mother is also persevering in fighting for latrines for the community. She is a dentist simultaneously Head of community health centre in Sub-district of Lembak, District of Muara Enim, South Sumatera. Her name is Agustin P. Siahaan. Her spirit to motivate the community to make latrines is also triggered by CLTS training. And factually, only a few of people defecates in latrine. "Well, I should change this attitude," she thought in those days. She compared CLTS program to any other programs. She thinks that any other programs consider the government apparatuses cleverer than the community so that the messages are not heard. "CLTS makes more humane approaches," she said. To realize her intention, she trained her staff. Thereafter, she and her staff directly went to villages just right the activity in the community health centre is a little loose. After 12:00, she and her staff went to villages. "We sometimes did not wear uniform to make us more familiar with the community. I also did not say my profession," said this one child mother. She also had to extend her working hour from until 2 pm to 5 pm due to difficulty to gather the community. They could only gather at noon. "We sometimes had to visit them from home to home," she recalled. Her efforts yielded. One village
SOURCE:EXCLUSIVE

Agustin is training her staff

change successfully change 100 percent. This success does not stop her intention. "I should change any other villages, I am embarrassed if this program does not develop," she said. With the intention and spirit, she continuously moves to all villages in sub-districts. The result is extraordinary, all sub-districts have been free from defecating at any places. The success is also her separate point to choose as a model doctor throughout South Sumatera. Therefore, she is entitled to go to Jakarta to commemorate moments of proclamation. "I never dreamt all of this," said Agustin. She feels that this program has become a trigger for any other programs. The community, she explains, is now easier to motivate for example in case of matters pertaining to waste, sanitation, etcetera. Now, she even develops an Integrated service post Tumbuh Kembang Anak. Two trial tests are successful and now expanded. Another figure also perseveringly triggering her community is Mrs. Suparti. She is a wife of Village Head of Kenongo, Sub-district of Guci Alit, District of Lumajang, East Java. Only in a month of six months target, she

and her team successfully made the community in her village, Dusun Margodadi, leave their habit of defecating at any places. Mrs. Suparti usually called Mrs. Inggih visited every house there after CLTS trial test program at her village for the first time. "I always says that being sick is costly therefore we need latrine to avoid the disease," she says. This teacher of elementary school also has many ideas. She collects coffees from members of the community to assist in making new latrines. In addition, she asks them to cooperate. "The point is we should cooperate because it is hard to work alone," she says. For the success, Mrs. Suparti is now frequently invited to participate in various events relating to CLTS in central and regional levels. Her village also becomes a destination area for comparison study. "I never dreamt it before," she says. Latrine heroines are in everywhere. In Jambi, precisely in Sub-district of Jambi Luar Kota, District of Muaro Jambi, a woman perseveringly invites her community to leave the habit of defecating at any places. She is Mrs. Habibah, a wife of Sub-district Head of Jambi Luar Kota. Her days are filled with triggering villagers of Sukamenanti, a village being CLTS trial test area in Jambi. It is not surprising if the villagers know her. She is determined to make her husband working area free from defecating at any places considering that most of the areas in Jambi is on the riverbank thereby making them prefer to defecate on the river. She has various creative ideas to trigger the community, such as cleanliness competition, mutual cooperation to make latrines, etcetera. MJ/ DPMU -Kediri District

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ABSTRACT

Analysis of Use of Solid Waste Final Disposal Site Post Operation Community-Based
(Bantar Gebang Case Study)

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antar Gebang final disposal site has operated since 1989. Use contract period by DKI Jakarta expires on December 31, 2003. Study and analysis to see any possibilities in the future based on the current conditions such as resources and natural environment, socio-economic, physical, chemical, microbiological aspects, as well as the community involvement in the use of solid waste final disposal site post community-based operation are required to encounter any problems pertaining to solid waste final disposal site post operation. Intention and benefit of this study are among others (i) evaluating quality of well water, river water, lye, and microbiology; (ii) selecting appropriate alternatives for the use of solid waste final disposal site post community-based operation. This study uses physical chemical, socio-economic aspects, and analysis prospective as well as Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). This study reveals that physical, chemical, and biological qualities of well water, river, and lye are still below the permitted threshold, except for river water turbidity, nitrate, nitrite contents, BOD5, COD of lye. In addition, this study indicates that this final disposal site is still used as an Integrated Final disposal site with the following division of zones. Zone I and Zone II as city forest/greening. Zones III, IV, and V as solid waste final disposal site. The use as an Integrated Final disposal site becomes a synergy between solid waste management and city forest/greening, recycling, and

compost management. Dominant factors in determining strategies for the use of solid waste final disposal site post community-based operation are among others extent of land, Waste Water Management Installation (IPAS), legislation, funding, involvement of private parties, technology, and donor agency. The success of Integrated Final disposal
SOURCE:EXCLUSIVE

Situation and condition at TPA Bantargebang

site also depends on the community's support. The use as Integrated Final disposal site will generate double impacts both on the environment, the community surroundings and the government. The impacts are (i) for the community around the final disposal site, the creation of work opportunity starting from planning, construction to operation phases as well as the involvement in sorting solid waste, producing compost, and building materials; (ii) for the environment, produced compost can be beneficial to improve environmental fertility level through greening, recovery activi-

ties or improve the damaged ecosystem as well as save land use of final disposal site; (iii) for the agricultural improvement, produced compost can reduce agricultural land acidity level due to continuous use of chemical fertilizer, in addition compost can increase acid productivity; (iv) local economic development, the concentration of manpower in a considerable amount can open new business opportunities for any other activities in the form of stall service, financial service, catering service for workers as well as boarding/contracting houses business, and (v) for regional administration, manpower hired in this activity can reduce social crime-infested due to absence of work opportunity. Products of this activity can be source of regional pure revenues for regional administration and source of tax revenues for the state. This study recommends that DKI Jakarta continuously handles lye treatment at IPAS 1-4 but the handling thereof should be improved by reducing BOD and COD until the required limit of environmental quality standard, load of Solid Waste Water Treatment Installation should be maintained by adding interceptors and furnishing the same with aerators. In addition, DKI Jakarta and Municipal Administration Bekasi should better use the Integrated Final disposal site. In relation to this use of Final disposal site, a dynamic analysis is required to predict any change from time to time. MJ/Source: Dissertation
of Dr. Royadi IPB Post-Master Degree

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INSIGHT

The Meaning of AMPL Institution For Sustainable Facility

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xperience during evaluating drinking water and environmental sanitation (AMPL) development and facilitating the operation of Community-Based AMPL Development National policy has concluded that "water facility managing institution has a very significant role for the sustainability of facility and service". Result of evaluation by WASPOLA in cooperation with Pradipta Paramitha Foundation (Flores revisited: 2002) reveals that there is a positive correlation between institutional function and water dues, as well as between institutional function and water dues and sustainable AMPL facility (spearman rho correlation). Also experience during facilitating the operation of AMPL-BM National Policy in Central Java Province and Gorontalo Province. Field study on success and failure of AMPL development at several villages, namely Talumelito, Molintogupo, and Tangga Jaya, obviously indicates the significance of role of AMPL institution for sustainable facility. At these villages, all water facilities have been seriously damaged, while drinking water managing institution absolutely does not function. In District of Kebumen, information on sustainability of drinking water facility is obtained both from field visits and secondary data. The existing data obviously indicates that function of managing institution highly determines sustainability of water facility. 14 out of 28 pipeline

By: Alma Arief *
water facilities function well, while the remaining ones absolutely do not function. 12 out of the 14 facilities ha-ve managing institutions functioning well too, while two others have managing institutions but failing to function. On the contrary, 14 facilities not functioning well also have managing institutions but also failing to function. The information indicates that important role on drinking water facility managing institutions. This article will describe complexity arising from drinking water management and service based on the experiences in making field evaluation and study. Various Problems Management of AMPL facility, particularly pipeline water facility, is not a simple thing. In several cases, it is precisely very complex. Not only due to wide and varying dimension of problem, but also its very local characteristic, so that the problems in one area, even between one village and another, can be highly different. Water problems can change starting from problems relating to environmental condition, applied technology, finance, socio-culture, and water managing institution. As the nature of the problems can be very wide and complex, it is highly recommended that AMPL facility is managed by those really having courage, wisdom, and wide perception. A strong managing institution can be able to control

various problems arising, as long as within the limits that can be controlled. The problems are: A. Environmental Problem In various areas, environmental problem highly determines the sustainability of AMPL facility. At Village of Lewolaga, District of Larantuka, Village of Wonda, District of Ende, Village of Adiwarno, District of Kebumen, drinking water facilities are frequently broken due to landslide and/or rockslide. At Lewolaga, in addition to landslide and/or rockslide, flood and falling big trees ever broke drinking water pipeline. Heavy rain on river sweeps away iron pipes as they are hung on the river. At Adiwarno, water collection tank collapse and are brought by landslide, while at Wonda, pipeline stretching along the road on the sloping riverbank is crushed due to landslide. In East Sumba, AMPL problem relating to the environment is different from any other areas. In this District, a lot of livestock (cows) swarming about can break pipeline due to the lunge of the cows. Recently, environmental problem in Gorontalo begins to emerge, for example Talumelito case. In Talumelito, water facility does not function as water debit in reservoir are not sufficient. It can occur because the forest in water catchment area has been replaced by the community with food crop (corn). While, in Molitogupo, the problems are pipeline and reservoir existing

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INSIGHT

amidst the river are brought by heavy flood. Forests in Bangka Belitung Province are damaged due to illegal mining due to using hazardous chemical agents in the processing, therefore drinking water raw material fails to fulfil standard for drinking water. B. Technological Problem In many cases, technological problem relates to the environment. Types of technology applied are highly determined by environmental condition. At Kelurahan Dembe I, Gorontalo, and Kelurahan Wonokromo, District of Kebumen, water pipeline is sometimes broken, particularly at night when the use of water highly reduces due to strong water pressure to pipeline thereby requiring pressure release tank or pressure release valve. In District of Sumba Timur, due to a very hot sunlight, various water facilities are constructed by combining solar panels as a power energy generator to activate water pumps. But, due to quite sophisticated technology and difficult maintenance, the constructed facilities are damaged and not repairable, in addition, the solar panels are slowly but sure gone due to theft. In East Sumba, in addition to solar panels technology, windmills are also applied as sources of energy to pump water and make ices. All these 10 windmills are now damaged. At several villages in Kebumen, as the water is turbid, it can not be directly consumed by people but should first be filtered (can use domestic filter or slow sand filter). C. Socio-Cultural Problem Socio-cultural problem seems to be more complicated than any other variables, and the nature thereof is

very local, can be rooted from sociocultural values in the community, conflicts inter villages, management internal conflict, uneven income rate, etcetera. In Sub-district of Solor Timur, District of Larantuka, sustainability of water supply highly depends on regularity and capability to pay the sum of money in the amount of Rp. 1,250,000.00/annum to those possessing/ controlling spring. While, at Village of Wonda, District of Ende, NTT, as the spring is in any other villages, traditional negotiations and agreements should first be made before supplying the spring to the villagers of Wonda. At Desa Lewolaga, Larantuka, as the spring is in any other villages of which the distance can be more than 10 km, traditional marriage should first be made before using the spring. Socio-cultural problem also relates to conflicts inter villages because pipeline passes through any other villages. At Desa Lewogala, because pipeline passes through forest and rice field of any other villagers, pipes (PVC) are frequently destroyed by unknown people. According to information, people residing at villages passed through by pipeline desire that they are given water allotment. Desa Haikatapu, District of Sumba Timur likewise, where many pipes are lost by unknown people thereby practically making the facility unfunction because pipeline passing through rice fields of the villagers not having drinking water service. At Desa Banyumudal, Kebumen, socio-cultural problem combines with the environmental problem. Drastic reduction of spring in dry season occurs due to forest felling at water

catchment area that never occurred before. Reduction of water debit makes the community never finding water difficulty all this time, particularly those in upstream area closing to spring, get mad and break down broncaptering. Further, as the management of the water facility is suppressed by most of the members of the community, they resigned and the water management is not yet formed to date. Whereas, previously the management was very orderly, including dues bookkeeping, how to request water connection, penalty in case of delay, etcetera. At Talumelito, Gorontalo, a treatment unit does not absolutely function after water supply highly reduces (only those residing on upstream area obtain water) due to drastic reduction of water debit, and those residing on upstream area tend to use water as they like, for example not turning off the faucets, etcetera, and followed with denial to pay water dues by some members of the community (on downstream area). The treatment facility finally does not function automatically. Reduction of water debit at Talumelito is resulting from change of forest on water catchment area to food crops (corn) by the community. D. Financial Problem Water consumption dues is absolutely required in the framework of maintenance and development. Evaluation result and field survey indicate that not all villages possessing drinking water facility (pipeline) collect dues due to uneven water supply making some members of the community won't pay the dues. consequently, the dues stop and the management collapsed. It is also known

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that water consumption dues is highly insufficient. At Desa Lonuo, Gorontalo, monthly dues is Rp. 500, while that at Desa Balaweling, Solor Timur, Rp. 200/person/month. The dues is certainly insufficient and making it unable to develop or repair any damage. E. Institutional Problem Basically, institutional problem relates to norms and human being. Roles of water facility management as already explained above are highly important. Complex problem requires tough people having courage, wisdom, and wide perception. Those to serve as the management should be selected by all parties relevant to water consumption as they will have support/legitimacy, and qualified people should be selected. Institutionalization also relates to norms/regulations stipulating rights and obligations of both the management and the users. In this case, the issue of regulations involving all parties relevant to water consumption will be very legitimate. Now, there is only facility management standardization. Water managing institution has the same name (even throughout the areas). In addition, the existing rules and institutional structures thereof are also the same. It means, the existence of water management is still the formation from above and not based on initiatives of the community themselves. It will be better if in the institutional aspect, the community is also widely authorized to prepare the same on their own. At Village of Tamburi in East Sumba, there is a very maintained water facility seemingly to be continuous (the only good water facility in

East Sumba that the writer ever met). At this village, there is a non government organization facilitating facility construction and institutional preparation. All organizational structure and regulations for users are prepared by the community themselves by meeting. Even though, editing content of the regulations are legal standard, but the members of the community obey the same as they are results of joint agreement.

Institutionalization also relates to norms/ regulations stipulating rights and obligations of both the management and the users. In this case, the issue of regulations involving all parties relevant to water consumption will be very legitimate.

tion. At Village of Lonuo, Gorontalo, Facility Managing Unit suddenly died due to denial of the community to obey the rules and pay the water dues. Precedence of election village head of which one of the candidates promised "water dues free", and siding of facility managing unit with one of the candidates becomes the main cause of the sudden death of the facility managing unit. At any other places, facility managing units do not function soon after the operation of services due to damage of the facility as occurred at Village of Molinto Gupo and Village of Tangga Jaya. While in Talumelito, Gorontalo, facility managing unit previously functioning very good in performance suddenly died due to uneven and irregular water distribution thereby making the community won't pay the dues. There may be any other causes at any other places, therefore a profound study is required. Solution Various methods of solving the problem pertaining to non continuation of the facility originating from non function of water managing institution are as follows: 1. The community selects the qualified persons capable of solving various complicated problems. 2. Immediately selecting/replacing the management in case of failure to implement their function. 3. Immediately solving the problems on amicable basis. 4. The users prepare organizational structure and rules stipulating rights and obligations of the users adjusted to the local need.
*WASPOLA Consultant

Why Institutionalisation does not Function? Non function of water managing institution can occur due to very varying variables. A through study should therefore must be held to obtain an accurate answer. The study result can be used for making an intervention to solve the problem and determine which institutionalisation is ideal. At Village of Banyu Mudal, for example, water facility managing institution is dissolved as the management resigned and failed to form a new one. They resigned as they feel unable to settle the conflicts inter villages in relation to water consump-

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Waterworks Technological Civilization By Time
his article is the second part of the previous article with the same title. The first part was telling about water technology artifacts found in Egypt, Persia, Greece, Turkey, Yemen, and Asia. In this second part, the writer describes several other ancient water technology found in the other part of the globe. Toltec Reservoir for Irrigation and Water: Parallel with the development undertakings during Zapotek and Maya civilization, it was suspected that one of the Toltec civilization had come up to its flourishing period between 500 AD and 1100 AD. During which it was also discovered the largest reservoir in the area to facilitate irrigation and clean water supplies in the form of long storage furnished with river-training dam and diversion structure at the downstream site. Anasazi Reservoir Network: Apart from the development that had been undertaken in Mexico, particularly in north west of the United States of America, several traditional communities had developed quite advanced hydraulic techniques in the efforts to preserve its appropriate environmental equilibrium, which was in fact, relatively under the arid condition. Several reservoirs had been uniquely constructed by the Anasazian at the south of Colorado and others in New Mexico, which had later been recognized with it staggered occupancy system, and eventu-

T

By: A. Hafied A. Gany*
(Part Two)

ally renown as the birth place of skyscraper in the modern world today. Aztecs Relic Dam and Embankment: Several centuries before occupation of the Spain in 1518, the Aztecs has attained the high civilization supremacy in Mexico. In the time, they built Tenochtitlan as its capital city amidst Mexico city. The capital was an enclave at the west of Texcoco Lake, a lake that covered most of the valley in Mexico City. AT the east of the downstream, part of its water contains nitrate acid that hazardous to plants on man-made island consisting of mud sedimentation and aquatic plants, known as "Floating Gardens, that can still be seen in Xochimileo at the south of Mexico City. Roman Glorious Relic Approaching the fifth century B.C., the Romans built rural drainage network for the city of Forum with Cloaca Maxima sanitation network. At the same time, they also built Aricca valley drainage channel, a tunnel with 607 m length situated around 30 km at the south east of Rome City. In 396 B.C., they lowered Albano lake surface using a 1,200 m tunnel to obtain additional land for agriculture. Between 312 B.C. to 52 A.D., the Romans also constructed nine water gutters with 423 km total length to supply clean

water for its cities. In the middle of the first century B.C., the Romans built a dam in the Near East region and further introduced Israelite dam, Nabatean and Ptolmatic Dam technology. During the early infrastructure development by the Romans, they had used various land measuring equipments and leveling devices for buildings, abacus for calculating, ruler and measuring tape, as well as crafting equipment, leveling thread, plumb, etcetera - that are still used now. Old Islamic Civilization Relic By utilizing the experiences of their ancestors and enhanced by the Islamic civilization, the Arabs rapidly developed within a century, particularly in North Africa and Spain, also in South West of Asia through Indus River and Uzbekistan. It is predicted that as a continuation of the old Yamanians tradition, they built several dams for irrigation in the center of Islamic civilization in Mecca and Medina. Abbasid Dam at Adhaim River and Bujid Dam at Kur River: In the ninth century A.D., King Abbasid of Baghdad built a dam at Adhaim River with 130 m width, located 150 km at the north of Baghdad city. Within a century later, several dams on Kur River at the south of Shiraz in the southern part of Iran were constructed to run watermills (the dams served around 30 water-

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mills). Dams to operate "Aruban Mill" in the second century A.D. in Israel, and in Deh Luran, Iran, were also built to serve the same purpose. General problem encountered during that time was high sedimentation due to erosion - particularly caused by limited vegetation covering. Most of the water reservoir was full with sedimentation, however the infrastructure was quite stable against rolling force. Technological Blend Between Roman and Islamic Era In 711, the Moslems crossed Gibraltar Straits and continuously moved to the south west of Spain passing through Visigothic Spain Kingdom to the border of South France in the efforts to spread Islam. In Valencia, around 300 km at the south east of Madrid City, they reconstructed irrigation network, including weirs stretching along Turia River. In eleventh century, the Moslems built approximately nine weirs in an area at a distance of 12 km around the Turia River. Parada Big Dam: In around 970 AD, Parada big dam was constructed on Segura river at the upstream of Murcia, around 350 m at the south west of Madrid City. In that time, the area was occupied by the Yemens who introduced their irrigation culture and dam infrastructures for more than a thousand years. Water Civilization Relic in Indonesia Compared to water and environmental technological civilization revealed in ancient community from around the world, ancient artifacts found in Indonesia are relatively younger. The history in Indonesia records that there are three concrete proofs on ancient water resources development and management development. They are an inscribed stone Harinjing found at Village of Kepung, Sub-district of Pare, on Brantas River area, East Java Province. The finding was in the form of epigraph dated 726 the year Caka, or the year 808 AD. The second finding was in the form of epigraph dated 843 the year Caka, or the year 921 AD. The third finding was dated 849 the year Caka or the year 927. However, an inscribed stone Tugu proves that the first (the oldest) waterworks infrastructure in Indonesia is Chandra Bhaga Canal around Cilincing River. water infratructure in Indonesia is Chandra Bhaga Canal on Cakung River built in the fifth century not Harinjing Embankment built in the year 804. Hypothesis on Mystery of Ancient Artifact: In relation to historic proof in water resources development and management, some people suggest that Indonesia as a tropical country will find it very difficult to keep relic sites of small buildings with small organic building materials in a long time due to weathering. Therefore, the relics as the abovementioned historical proofs will not be left or be difficult to find after thousands of years. If the hypothesis is correct, it is predicted that many proofs on prehistoric civilization in Indonesia remain mysterious and are unable to track after thousands of years. On the other hand, the others argue that considering Indonesia has been formed naturally to be a group of tropical islands with various cultures spread in small groups, people during that time didn't need big reservoir or permanent water infrastructure to preserve their livelihood. Moreover, the water abundance in Indonesia makes many plants able to grow without any big or permanent water infrastructures. Even though supposing that the simple infrastructure was washed away by flood in each rainy season, they would be able to repair it without any complicated construction efforts. They would prefer to spend their time and energy by repairing the existing simple infrastructure rather than maintain the permanent infrastructure all year long. Based on this argumentation, it is understandable that water technology with simple infrastructure that have

Based on this argumentation, it is understandable that water technology with simple infrastructure that have been used for thousands of years didn't leave any significant artifact or ruins which are could be studied by future generation.

The epigraph indicates that King Purnawarman decreed to dig an interception canal on Chandra Bhaga River to flow water directly to the sea, along Chandra Bhaga Palace (Bekasi River). Meanwhile, geomorphologic analysis predicts that Chandra Bhaga was at a location that currently known as Cakung River. This inscribed stone indicates that the lowland that where Jakarta City located now, has been affected by flood since the fifth century. It gives a new proof that the oldest

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to plant rice on wet rice field, for example, are obviously readable on two relief saved in Trowulan museum, East Java, how the farmers were planting rice seeds on wet rice field. The relief obviously shows that planting rice seeds on wet rice field is different from planting rice on unirrigated rice field, where the rice seeds should be spread or planted. So, the relief must mean that rice should be planted by using water medium to soften the soil. No matter how simple it is, but it is definite that they have exerted to obtain the water or at least dug wells or purified water in order to be quite clear to consume. Supposing that the relief amazingly made in the era of Borobudur, Prambanan Temples, etcetera were made in the seventh - eighth centuries, it can be ascertained that the water technological civilization perfectly illustrated in the relief, must be longer than the construction of the temples themselves. Unfortunately, to date we can not yet reveal historical proofs, since when our ancestors knew water and environmental technologies as proven by any other countries in the world. Whether or not we are later than any other countries or the archaeological proofs thereof are not yet found? Or the relics with simple construction have been destroyed by oxidation and weathering in tropical climate? The questions are our future challenges to reveal the actual facts. Time Tunnel Mystery Even though the facts do not yet become an argumentation representing the actual condition, as long as the archaeological proofs have been revealed by modern men, we can temporarily conclude water technological

5

6

Figure 5. Karmawibangga relief on Borobudur Temple describe water utility of ancient community to cook at that time. Figure 6. Karmawibangga relief on Borobudur Temple describe water utility to drinks.

been used for thousands of years didn't leave any significant artifact or ruins which are could be studied by future generation. Relief on various temples: despite the younger technological proofs in Indonesia, our ancestors have been long experienced in water and environmental technologies in the archipelago. They apparently have tried to communicate their experience and skill in water and environmental technologies by carving their innovations on temple walls spread in several places in Java Island, which some of them may not yet be found. Even though the time when the water civilization started is not yet known, the actual illustration by relief on Borobudur Temple (built in the year 7 - 8) obviously indicates a message of water usage for cooking and drinking (see Figures 5 and 6). Figure 5 obviously shows how to use the water to cook, boil water, while a man in front of them was cleaning a fish to cook. Figure 6 shows how a woman was serving a drink. The relief obviously shows how to store the water in an earthenware

flask and pour the same in a cup - of which the form and function are not far different from kitchen equipment used in this modern era. Indeed, the relief does not obviously shows whether they have used water technology or not, but if we link it with various relics of the same type, in Prambanan Temple, for example, during that time they had certainly involved water technology for water supply and environmental conservation. Relief on walls of Prambanan Temple obviously shows water technology had developed for water supply and ecosystem conservation, not only human being, but also for the existing flora and fauna (See Figures 7 and 8). Figure 7 obviously shows efforts of men to use water with integrity approach of water resources infrastructure supply and sustainable ecosystem conservation. While, Figure 8 obviously shows the role of water by using shower to support water for the life of not only men but also fauna and flora as well as water ecosystem conservation. Irrigation practice and technology

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civilization by time until this modern era. From various archaeological findings on human life cultures, we can trace until 7000 years ago, but in case of water and environmental technological civilization, not fact can reveal a mystery of early application thereof. In Indonesian archipelago, history of water and environmental technological development with concrete proof is the construction of Chandra Bagha canal in the year 500, preceding the construction of Borobudur temple occurring between the seventy century and eighth century. As recorded in the existing archaeological proofs, there is seemingly a quite long time tunnel of water and environmental technological civilization, namely since King Scorpion from Egypt officially opened one of his irrigation networks in 3-100 B.C. until this modern era or at least 5,100 years ago. No one can deny that the period is a quite long Mystery of Time Tunnel seen from age of human civilization and culture, but it is very short if we measure the same with geological age of the earth of which the time parameter is millennium not century or year. infrastructures are not facilitated with tunnel thereby making them broken down in a flood period before completion of construction. In flood control and water resources conservation sector, many lessons that can be learned from Nabaten people who constructed check dam to keep erosion, where the occurring sedimentation is used as a land for tilling the soil. It is simultaneously land and water conservation technology precisely being a central issue of water resources development and management in this modern era. It is worth reflecting that since thousands years ago, men has applied an integrated water resources management technology, whereas demography did not yet exist in the time. Imagine how Iraqi on Tikris river valley and Euphrate since thousands years ago has applied an integrated water resources management with physical separated irrigation network management, namely Kisrawi, Tamara, and Nahrawan, so that the use of water is integrated and sustainable. With the skill of experts in ancient history in this modern era, many findings are still continuously revealed from time to time. It proves that many mysteries of life in respect of human civilization are not yet revealed to date. Men civilization experiences in the application of water and environmental technologies can not be neglected by modern men in this Planet Earth.
* Widya Iswara Utama Ministry of Public Works "Technology and Water Management"; Board of Director, International Networks on Participatory Irrigation Management; and Member of Working Group on Irrigation and Drainage History of the World, ICID, representing Indonesia.

It is worth reflecting that since thousands years ago, men has applied an integrated water resources management technology, whereas demography did not yet exist in the time. Imagine how Iraqi on Tikris river valley and Euphrate since thousands years ago has applied an integrated water resources management with physical separated irrigation network management.
Lessons learned for the Future Many lessons can be learned from the existing proofs starting from planning, development phases through water resources management and water ecosystem conservation. In planning technological sector, for example, many experiences of the occurrence of under-designed or overdesigned are met, where underdesigned results in small capacity to collect heavy flood, so that the infrastructure can not stand longer, negative impact of over-designed likewise. In construction sector, many ancient

7

8

Figure 7. Relief on Prambanan Temple describe about water utility technology. Figure 8. Relief on Prambanan Temple describe about water role for life.

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Development and Empowerment

E

mpowerment is the most frequent concept in the last five years. Nevertheless, we frequently do not profoundly understand the meaning thereof, we even frequently change the word. Indeed, no understanding is absolutely correct but the efforts to understand a concept is a preliminary step of a good development program. Not Just Power Empowerment originates from the translation in English "empowerment" which can also mean as "granting of authority", as power is not just a "power" but also "authority", so that the word "power" means not only "able" but also "have power". Here, Lord Acton proportion is used reversibly. English philosopher says that power tend to corrupt, absolute power corrupt absolutely. Indeed, if a ruler becomes an absolute ruler, for example a dictator, he tends to corrupt anything because he absolutely corrupts the power. We are frequently romantic that the poor of absolute power "may not corrupt". On the contrary, absolute no-power corrupt absolutely, too. If an individual or a group does not "absolutely" has a power, he/she or it "corrupts" absolutely too. In English, we know the word "amock" meaning being suddenly angry and then making destruction without any reason. In Surabaya and Malang, you should never brush against a pedicab because the pedicab man can abuse you with

right to have "something". For example, the target is a poor group of community. They are given an undervulgar language, Don't you have any standing that they can be well-to-do if eyes? Anarchy by university students they can have a capacity to get out of along 1998-2001 is also resulting their poverty. from total emasculation of freedom In this phase, programs to do are power in their campuses. Mass desfor example, giving cognitive knowtruction of the properties of the Chiledge, belief and healing. The basic nese upon the riot is also resulting principle is making the target underfrom emasculation of their economic stand that they should (build "derights by the government and its cormand") be empowered, and the emruption, collusion and nepotism. If we powerment process starts from inside always tie a pet, it will be wild when it themselves (not from the outsiders). is released. That's why we need an After realizing, then the second empowerment, particularly to the phase is capacity. It is what we call as "weak" and "powerless" people. "capacity building", or in a simple language is enabling. To be given power Three Sides of Empowerment or authority, the relevant person Empowerment is a "process of beshould first enable. For example, coming", not an instant process". As a before giving a regional autonomy, process, empowerment has three phases: regions to subject to autonomy are awareness, capacity building, and emgiven capacity building to make them powerment as described in the following: "skilful" in managing the given autoThe first phase is awareness. In nomy. Capacity building process conthis phase, a target to empower is sists of three types: human being, given "enlightenment" in the form of organization, and value system. giving an awareness that he/she has a Men capacity building means to enable men, both in individual context and group context. We are familiar with this concept because we frequently hold trainings, workshops, seminars, and others of the capacity like. In a "New Order" peawareness EMPOWERMENT building riod, we also frequently used the term "simulation" for P4 socialization. Its basic meaning is to give capacity to individual and group of men

By: Riant Nugroho Dwijowijoto*

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SOURCE:DOC/POKJA

to be able to take power or authority to give. Organizational capacity building is made in the form of restructuring organization to take the power or authority. For example, People-Owned Corporation is made before a poor group is given a business opportunity. To be efficient in the management, organization of an autonomous region is rearranged thereby having a structure follow function pattern. We frequently neglect this organizational capacity building, like "preparing a medium before placing a supply"; and like preparing the land before planting corn seeds. Isn't it impossible for us to strew corn seeds as we like? Strewing corn seeds on a reef or highway will not yield, right? It should be acknowledged that this second capacity building is infrequently made as we frequently say take it for granted by thinking that "well, if a has been subject to capacity building, he will make a capacity building on his own". This premise sometimes applies, but in practice, it frequently does not apply. The third capacity building is value system. After a man and the organization are subject to capacity building, the value system likewise. Value system is a "rule of the game". In an organizational scope, the value system relates to Bylaws, Systems and Procedures, Regulations of Cooperative, and others of the like. In a more advanced level, value system also consists of organizational practice, ethics, and good governance. Capacity building of value system is made by assisting the target in making "rule of the game" among them. In BUMR program in Lumajang and Bengkalis, after the men are given managerial capacity, given organization or business institution, they are

also given "rules of game" in order that if their business become big in the future, they do not fight for the business and dispute each others harming themselves. Regional autonomy likewise, it is facilitated to make Regional Regulation stipulating "rule of the game" in autonomous region, inter autonomous regions, as well as inter autonomous region and central government. Organizational capacity building likewise, we make capacity building of value system as we have a stereotype that "if the men are subject to capacity building, they will make a good rule of the game on their own". Field experience indicates otherwise. After capacity building of the men, they are left as "scattered" individuals "without sole value system". Third phase is empowerment in a narrow meaning. In this phase, a target is given power, authority, or opportunity. This empowerment complies with quality of skill already owned. This phase is highly significant because at this time the formation of new districts tends to be made not based on sufficient skill but more

on administrative requirements, for example at least three sub-districts should exist. In Sulawesi and North Maluku, it is predicted that more than 50 percent of new districts are unable to implement regional autonomy correctly due to insufficient regional skill to implement the regional autonomy. Therefore, regional autonomy expenses become very costly because capacity building after the giving of autonomy meets with resistance and tensions not properly occur. Procedures in this third phase is quite simple, but we are frequently unable to implement the same due to ignoring an aphorism that there is a measurement in an simplicity. The point of idea is the process of giving power or authority must comply with the recipient's skill. Credit extension to a poor group already passing through awareness and capacity building processes still has to be adjusted to the capability to manage a business. If their turnover only attains Rp. 5 million, it is not wise if they are given a loan or capital in the amount of Rp. 50 million.

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Art from Natural Process At last, empowerment is not a "theory" as said by Ron Johnson and David Redmod (The Art of Empowerment, 1992), that empowerment is about art. It is about value we believe. When, empowerment becomes an art, the prominent thing is how to build a beauty in an empowerment process. It means, empowering must not mean "making one robot" or "making uniform". Empowerment also gives a room to develop various capabilities of various men by assuming that people will complete each others. Here, we arrive at an understanding that value of empowerment is that it is a natural process. Empowerment is a natural process that we encounter in our daily life. An infant eats mother's milk and porridge. After being a child, he eats cooked rice, sago, corn, bread, or noodle and after attaining a grown up age, he needs independence. Approaching the age, parent usually begins to teach

How natural the empowerment is makes us forget that "the process is significant". The habit of Indonesian people to take it for granted makes the empowerment an activity considered "done automatically"

him to keep their own money in a limited amount and spend the money wisely, while supervise the same. The purpose is when he is released, he can also spend his money wisely. How natural the empowerment is makes us forget that "the process is significant". The habit of Indonesian people to take it for granted makes the empowerment an activity considered "done automatically". In eighteenth
SOURCE:DOC/POKJA

century, France's social scientist, Alexis de Tocquevile, said that the superiority of America is resulting from having a strong associational capability. It means the country has a strong capability to make its organization and management. Indonesian is almost the same: easy to make an organization but incapable of managing. The Republic of Indonesia is an organization belonging to Indonesian. With an abundant wealth, state administration of the Republic of Indonesia is not sufficient to produce more superior Indonesian, at least in Asia. Human Development Index of Indonesia is still below that of neighbor countries. Human Development Progress report issued by UNDP in 2004 places Human Development Score Indonesia in rank 112 of 175 countries so surveyed. This position is below PRC (104), Sri Lanka (99),and ASEAN countries namely Singapore (28), Brunei Darussalam (31), Malaysia (58). It even a reduction of the previous achievement. In 2002, UNDP reported that Indonesia scores 0.684 or is in rank 110 below Vietnam scoring 0.688 (rank 109), China (0.762) (rank 96), the Philippines 0.754 (rank 77), Thailand 0.762 (rank 70), Malaysia 0.782 (rank 59), Brunei Darussalam 0.856 (rank 32), Singapore 0.885 (rank 25) and Japan 0.933 (rank 9). For cognizance, HDI is an mixture index being an average significant achievement standard of three basic dimensions in human development, namely (a) health (a long and healthy life); (b) knowledge; (c) decent standard of living. Meanwhile, in case of corruption, according to Transparency International, Indonesia "still" occupies the fifth position of the most corrupting country in the

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world (better than the second position in the last year). Empowerment is a concept that even though life is a natural process, the life itself should and must be managed. "Management" concept is different from "engineering" because management more focuses on improving "value added" of "an asset". Therefore, empowerment is not solely a management concept. And, as a management concept, empowerment should finally have an indicator of success. Social volunteers, particularly those operating in gender mainstreaming usually give four indicators to quality of gender equality which is apparently quite sufficient to measure empowerment. Firstly, access, which means a target to empower finally has an access to resources it requires for development. Secondly, participation, which means a target to empower can eventually participate in making efficient use of resources it accesses. Thirdly, control, which means a target to empower eventually has a capability to control process of making efficient use of resources. Fourthly, equality which means in case of conflict in a certain level, a target has a equal position to another in problem solving. Development Agenda Finally, government administration of President Yudhoyono should arrive at a joint understanding that Indonesia has to build empowerment as a national development method. It is because not only "the government does not have sufficient money to make a government driven-pattern development" but also because this model will make the development a joint obligation between the government and people. When this under-

SOURCE:DOC/POKJA

Social volunteers, particularly those operating in gender mainstreaming usually give four indicators to quality of gender equality which is apparently quite sufficient to measure empowerment.

standing is built, people will be able to jointly sacrifice in a difficult economy. For example, in case of unavailable subsidy for fuel oil, people can be asked to talk and make a decision that "we don't need another subsidy". A state with "powerless" people will consist of a government facing with spoiled, egoistic, and irresponsible people. We can see them today. A pressure to have the strong leader, or "The Just King" concept is a concept from "powerless" people, and simultaneously informs us on an "immature people" phenomenon. As a political joke: Prime Minister of England, Prime Minister of France, and President of Indonesia jointly make a tour. They have stomach gas suddenly. Prime Minister of England says "forgive me"; Prime Minister of France says "pardon me"; President of Indonesia says,

"not me!". Because in Indonesia, produces stomach gas is considered wrong whereas it is good for health - moreover doing anything else. Development should make empowerment value and choice of policy simultaneously social learning which means that we always learn how to make empowerment better from day to day. Therefore, as an intellectual, Soejatmoko, says that development is learning to live better than yesterday. And learning is the core of development in the present and, possibly, in the future.
* Strategic management consultant for business and public sectors. Writing more than 40 books. Currently, occupying Board Member of Drinking Water Service Regulatory Board DKI Jakarta.

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AROUND AMPL

Seminar on Study of AMPL-Related Law and Legislation

S

eminar on Study of Water and Environmental Sanitation (AMPL)-Related Law and Legislation in Indonesia took place July 13, 2006 at Bumi Karsa Bidakara Hotel, Jakarta. This seminar was attended by representatives of several agencies, such as National Planning Board, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Public Works, WASPOLA and Working Group of AMPL. This event was held by Working Group of AMPL through Directorate General of PMD, Ministry of Home Affairs. This seminar is intended to improve the participants' knowledge on roles and functions of legislation in motivating policy adoption process and synergic relationship between the legislation with the national policy on drinking water development and environmental sanitation. This seminar is divided into two sessions. Resource persons in session I are Effendi Mansyur and Hilwan, MSc (both members of Drinking Water Supply System Development Supporting Board - BPP SPAM). They respectively discussed law No. 7 of 2004 on Water Resources and Government Regulation No. 16 of 2005 on Drinking Water Supply System Development. While, resource persons in session II are Edward Sitorus (Directorate of Rural Administration, Directorate General of PMD, Ministry of Home Affairs) with material on relationship between Law No. 32 of 2004 on Regional Administration, Government Regulation No. 72 of 2005 on Villages, and Government Regulation No. 73 of

SOURCE:DORMARINGAN

2005 on Village Administration with national policy on community-based AMPL Development. Effendi Mansyur explained that legal base of Drinking Water Supply System development (drinking water, waste water, and domestic waste) is article 40 of Law No. 7 of 2004 on Water Resources. The article was debated in House of People's Representative and denied by Non Government Organization as well as Constitution Court at that time, particularly article 40 paragraph (4) reading: "Any cooperatives, private Corporations and community can play a role in managing drinking water supply system". This article is considered to support the emergence of privatization. Regional Water Corporation as if has an exclusive right in case of Drinking Water Supply System (SPAM) management. In this case, one should see that what is exploited is in a public commodity highly required by the community. Government Regulation No. 16 of 2005 on Drinking Water Supply System Development explains that private parties are only given a concession right which is temporary in

nature. It applies if the service is outside service area/coverage area. It means that private parties do not own the concession right forever. Therefore, said Effendi, this rule asserts more and more that the term "privatization" does not apply. Private parties should not necessarily request for permit from regional water corporation to manage drinking water Supply System development. In this case, they only require permits from the government and/or regional administration in accordance with their respective authorities. Meanwhile, Hilwan, member of BPP SPAM, extends that challenge of drinking water supply system development is manifestation of agreement in Earth Summit Johannesburg September 2002 in attaining MDG target, and in the framework of a half of total population not yet receiving drinking water service. It is predicted that investment fund by approximately Rp. 25 trillion is required for increase in capacity of 61,000 l/second as well as service connection thereof, while the Government's capability per annum is around Rp. 600 billion. Edward Sitorus, Directorate of Rural Administration, Directorate General of Home Affairs in this seminar emphasized the necessity to form an organization namely Village-Owned Corporation called Rural Corporation in the form of corporate body in case dinking water supply system will be organized at rural level.
(DEW)

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Seminar on Community-Based Urban Waste Management

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rban waste, particularly in cities in Java, is a complicated problem. The current handling is considered unserious. A negative impact has occurred in Bandung. The city encounters a waste disaster. It should necessarily occur in case of a strong commitment from the government and stakeholder to handle the problem. In the condition, Centre for Environmental Research, Institute of Social Research and Empowerment, Bogor Institute of Agriculture (IPB) held a seminar. This seminar is divided into two sessions. Firstly, analyzing urban waste problem with resource persons, Head of Cleanliness Service DKI Jakarta, President Director of PD Kebersihan Bandung City, and Director of CV Sinar Kencana. Secondly, studying community-based urban management strategies and systems with the speakers namely Dr. Joni P. Sakti (expert in environmental engineering and management), Dr. Suryo Adiwibowo from IPB, and Director of CV Arya Kemuning. Head of Cleanliness Service DKI Jakarta, Rama Boedi, explained solid waste condition in Jakarta. Waste tends to increase from year to year. Currently, average accumulation of waste is around 6,000 tons/day. The waste (2005) is composed of 55.37 percent of organic waste and 44.63 percent of inorganic waste. Almost the entire waste namely 97.94 (2005) is handled. He objected that Jakarta has no concept of handling waste. He mentioned that DKI Jakarta has owned master plan

of matters pertaining to waste prepared by JICA in 1987. "But, the master plan is not implemented consistently," he said. Last year, DKI Jakarta restudied the master plan. The result is, action plan on DKI Jakarta waste management in 2005-2015 has been prepared. Substances of the action plan are among others reducing and using waste as many as possible at source before disposal to final disposal site; sorting; constructing waste treatment facility at various waste handling locations and zones; applying high technology; handling hazardous and toxic waste specifically; opening regional and private cooperation opportunity; and changing community's paradigm that waste can become economic resource. While, President Director of PD Kebersihan Bandung, Awan Gumelar, said that currently Bandung City has been free from waste. According to him, waste disaster has motivated inhabitants of Bandung to make 3R (reuse, reduce, and recycle). Now, many households turn their waste into compost. Both Rama and Awan are of the opinion that waste problem in urban area is quite complicated. Many parties are related. The problem is not only a technical matter but also more non technical matter. Obvious policy in this matter is required. Meanwhile, another speaker offered alternative of handling the waste. Dr. Joni P. Sakti introduced BioCORE TRS. BioCORE (BioConversion of Organic Refuse to Energy) being a process where an organic waste is changed to energy and any other valuable products (biogas, electric, and/or

organic waste briquet) by using efficient, effective, and economic anaerobic fermentation method. While TRS is total recycling system. It means the entire inorganic waste (residues of organic waste) undergoes a recycling process and is reused as maximal as possible. "It is waste to energy system," he explained. With this method, any waste entering landfill can be less than 5 percent of total volume of waste. This technique will be patented in America, but several cities in any other countries have tried the same. This handling model, said Joni, can be engineered, constructed, and operated by Indonesians with more competitive, effective, and visible result than waste to energy systems in any other advanced countries. In addition, this method can be made as a big scale business which is beneficial and sustainable, environmentally-friendly with income potential of more than 3 billion dollar and rate of investment return of above 24 percent per annum. Sonson Garsoni from CV Sinar Kencana told his experience in assisting the community in making domestic and community scale composting in Bandung. Another speaker, Illan R. Suriadi explained on plastic waste recycling opportunity. Types of plastic usually recycled are differentiated into types of PP (polypropylene, HDPP (high density polypropylene), HIPS (high impact poly styrene), ABS (acrylonitile butadiene styrene), PVC (poly vinyl chlorine), PS (poly styrene), acralite and LDPE (low density polyethylene). MJ

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Training for Field Facilitating Team SANIMAS

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ANIMAS will be replicated in 100 selected cities/ districts in this year, with pure fund from the home country, combination of national Budget, Provincial Budget, District/Municipal Budget, and the community. To prepare the replication, Directorate of PLP, Directorate General of Human Settlement, Ministry of Public Works held a training for Field Facilitating Team (TFL) SANIMAS on June 4 - 14, 2006 at BP ABPLP Surabaya. Participants being the prospective members of TFL originate from five provinces, namely: Jambi, Bangka-Belitung, South Kali-

mantan, East Nusa Tenggara, and South East Sulawesi. The two weeks training discussed subject materials, among others: basic principles and concepts of SANIMAS, self selection methods, rapid participation assessment techniques, basic communication in the community, and preparation of community working plan. As a part of understanding of SANIMAS approaches to the participants, the training used a participative method. Amidst the training, the participants were asked to visit successful pilot locations of SANIMAS namely

Mojokerto and Blitar. The participants interacted with SANIMAS users and management thereby knowing any weaknesses and superiorities of the program. The training result was realized by preparing Follow-up Plan of the respective district/municipal TFL to apply in the respective regions. One of the problems put forward by the participants of TFL is village area/location has been determined/appointed by mayor/district head. Therefore, self selection practice is less implemented properly. It is therefore worried that the area/location has no a strong intention to build or maintain SANIMAS facility. MJ

Dialog Forum on Investment In Domestic Waste Water Handling

D

irectorate General of Human Settlement, Ministry of Public Works, August 23 - 25, 2006, held a Dialog Forum on Investment In Waste Water Handling. The event was attended by the relevant agencies to domestic waste water handling both from central level and regional level, and several non ministerial institutions/organizations (PDAM, Forkalim, Borda, BEST, PSLH-UI and several private companies). This dialog forum was opened by Director General of Human Settlement PU, and Director of Settlement and Housing - National Planning Board further explained National Policy on Waste Water, as well as Director of PLPDirectorate General of Human Settlement-PU explained Investment in and Implementation of Waste Water Program. This dialog explained munici-

pal/district performance in handling waste water, represented by PDAM Surakarta and PDAM Banjarmasin. President Director of PDAM Surakarta, Abimanyu, explained that sanitation development in Surakarta City has been implemented in 1995 - 2001 in the amount of Rp. 41.4 billion through Integrated Urban Facility Development Project with Semarang City in the implementation thereof. The project is SSUDP (Semarang-Surakarta Urban Development Program). Currently, Surakarta City has had off site waste water management facility with service percentage of around 10.64 percent. In line with increase in total population and activity of Surakarta City being a centre for cities surroundings, it is considered necessary to make professional and sustainable management and increase in scope of service.

Waste water management service rate varies from Rp. 5,000 to Rp. 100,000. It depends on category of service user. Unfortunately, the rate of payment is still low namely 30 percent. Meanwhile, one of the directors of PDAM Banjarmasin, explained condition of waste water management in the city. The city has several IPALs, such as in Lambung Mangkurat area, and Pekapuran Raya area at a capacity of 500 m3/day. Now, there is an efforts to form PD PAL with capital placement from municipal administration by Rp. 4.3 billion. Alfred from WASPOLA explained Community-Based Waste Water Management. While, Director of Urban Area, Ministry of Home Affairs gave alternative of form of waste water managing institution. The event was ended with visit to Setiabudi Dam managed by PD PAL Jaya. (RAH)

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Community Awareness Raising Program on Introduction To Drinking Water Aspects

F

ORKAMI, in cooperation with TPJ, NZAID, ESP-USAID and rural administrations along Ciliwung River held series of events in the framework of raising Community Awareness/CAR) in water quality sector at domestic scale and surroundings. This activity took place at three places, namely in Kelurahan (Village) Cawang (8-12), Kelurahan (Village) Balimester (8-26), and Kelurahan (Village) Kebon Manggis (9-9). This activity is intended to raise the community knowledge on drinking water quality aspects, improve change of critical behavior to drinking water quality, and serves as a prelimi-

SOURCE:FORKAMI

nary phase for all members of the community in treating water surroundings correctly. The selection of Ciliwung River area is based on a bad environmental

condition at the area whereas the area is in Capital City Jakarta. This area is always flooded every year. This CAR event was attended by tens of villagers. They were involved in group discussion with the facilitator assistance. The discussion took place interactively. They were previously given enlightenment by resource persons on water quality, such as meaning of pH, what causes turbidity on faucet water, why water produces odor, etcetera. Thus activity was also enlivened by consumer goods producers, such as Unilever and Nestle. The producers distributed consolation prize to the participants. MJ

Facilitating Basic Skill Training in the framework of Implementing Community-Based AMPL Development Policy
o improve knowledge, skill and attitude of participants as trainers/facilitators, Directorate General of Social and Rural Development, Ministry of Home Affairs held Facilitating Basic Skill Training in the framework of Implementing Community-Based AMPL Development Policy on July 3-7 in Yogyakarta. This training was followed by representatives of Directorate General of PMD, Ministry of Home Affairs, Directorate General of Regional Administration, Directorate of PLP, Directorate General of Human Settlement, Secretariat of ISSDP Jakarta, Provincial Secretariat of Working Group South Sulawesi, District Planning Agency Brebes, District Planning Board

T

SOURCE:DOC/POKJA

Kebumen, District Planning Board Purbalingga, Provincial Planning Board Banten, Office of Provincial Infrastructure Banten, Provincial Planning Board Central Java, Provincial Health Service

Central Java, District Planning Board Tangerang, and Provincial Planning Board Central Kalimantan. In this facilitating basic training, the participants are given knowledge on techniques of communicating, presenting activities, facilitating media and ethics of facilitator and how to communicate in front of many people, presenting an activity which media that can be used for making a facilitation. In general, this facilitating basic training ran well. There were several outputs, among others training location is too closed to shopping centre thereby being less conducive, time allocation is less given so that several subject materials were given only in a glance. MJ

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Evaluating and Planning Meeting of AMPL Working Group Activities of Budgetary Year 2007

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ater and Environmental Sanitation Working Group (AMPL Working Group) held a meeting in Cibogo, Bogor on July 18 19, 2006. This activity with the topic "Evaluating and Planning Meeting of AMPL Working Group of Budgetary Year 2007" was attended by all components of AMPL Working Group and any relevant projects (CWSHP, WSLIC, ProAir, CLTS, Plan, and WASPOLA). This meeting discussed two main agendas, namely evaluation of activities of AMPL Working Group in semester I of budgetary year 2006 and planning of AMPL Working Group of budgetary year 2007. Evaluation of activity results in semester I are among others: WASPOLA WASPOLA activities mostly emphasizes on policy socialization and not yet enters strategies of implementing policies nationally. It is expected that in 2007 - 2008, all provinces have been facilitated. To encounter the same, social marketing tool in the form of communicating strategies used for implementing policies upon facing with the community, executives and particularly legislatives is required. In 2007, WASPOLA will prepare exit strategy and expectedly after completion of WASPOLA activities, AMPL Working Group has sufficient strategies and tools to implement the policies.

SOURCE:MUJIYANTO

is necessary to give attention to the prevailing provisions as a legal grounds of transfer of assets to association, formation of association, etcetera. CLTS Structured evaluation study on CLTS will be made so that proof of CLTS success can be properly recorded. It is worried that CLTS will be a problem in the future as the intention to replicate CLTS does not originate from the community but from regional administration. In addition, CLTS should better not only depend on budget 69, but also use National Budget. CLTS should better be made as a movement, such as 3M movement Dengue Fever, but a study on a precise marketing strategy should be made. Plan Indonesia Cooperation of Plan Indonesia and National Planning Board does not yet have a Standard Operating Procedures (SOP), so that the SOP should immediately be made and signed by the both parties. SANIMAS In 2007, 87 districts will implement SANIMAS. Several significant issues are control and preparation of facilitator. Secretariat of Working Group Several obstacles to encounter by Central AMPL Working Group are coordination, fund clearing and reporting of

CLTS activity in Sukabumi, West Java

ProAir The necessity to involve the community in projects by 4 percent in cash becomes an obstacle as the project itself has no limitation of ceiling. Several areas requiring complex technology make the project value increase thereby influencing the amount of in cash to provide by the community. It makes the activities in several areas have to be added several times. Kodi area should be given a more attention due to two things, namely: a. Existence of one spring used by 15 villages, attention should be emphasized on multi-rural cooperation in the management of the spring pursuant to Government Regulation 16 of 2005 on SPAM development, b. Availability of GTZ and KfW to provide Rp. 17 billion for SPAM development in Kodi area, to manage professionally by one association. Therefore, it

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AROUND AMPL

activity results. In addition to evaluation, the meeting agrees several activities to do in budgetary year 2007, namely: WASPOLA 1. Expanding national policies of AMPL-BM throughout Indonesia. 2. Strengthening national policies of AMPL-BM by strengthening policy in sanitation sector. 3. Continuing discussion on policy in institution-based AMPL sector. ProAir 1. Producing ProAir pocket book. 2. Monitoring, Evaluating and Advocating regions. 3. Making ProAir operational guidelines. 4. Strengthening multi-rural institution post construction. 5. Holding technical training to ProAir management in Kupang. 6. Holding training post construction to ProAir management in Kupang. 7. Holding seminar on communitybased drinking water supply in ProAir areas. CLTS 1. Orientating to east and west regional CLTS approaches. 2. Preparing baseline data of a facilitator already trained. 3. Preparing VCD and module as supplements for training participants. 4. Making whole evaluation study on CLTS, also preparing CLTS lesson learned to submit to CLTS national meeting. Plan Indonesia 1. Developing Policy Procedure and Guidelines to Plan Indonesia in line with the National Policy of Government of Indonesia 2. 2. Piloting Program on Water and Environmental Sanitation in Plan

SOURCE:MUJIYANTO

National Policy of Water Supply invitiation community-Based dissemination

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Working Areas in line with the National Policy. Appropriate Technology of Water Supply Module Developing Health Promotion Module for School Children Training SANIMAS Program Facilitators Resource Centre Producing a Book: "Indonesia Water and Sanitation Development: Lesson Learned from Failure and Success". Percik Junior Magazine Socializing MDG in Local Government Baseline Knowledge Attitude & Practice. Monitoring Rural Water Quality Coordinating Cooperation Activity of Government of Indonesia-Plan Indonesia.

4. Producing VCD audio visual. 5. Technical training to post construction. CWSHP 1. Training on peaty water treatment construction. 2. Laboratory technical training and water quality survey. 3. Promotion methodological training. 4. O&M training. 5. Training relating to management, among others: a. Developing rural institution. b. Studying independent community development in cooperation with WASPOLA. c. Strengthening regional development strategic preparation. 6. TKK-TKP meeting. Secretariat of AMPL Working Group Activities relating to communication are production of magazines, leaflets with various themes, CD, AMPL guidelines books, AMPL pocket books, exhibition, Media Gathering, and Press Tour. While, any other supporting activities are Presentation of Information on Geography-based Water and Environmental Sanitation Policy by MapInfo. (MJ)

SANIMAS 1. Training to facilitators as already did in 2006. 2. SANIMAS training (for teachers and community), possible expenses will be borne by Non Government Organization. 3. Evaluating O&M, individual consultant will be appointed to evaluate the same.

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o follow up meeting on Preparation of AMPL Communication Strategies in regions, a seminar with the topic AMPL Communication Orientation was held in Serang, Banten, on June 26-27, 2006. This event was followed by AMPL-related agencies at Provincial Administration Banten. This seminar is intended to receive inputs from stakeholder in preparing information and communication strategic guidelines of which the results will become subject matters in National Seminar on Community-Based AMPL Communication Strategies in the future. This seminar was filled by subject matters among others the significance of communication in AMPL development, photo language, and communi-

T

Seminar on AMPL Communication Orientation in Regions
SOURCE:ASTRI HANDAYANI

cation media appreciation. The making of communication strategies cover five phases, namely: Planning/Preparation-Media Production-Implementation-Monitoring & Evaluation In photo language session guided by a facilitator from WASPOLA, the participants were asked to see AMPL photos and requested to analyze situation and identification of the pho-

tos. In addition, the participants were asked to identify target audiences and what contribution to give to encounter the problem. In communication media appreciation, the participants were introduced to any media able to use in communicating AMPL development to audiences. The media have their own superiorities and weaknesses. Therefore, analysis of situation and identification of correct audiences highly influences in determining proper media to communicate any messages. In the last part of this seminar, the participants were asked to map AMPL condition in their respective areas and then make work plan in short and long terms. They were quite enthusiastic. rie

Seminar on AMPL Communication Strategies

O

n July 12, 2006, Central AMPL Working Group held a seminar on AMPL Communication Strategies in Jakarta. This seminar is a follow-up of preparation of Community-Based AMPL Communication Strategies already made since March 2006. This event was followed by members of Central AMPL Working Group. This seminar was opened by Director of Facilitation of Spatial and Environmental Lay Out, Directorate General of Bina Bangda, Ministry of Home Affairs, Prof. Tjahya Supriatna. He said it is necessary to prepare proper communication strategies in extending AMPL programs

to the target community to make them receive the programs. This seminar was filled by discussion and speech from Bestian Nainggolan (Deputy Head of Research and Development of Kompas Daily). The participants were asked to simulate the extension of messages by communication media. Three communication media were introduced, namely audio media, visual media and audio visual media. The three media have their own superiorities and weaknesses. Audio media is usually very effective in extending any messages exerting to move or motivate, visual media is very effective in extending

any messages giving instructions or explanations in nature, while audiovisual media is a combination of the both media that can be able to move the thought or feeling. In addition, Bestian gave secrets to develop public opinions by mass media. These secrets are highly important to know as AMPL-WASPOLA Working Group highly requires a strong support from media in its efforts to socialize Community-Based AMPL National Policy to the public. According to him, almost all media in Indonesia have no agenda. Therefore, the Working group can play a role as a party providing mass media with agenda. rie

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BOOK INFO

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Manual on Waste Management for Business District
Title: Ecological Solid Waste Management for Central Business District. A Trainer's Manual Writer: Ayala Foundation Publisher: Ayala Foundation & Solid Waste Management Program Year Published: Page: viii + 112

iving Planet Index measures on the whole the tendency of population of wild species in the world. The index provides indicator of natural condition of a country in the world. In general, LPI reduces 40 percent. The cause is reduction of environmental condition. One of them is resulting from waste. In Europe, 1.3 billion tons of waste is produced each year, 40 million tons out of which are classified as hazardous waste. It is predicted that in 2020, total waste will increase 45 percent. In the United States of America, waste attains 499 million tons per annum. No wonder if the earth is burdened with the waste and its balance is disturbed. Impacts of uncontrolled waste dis-

posal are among others surface water contamination, increasing risks of disease due to spreading by insect or mice. Increase in glass house emission, aquatic and river body pollution, pollution on land, and economic losses. A research by Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York in cooperation with Environmental Working

Group and Commonweal, finds 107 chemical agents in blood and urine of nine volunteers studied. Most of the pollutants and contaminants enter through any products used by the volunteers not because they work or live around the industrial zone. Therefore, the world should change its condition. Ecologically, the awareness about waste management is absolute. Therefore, this book is highly important to prospective trainers moving to change the community particularly in business centers. This manual is quite complete and also contains lessons from several business centers in the Philippines. In Indonesia, we just modify it as the problem is not so different. MJ

Waste Collection and Transportation

W

aste collection and transportation is the significant thing in waste management. The disorder in the phase will generate a bad impact on the environment and human being as mostly found in big cities. Significant matters in waste collection are sorting, storage, and collection at final disposal site. Sorting begins at source of waste both in households, offices, or industries. Thereafter, the waste should be properly stored in accordance with characters of waste and waiting time until the waste is transported to final disposal site. While, final disposal site can use individual or communal system.

Title: Manual on Improving Solid Waste Collection and Transportation System Writer : SWAPP Publisher: SWAPP Year Published: 2003 Pages : 101 pages

In case of transportation, selection of proper transportation is a key. Transportation should be adjusted to capacity of final disposal site, waste characteristics, maintenance, and economic capability. It means it adjusts to waste management process design on the whole. Another significant thing in this management is designing transportation route. But, a study of reach time and

transportation movement should first be made to know effectiveness and efficiency level of transportation system from the side of equipment and human resources involved therein. Beyond that, this system needs public care and education on waste management. This attitude can be developed with a good communication strategy. Management system also needs an obvious and measured policy. These phases of waste management can be learned and trained. This book presents all the processes with modules thereof. The result is, this book prepared with the assistance of USAID can become one of the references for waste management training. MJ

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CD INFO

ondition of waste in Indonesia enters a critical phase. Waste becomes a complicated problem. On the other hand, no legislation relates to this matter. Consequently, cases pertaining to waste are never completely solved. The condition in Indonesia is similar to that in its neighbor country, the Philippines. Since several years ago, this country has issued law on waste and any other related regulations so that waste problem there can be overcome better. It is nothing wrong if Indonesia learns from the Philippines. This CD can become a reference. This CD being a collection of legislation completely presents regulations on waste

C

Collection of Solid Waste Management Laws and Policies in Philippines.
regional regulation, and legal sanctions to any violator. In case of supervision of hazardous and toxic waste, the country forms an advisory board consisting of 10 departments plus non government organizations. Legal sanctions to any violators are also quite severe both in the form of imprisonment and penalty. The Philippines has also had special regulation on waste final disposal site including criteria of facility fulfilling the requirements for groups of community. In addition, the legislation also stipulates an obvious division between stakeholders of waste. Has our draft of law on waste been like it? MJ

and sanitation, including environment. This book contains among others general policy on environment, sanitation, hazardous and toxic waste,

Composting Training

P

roducing compost is simple. How simple it is, sufficient reference to learn it intensively is rare moreover in the form of modules easily presented. This CD elaborates compost starting from philosophy of process by phases, types of composting, knowledge of material (waste), facility design, to policy to make the composting work. This CD issued by Solid Waste Management Association of the Philippines (SWAPP) was ever presented in SWAPP Conference in the end of 2005 with the theme "Organic Waste Recycling Technology for Businessmen".

Through this CD, we can learn the lessons from several communities in the Philippines already practicing composting in accordance with the

respective choices of technology. Another significant thing is this CD provides the children with special presentation modules on how to teach them to produce compost. Models of submitting materials in this production of compost seem to be easy and simple. For us in Indonesia, we just modify the language from English to Indonesian. With this CD, composting training will be very easy to hold moreover it also has run-down thereof. Do you want to try?
MJ

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SITES INFO

Zero Waste
http://www.ecocenter.org/zerowaste. shtml

Danger of Incinerator
http://www.zerowasteamerica.org/Inc inerators.htm

various researches and articles on waste from various competent institutions.

W Z
ero waste is a solving vision in waste handling promising an ecological sustainability in the future. Currently, waste treatment process still fails to yield an optimum result. Producers still less care about waste being their side-products as indicated in a very small incentive spent by companies. With zero waste, at least the producers will be motivated to be responsible for their products and products' packs. In addition, this program will make the producers more sensitive to the environment. Final end of zero waste programs is an alternative for direct waste disposal through the efforts to promote clean production, prevent pollution, and form communities of which the products are designed to be recycled thereby producing economic value and being safe to the environment. Concept of this zero waste program is limited not only to consumption objects but also electronic objects. Several big companies in the world have adopted this program. They are among others Xerox, Toyota, Honda, Hewlett Packard and Sony Electronics.

aste handling by using incinerator is indeed a quick method. The waste is burned and gone. But, the problem remains existing. Impact generated from this burning process is very dangerous. Actually, burning of waste only changes form of waste to hazardous air emission and toxic material. Research by EPA indicates that 30 percent of burned waste change to toxic material. What makes it more serious is, the hazardous gas emission is not only local in nature but spreads throughout the world.

Composting
http://www.compostguide.com/

C

It is believed that incinerator contains carsinogenic substance (the cause of cancer disease) and toxic chemical agents from the result of burning, including heavy metal (arsenic, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and beryllium), acid gas, PVC, herbicide residues, and dioxin as well as furan. Particular for dioxin, this material has been declared as carcinogenic for human being by WHO (1997). In addition to explaining danger of incinerator, this site also presents various alternatives of waste handling outside burning. You can also further trace

ompost is the best natural mulches able to fertilize the soil at a less expensive price. You should not necessarily spend money to produce it even a cent. Many people may know it but only a few of people try to produce it. Whereas we can alleviate the environmental burden through this process. Do you want to know how to produce it? This site tries to guide on how to produce compost. In addition, it explains types of waste and contents therein as well as characteristics of the waste. It also explains whether or not the waste can be used for producing compost. For example, orange, it can not be used for producing compost as its characteristic can stop composting activity. We can also learn problems of producing compost as well as solution thereof. It provides practical instructions to treat problem compost, for example it is too dry or too wet. This site provides number of articles on compost. Do you want to try? MJ

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AGENDA

D ATE
3-7 4-11 6-14 12 13 17 18-19 20 21 24-28 26-27 31 1-3 1 1-3 1-4 4 7-10 7-11 8 11 14-16 15 16 22-24 23 23-25 24 25 28-31 28

M ONTH
July July July July July July July July July July July July August August August August August August August August August August August August August August August August August August August

A CTIVITIES
Workshop and training on Facilitation Basic Skills Sanitation Conference, Manila Training for Field Facilitator SANIMAS 2006, AB PLP Training Center, Surabaya Workshop on Communication Strategy Field Trip CLTS, Bogor Workshop on Legal Review, Hotel Binakarna, Jakarta Meeting for PAMSIMAS preparatory socialization Pokja AMPL Evaluation Meeting and Budget Planning in 2007, Hotel Ria Diani, Puncak Discussion of Draft Susenas Data 2007, Pokja Secretariat, Jakarta Discussion of Logical Framework and Monev of WASPOLA Project, Pokja Secretariat, Jakarta Workshop and Training on Facilitation Basic Skills, Hotel Mercure, Sanur, Bali Workshop on Community-Based Waste Management Program Release, Hotel Novotel, Surabaya Declaration of Lembak Community on Free Open Defecation and CLTS Approaches, Desa Tanjung Tiga, South Sumatera RI-UNICEF Management Coordinative Meeting, Hotel Safari Garden, Puncak Pokja AMPL Meeting-Talkshow Planning,Pokja Secretariat, Jakarta Workshop on Strategic Plan Preparation Pohuwato Regency, Office Hall of Bupati Pohuwato, Pohuwato Regency Workshop on AMPL-BM Problem Mapping and Strategic Plan, Gunung Geulis Cottages, Ciawi, Bogor Pokja NTT-ProAir Meeting WASPOLA Mission for Policy Coordination, Central Java Province WASPOLA Mission for Policy Coordination, NTB Meeting of Bandung Waste Ad Hoc Team with Minister of National Planning and Development Coordinative Meeting of ProAir Project in NTT Province,Dit.PL Office, Jakarta Discussion of Batam Wastewater Management Plan Workshop on Communication Strategy, Hotel Acacia, Jakarta Coordinative Meeting of CLTS Program Supporting Activities Training on Advocacy Strategy, Hotel Sofyan Cikini, Jakarta Workshop on Optimization of Local stakeholders' Involvement in Interregional Standard Water Management Plan, Pangeran Beach Hotel Padang Workshop on Urban Sanitation Plan ProAir Plan and Evaluation Meeting Dialog Forum on Wastewater Management Investment Workshop on ProAir Implementation, Sasando International Hotel, Kupang NTT Meeting for Susenas data tryout Orientation and Workshop on MPA PHAST, Hotel Novotel, Pujut, Central Lombok Meeting for Susenas data tryout Advanced discussion on Partnership Activity between Government of Indonesia and Plan Indonesia Secretariat Pokja AMPL, Jakarta Presentation of Innovative Decision Making for Sustainable Management of Water in Developing Countries, Secretariat Pokja AMPL, Jakarta Dialog Forum on the investment of Human Settlement Section of Waste Management Subsection, Hotel Garden Kemang Coordination for the implementation of National AMPL-BM Development Policy, Hotel Jayakarta, Bandung

29 29-31 30-31

August August August

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A M P L L I T E R AT U R E

BOOKS
Sanitasi Perkotaan:

Publisher: Bappenas dan WSP-EAP, 2006

POTRET, HARAPAN DAN PELUANG "INI BUKAN LAGI URUSAN PRIBADI" [in Bahasa] TELAAH KUALITAS AIR
Bagi Pengelolaan Sumber Daya Dan Lingkungan Perairan [in Bahasa] Publisher: Kanisius, Yogyakarta 2004

GUIDELINES
MANUAL ON IMPROVING SOLID WASTE COLLECTION AND TRANSPORT SYSTEM

Publisher: SWAPP (Solid Waste Management Association of The Philippines) 2003

PENGOMPOSAN SAMPAH RUMAH TANGGA (SERI PENDIDIKAN PENGELOLAAN LINGKUNGAN TERPADU) [in Bahasa]
Publisher: Surabaya, Pusdakota Ubaya, 2005

A TRAINERS MANUAL: ECOLOGICAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT FOR CENTRAL DISTRICS
Publisher: Ayala Foundations, Macaty City

S TAT I S T I C S
PROYEKSI PENDUDUK INDONESIA MENURUT UMUR, JENIS KELAMIN, KOTA/PERDESAAN TAHUN 2000-2025 [in Bahasa] PROYEKSI PENDUDUK INDONESIA (INDONESIA POPULATION PROJECTION) 2000-2025 [in Bahasa]

GOVERNANCE FOR CLEAN WATER: A GUIDE FOR LOCAL GOVERNMENTS ON THE CLEAN WATER ACT.
Publisher: Philippines, LINAW Project, 2005

ORIENTATION MANUAL ON ECOLOGICAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
Publisher: Philippines, Solid Waste Management Association. 2002

Publisher: Badan Perencanaan Nasional & UNPF, 2005

PANDUAN P ENILAIAN K INERJA P EMERINTAH D AERAH D I B IDANG P EKERJAAN U MUM [in Bahasa]
Publisher: Departemen Pekerjaan Umum, 2005

Publisher: Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional, BPS, UNPF. 2005

PROYEKSI PENDUDUK INDONESIA 2000-2025 [in Bahasa]

Publisher: Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional (Bappenas)

PELATIHAN KETRAMPILAN DASAR FASILITASI: DALAM RANGKA IMPLEMENTASI KEBIJAKAN NASIONAL PEMBANGUNAN AIR MINUM DAN PENYEHATAN LINGKUNGAN BERBASIS MASYARAKAT: MODUL PELATIHAN [in Bahasa]

Publisher: Direktorat Pemberdayaan Masyarakat, 2006

MAGAZINES:
INFOSTREAMS

SERASI, May 2006 edition COMMUNITY WATER, June 2006 edition

52

Percik

August 2006

G L O S S A RY
Parshal flume
Water construction as water debit gauge used at the open flow. Measuring is conducted by calculating flow height and width at the gauge and substituted the result into debit formula. It is usually built in the plant inlet.

Partial flow
Gravitational flow within the pipe/closed circuit, which fills only part of the pipe/closed circuit section.

Partially separate system (of drainage)
One of drainage systems as modification between separate system and mixed one where wastewater drainage is provided with smaller hollow in the bottom of main channel.

Paving
Layering of an area by using materials, which is different from the material of the underlying area.

Paved sludge drying beds
Sludge drying unit with pond bed paved with construction materials (for example, concrete floor).

Peak loading
Quantity of load (facility/infrastructure) during the peak service in which most or all consumers use the service at the same time.

Peaking factor
Value/factor expressing comparison between service volume/ capacity during peak service and average one.

PE Pipes
Polyethylene pipe, flexible with less joint as it is continuous and uses plastic weld joint. Resistant against hydraulic pressure and corrosion, smoother and has small friction. Commonly applied in water supply system.

Percolation
Water penetration through soil pores.

Perforated
Condition of a structural component/plate with numbers of holes.

Permeability
Physical indicator of soil ability to percolate water.

Phreatic surface
Also called ground water table. Elevation of ground level classified as water saturation zone.

Physical characteristic
Physical magnitudes which affect overall water/wastewater quality, consisting of sediment, floatation, colloid, dissolved matters, including odor, temperature, density, color, and turbidity.

Quoted from Dictionary of Foreign Terminologies and Abbreviations applied in Sanitary Engineering Published by: University of Trisakti

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