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Advisor: Director General for Human Settlement, Department of Public Works Board of Trustee: Director of Settlement and Housing, National Development Planning Agency Director of Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Health Director of Water Supply Development, Department of Public Works Director of Natural Resources and Appropriate Technology, Director General on Village and Community Empowerment, Department of Home Affairs Director for Facilitation of Special Planning Environment Management, Department of Home Affairs Chief Editor: Oswar Mungkasa Board of Editor: Zaenal Nampira, Indar Parawansa, Bambang Purwanto Editor: Maraita Listyasari, Rheidda Pramudhy, Raymond Marpaung, Bowo Leksono, Reski Dian Diniari Design/Illustrator: Rudi Kosasih Production: Machrudin Distribution: Agus Syuhada Address: Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat Phone/Fax.: 62-21-31904113 http://www.ampl.or.id e-mail: email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Unsolicited article or opinion items are welcome. Please send to our address or e-mail. Don't forget to be brief and accompanied by identity.
From the Editor Your Voice Main Feature Community Empowerment Active Community Involvement is Key to Empowerment Interview Pungky Sumadi, Director of Poverty Alleviation Bappenas Nina Sidle Unsulangi: A farmer who does not have to be in a village with big land Regulation Water Supply Provision System Insight Report Telescope Our Guest Innovation Around Plan Around ISSDP Around WASPOLA Around WSS Program Abstract IATPI Clinic Book Info Website Info CD Info Agenda WSS Bibliography
This magazine can be accessed at Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Website at www.apml.or.id
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FROM THE EDITOR
e have determined to tirelessly voice out a plea to make all of us aware of the importance of raw water and healthy environment. This edition brings to you a number of water supply and environmental sanitation related information. It has become a kind of task, to knock at the door of our awareness, through transformation of knowledge and information so that this very magazine published by the WSS-WG has come into 18th edition. Last May and June the world celebrated two important historic moments each carrying the duties related to the fate of world's population. They are the World Environment Day on 5 June and Earth Day on 22 April. Have we asked ourselves what good deed have we contributed to the environment around us? To our beloved earth, for that matter? It seems this question frequently whines during the disaster or when an awareness is passing through for a short moment. Do you realize that the earth we live in is more than 4 billion years old. And each time the planet that has been inhabited by human being for thousands of years is undergoing change. A slow but sure change. The change is linked with the existence of its inhabitants. Natural disasters that overwhelm the earth surface is the symptom of the acceleration of the changes. And it is quite unwise if the blame for each disaster is imposed on natural phenomenon. What have we, the civilized being, contributed to this earth? Have we done anything positive for the sake of environmental conservation and for the sake of human life? Let's compare our good deed against the destruction to the earth. It is not impossible, that the big changes that lead to the earth destruction are the consequences of human activity. More horrifying is the global warming phenomenon that again becomes the daily talks since the last few years. Various disasters have hit and several diseases plague the earth population is the evidence how vicious global warming effect can be. Imagine, this phenomenon will accelerate the earth damage that means damage to the life of its inhabitants. This is beyond the individual problems or that of one or two nations. Earth's fate is the responsibility of all human being. Again, human awareness is at stake. And speaking of human awareness, individually as well as communally, demands an effective community, sensitive to environment, and capable of overcoming life problem wisely. A review on community empowerment fills our Main Feature in this edition. In reality, there are still many of us human beings who are alien to clean environment for our survival. Through community empowerment man's conscious involvement is absolutely needed and this requires support and facilitation.
WSS Working Group - WASPOLA Booth in Indowater Exhibition 2007. Photo: Bowo Leksono.
An article reviews how WSS programs and projects in Indonesia are inseparable from community empowerment as vehicle towards achievement. WSLIC (Water and Sanitation for Low Income Communities), CWSH (Community Water Services and Health Project), Sanitation by the Community (Sanimas) and ProAir (Water Program). Even, Sanimas program claims that 70 percent of its implementation is pivoted on community empowerment. The main feature of this edition is made more complete with an interview with Dr. Pungky Sumadi, Director of Poverty Alleviation, Bappenas who speaks a lot about National Program for Community Empowerment. Last but not least our guest Tasya who was once a junior singer who is now coming to adolescence. This Junior Environmental Ambassadress represents young people of her age in speaking about waste management. For all of the above and in the light of further improvement to this magazine comments and suggestion from our loyal readers are most welcome. Have a nice time in reading Percik.
Percik July 2007
YO U R V O I C E
How to Access Percik Digital File
Assalamu 'alaikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh. Praise God. I'd herewith acknowledge with thanks receipt of Percik English version ed. December 2006. It is stated therein that Percik magazine can be accessed in the AMPL website. I have tried to dowload it but I always failed. I wonder if a permit, specific method, or requirement is required. Thank you. Wassalamu 'alaikum
Wish to Have CD and Books
To improve the students' knowledge and insight on Environmental Science, we, the Association of Environmental Engineering Students, Pasundan University Bandung kindly request for the following items: Reducing Energy Cost in Municipal Water Supply Operation Guidelines for Domestic Wastewater Management. Published by DG City Planning and Urban Planning, 2003. (in Indonesian) Fighting Against Waste, Depok City Cleaning Agency (in Indonesian) Waste Recycle, Tony Hare, PT Rosda Jayaputra, Jakarta (in Indonesia) Bringing Water to the Poor. Selected ADB Case Studies. ADB Water Awareness Program. Municipalities & Community Participation. A Sourcebook of Capacity Building. Jenelle Plummer. Earthscan Publication Ltd., London. Dictionary of Terms and Foreign Abbreviation in Environmental and Sanitation Engineering. Published by Trisakti University Press. (in Indonesian) Percik magazine. Regular subscription. Our address: Campus IV Pasundan University Bandung Association of Environmental Engineering Students Secretariate: Bldg C Jalak Harupat 7th fl. Jl. Setiabudi No. 193 Bandung. With kind regards, Thank you for your attention
Asep Pulloh Hidayat
Thank you Mr. Denny, There is no permit, specific method or requirement needed. It might be due the size of the file, over 3 MB, thus it takes a long time to access. We are trying to reduce the file size to make it easier to access.
Wish to Have Percik Bound Volume
Thank you for your response to my email. Thank you also for the CD and magazines. If you do not have the bound volume I would like to have the CD, and additionally I also would like to subscribe Percik magazine. I enclose herewith my home and office addresses. Please let me know if there is a mailing cost involved. With kind regards.
Yuliyanti University of Indonesia Health Research Centre Faculty of Community Health Bldg G Room 211 University of Indonesia Depok Campus Postal Code 16424
Wish to Have Percik Magazine
Dear Percik, I am Rudi. I came to know Percik from environmental reporter mailing list. Today I am no longer a reporter but concentrating more on training radio reporters. Sometimes I teach specific subject on environment. Therefore I need the magazine you are publishing. If it is free of charge I am quite interested. I also need the earlier editions. If it would be difficult for you to send to my address, I will be happy if you let me collect it from your office.
Yudi Pondok Cipta Blok C25 Bekasi Barat 17134
Acknowledgement of Receipt
Acknowledge with thanks receipt of Percik magazine XVII, Percik Yunior, and 3 CDs. We honestly hope these materials will be helpful to our department, especially the students, so that the intention to extensive dissemination of water supply and sanitation related information could be achieved. With kind regards and thank you again
Chairman, Environmental Engineering Department Technical Faculty Andalas University Limau Manis Campus, Padang
2 Percik July 2007
t seems that an activity without community empowerment label tagged to it is considered outdated. This tendency was unheard of until early 1990s when many government projects were beginning to bear community based label. What follows was that the term community empowerment is understood in various different ways. From the most rigid which defines it as from, by and for the community denying as much as possible the role of government till up to the most loosely defines it as a one way socialization of the project to the beneficiary community at beginning of the activity. Currently the government has launched a National Program for Community
Empowerment. This article intends to contribute information on the meaning, basic principle, advantage and disadvantage including government portion in a community based activity. What is Community Empowerment? Community empowerment is defined in many different ways, but there are at least two requirements that have to be met if an activity is to be considered as community based. One, if the community reserves the right to make decision. Two, if the community is responsible for operation and management (O&M) of the facility.
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COMMUNITY RIGHTS TO Technology choice Level of service Form of organization Funding mechanism
Requirements for Community Based Community based activity will run smoothly if the community is (i) capable; and (ii) willing to manage. The requirements are developed through training and capacity building programs, the rest will come through organizational improvement. Though many aspects of the development are to be obtained from government facilitation.
TANGGUNG JAWAB MASYARAKAT UNTUK Maintenance and repair Regulation Funding Management organization
of community demand and willingness to pay; (iii) community understanding always to be taken into consideration; (iv) the community becomes more independent from external sources; (v) cost recovery principle and payment system can be adjusted to community condition; (vi) improvement of community managerial capacity; (vii) the community owns its own facility; (viii) improvement of community self confidence.
source of conflict; (iv) there may arise competition between management team with the traditional community leaders or even with the village government; (v) highly dependent on exernal facilitator. Legal Implication In connection with community based management, there are several issues that are likely to create problems in the future. Based on experience, ownership of the asset is the main issue. Especially when the fund is derived from various different sources, such as donor, government (central and regional), NGO, and the community. Transfering the asset to the community will remove it permanently from the government balance sheet including the consequential maintenance budget which otherwise may not be available. If on the other hand the asset is transferred to the government then the community would question the whereabouts of its contribution. One of the ways commonly practised is transfering the asset to the government while the management right remains with the community. In this way the community can manage and generate income from the management. For this purpose it is deemed necessary to make regulatory changes in order to make government a grant to community possible and to determine the legal status of the community level management team. What Makes Government Support Work? If community is directly involved in a development process, the government will feel somewhat dizzy as to change its role from provider into facilitator, coordinator and supporter. This requires that the involved government employees adjust their attitudes. In addition to loosing their capacity for making their own decision and issuing instruction to the community, they have to listen to the community's opinion and idea. Government employees must answer on behalf of the community in terms of technology choice, funding, efficacy, level of service, O&M requirements, etc. As addition, they also have to be flexible, and
CAPACITY TO MANAGE Availability of technical skill Availability of management and problem solving skill Integratedness Technological complexity Availability of spare parts Capacity of payment Legal framework Availability of information
KEINGINAN MENGELOLA Demand Human resouces quantity, dependability and quality Advantage Equality Acceptability of technology Level of service Willingness to pay Cost of service opportunity Management alternative Political factor
Advantage and Disadvantage It is understood that community willingness is influenced by many factors, such as the advantage to the community. For this purpose there are several identifiable advantages the community could possibly get (i) design is developed in accordance with community demand; (ii) level of service is determined on the base
The disadvantages may vary widely depending on the local condition and in general may come in the following formats (i) the management team is functioning only at times of the facility breakdown, in all other times it is dormant; (ii) the management team is dominated by certain group/individuals; (iii) financial management frequently becomes the
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capable of compromising between technical efficiency and and non technical factors underlying the community demand. Of course, there are requirements that have to be met such as (i) capability of communication; (ii) motivation to help; (iii) availability of minimum fund; and (iv) willingness to spend more time for the favour of the community. Advantage and disadvantage of government support As it is with the community, the government will support the community only if it is obviously advantageous. The most obvious advantage is less routine maintenance and repair to be done. Besides, there are several other advantages, such as (i) improvement of willingness to pay because the community realizes that the service is not government provided; (ii) improved system efficacy; (iii) more time for the government to concentrate on planning without being distracted by other details such as routine repair; (iv) relieve the government from the burden of limited financial and human resources capacity; (v) funds for maintenance and repair can be shifted to development financing. On the other hand, there are in it several disadvantages should the government facilitate community based acivity: (i) loss of power, status and influence; (ii) the whole process takes a long time; (iii) difficult to apply a uniform approach; (iv) possible difficulty for compromising community demand with political consideration. Application in WSS Development One of the difficulties faced by the government in the provision of water supply and sanitation facilities is limited funding capacity. This is because of the conventional tendency of government orientation (i) more emphasis on physical construction instead of service improvement; (ii) service is provided purely by public sector instead of partnership arrangement; (iii) lack of political will to urge the community to pay for a public service.
Napila Hilwati, AM Keb., village midwife of Tanjung Tiga village, Muaraenim, S. Sumatra is discussing the topic of hygiene life with young females of the community. Photo: Bowo
In the last few decades changes are beginning to take place that stimulate development orientation leans towards involvement of stakeholders from outside the government. This tendency goes in compliance with the beginning of the era of decentralization giving the regional government more responsibility and at the same time also the demand improve efficiency, effectiveness and service sustability. The above process then ignites a change in government role from provider to facilitator, and supporter. Each of the two parties, the government and the community as well, are facing uncertainty within the transition period. On the one hand, the regional government tends to release the entire process to the community while the community is not prepared to assume the new role.
In reality the community based WSS facility management does not always mean a full community management. The basic idea is role sharing according to each one's capacity. Even the private sector may be involved in case the community alone is unable to handle a certain development undertaking. The pattern of role sharing will not always be the same depending on the type of activity, technical and financial capacity of the community, government facilitation capacity, and so on. To find the right community empowerment format in WSS development is our common task. So that the pendulum that currently is aiming to community empowerment in WSS development will not swing back to the government direction as the sole WSS service provider.
(OM from various sources)
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ne of the main components for a community development program or project is its in building the community active participation not only in sharing the benefit but also in the sense of being part of the development so that the project or activity may sustain. Community involvement is the real consummation of community empowerment towards self reliance, as is in WSS development in Indonesia, Various methods and approaches have been tried to explore the community potential. For example, WSLIC (Water and Sanitation for Low Income Communities) is implemented based on the Methodology for Particiapatory Assessments (MPA) and Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation (PHAST) i.e. participation and democracy in real life particularly for women and the poor. This method is not too much different from CWSH (Community Water Services and Health) Project is doing. In Sanimas (Sanitation by the Community) the application of RPA (Rapid Participatory Assessments) is considered effective in a rapid and systematic manner the identification of sanitation problems and issues and the community willingness for their resolution on their own. While in the ProAir program the emphasis it is put on demand responsiveness approach which is open for all components of the community with special attention to women as community motivator (participatory approach) and the community as the leading actor. The methods are basically directed to
Active Community Participation As Key to Empowerment O
A group of village youth regardless of status and sexual denomination sit together to discuss the village development. Photo: Bowo Leksono
more or less the same objective. Active community involvement is a coercive factor in order that everyone feels to belong to and therefore is responsible to sustain the project's effectiveness. How far is community involvement? Each activity or project puts the community as the leading actor. This is evidenced for instance in Sanimas, the community involvement is the dominant factor so that without community involvement there is no community sanitation. "In Sanimas, community empowerment represents 70 percent of the activity," says Emah, a Dept. Public Work officer responsible for Sanimas day to day activity.
In CWSH the community is actively involved and plays a role in decision making, planning and implementation of village level activity and in supervising the use of the existing resources. In Proair, the German government grant funded project the community involvement also requires, additionally, in cash and in kind contribution including labour. WSLIC-2 CPMU Imam Syahbandi says that WSLIC-2 project target is an empowered grassroot community who is willing to actively participate so that the development is from and driven by the community. "The community develops the idea, plan, implementation activity, use and maintain, and is committed to the decision made so that everyone belongs to the development and thus the
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ty level or some other locally suitable method. In addition it is necessary to establish an inter-agency coordination particularly when it comes to budget requirement and post project sustainabiliy for program replication (exit strategy). Lack of field facilitators' dedication who are the spearheads of the empowerment, is a barrier in Sanimas. Emah admits that empowerment is never easy, it is even a difficult task if it is done without the heart and if not understood well. With ProAir, the barrier lies with the target setting and fiscal year. "Besides, the collection of in cash contribution takes a longer time because the amount of fund for physical cxonstruction is relatively big therefore the community in cash contribution is also big," explains Ir. Deni Mulyana, Mkes. ProAir exec secretary. The hard work of the field facilitators , according to Deni, becomes the concrete solution. While according to Pimanih, more intimately called Upi, it is difficult to change the government employees's way of thinking, is the barrier in CWSH. "They have been patterned to project orientation, always consider the the poor is helpless, lack of education therefore knows nothing. It is not too difficult to accept the new paradigm but it is extremely difficult to unleash the old habit,"says Upi. For this CWSH developed a way to overcome it through capacity improvement of the employees in facilitation and empowerment approach through relevant trainings and study visits to successful community based empowerment projects. Indicator of Success For WSLIC-2 project the indicator of success is sustainable community self reliance. How to sustain empowerment and community participation is, according to Imam, provision of more authority to the community in development management, development of reward system, and establishment of two-way communication with the government to discuss development progress. Proair determines it through the number of facilities developed run by an established management team and the presence of institutional and policy support. Emah strongly emphasizes the need for criteria for measuring the level of achievement of community empowerment. "The achievement does not only come in the form of physical construction, but it is more its sustainable function of the facility developed through community activity and creativity," she says firmly. And for CWSH, empowerment achievement is considered successful if the community is capable of identifying, analysing and propose solution to their problem and help themselves, self confident and responsible to create a sustainable health development process. Bowo Leksono
sustainability is achieved," he says. In CWSH the target is to build community self reliance, self conscience and responsibility. "It is expected the community is capable of managing hygiene behaviour, prevention of diseases, protect water source and environment, development of water supply and sanitation," says Mrs. Pimanih, of CWSH Planning and Financial section. As for ProAir, considering the relatively big investment involved for its construction, the community empowerment is targeted to sustainability of the water supply and sanitation facility. We may sum up from the above discussion that community empowerment is targeted to a strong community that is evidenced from its willingness to actively participate and involve towards achieving sustainability. Barriers and Solution According to Imam the classic reason for community empowerment failure is poor economic condition and communities are highly different one from the other. The worst of all, he said further, the marketing to the involved sector for the adoption and replication of approach. "Probably all of us are aware that community empowerment based activity is more realistic and beneficial, but when it comes to marketing the idea to obtain public funding, APBD (regional budget) and or APBN (national budget), for post project activity continuation one can be sure that it is not at all an easy thing to do. Therefore, one of the barriers in the near future is the exit strategy," revealed Imam. He tries to overcome it through provision of facilitator counterpart, by cross sector teamwork or by a consultant to build community preparedness, through repeat meeting at communi-
A group of villagers are seriously discussing their village hygiene program. Photo: Istimewa
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Dr. Pungky Sumadi Director of Poverty Alleviation Bappenas
MAKING COMMUNITY THE LEADING ACTOR
Community empowerment programs have been tried since the time of the New Order. There are many aspects that must be ironed out and improved in order to reach the real community self-reliance. Community empowerment definition has shifted into human resources capacity to solve his problems. Through the National Program for Community Empowerment (NPCE) launched barely one year ago it is expected to serve as coordinating body for community empowerment related programs. How the national program is brought into implementation and how effective is it to the community? The following is an interview made by Percik with Dr. Pungky Sumardi, Director of Poverty Reduction, Bappenas, held in his office.
hat is the background of the National Program for Community Empowerment? Early May 2006, the Coordinating Ministers of Social Welfare and Economic and Industry invited us together with the World Bank to sit together and discussed the performance of Kecamatan Development Program (KDP) and the possibility of expanding it to cover the whole Indonesia. In the beginning I was surprised, why was it they only knew about KDP while there are many other programs such as Urban Poverty Reduction Program (UPRP), and others. There are 19 ministries and national institutions managing a total of 56 community empowerment based programs. Then I spoke about real situation. In 2007 KDP is nearing completion and UPRP will run through 2010 for the whole country. I also proposed that from now on we must start phase by phase beginning from preparing the institution first. It was agreed that in 2007 KDP and UPRP are expanded to cover 2800 kecamatans and in 2800 to 3800 kecamatans and later all kecamatans in 2009. But I also proposed that 2009 is only two years from now we won't be able to make it because the availability of direct community subsidy is quite limited. I suggested that this be extended up to 2015 because at that time Indonesia must announce the MDGs target achievement. It was agreed.
Foto: Bowo Leksono
After it was agreed, what happened then? This means we have to work extra hard. There must be a minimum standard within which the programs work though this does not mean uniformity. This demands extra cautiousness in formulating NPCE design. After data collection and assessment of the existing programs it was concluded that there a number of the programs are ineffective. This may not continue that way and for this reason NPCE is designed to serve as umbrella and coordinator so that all empowerment programs could work effectively and efficiently. Through empowerment program it is expected that the community will participate actively and access to basic infrastructure and the small scale production economy. The key is to make community of organizing themselves then they can develop any activity and work on any sector as they may wish. This is NPCE's real intention.
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What is the real purpose of NPCE? It is obvious that we have to put the 56 programs into order so the community may participate more actively in their effort to improve their daily life or in the development activity and also as partner to the regional government. What is the underlying principle? The establishment of transparency, democracy practice in community group election, accountability, help each other among community members based on voluntary principle, equality principle in practice. These are the principles we wish to establish. Community empowerment in this connection, what does it look like? What we consider empowered community is when it is capable of identifying its own problem and capable of proposing alternative solution through setting the priorities. The decision must be in their hands. If they are given opportunity to make their own decision, the effect will be overwhelming. This is what we call the essence of community empowerment, making the community the leading actor. In what way will it be implemented? At least the pure NPCE is categorized as PPK and P2KP and this year the SPADA is ongoing, similar to PPK but specially designed for conflict, backward and isolated areas. In 2008 Regional Infrastructure for Socio-economic (RISE) program is prepared for implementation. This also will become an NPCE core program. Next year, we invite other programs to implement their activities within the NPCE areas gradually through the guidance and coordination we are developing. This is the consequence of programs being tagged with community empowerment label. The targets? There are two aspects in the context of poverty reduction
related to NPCE. We give freedom to the community to choose who is the poorest among them. If we work based on BPS data, the tendency is individual target. Therefore, the approach must be based on community, we provide them with guidelines who should be selected as benefiaciary and target. We have to see to it that the purpose is to bring the community closer to the basic infrastructure and the rolling economy. In other words, the target is up to the community to choose. They have the freedom to decide. What aspects are to be dealt with? It is mainly aimed at infrastructure and economic activity based on rolling fund credit scheme. If we really want to reduce poverty, the most obvious is through an economic activity i.e. increasing income through employment generation. In this case infrastructure and small scale economy together serve as the main entrance. However, poverty cannot be dealth with merely from the economic aspect. Social aspect such as education and health is also poverty indicator. Each one supports the other. What are the barrriers currently in view? It is clear that we are under time pressure and short of personnel to launch a stronger socialization schedule to both central and regional level officers, this is because we are still being tied with the NPCE design completion. The guidelines are already completed and are now waiting for further inputs to make them final. Another problem is there are many who think we are a kind of agent. While in real fact is, the implementation will be in the hands of the involved Department. There are also who think that NPCE will take somebody's share. The actual intention is that we need cooperation to build a better coordination so that all programs may run more effectively. The above still does not count the probable regional economic condition from financial management inefficiency. The regional government spend more money for office grandeur and comfort rather than public service. The solution? This again stresses the need of an effective communication and socialization strategy. We are now working together with Depkominfo in formulating the strategy design so that the grassroot level facilitator has the same understanding of what is being transmitted to the community. Besides, monitoring and evaluation is another tool for overcoming the barriers. So what are the targets? By 2015 in terms of development the Indonesian community has increased into a better position. They exercise their right to improve themselves, they are participative, they have courage to speak before their government and make the regional government more sensitive to public service. Bowo Leksono
Photo: Bowo Leksono
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Nina Sidle Unsulangi
A FARMER DOESN'T HAVE TO BE VILLAGER WITH VAST TRACT OF LAND
Photo: Bowo Leksono
Indeed, it is not easy to make the community understand the meaning of caring and being part of the environment. It takes a long time to introduce such an idea even to your immediate neighbour. It takes a lot of sacrifice and high sense of social responsibility. And Nina Sidle Unsulangi together with the surrounding community have proven this social dedication. The mother of three children and seven grandchildren working hand in hand with the waste management pioneer Madam Bambang "the waste" Wahono have strongly determined to make this small part of this Beloved Jakarta green and to
remain consistent with environmental education. It is quite appropriate that at the Jakarta 474th Birthday the Provincial Government selected the home of this 70 years old lady the Winner of Residential House Arrangement. The 25 sq metre ground floor 3 storey house is adorned with more than 100 species of medicinal herbs and flower plants arranged nicely at every space and corner. Percik visited her home at Jl. Banjarsari No. 13 RT05 RW09, Fatmawati, W, Cilandak, S. Jakarta. The following are the excerpts.
hen did you move into Jakarta? I moved from Bandung to Jakarta in 1973. At that time, this neighbourhood was quite messy. Turning it into a green leafy surrounding was then unthinkable. But something did happen and it started from RT level meeting in which 23 families got together. Together we made available empty drums to serve as garbage bins and we started flower planting. Gradually the area began to look beautiful because we put flower plants along the road for all of us to take care of. Then some time around 1982 I joined Madam Bambang who lives in the neighbouring RT. I received a lot of guidance from her. By chance both of us have the same interest and ideal, therefore we can get along nicely together up to now. Together we organized a Farmers' Group named Dahlia. From around 20 members the number gradually increases till
we have 40 presently, some of them are men. The core team consists of 7 members including myself. In 1987 UNESCO provided us with training on waste management and environmental regreening. The institution did not come with financial assistance, it came with education. And we are very pleased with it. Both UNESCO and the government never give us financial assistance they help us with education and training. We bought all the plants from our own money. After some time the result became obvious, visitors from other areas of Jakarta and the surrounding regions began flowing in. Then also from other areas, even from abroad for sharing of experience. What aspect of empowerment are you aiming at? Many. The essence is how to live a hygienic life through selfhelp effort.
Starting from oneself to the smallest unit, i.e the family, how to live in healthy home and free from waste to keep diseases away. Free from waste is by itself a pollution prevention in addition to environmental regreening which is done through learning nursery preparation and plant maintenance. You also work on scavengers' improvement? Yes, and that is not easy because of their low education level and economic difficulty. We have to use more feeling. Such as slowly building their awareness that scavengers are also Indonesian citizens with the same rights and responsibilites as the others, rich or poor. If you feel that you are Indonesian citizen you must also assume reponsibility towards this land. I also motivate them to plan for a change so as not to be a scavenger all their life. Not only that, I also teach pre-
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school and primary school children. Is there any special method in educating children? Of course. As we all know children are still plain and innocent, of course it needs a specific method in educating them. They are generally of 5 to 8 years old. We must use a lot of examples to make them understand. For instance, what time do you wake up in the morning? At half past five! Oh, then it is the time when the buftterfly flower begins to bloom. This, at the same time, is teaching them the name of a flower and its equivalent English and Latin names. Learning while playing. Then we sing together. Then they would say: "Grandma, please pray for us so that we love our environment." This is like one year's hot days being quenched with a one day's rain. Outside Jakarta what other regions do the participants come from? From all over the country. Around Jakarta such as Tangerang, Bekasi to Bandung, Cimahi, Subang and the eastern regions such as Gorontalo, Makassar, and others. If there are many participants, they usually invite us to come. What we used to pioneer is now no more for us alone, it now belongs to everyone, to all Indonesian communities. We realize that some of our training participants are not successful in their home town. There are so many reasons for this, one of them is if a participant represents the upper middle class. Generally this class considers that city cleaning or waste management is none of our business. That is the government's. Let them do their job. That what they think it is, so they wait for the government to do the job. What visitors or tourists would be willing to visit our city? If our environment is dirty. How could we make spend their money if the environment is not comfortable for them? The rich and the low income population each has a different way of thinking. The latter is more readily to being influenced and easily handled. What are the constraints in the implementation of the education? Many. In terms of age of the participants, one who is 40 years and above is more difficult to learn than young people of 20 years or below. Some young participants are also difficult if they come here on behalf of the government or NGO and thus they attend the training partly as being forced to and therefore they behave more or less like a tourist. And there is also a problem derived from economic condition. Most of the participants are housewives coming from low income bracket. There glitters from here a ray of hope that the women may produce an additional income for the family, however small it may seem. A family will certainly needs sugar, coffee, rice, gas fuel, and so on. The would try their best to help their husband by earning something. This is welfare in real life. How could we make it into a reality? By being a farmer. This is a sort of awareness we build to city dwellers, being a farmer
Nina Sidle Unsulangi in front of her tree shaded house at Jl. Banjarsari, Cilandak Barat, South Jakarta. Photo: Bowo Leksono
doesn't have to be living in a rural village and work on a big tract of land. What can we do if we have only a small piece of land? We must be creative. Most important of all is that we must have willingness to try, and work hard, since without it we are nothing. We can plant flowers and other ornamental plants. With a capital of less than Rp 5,000 we already have a plant together with its pot. If we rent it to an office or to a festive we can collect Rp 10,000. Some pots we may resell at profit. In short there is some revenue that may add to family income. In the end many housewives are attracted to join the movement. How do you maintain the momentum? We have to continuously do community approach, implant better knowledge and build empowerment. We hold a monthly revolving program on waste (arisan sampah) to tie closer relationship and information sharing among ourselves. Everything is done in transparent manner, no discrimination between the rich and the poor including the scavengers. It might not be 100 percent successful, but at least we are trying our best to make the community care the environment. As long as we are healthy we are going to do our best conducting regeneration so that Jakarta and Indonesia will become green and comfortable to live in. Bowo Leksono
Percik July 2007
R E G U L AT I O N
WATER SUPPLY PROVISION SYSTEM
Pursuant to Government Regulation No. 16 of 2005
ursuant to article 40 of Law No.7 of 2004 on Water Resources, the central and regional governments are mandated to take care of the water supply system development. This is intended to guarantee the availability of raw water for household water supply. To enable the government effectively carry out the responsibility it is necessary to develop a regulation as guidance in the water supply provision management. It is for this purpose the government put into effect a government regulation No. 16 of 2005 on Water Supply Provision System (WSPS) for the purpose of provision of water supply to the public at an acceptable quality and price rate. In addition, the WSPS regulation is also intended to develop a balanced of the provider's and the consumers' interest, and to enhance impovement in efficiency and service coverage. The government enacts regulation in consideration of various related aspects to keep WSPS development on track. This regulation reflects that WSPS development is governed by five different aspects, namely raw water, production unit, distribu-
tion unit, service unit, and treatment facility. For its implementation, the WSPS is divided into two parts namely piping and non piping networks. Raw water as an important component Raw water regulation is basically intended to support water resources conservation. This is important considering many areas including Jakarta are beginning to suffer from raw water shortage. Based on this regulation the central and regional government may arrange an inter-regional cooperation for efficient raw water management. Since the availability of raw water is essential in WSPS development, this regulation makes a strong emphasis on water source conservation. For this purpose the regulation is directed towards an integrated water supply and sanitation, wastewater and solid waste management. It must always be born in mind is that sanitation development must be oriented to the demand of the poor and areas vulnerable to water shortage, improvement of community health condition,
12 Percik July 2007
R E G U L AT I O N
fulfillment of minimum standard of service, and prevention of negative social impact. This government regulation is directed to a WSPS development that goes together with sanitation development that may at least be implemented in each phase both in master as well as in implementation plans. For this purpose, the regional government may establish an inter-regional coordination. The national policy and strategy for WSPS development is formulated and made effective by the government in consideration of the national policy for water resources and other related sectors. As for the master plan which is part of WSPS development plan, is developed by the government or regional government whereas a master plan involving across the boundary resources is determined by the provincial government in coordination with the related regions. If it involves inter-provicial areas the plan is determined by the related Minister in coordination with the involved provinces. A master plan consists of at least a general plan, network plan, development plan and activities, service standards and criteria, raw water allocation plan, integratedness with sanitation, financing hints and investment policy, and institutional development plan. Beside the master plan, WSPS development would require a detailed feasibility study and technical design. Public WSPS service is provided by a utility public company specifically established for this purpose. If the public utility fails to improve service then the supervisor may decide to invite the involvement of cooperative, private company, and/or community group in the said WSPS management. Community Involvement in WSPS As a regulatory instrument it is considered necessary to establish a Development Support Body (DSB) for
Piping system of a water treatment installation. Photo: Exclusive
Water tariff charged to the customers (mainly household) represents the service fee for water supply and wastewater management by the provider.
WSPS. DSB-WSPS is a non structural body established by and is directly responsible to the Minister. Its membership consists of representatives from the government, the service provider and the community. In terms of funding for WSPS development including construction, expansion and physical (technical) and non physical system improvement may come from different sources including the central and or regional government, public company, cooperative, private corporation, community, and others. Water tariff charged to the customers (mainly household) represents the service fee for water supply and wastewater
management by the provider. The tariff is calculated based on fairness and capacity of payment, taking into consideration the principles of cost recovery, water use efficiency, transparancy and accountability, and raw water source conservation. With a permit from the central or regional government a specifically incorporated cooperative, a private corporation and/or a community group may act as WSPS provider to serve a particular locality in which a public utility service does not reach the area. This is done in consideration on the one hand of the regional government responsibility in WSPS management, and on the other the government obligation to improve the capacity of the cooperative, and the private corporation/community group in terms of standard setting, guidelines, manual and facilitation, supervision and training. This requirement is also good for utility company and the regional government. Afif
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myths and taboos. This is intended to conserve forests and protect every water source. They were aware that someday fresh water from the forests will dry up unless the forests are well protected and wisely managed. Today, illegal logging, mining, and land clearing for new settlements are conducted carelessly, this leads to the decrease of fresh water availability. The application of hi-tech from the West on the pretext of modernization has weakened the pivotal joints of local wisdom. The harmony of human and nature relationship in terms of forest and water resources management ceased to be revered. The Indonesian community is currently undergoing a drastic behavioural change, they do away with the old forest and water resources management tradition because it is considered primitive and against modernization. The community is uses water as it pleases, as if water is always available and never dries. The community lacks awareness that fresh water source is quite limited, while the demand for it continuously increases along with the population growth. Water sources are no longer protected against pollution, quite often they are even covered by various kinds of building. If this tendency is let to continue without any preventive measure being undertaken then Indonesia will suffer from water scarcity. Demand for Water and the Role of Forest Water is the core substance and civilization of the world. Unfortunately, this most valuable resource is presently under a serious threat. Although two thirds of the earth's surface is covered with water yet we are now in danger of water scarcity. In all cases the story of water scarcity is the recital about greed, careless technology, and sucking water in exceed of the nature's capacity. Water availability
COMMUNAL WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF
Oleh: Raditya Permana, S.H., M.Hum
n the past Indonesia is known as a nation rich in fresh water. The expanse of the country is covered with thick forest which serves as fresh
water container. Rainwater is absorbed by the forest to be released as water springs to feed rivers and lakes. Our ancestors have for centuries created
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Percik Juli 2007
of an ecosystem depends on the climate, physiography, vegetation and geology of a particular location. In all the aspects modern man has disturbed the earth and destroyed its capacity to receive, absorb, and contain water. Forest denudation and mining in forest areas destroy soil capacity to absorb and retain water. Monoculture crop and sylvian cover makes the ecosystem dry. Increased consumption of fuel oil causes air pollution and climatic change becomes the main causes of flood, tsunami, and recurrent drought. Forest is a natural dam with is absorption and water retention capacity and releases it slowly into water springs and rivulets. Forest cutting and monoculture plantation makes water disappear and disrupts soil capacity to conserve water. Before the Green Revolution, ground water can be obtained through traditional conservation irrigation technology. However, the renewable human and animal driven technologies are considered inefficient. These technologies are then substituted with engine driven and electric pumps to draw water faster than nature's capacity to replenish groundwater reserve (Vandana Shiva, 2002:1-3). The Community of Kampung Naga In the midst of swiftly flowing modernization current, it would be commendable that we look back into the way the community manages and sustains forest and water sources traditionally based on local wisdom. Kampung Naga is located on the hilly areas between Tasimalaya and Garut. The area where the villagers build their house is surrounded terraced rice field and forest cover. A portion of the area is used for pond that serves as reservoir and fish culture. From the ecological point of view this pattern follows the typical Sundanese village. In such pattern there are 3 elements each supporting the other to meet the daily requirement of the community. These are a house to live in, water source, and garden including a pond for fish culture. Since the housing forms a cluster within a prearranged location, the land use and spatial planning is made clear in accordance with the principle of efficiency while taking into consideration the ecological factors for maintaining environmental balance. If we look into it more closely, the land utilization pattern at Kampung Naga is divided into 3 categories: 1) Sacred area, is restricted area where only certain individuals are allowed to enter. This area is put under the community supervision because it must be sustained and be kept from being adulterated from any external influence. The sacred area consists of a small hill located to the west of the settlement area. The first part of the hill is covered with small restricted forest where old trees grow and represents the burial ground of their ancestors. Beside the restricted forest the area is also covered with old trees, mostly of hundred years old is called cover forest. The cover forest grown by a wide variety of biodiversity species serves as environmental chain that influences the micro climate, and at the same time as source of livelihood. 2) Clean area, is the community settlement
area. The buildings of the area consist of the villagers dwelling built based on traditional Sundanese architecture, rice barn, mosque and community hall. 3) Dirty area, is the area located in the lower elevation. This area is located along the river Ciwulan which is also the borderline of Kampung Naga with other villages. The buildings in dirty area are basically the complementary buildings, simple and made of materials taken from the surroundings. They are water spouts for bathing and washing and other purposes, animal houses, saung lisung, and fish ponds (Her Suganda, 2006:2628). Water Management System The ancestors of Kampung Naga community inherited the traditional water channeling technology from generation to the next. The younger generation improves the technology he just learned from his father. In terms of natural resources management the system is always related to natural sustainability and environmental balance. The close linkage and causal inter-rela-
Percik July 2007
tionship between the macro cosmic (the universe) and micro cosmic (human being) lies the wisdom of keeping the balance between human being and the environment (Kusnaka Adimihardja, 2004:6-7). Water for Kampung Naga is supplied from two sources brought in through bamboo pipe conveyance system. Water directly tapped from is used for drinking and cooking. Some of the surface water flowing into the rice fields is diverted through filtering ponds into water tanks for wudhu (ablution before prayer) and MCK (bathing, washing and sanitation). Beside for fish culture a pond serves as natural septic tank to settle down human waste. Waste water from MCK activities drains out into the pond. The pond is fed with the same surface water as for the MCK but without filtering. (Adry Padma e.a., 2001:16). Placement of saung lisung (mortar house for pounding rice) at the edge of fish pond rice bran and human waste from MCK can directly wash down into the pond as fish feed. Fish is for human consumption, thus this simple method - one that is not inferior to the present day technology- makes a recycle process complete. To maintain its existence, the community always sees to it that natural resources are used without damaging them. Through the combination of knowledge and simple technology, and with care to natural resources, the community exploits nature wisely and sustainably. This is all being done under the principle of maintaining harmony with the surrounding environment (Adry
Paddma ea., 2001:17). A pond has a multiple of purposes such wastewater receiver and it is also a place for fish cultivation. In a corner of a pond stands a saung lisung a hut without wall where two mortars are placed for pounding rice. Long mortars are used to pound rice right from the infloresence to produce husked rice. After that the rice is pound in a smaller mortar using a pestle. To produce high quality rice sometimes it is pound again to remove the bran. This bran, locally called bekatul, is made into pellet for fish (Her Suganda, 2006: 28). The various restrictions and taboos for anyone to enter the forest is the main contributor to forest conservation in Kampung Naga, thus maintaining the water sources. The community obedience and consistency in keeping the ancestor's tradition has proven that they could stand the grinding wheel of modernization. Kampung Naga's wisdom in forest and water management deserve commend for imitation and expansion. To the people of Kampung Naga water is communal property that must be managed communally, this is intended to make everyone gets a fair allocation of water. The community realizes that water is vital for human survival therefore it must be managed and used effectively.
REFERENCES: - Adry Padma ea., Kampung Naga; Settlement inherited from great-grandparents, Foris, Bandung, 2001. - Her Suganda, Kampung Naga; Maintaining Tradition, Kiblat, Bandung, 2006. - Maude Barlow and Tony Clarke, Blue Gold; Robbery and Commercialization of Water Resources, Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta, 2005. - Vandana Shiva, Water Wars; Privatization, Profit and Pollution, Insist Press, Yogyakarta, 2002. Source of drawings: Andy Padma, ea. Kampung Naga; Settlement inherited from great-grandparents, Foris, Bandung, 2001, p.16.
Percik July 2007
THE COMMUNITY'S MOST SUITABLE LATRINE TECHNOLOGY
Oleh: Alma Arief
Cases in several villages Most of the latrine types being developed up to now absolutely demand water availability, so that in certain areas where water is wanting the requirement is difficult to apply. On the other hand, if the community is given free hand to develop one in accordance with the local environment, they do not have enough knowledge to build a hygienic model. In Kabupaten Timor Tengah Selatan (TTS) of NTT Province, many of the population live in the hills while water source is located far downhill. This kind of area is susceptible to diarrhoea disease. To take water from a distant place, they use 5 litre jerrycans. In one day a family of 5 to 7 consumes around 25 litres of water, whereas the normal per capita consumption is 30 to 40 litres in one day. Twenty five litres of water is only enough for cooking and dishwashing. What about bathing? They have more or less similar condition in Kabupatens E. Flores, Sikka and Ende. With the application of historical timeline method we can draw the general picture how they get water and their daily consumption rate. A transect walk to assess the water supply and sanitation facilities makes it clear that in general the most sensitive point is their sanitation that remains a poor condition and if we push them to build one the result would not be hygienic. In a number of villages of Tamburi, East Sumba where UNICEF once provided latrine development assistance, the facilities are left unattended while their number shrinks from 20 down to 10. While in West as well as Central Java with a tradition of building fish pond they build a latrine on the pond to feed their fish. It is equally difficult for them to build a toilet with septic tank. Even, a pond owner of Kabupaten Banjarnegara, C. Java, is willing to pay for someone to defecate on his latrine built on his pond. There are various local conditions that must be taken into consideration. How a locally adaptable latrine should be designed to meet hygiene requirement. CLTS Model This model was initially developed by Kamal Khar through abstraction of several principles such as relying on community active participation, freedom from external subsidy, social solidarity, and community pride as motivational element. This model is applicable in several areas with amazing results. In a short while the community is able to build their own latrine,
A CLTS triggered non subsidized latrine built by the community. Photo: Exclusive
o change the community's habit and viewpoint is never an easy task. Experience tells us that through a transect walk on basic sanitation (latrine) indicates that certain type of latrine is not suitable to the socio-cultural and environmental condition of a locality. Various different package models were introduced and constructed, many of them only end up to monuments, left unattended and the community is reluctant to use them. While the Kamal Khar model, one that is called Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) in which the community designs and builds its own facility without any external input, though in some areas particularly those with critical water condition some adjustments needs also be done. What kind of latrine is the most suitable and acceptable to a community?
Percik July 2007
A communal WC at Pondok Pesantren (Religious School) Al Falah In Kabupaten Pamekasan. Photo: Oswar Mungkasa
willing to change the habit of open defecation, and a vast development growth. Within the span of months, villagers have built latrines and are free from defecation in the open. This model has been successfully developed in Kabupatens of Sambas (W. Kalimantan), Muara Bungo (Jambi), Bogor (W. Java), Pandeglang (Banten), Lombok Barat (NTB) and others. All the regions developing CLTS are practically without water shortage problem so that any model of whether goose neck, or any other latrine model is no problem. The latrine can be used without emitting unpleasant odour so that the user feels comfortable. Ecosan Model for Water Vulnerable Areas The purely ecosan type of latrines was developed in China and was later given a warm welcome. In addition to its being environmentally friendly for not polluting and causing adverse effect to the environment this model is also hygienic. Besides, this model is also successful to change the notion of what used to be considered as waste. Ecosan technology is basically divided into several components, namely separation of urine from faeces each into a separate container, using urine for farm manure, spreading ash over the faeces for drying and composting and utilization of faecal compost for farm manure. The manure both of urine and faeces contains high nitrogen content which is quite useful to plant growth. Spreading ash to the faeces makes it free from pathogen mirobes so that it is now safe for application for agricultural purposes.
The problem is whether the ecosan model can be replicated in dry and vulnerable to water shortage areas. Whether the community is willing to change opinion from urine and faeces that used to be considered as waste into a resource. To change an opinion needs explanation from those who really understand it. Near Ecosan Model In several aspects particularly as they relate to chain processes a latrine suspended above fishpond or built in-house but directly flushed into fishpond are basically similar to ecosan. The principle is reusing waste material to feed fish culture. What makes it different from ecosan is that in this case there is no preprocessing before the reuse. The ecosan product is obtained from drying and composting into economically valuable farm manure, while in case of a fishpond suspended latrine the product is directly fed to the fish. However, the fishpond suspended or in-house built directly flushed into fishpond latrine cannot be considered an environmentally friendly technology. Disposing directly into a pond leads to surface water of pond, river, lakes etc. polluted with Essecheria coli (e. coli) bacteria, the main cause of diarrhoea. If after an assessment the communiy is really willing to apply ecosan model for areas vulnerable to water scarcity, what we need to do is to prepare a simple technology design so that the community is capable to develop, operate and maintain.
* WASPOLA Consultant
Percik July 2007
Oleh: Imam M
lobal warming is not a purely natural phenomenon independent of human intervention. Since the invention of steam engine in the eighteenth century the growth of industries using coal and oil fulled engines one cannot deny that it was the beginning of global warming. Therefore, with respect to global warming, human is the major variable. This can be seen from data published by World Wildlife Fund (WWF) at the end of the twentieth century about the role of engines. Carbondioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitraoxide (N2O) contribute the major industrial gas emission, at 36 percent. These gases are emitted from coal generated power plants and oil refineries. Then follow transportation sector at 27 percent and other industries 21 percent. Power plant releases twice the amount of energy into the atmosphere relative to what it generates. Coal generated power plant uses 100, produces 35 and releases 65 units of energy into the environment. Therefore a 1,000 MW power plant releases 5.6 million tonnes of carbondioxide gas into the atmosphere. In the meantime, a car engine that consumes 7.8 litres per 100 km and travels 16 thousand km per year releases 3 tonnes of carbondioxide gas into the air. One can imagine Jakarta with more than 4 millions vehicles, how many tonnes is CO2 gas emission within one year? Methane and Waste Disposal Although carbondioxide is considered the major contributor to global warming, the most dangerous component is methane gas. Methane is 23 times stronger than carbondioxide. The main sources of methane are marsh areas, final waste disposal (TPA), natural gas mining field, and burning of biomass. In connection with waste, metyhane gas is produced from anaerobic waste decomposisiton in waste disposal sites. Waste management in Indonesian cities is operated under the principle of collect, transport and dispose. Along with population growth and increased activities, the quantity of waste disposed is also increasing. It is estimated that in 2020 waste piles will grow fivefold from its size today. If in 1995 the average waste disposed by urban population is 0.8 kg per capita per day,
A chimney of manufacturing plant is one of the major contributors to the global warming phenomenon. Photo: Bowo Leksono
in 2000 it increases to 1.0 kg, in 2020 it is estimated to reach 2.1 kg per person per day. Under the above principle the final operation in waste management ends with disposal in the TPA. In the TPA is dumped in an open pit in disregard of sanitation aspect. As a consequence, the growth of a number of environmentally related problems, such as air- and groundwater pollution, breeding ground of contagious diseases, etc. Today there are somewhere around 450 TPAs which nota bene are the sources of methane gas emission. As an example,
Percik July 2007
inhabitants are the concrete evidences. In the meantime the increase of sea level will cause rock whitening and the damage to coral reef around the world threatens the sustainability of marine ecosystem. Forest fires will be more often, expansion of the epidemic of tropical diseases such as malaria into new areas because of the increase on mosquito population, several regions will become more densely populated from the inflow of refugees. Future Outlook Global warming is a problem not only in connection with the nations with the highest emission contribution, in this case the United States followed by China, France, England, Germany, Canada and Japan; it is also the concerns of all nations since the effect is felt by all citizens of the world. A preventive measure must be taken to reduce the amount of emission into the atmosphere. At least a petition to enhance the reduction of emission rate to a level below 1990 as declared in Rio de Janeiro meeting 1992 and the Kyoto Protocol. There are two measures that may be taken. One, through international political agreement like Rio meeting but one that is more effective in reducing emission level. And several other meetings in various different forums, such as with G-8 nations in Germany June 2007 on global warming. The second measure is taken, while waiting for the positive result of the international meetings, is conducting anticipative actions. At least through a research towards the development of environmentally friendly renewable fuel for power generation. Solar energy is one of the environmentally friendly and its usage is being anticipated as substitute to fossil fuel. With respect to waste, the Eurpean community can be seen as example. Since 2005 the European community does not dispose its organic waste directly to TPA. It is pretreated to prevent large amount of gas emitted to the atmosphere. The treatment may be conducted by way of incineration, composting and biogas production. Meanwhile, to bind the atmomospheric carbondioxide it takes a serious effort to protect forests from illegal logging. Indonesia as the world lung is highly responsible for the critical condition of her forests from continuous denudation day after day. Gerald Foley in 1993 mentioned that by looking at the amount of carbondioxide that has reached extreme level in the atmosphere, the world needs a forest as large as Australian continent to absorb the carbondioxide. Besides, energy saving habit must not stay as petition, but it must work in ecological context supported by high morale as it relates to the survival of all forms of life in this planet.
Imam M., ecology observer, living in Jakarta
Methane gas emission from a waste dump is also major contributor to the global warming. Photo: Exclusive
1,000 tonnes of waste containing 56 percent organic matter will produce 21,000 tonnes of methane gas or equivalent to 486,500 tonnes of carbondioxide annually. Risks If the approach being applied is "wait and see without doing anything" it is estimated that by 2100 the atmospheric temperature will increase by 1.5 - 4.5ºC. The other impact will be seen from extinction of a number of biodiversity species, increasing the intensity and frequency thunderstorm, typhoon and flood water. Polar ice and glaciers will melt faster, more and more fertile dry lands turn into desert due to prolonged drought, increasing of sea level resulting in increased flood areas, and an increase of water temperature of the seas. It is estimated that within the same year the sea level will raise by 15-95 cm. Several of the recent cases related to sea level are the burial of small islands under water forcing the inhabitants to move somewhere else. Two unihabited islands in Kiribati on the Pacific namely Tebua Tarawa and Abenuea were buried underwater in 1999 and evacuation of Tegua island by its
Percik July 2007
R E P O RTA G E
WATER IN CIRUYUNG
is good for. "Well, what can we do, we are used to bathing and he fresh cool morning breeze seems to penetrate deep washing in this river. It is more comfortable and less tiring into the bone. That morning it was almost 10 AM, yet washing here," said Watinah (56). At that time the water in river not a single drop of water flow comes out from the tap. Cikuya was muddy from the heavy rain of the night before. No more hope to take a bath and to cook our breakfast if the One can understand why the night before we fail to save water community prefers the river for the morning activities. This because it really takes a lot of is the common daily ritual for the effort to draw a pail of water from households of Grumbul or the well, because groundwater Pengasinan hamlet, Ciruyung table is relatively deep here. village of Kecamatan This morning, with music Karangpucung, Cilacap, C. Java. background of cocks crowing and Yet the villagers do not to worry birds singing, scores of villagers, because there is always alternachildren and adults together, were tive source to meet their demand forming groups along the bank of for water. river Cikuya, in disregard if the River seems to remain a comupstream people were defecating, fortable place for the villagers to they kept themselves busy with do their activities. Bathing, their bathing and washing rituals. washing and defecation. Quite Suryati (14) has been there often the water is muddy, One of water reservoirs of the village of Ciruyung, since 5.30 AM with a pile of dirty though. The community isn't Kecamatan Karangpucung, Kabupaten Cilacap, C. Java. clothes to wash. "Each morning I aware what a household latrine Photo: Bowo Leksono
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R E P O RTA G E
wash the family clothing before going to school," says the village girl. After finishing the washing, Suryati takes a bath by dipping herself in the water. Scores of the village women do the same each morning. They don't care if water colour is yellowish or even brownish indicating impurity. They always feel comfortable with their routine that has been practised for generations. Community Well The portrait of a marginal community such as this is not solely an urban phenomenon. In a village on the mountain slope a similar view can also be seen. The hamlet of Pengasinan, for
instance, with a population of more than 1.000 from 60 or so families, community wells were sunk some five years ago. "The wells were built for the community to use. But many are not interested because they are more comfortable with bathing and washing in the river," says Kamyo (28), a youth leader who has to admit that the community is not sufficiently educated on the importance of clean water for health. Except by a few of the population the wells that are located in the centre of the housing area are not effectively used and not properly maintained. The buildings look old and clumsy. In terms of community education, according to Kamyo, extension activity has ever been done to the community by the regional government or any other party. "Help of any kind almost totally denies us. This water supply system came into being from the community's own initiative," says the energetic youth. Clean Water Tank The hamlet of Pengasinan is the most remotely located part of Ciruyung village. To reach it one must walk a steep and winding trail of hilly terrain. Up and downhill sometimes across wooded areas interspersed with rice fields to reflect the source of livelihood of the local population. To access clean water for daily consumption the community of Pengasinan built 2 water tanks. The water is tapped from a spring in a hill near Kahuripan using easily breakable PVC pipe. Suparno, a community leader from Pengasinan who is also a member of Ciruyung development committee said that the water tanks were built by the community from their own resources. "Frankly speaking the tanks cannot be used at full capacity. Only around half of the capacity. Water does not always run smoothly," he said. Suparno says the reason for the retarded flow is not only due to the demand level of the local population but also because of inadequacy of the facility. Everything has been made available from whatever the community can do," he said. Small PVC connection pipes are running like intermesh in yards and gardens. Some are leaking and not immediately taken care of. The community seems at ease with the situation although they know for sure that the pipes are of low quality and not worthy of use. It needs a big investment to build a really worthy water supply network. According to Suparno the community made a communal activity to repair damages at the upper region. "For repair and maintenance purpose each family contributes Rp 1000 a month." Pengasinan community is out of service during the days of major damage to the network. Breakdown generally occurs after a landslide that washes away the main pipeline. Actually Ciruyung is not a place with water scarcity. Their problem lies with management capacity and the limited availability of proper equipment and materials, all of this leads access to water below the sufficient level. Bowo Leksono
Leakage in conveyance hose is a common sight on the roads of Ciruyung, yet the community does not seem to care. Photo: Bowo Leksono
Percik July 2007
MULTI PURPOSE DEEP TUNNEL
A Step into Multiple Objectives: Drainage, Water Supply, and Wastewater Management
ast February and the same month five years ago Jakarta and its surroundings suffered a loss worths Rp 187.7 trillion and a death toll of 159. This was caused by a yearly recurrent disaster that hits these areas: flood. The lingering problem of East Drainage Canal (EDC) development becomes the main topic when the attempt to find solution to flood problem is being discussed. The delay of EDC development due to pro-
longed land acquisition problem is blamed for the cause of the flood. Yet an alternative solution through river retraining is equally sluggish because it touches the interest of the community living along the river banks. The flood of Jakarta is inseparable from the practice of dumping wastes into the river. Dumping of wastes into the river decreases water quality. It is aggravated with the magnitude of domestic wastewater being drained into
the river. Whereas in fact the river is the source of raw water for Jakarta water supply system. Thus raw water is becoming scarcer day after day for Jakarta citizens. Jakarta is not a city with good sanitation management system. Only 3 percent of total Jakarta area is provided with centralized (off site) sewerage system, i.e the one located in Setiabudi area. Taking the above condition as point of departure PAM DKI Regulatory Body in its capacity as the party responsible for water supply provision put forward a proposal for MPDT system development. MPDT is a system of long and large diameter underground tunnels. Its development is considered as an effective and sustainable solution to Jakarta water resources management problems because it can simultaneously serve as flood control, waste water management, raw water scarcity, improvement of river water, and underground water conservation. Moreover, MPDT does not meet any hindrance from land acquisition and procurement problem because the MPDT construction is almost entirely located underground and the construction process does not disturb land traffic and community life in general. MPDT application starts from division of Jakarta area into West, Centre and East. The construction is to be conducted in phases according to the urgency of problem being faced. The Centre area is proposed as the priority and pilot project for river Ciliwung peak flood control. This Central MPDT will be placed underground along river Ciliwung and West Drainage Canal beginning from Jl. Haryono MT as 22 km long 12 m diameter tunnel. MPDT is a big hi-tech project that is estimated to cost Rp 16,3 trilliun to complete. But 70 percent of the budget is expected to come from private sector participation through a public-private sector partnership arrangement. In support of the above intentions the MPDT is designed to include revenue components to attract investment in toll road, sewerage system including water
Percik July 2007
reclamation plant and utility shaft for gas pipe, drinking water, PLN cable, fibre optic and Telcom. Therefore the upper part of the design consists of utility pipes. The middle section is an underground double decked motorway as mass rapid transit system. The lowest part consists of rainfall overflow tunnel and a sewerage tunnel system. MPDT consists of several components in accordance to its functions. One of them is a 4-18 m diameter deep tunnel built 20 to 75 m below ground. The deep tunnel consists of vertical shaft that brings water from the main river and several other inundation potential areas during heavy downpour and horizontal tunnel that carries spillover water together with the city sewerage system from the combined sewer overflow (CSO) into treatment/reclamation facility. During heavy rainfall that causes floodwater the entire MPDT (except sewerage and the utility tunnels) will be filled with water from the main river (Ciliwung in case of Central MPDT) and several other inundation potential areas during local rain. The overflow will be
directed northwards along the MPDT tunnel and eventually to the sea through a sea outfall by gravitational flow or pumping system. This operation will last for only a few days in a year during flood season. The discharge that enters MPDT is the peak flood discharge of river Ciliwung minus a preintake at the initial point of the MPDT system. The preintake system serves as retention basin/pond for separation of solid materials such as sand, rock, gravel, solid waste and other materials carried by the flow. In other words, an O&M function of the overall MPDT system. MPDT is also equipped with Flood Forecasting and Early Warning System located at Jl. MT Haryono though SCADA based on real time to detect more accurately the arrival and magnitude of flood. This is monitored with rain gauges placed in various points in the Ciliwung watershed plus the services of Weather Radar. The next component is an underground water reservoir to keep raw water reserve from overflow of inundation as a result of high rainfall rate or accumulation of
heavy rainfall plus daily city wastewater. A wastewater treatment facility is also part of MPDT that serves to reclaim wastewater and rainwater overflow. The result of the treatment is used as additional raw water for PDAM, flush water for city drainage system, irrigation water for city parks, and to be released back into the river to improve the quality of the water body. Another MPDT component is Mud Treatment Facility, deals with mud sediment in the reservoir and that from reclamation and raw water treatment using the anaerobic biological process. The product of the treatment is organic manure for agricultural purposes. The treament process will produce methane (CH4) gas that may be used to support energy diversification program. Although the explanation above reflects as if MPDT is a sophisticated and complete technology, yet it will remain a complementary to the overall aspect of flood control system that calls for the central and related regional governments' commitment to the water resources management of Jakarta. Afif Nu'man
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Stormwater Management and Road Tunnel (SMART)
A flood control scenario from Malaysia
ndonesia, particularly Jakarta is not the only nation to put MPDT (Multi Purpose Deep tunnel) technology into application, other countries such as Malaysia in Southeast Asia has preceeded in applying the technology. The MPDT to be applied here takes a lesson from the neighbour in which the technology is known as SMART. Stormwater Management and Road Tunnel or SMART is a big drainage cum road tunnel is built in Kuala Lumpur. SMART is a big project in Malaysia and is the longest tunnel in SE Asia and second longest in Asia. The purpose of the tunnel is to cope with flood problem and at the same time to reduce traffic jam during busy hours. The project is motorised by the government including Malaysian Highway Authority, and Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia, together with partner companies Gamuda Berhad and Malaysian Mining Corporation Berhad (MMC). In terms of design SMART consists of two main components i.e. drainage tunnel as flood (stormwater) management and a tunnel for motor vehicle. The stormwater part consists of a 9.7 km long and 13.2 m diameter tunnel. The tunnel is con-
structed using Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) Slurry Shield type. The construction cost 1,887 Malaysian ringgits or 514.6 million US dollars. As for the motor vehicle part, SMART consists of a double decked 4 lane 4 km long motorway. The tunnel is desiged for light vehicle type. Motorcycle and heavy trucks are not prohibited here. The construction works started in 2003 completed in 2007. The tunnel is officially open to the public on 14 May 2007. How is the Tunnel Operated? There are three scenarios how SMART is operated. The first is at normal time when there is no heavy rainfall that may cause flood. In this case, water is not drained through the tunnel. The second scenario is SMART operation during heavy rainfall above normal level. Stormwater is drained through the lower part of the tunnel. In this situation the vehicle lanes are functioning as usual. The third scenario is when the vehicle lanes are closed entirely. This is because stormwater has reached a level that the whole system is used for drainage tunnel. The vehicle tunnel will resume its function 48 hours after the closing. OM
Percik July 2007
n a garden full of flower plants a group of youngsters are having fun. "One minute please, brother, I'll do some taking first," says one girl teenager to Percik. She hastened her pace and joined the group for some TVF (TV film) picture taking entitled Love Bodyguard to be broadcast by a TV station. After some time there was a signal from the assistant director: "Cut. OK let's take a break," indicating the completion of the present picture taking. "Where would you like to sit for this conversation, brother," greeted our young hostess. Tasya is the name of the girl. She whom we used to know as the little singer a few years ago is now coming into adolescence. Perhaps for many adolescents of her age the conversation that was taking place at Cibubur Flower Garden is not interesting. But to an artist whose complete name is Syafa Tasya Kamil, a discussion about waste materal is quite a pleasant topic. It has been years since Tasya become interested in environmental issues. No wonder that the Al Izhar Jakarta Junior High School student is named the "Junior Environment Ambassadress" by the Ministry of Environment since 2006. "My major task is to call the attention of the community to care the environment,"says the presenter of Pildacil (Junior Da'i Contest) program in a TV station. According to Tasya, a mere call for attention or an extension activity will not make the community immediately care and love the environment. "It takes an effort
from within oneself and this process must start right now," says the cute singer who was born in Jakarta on 22 November 1992. A presenter, artist, and at the same time a movie actress will not dispose waste at any place, because according to Tasya before we move into the community we have to start from within the family, then to RT, RW, school, and so on. Frequently among us at school, my friends would not dispose waste in any place with my presence,' says the singer of song called Libur Telah Tiba (Holiday Has Come) once quite familiar among schoolchildren. Since her appointment as Environmetal Ambassadress Tasya takes a frequent visit to various places, mostly in Jakarta, to call the community's attention to its environment. When Jakarta was hit by flood recently, Tasya took a pleasure with the visit. Visiting the low income communities who were then suffering from the disaster.
"Waste may become our friend"
Percik July 2007
Photo: Bowo Leksono.
The Final Task on Waste The pull toward environmental hygiene has made Tasya wrote her final task from school on waste. In the beginning the teenager who has won AMI and several other awards did not have sufficient knowledge about waste. "It turns out that waste can be sorted. This is the way to resolve waste problem right from the household level because when it has reached the TPA (final disposal site) all the waste is dumped to form a hill," says the young artist whose final task reads "Cultivation of Waste Management within the Community of Jakarta." The artist whose daily life is filled with singing lesson and presenter additionally mentions that we have sort wastes into three categories: organic waste consisting of plant materials, dry waste consisting of paper and plastic, and dangerous materials such as metal and other dangerous compound. Tasya considers that dumping waste arbitrarily still remains our custom. Let alone sorting waste, disposing it into a proper container is still rarely done." The evidence that the community especially of Jakarta, is indifferent upon the danger caused by waste is proven from the result of an enquette that Tasya distributed to 50 citizens of Jakarta. It turns out there are less than 50 percent of the citizens who sort out waste in their home. To most of them, continued Tasya, failure to sort their waste is not because they are lazy but more because of lack of knowledge and not being used to the practice. "The community is still difficult to handle. They are not used to think of the short term let alone the long term danger caused by waste," she said. Waste is something that is so close around us. Everyday everyone definitely produces waste. If it is not properly handled, waste will become the community's enemy, causing flood
and various diseases. According to Tasya, waste can be useful and become our friend. The way to do it, according to the singer who wants to be an architect, is recycling following a separation. "Waste can be processed into compost or can be reused to produce handicraft," says the fried rice and fried potato hobbyist. In Jakarta it is still uncommon for the community to recycle waste materials. The only successful one is in Kelurahan (village) Banjarsari, S. Jakarta. As to why the community is alien to waste handling, according to Tasya, is because the government hasn't paid serious attention to it. "There is yet no specific law on waste and the consequences of its violation." Tasya does not only call the attention of the community to handle its waste, but also to the government. "If the community is unable to handle the waste on its own, it becomes the responsibility of the government to help it." Tasya's final task is seldom given to students of her age, it is not only to be presented before her own teachers and classmates, but also for presentation before Mr. Emil together with representatives of several organizations, foundations, and environmentally related NGOs. "The presentation before the teachers and classmates, it was quite fun and exhilarating, the atmosphere is informal. But before Mr. Emil, my heart was pounding," says the youth who played in Nyanyian Burung (Bird Song) a cinema electronics (sinetron) that won Golden Cairo for TV Programmes. But Tasya was able to manage herself and passed the presentation satisfactorily. She did not feel difficult in doing that because it was more on the matter of sharing aspect. As a Junior Waste Ambassadress do you always dispose waste properly. "Yes, God willing". But why. "But sometimes man is apt to be forgetful," said Tasya at the end of the conversation.
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I N N O VAT I O N
Director of PT. Shiva Rayawhen he demonstrate the performance of this equipment in Jakarta. Shirvaqua is made of durable fibreglass specially designed to withstand pressure, non corrosive and not easily breakable. "This is a low cost equipment, both in construction and in its maintenance," says Irvan. Since this is designed for lower middle class, this equipment is manually operated. Using no chemical, and relatively durable. As it is with conventional water filter, this equipment also uses filter media consisting of marine sand and natural rock. Sand is effective in removing iron content, brick and active carbon to remove colour, and zeolit or alum. This equipment consists of 6 parts, each is filled with sand, carbon, and alum. Peaty raw water is filled into the filter from a big pail with a small hose. A tap at the bottom of the filter serves as an outlet from which the filtered water is produced. A float is fixed to serve as water level indicator in the pail. From a trial test this equipment can produce 90 litres of clean water in an hour. Water replenishment in the big pail is made every 45 minutes. "All this calculation depends on the quality of raw water. The more turbid the water the longer it takes," says Irvan. This equipment is specially made for peat water, not for any other type of water, such as marsh or brackish water. The last two cannot be treated with this equipment. If after a laboratory examination by Dept. Health the water produced from the equipment meets the requirement for clean water, it will be further tested to other areas with similar raw water condition. The result? "The community is very happy because they are always in demand for clean water'" says Irvan. He guarantees that water processed by Shirvaqua is clean though it must be boiled first before consumption, because the equipment does not produce potable water. BW
Peat water treatment
Irvan Jacob R, Director of PT Shirva Raya, and inventor of peat water treatment system. Photo: Bowo Leksono
here is a considerable number of Indonesians who live in peaty areas. In Kalimantan and Sumatra for example. Occupying the areas around Banjarmasin in Kalimantan and Palembang in S. Sumatra. The community of such an area depends on peat as source of water. All source of water contains peat materials. Clean water at a reasonable quality is difficult to obtain. Though in fact prolonged peat water consumption causes tooth decay. To supply fresh water to peaty areas a filter is designed which is named Shirvaqua. In spite the process has been ongoing for two years now, yet there aren't many who know of its existence even to those in the peat community. "We haven't promoted this equipment.
There are only 20 units now available. We are trying to invite investors, including the government to manufacture more this equipment," says Ivan Jacob R,
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CHILD CENTRED COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT (CCCD)
ince 2002 Plan all over the world has been applying the so-called Child Centred Community Development (CCCD) program approach. The approach is developed based on rights. In this approach, child, family, and community play an active role in development process. This approach also attempts to improve the capacity and opportunity of children, family and community to work together with other parties in overcoming structural causes and consequences of poverty to children of all levels. CCCD approach is intended to deal with more than just the poverty symptoms, it rather goes deeper into its root causes. For instance, CCCD does not immediately provide a building in case a school building is really needed, but to find out first the answer to a question "why is there no school?" The question will automatically demand that children, families and the community and the community organization find an answer for the sake of sustainability of the education program. The CCCD approach is designed to help children and their families, the community and Plan partner and Plan personnel stimulate children, families, community and community organization to promote their rights; establishment of conducive environment for boys and girls to participate and express their ideas and concern, and for the adults to work together with children, and not work for
One of children facilitation activities for their village development plan. Photo: Plan Indonesia
the children rather to work together in finding the answer to the basic reasons to poverty of children. How CCCD Approach Works Plan starts this approach with what is called participation. At this stage children and the families are persuaded to get actively involved in decision making and
identification of problems dominating them. This is done through group discussion fora in which all ideas and opinions raised by the participants are heard and considered. This in itself is a challenge for the community to be willing to listen to the voices from marginalized and discriminated groups due to age, gender, disability or certain social group.
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Child participation in this case in the child's right. It may be that to the children, taking part in a discusson and raising an opinion therein is their first experience but this experience will hopefully change the pattern of adults - children relationship, trust and discrimitative practices especially to girls and children of minority group. In the following stage after the establishment of overall of participation within the community, it becomes necessary to form child and adult groups or organizations to deal with specific issues such as water scarcity, lack of educational facility, etc. With the establishment of these groups or organizations there will be a sharing or deepening of local issues through the existing resources. They will be able to identify the demand to improve their capacity for common problem solving. Besides, with the existence of the groups or organizations the community feels that it belongs to the issues and problems and is stimulated to improve its knowledge and skill to resolve the problems. Children groups are also important because they could share their knowledge specific to and the demand felt by, children. As an example, in the case of post tsunami barracks construction in Aceh, the children expressed their opinion to add a partition to maintain privacy among the inhabitants. Or in school building construction, the children raise the need for separate toilets for girls' from boys' and the need for a parking lot. This experience becomes important in raising children into active and responsible citizens. In problem identification, it often happens that the community is incapable of doing much due to limited internal capacity. In this case it is necessary to build partnership with other organization, be it government, NGO or private sector. The external partner in this case may provide help in support or complement necessary for problem solving. Besides, the partnership makes it possible for replicating successful program in a certain area into another so that there will
CCCD process cycle be more community members enjoy the benefit of a program. Partnership with other organization is also necessary for a common action, advocacy and development education in order to influence the government and international institutions on poverty problems in children and children welfare. Why CCCD is considered child centred? Because the programs or projects implemented are centred in children and honour children as subject/right holder and answer both poverty elements in children and access to basic services and how adults treat children.
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A R O U N D I SS D P
In anticipation of "Sanitation Conference Indonesia 2007"
Major Challenge in Sanitation Development: Stakeholders' Commitment to a Common Agreement
Indonesia with access to basic sanitation is 67.1 percent. The figure seemingly makes us happy, but in reality 76.2 percent of 52 rivers on Java, Sumatra, Bali and Sulawesi are heavily polluted with organic compounds. The majority of rivers flowing in densely populated cities such as those of Java tend to contain more coliform and faecal coli bacteria. The presence of faecal coli bacteria indicates pollution from human waste on rivers. Domestic wastewater is also the major contributor to the degradation of water quality in DKI Jakarta. Total wastewater dumped into the rivers of Jakarta is 1,316,113 million m3, three quarters of which comes from domestic sources. One can imagine the magnitude of basic sanitation requirement unless a counter measure is taken to prevent the domestic wastewater pollution. Another consequence is diarrhoea places second for the causes of infant mortality in Indonesia, i.e. 46 per 1.000 childbirths and third for baby mortality, i.e. 32 per 1.000 childbirths. Besides, based on study conducted by Indonesia Sanitation Development Program (ISSDP) the poor raw water quality caused by poor sanitation has caused PDAM customer pay his water bill 25 percent higher. In parts of a city mostly inhabited by the urban poor, raw water source has been heavily polluted that makes the poor pays 5-10 percent more money to buy water. The price paid by the poor obviously is higher than the price paid by those who live in elite part of even the rich nation (Report of Humen Resources
Nugroho Tri Utomo, Head of Subdirectorate of Drinking Water and Wastewater, Bappenas in a discussion Socialization of the Plan for National Sanitation Conference 2007 in the Indowater Expo 2007. Photo: ISSDP Secretariate
It is now almost halfway into the deadline of MDGs achievement in 2015 yet our sanitation development is still lagging way behind the desired level, it's even indicating a declining tendency. Based on a report entitled A Future Within Reach and MDGs Asia Pacific 2006 Report published by UNDP, Indonesia is placed in the category of countries whose effort towards achieving MDGs targets is declining. Indonesia is
placed in the lowest category together with Bangladesh, Pakistan, Myanmar, Laos, Papua New Guinea, and the Philippines. It becomes quite clear that the challenge faced by Indonesia to achieve seven of the ten targets i.e. reducing down to half, by 2015, the proportion of population without access to water supply and basic sanitation is an extremely difficult task. Based on MDGs Progress Report up to 2004 the population of
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A R O U N D I SS D P
Development, UNDP). In connection with the above, the stakeholders must begin to initiate a common effort to accelerate sanitation sector development. The effort may start through a forum that unite all the stakeholders and design the necessary steps to overcome the problems and challenges in sanitation development. Aware of the abovementioned reality, the government together with the involved stakeholders take an initiative to hold National Sanitation Conference in August 2007. It is expected that this conference will the increase of sector profile. As topic of discussion, today in Indonesia, both at public level as well as among the majority of decision makers, sanitation is placed in the lowest priority. Political, economic, and entertainment place the highest order of interresting issues. Therefore, this planned conference must be so organized in order to attract as much public attention as possible and must of course be directed to a real follow up so that sanitation issue will remain in the public attention. Identification and formulation of the necessary and immediately implementable action plans for improvement of the sanitation condition. The presently poor sanitation condition in Indonesia is the cumulative effect of our negligence in the past. This condition is like a string of time bombs that may explode simultaneously any time in many parts of this country. To prevent such a horrible disaster it is neccessary to take firm, well thought of, planned and measureable real steps for immediate action. As stakeholders' forum for sharing of information and experience. The obscure coordination makes each of the many sanitation development programs follows its own path. More often than not valuable findings by one particular program or program management stands alone by itself unknown to other stakeholders. Whereas in fact the findings may be the key to the success of the overall sanitation program or activity being implemented. Establishment of integrated commitment among stakeholders in sanitation development. Lack of the stakeholders' commitment is probably because of the absence of common agreement among themselves. All this time the differences may only in terms of who is doing what activity, whereas each of them aims at the same objective, i.e sanitation development for welfare of all. This similarity should be translated into a integral commitment among stakeholders. All the strong arguments about the importance of sanitation development will be of no use unless a political commitment is developed to compel decision makers to translate them into implementation. The planned conference will carry a big theme, "Mobilization of Resources to Improve Sanitation Development". This big theme is selected because of the frequent budget insufficiency and human resources deficiency as the reasons for poor sanitation development. The conference will involve various stakeholders related to sanitation from the government, university, donor institutions, private sector, mass media, and delegates from neighbouring countries. ISSDP Secretariate
An example of poorly attended MCK due to short of O&M budget. Photo: Exclusive
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A R O U N D WA S P O L A
STRENGTHENING OF COMMUNICATION STRATEGY in Kabupaten Kebumen W
hether you are aware of it or not, the problem in connection with water supply and sanitation is being felt by the communities all over the country. This calls for serious attention especially from regional level policy makers. Several problems were revealed during the Workshop for WSS Communication Strategy Formulation of Kabupaten Kebumen, held at Hotel Candisari Kebumen from 13-24 June 2007. The workshop that was organized by WSS-WG of Kabupaten Kebumen was attented by representatives from Bappeda, Public Works, Regional Development, Health, Head of Subdistrict, Heads of Village, village councils, and media activists. They all spoke freely about WSS sector problems and issues and the communication challenges. In his welcome speech, Suroso, the Regional Secretary disclosed that within two years, Kebumen has lost 6 potent water springs, from 36 in 2006 to 22 in 2007. This matter was better clarified by Arief Irwanto, Bappeda Chairman who stated that the death of water springs is followed by degradation of surface water from pollution of domestic and industrial wastes. "The extinction of the springs is becoming our focus of attention," he revealed further. This fact often misses the attention of policy makers. This is because the information does not reach the intended party and is unknown to the general public, the community is unaware of the problem, and policy makers are not sufficiently informed about what is really going on.
Workshop participants in a role playing session. Photo: Dorman
It was also revealed that one of the legislative members is highly interested in the WSS issue. I now feel that I fall in love with WSS, I will fight to have the budget increased," said Dian Lestari, member of Kab. Kebumen DPRD. Kabupaten WSS-WG Plan and WASPOLA Support If we want WSS a development priority, several related problems must be thoroughly dealt with. In this connection WASPOLA has facilitated a woskshop intended to develop the basic understanding of communication strategy application, exploring the demand and identification of stakeholders' perception, attitude and behaviour, and formulation of communication strategy implementation. In addition to the subject matters related to basic communication the presentation includes media handling, mapping of strategic groups, communication management and program design. In this workshop it can be seen, at least, an improvement of understanding on the importance of communication strategy to influence the general community has beginning to take place. It is obvious from the action plan developed by each kecamatan group. Publication of the news about drought in villages, arrangement of meeting with the legislative body, development of local community's theatre as communicaton media, and so on. Dormaringan HS
The Importance of Communication Strategy Drought problem, degradation of water quality, malfunctioning of WSS facility and various other problems happening at an increasing rate are poorly dealt with because of poor interstakeholder communication in addition to technical, legal and funding problems. Reluctance to communicate then leads to growth of new WSS management problems. Weakness in inter-community communication interaction in one hand and the decision makers in the other generates frustration within the community. Sometimes the community demand for WSS services is given a half hearted response. The stakeholders must be identified so that the aspiration may be forwarded to the right individual. In order to obtain support from the legislative, WSS information must be wrapped and presented in clear and consistent manner.
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A R O U N D W SS
"Climate is Changing. Beware of Natural Disaster!"
World Environment Day 2007
t was Gaylord Nelson, US senator who on 22 April 1970 proclaimed the Earth Day as the manifestation of his concern of the increasingly befouled and polluted earth as a result of human activity. This idea then gained serious responses so that in UN conference on environment held in Stocholm on 5 July 1972 it was resolved to name the date the World Environment Day. Indonesia took part in the conference and named Prof. Emil Salim then Chairman of Bappenas as Indonesian delegate. The purpose of environment day commemoration is to deepen public awareness in environmental conservation and improvement and refrain from conducting any activity that causes negative effects to the environment. Commemoration of Environment Day 2007 in Indonesia Natural disasters that seem endlessly hit Indonesia demands our concience on the importance of environmental conservation. Therefore, the Commemoration of World Environment Day 2007 carries a theme "Climate is Changing, Beware of Natural Disaster!" On the 5th of June at the State Palace, the commemoration was led by President SBY. The President emphasizes that as an insular nation, the global warming may submerge many small islands of Indonesia. Further the President asks Indonesian people together with the world communities to save the world from environmental degradation. Just like the previous commemorations to the environmental heroes the President awarded Kalpataru and Adipura awards. The State Ministry of Environment staged Indonesia Environment Week 2007. Several activities were performed including an exhibition at Jakarta Convention Centre and several contests such waste reuse contest, environment painting, poster painting, and environmental detective at the animal sanctuary of Muara Angke, Jakarta. While in the Office of KLH (Ministry of Environment) hundreds of school boys and girls were competing in website design, poster, animation, graphics, computer programming, vido clip design, and article writing on enviroment, all wrapped in a student creativity contest. In rememberance of World Environment Day the community of West Bali held a ritual for sea cleaning. The activity was conducted in complement the beach and sea coral cleaning, particularly from thorny crown (Acanthaster plancii).
Landslide may occur anytime due to lack of root support. Photo: Bowo Leksono
Environmental activists in several regions plead that government take concrete steps to save the environment. Such as in Pontianak, W. Kalimantan, they strongly ask the government to do away with activities that exploit the environment. With support from WWF, Global Warming Alliance (GloW Alliance) and Greenpeace the Environmental Engineering Student Association of Trisakti University conducted the "6th Trisakti Environmental Fair 2007". This event was made more lively with a series of activities like ISO 14001 education and training, environmental exhibition, photography contest, emission test, and other creative activities. BW
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A R O U N D W SS
maintain let alone conserve it. In the last two years global warming issue comes back to surface. It is marked with the melting of polar ice caps. This is one or the reasons for the outbreak of several diseases such tuberculosis and avian flu. According to scientists, 40 percent of polar ice cover has melted during the last 40 years. It is estimated that within 50 to 70 years the land currently inhabited by human being will submerge under water. The process will be accelerated by the inhabitants' indifference. This is no more individual issue and any single nation. The fate of the earth is the responsibility of all its inhabitants. What is earth birthday is good for? For what purpose is that human being remember that 22 April is the Earth Day? It is clear that it is not a mere ceremony that is needed for the continuation of human life. It is the real action out of human awareness of the place they live in and continue his generation. Therefore, it is quite appropriate that on an Earth Day human being should contemplate the historic path the earth has travelled and what fate this planet in which human being live. The commemoration of Earth Day as a historic momentum is intended to make human being remember that we have only one planet to live in. Apart form the earth's history nothing will mean anything. The most important is how man can maintain and take immediaste action to safeguard the earh from destruction. And make everyday an Earth Day to refresh our memory and awareness for the future generation. The earth is already very old. Even human being can predict its destroyal. Will the destruction of this planet becomes faster because of our own action? The history of Earth Day "I feel deeply concerned with the fact that environmental issue is no issue in American political constellation. The people feel concerned, the politicians do not." That was part of statement made by Gaylord Nelson, US senator in his speech he delivered in Seattle, United States of America. At that time he proposed an enactment of the so-called national “teach in”, an additional lecture discussing the current controversial themes, especially environment. Nelson's idea gained an extraordinary response from the civil society. This was the embryo that gave birth to Earth Day. Exactly one year later on 22 April 1970 millions of people went into the roads on a demonstration that filled Fifth Avenue, New York with people. No less than 1.500 universities and 10 thousand schools took part in the demonstration that took place in New York, Washington and San Francisco. Time magazine wrote that somewhere around 20 million people went into the roads during that day, together declaring Earth Day and pleaded for commencing a "green revolution". The Earth Day Commemoration that was held for the first time in 1970 was considered as the summit of the glory of the environmental movement of 1960s.
EARTH DAY REFLECTION
Natural balance is indispensable. Human being plays major role in it. Photo: Bowo Leksono
ore than 4 billions years ago, the earth we live in came into being. The earth planet was created from a mixture of gases and hot plasm that gradually cooled down until finally it becomes habitable. Various living creatures live in it, including human being. Human is the only being with intellectual and capable of building civilization. Therefore, the earth's fate depends on man's willingness and free will. How can man survive and maintain his existence? It all depends on his capability in maintaining his living place. If the Earth is destroyed one can be sure that it is the end of human civilization together with all life on the earth's surface. Just like human being earth is getting older as years gone by. While for several centuries man tends to exploits the planet. Not
Percik July 2007
A R O U N D W SS
Earth Day movement that was initiated in the US inspired the birth of environmental conservation groups, such as Environmental Action (in Washington 1970), Greenpeace (the radical and militant group of environmentalists, organized in 1971), Environmentalist for Full Employment (anti industrialization group, born in 1975), Worldwatch Institute (research centre and studies collecting information on global environmental threats, 1975) and many other environmental observer groups. Various analyses indicate that the explosion happened from the unification of generations of protestors (mostly high school and university students, and scholars) known as motors of the anti war movement and radical defenders of civil rights with environmental activists of 1960s. This monumental movement was according to Nelson, who died on 4 July 2005 at the age of 89 as "the most amazing grassroot explosion". It is not mistaken that Nelson is called the Father of International Earth Day. And up to now on every 22 April all nations of the world commemorate it. Earth Day Commemoration in Several Regions WALHI organized various friendly creative events, national seminar, national jamboree. WALHI also appeals for "hold cutting" to stop temporarily forest exploitation and denudation that brings ecological damage to Indonesia. On 21 April 2007 the municipality of Bogor in collaboration with Bogor Institute of Agriculture (IPB) dug 5.259 bioporous infiltration pits in 21 kelurahans (villages) of 6 kecamatans of the city of Bogor. Around 4,000 Bogor citizens participated in the bioporous pit digging. On 22 April 2007 thousands of Parigi citizens in C. Sulawesi together with mass organization and the local government conducted City Cleaning activity. The students of Social Sciences of the University of Airlangga, Surabaya organized a moral move-
ment and real action to make garbage bins around the city more beautiful. Before that they distributed free comic calling for care to environment. ITB students of Bandung held a series of activities such tree planting, a movie show on global warming, outbound following along natural track combined with educational activities, discussion, collection of environmental data; photo and poster exhbition, product exhibition and workshop; music performance for the environment and carnival. The community along Mertasari Beach, Sanur, Bali took part in the 9 km beach clean up. About 3.000 citizens of Denpasar and the surroundings areas consisting of schoolchildren, custom community of Sanur, hotel, restaurant and art shop attendance, NGO activists, etc. took part in the activity. On April 21, 2007 hundreds of students of Environmental Studies of Haluoleo University in Kendari went to the roads distributing hundreds of tree seedlings. They march on the roads and distributed mahogani,
rambutan and petai seedlings to passers by. On April 14, 2007 the students of Musamus University of Merauke, Papua planted 100 trees from various species as part of WWF program. The plants were planted in their own campus. The Forestry Agency of Kabupaten Kepatang, W. Kalimantan organized a series of activities and contests. The activity consisted of Plant When You Are Young Harvest as You Grow Older and tree planting contest for children of kindergarten age. There are also colouring and drawing contest related to environment. On 10 April 2007 around 60 high school and university students of Palangkaraya, C. Kalimantan conducted tree planting in several locations in the city of Palangkaraya. This activity was conducted in collaboration with Primate Conservation Program of BOS Foundation, WWF Indonesia, Mapala Sylva Raya of Parahyangan University together with student group of Borneo People Accosiation. BW
Percik July 2007
A R O U N D W SS
UNTIRTA BRINGS UP WSS THEME
he University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa (Untirta) Serang, Banten may be one we should be proud of. In this year's thematic student field works program one of the selected themes is Water Supply and Sanitation, a theme generally considered non "sexy" (read: attractive). In the Preparatory for the Instructors and Participants of the field works, the Rector of Untirta Prof. Dr. H. Yoyok Mulyana reported that 66 students and 38 instructors were to be deployed to 76 villages in 9 Kecamatans of Banten Province. "It is hoped that these students will later become triggering agents for water supply and sanitation development towards improvement of the quality of life of the communities," he stated. Present in the event were Dr. Oswar Mungkasa, Head of Subdirectorate of solid waste and Drainage, Bappenas on behalf of the Director of Housing and Settlement; Drs. HM Masduki, the Deputy Governor of Banten, and WASPOLA representatives. Dr. Oswar Mungkasa firmly suggested that the responsibility for WSS development does not lie solely with the government, but it must be part of all of the stakeholders. "This is indeed for the first time that a campus carries with it WSS issue as the theme for students' field works activity. I hope this will serve as example for other campuses in Indonesia," revealed the member
Deputy Governor of Banten Drs. H.M. Masduki, Msi at the opening session. Photo: Bowo Leksono
of Central WSS-WG. In the same event, Banten Deputy Governor, HM Masduki, promises that he will closely monitor and guard the student field works through the Regional WSS-WG. He is proud for the campus that takes WSS issue as the main theme for field works activity. "Untirta students must serve as locomotive or pioneers in WSS development within the community," Masduki stresses further. BW
MPA/PHAST Orientation and Its Application in Planning
o facilitate the implementation of PAMSIMAS (Community Based Water Supply Provision) program Directorate General for Rural Development (DG PMD) Dept. Home Affairs conducted an MPA/PHAST (Methodology for Participatory Assessments/Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation) orientation training held in Makassar, S. Sulawesi on 18-23 June 2007. The training was attended by participants representing provincial and kabupaten level officials from the islands of Kalimantan and Sulawesi. Each of the regional governments was represented by 4 officials, representing the offices of Community Empowerment, Bappeda, Cipta Karya of Public Works, and Health Agency. Lack of water supply and sanitation services is a problem commonly faced by communities of the remote areas. Several efforts have been tried by the government to push WSS sector development, PAMSIMAS program is one of them. The sustainability of WSS development is influenced by several aspects such as community involvement in the decision making and in project implementation. However, it is revealed time and again that one of the major barriers in program implementation is the weakness in the part of government officials in facilitating community participation. Through this orientation the organizing committee wishes to introduce MPA/PHAST as tool for assessments and the application of MPA/PHAST in planning, monitoring and evaluation particularly for WSS development. During the visit made to 3 villages at kabupaten Takalar the participants took the role as facilitator in the application of MPA/PHAST they have learned in class to get the real picture of the existing WSS condition in the localities. FN
Percik July 2007
A R O U N D W SS
Indo Water 2007 Expo
Organizing WSS Related Workshop and Discussions
nternational expositions and seminars were held in Jakarta Covention Centre on 20-22 June 2007. There were four inter-related industrial expositions wrapped in an integrated implementation; one of them was water supply and wastewater treatment industry (IndoWater Expo). The event was officially dedicated by Ir. Agus Widjanarko, DG Cipta Karya on behalf of Minsiter of Public Works who in his opening speech reminded the role of PDAM in water supply provision. "Pursuant to the existing regulations, in the future PDAM can no longer hold the monopoly in public water supply provision. Anyone can take the role, the community, the cooperative, the private sector," said Agus. Therefore, if PDAM is to be competitive it must improve its performance and management capacity. The expo participants displayed equipment and facilities related to water treatment. This reflects the role of business sector in water supply industry for the advantage of the community in the future. Unwilling to be left behind, the Central WSS-WG together with WASPOLA and Gorontalo WSS-WG were demonstrating their existence in the Expo. The visitors were spoiled with various workshop and interactive dialogues. Raw water scarcity and
lack of sanitation facility is becoming an important issue in the country. Interactive dialogue entitled "Where Goes My Clean Water" was organized presenting an environmental ambassador and singer Nugie, Perpamsi Chairman Ir. Mardju Kodri, resources persons from BPSPAM and LAPI ITB. Acting as moderator was Dr. Oswar Mungkasa, Chief Editor of Percik Magazine. WSS-WG in collaboration with ISSDP and WASPOLA organized a discussion on Socialization of the Plan to hold National Sanitation Conference 2007 that was open to mass media and the general community. The speaker for the discussion was Ir. Tri Nugroho Utomo, Head of Subdirectorate of Water Supply and Waste Water, Bappenas. What Has Happened With Sanitation in Indonesia? What has really happened with sanitation in Indonesia that we had to organize a ministerial level National Sanitation Conference in August 2007? It turned out there is nothing that means that since God Knows When we still remain indifferent with the so-called sanitation. "In Indonesia, sanitation is still considered as private business. Whereas in fact 20 million of our population are defecating anywhere in the open places," thus revealed Nugroho. Therefore, he continued, diarrhoea prevalence is that high in this country, even the highest in Asia. According to Nugroho, the reason why sanitation has been sufficiently handled, it is because the stakeholders have not considered it as priority. "We don't have enough willingness and commitment to develop a better sanitation," he said. At the end of the discussion, the participants were requested to provided ideas and inputs for presentation in the forthcoming conference, by writing the message in a piece of paper and then stuck it to a piece of cloth. Before the discussion on sanitation, another discussion on "Water Treatment At Household Level". Present in the discussion were Zainal I. Nampira, Head of Sub-directorat of Water sanitation Dept. Health, Rieneke Rolos Deputy Project Director & Community Mobilization, and Irma Setiono, Cognizant Technical Officer, USAID/Indonesia. According to Rieneka Rolos, water treatment in the household contains a complex of problems related to lack of knowledge and skill on how to treat water properly. "The key is to continuously provide the families with information and improve their understanding on the correct way to produce good quality drinking water," she said. BW
Interactive dialogue on "Where Goes My Clean Water" at the Indowater 2007 Expo inviting the singer and Environment Ambassador, Nugie. Photo: Bowo Leksono
Percik July 2007
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Consultative Meeting and Assessment of Hygiene Program Implementation
he Department of Health recently organized a Consultative Meeting on Healthy Environment Program and Assessment of Healthy Kabupaten/Kota Implementation 2007 held at Makassar on 12-15 June 2007. The meeting is a form of commitment for integration of central, provincial, kabupaten/kota steps and UPT of DitGen PP&PL in implementation strategically, focussed, well targeted, tangible results of healthy environment 2008. In his opening speech delivered by Assistant II the Governor of S. Sulawesi mentioned that the provicial government is pleased with the Makassar meeting. "The selection of Makassar as the city for the meeting was made on purpose because it is one of the big cities on which hygiene development program is continuously monitored," he explained. In his welcome speech, Dr. I Nyoman Kandun, DG for PP&PL made mention that according to WHO health includes physical, mental and social aspects. "Man must live a healthy life in harmony with his environment," he concluded. Basically, health development consists of efforts to provide public health service as a community basic demand as an investment to improve human resources capacity. The national meeting involved several resource persons, such as DG for Regional Development Home Affairs, Bappenas, and the Mayor of Bontang in honour of his achivement in mak-
Dr. I Nyoman Kandun, Dir Gen for PP&PL, Dept. Health delivering his welcome speech. Photo: Bowo Leksono
ing his municipality a Healthy City. It is hoped this meeting will be useful in the implementation of health development program. Next year the same event will be held in Gorontalo City. BW
Makassar in the Path Leading to Healthy City
he effort of the municipality government of Makassar to turn it into Healthy City is continuing. Today, the city of more than 1 million people located on the west coast of island of Sulawesi is still way from being called a healthy city. Makassar's failure to win Adipura award this year serves as a strong reminder that the municipality government must work hand in hand with the community into
the kind of city they have in mind. The fact of life shows that there are only too few places in the city that are nice to look at. The traffic is a full mess. It seems, Makassar that is focusing on trade and maritime development, must take into serious consideration the environmental aspect. Dr. Noer Bahry Noor, Chairman of Makassar Healthy City Forum announces that to bring Makassar into
Healthy City does not imply a mere physical improvement. "Most important of all is a change in the community way of thinking," he says firmly. The Department of Health definition of healthy city is one that continuously improves the quality of physical and social environment through empowering its community to explore all the existing potentials, individually as well as communally. Bowo Leksono
Percik July 2007
A R O U N D W SS
Submission of MoU Document and Field Visit by ProAir
n 23 August 2007 a set aside a budget amounting 10 Memorandum of Underpercent of the grant fund for the standing on Water Supply development, excluding adminisDevelopment was signed by the trative related costs. Deputy for Facility and InfraAs a follow up, on 28 May-1 structure Development, Bappenas, June 2007 a courtesy call was Governor of NTT, Bupati of Alor and made for the submission of the Bupati of Ende. The memorandum memorandum document and a contains an agreement for the parvisit to take a look at the activity ties concerned to support water supprogress in the field. ply development in Kabupaten Alor In this opprtunity the Team and Kabupaten Ende through an consisting of Bappenas, Dept. extension of ProAir activity in NTT Home Affairs and Dept Health province for 2006-2008. For this took the opportunity to pay a purpose a grant fund at an amount courtesy visit to the Governor and Submission of MoU to the Governor of NTT. of 2.3 million has been made availHead of District of Alor. From Photo: Sutrisno able by Kfw of Germany for water the field visit it was summarized supply and sanitation development including community prepathat the implementation is in the stage of data collection from ration and capacity building of regional government officials. As the community and preparation of DED. OM counterpart, the regional governments of Alor and Ende must
Workshop on Kabupaten Bangka WSS Data Management
s part of WSS data management, on Tuesday 29 May 2007 a one-day workshop on WSS Data was held at Kabupaten Bangka, Province of Bangka Belitung. This workshop is mandated by the Kabupaten's WSS development strategy plan as a means for the development of baseline data. Present in the workshop were representatives of WSS stakeholders consisting of Bapedalda, Kimpraswil, Health Agency, Regional Development Agency, Camat, facilitated by Kabupaten level Bappeda with support from WASPOLA and Central WSSWG. The opening was made by the Regional Secretary of Kabupaten Bangka who emphasized the importance of data management in development planning. Poor data management will lead to poor planning, and end up in mistargeted development. This is what is called the principle of garbage in garbage out. In the following session it was participatory discussion for data management identification. The participants were divided into 2 groups, agency officers and kecamatan officers. The topic to discuss consisted of data of the existing WSS condition col-
lected from villages of 8 kecamatans. The simple instrument using the registration method triggers the need for data management of the existing condition. The next session deals with MDGs target in water and sanitation sector, covering WSS indicator, use of data base, and example of data calculation for Kabupaten Bangka. Then the discussion moved on to formulation of the required data indicators to be developed specifically for Kabupaten Bangka. Each of the agencies presented the existing data in possession and the possibility for further development. It was found out that the indicators are overlapping and confusion on who must be doing what among the agencies. Several of the proposals developed in the discussions comprise: a) establishement of a clearing house for kabupaten level data. The clearing house will serve as agent of interexchange for data traffic among agencies. There is for this purpose a need for a computer program to support this activity; b) establishment of a regional level WWS-WG forum for data classification and data category managed by the agencies; c) other forms of agreement such as follow up of the present workshop to discuss data management in more detail. GTM
Percik July 2007
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Gucialit Community Is Free From Defecating In the Open
nother prestigious achievement has been made. This time it is in East Java. One of the kecamatans of kabupaten Lumajang, Gucialit, has its community built household latrine and use it effectively. The kecamatan is now free from the habit of defecation in the open. The achievement is marked with "Declaration of Kecamatan Gucialit as Community Who Effectively Use Household Latrine" at the Desa Dadapan on 21 May 2007. Present in the Declaration were the representatives of Central CLTS Team, consisting of officials from Dept. Health, Home Affairs accompanied by E. Java CLTS Team and Regional Government Officials. The Gucialit achievement is carved through the implementation of CLTS (Community Led Total Sanitation) program, one of empowerment methodologies to change community habit initiated and led by the community itself without any external subsidy. This methodology was introduced in Kabupaten Lumajang
since 2005 along with the implementation of Desa Siaga (Alert Village) and Desa Sehat (Healthy Village) through Gebang Mas programs all intended to develop Healthy Lumajang 2007. H. Achmad Fauzi, the Bupati of Lumajang, in his welcome speech stated that in the field of empowerment Kabupaten Lumajang has developed skilled CLTS facilitators to render assistance to the communities at the kabupaten and kecamatan levels. "I believe that CLTS methodology is applicable not only to trigger latrine development, but also for other aspects of development," he styated. The community of Kecamatan Gucialit has demonstrated its success which contributes to the achievement of Healthy Lumajang 2007. Through the services of Special Working Units and camats the Bupati of Lumajang has requested the community of the region to together achieve Healthy Lumajang 2007. "This ideal can only be put into reality through real action and I strongly believe that Kabupaten Lumajang will become a healthy kabupaten," he said. BW
Credit Program for PDAM Service Connection
ecord indicates that more than 100 million of Indonesian population is presently is devoid of the access to water supply. Regional Utility Service (PDAM) is operating in 13 percent of the total administrative regions. To improve the coverage PDAM in collaboration with BRI (Bank Rakyat Indonesia) design a micro credit scheme for the community to access clean water service. The credit, at a maximum of Rp 3 million and term of repayment 2 years, is provided in cash to pay for new connection. As for the procedure, the customer has to go to PDAM counter and ask for the required form and other requirements as determined by PDAM and BRI. PDAM and the qualified candidate sub-
mit the document to BRI office at kecamatan level to be forwarded to kabupaten/kota level BRI branch office for processing. The candidate will have to open an account at BRI. Then BRI approves the request and transfer the new conne0ction cost to PDAM account in the bank. If the credit request is approved the customer will have a full package connection facility from PDAM with one tap fixed within the yard. An extension or additional taps within the house will cost additional in accordance with the real cost. If you are still without water supply, hurry up and request for a micro credit from BRI. BW
Photo: Bowo Leksono.
Percik July 2007
A R O U N D W SS
World Water 2007 Expo
WITH A HOPE THAT IT IS NOT A MERE CEREMONY
ne of the events of the World Water Day national commemoration was the 3-day World Water Expo held at the Dept. of Public Works office compound on 2-4 May 2007. The expo which an item of annual agenda was attended by 62 participants occupying 123 stands. The participants represented various groups, including government institutions, private sector, and organizations related to environmental activities. In his opening speech Ir. Siswoko, Dipl. HE, Director General for Water Resources Dept. of Public Works mentioned that for Indonesian the World Water Day is not a mere celebration to thank God for the blessing of abundant water to this country. "But simultaneously it is an event to remind us that we are being faced with a big problem with water. This year we were reminded again, with the irregular pattern of world rainfall caused by drastic climatic changes and reduced water absorbing capacity of the ground due to environmental degradation. All this boils down to our problem with water scarcity," he revealed. Siswoko stressed that it is the time for us to realize that Indonesia is indeed suffering from water scarcity especially the regions with low rainfall. Water scarcity becomes problem of the community all the year round. "When water quantity in its source becomes limited and its quality is made poor from man's carelessness the sum result will read: water is becoming a scarce good and more costly," he stated. After opening the expo, Siswoko took a walk around the stands for the exhibition. One of the stands in run by WSSWG and WASPOLA. ISSDP and Plan
The stand maintained by WSS WG-WASPOLA in the World Water Day 2007exhibition. Photo: Bowo Leksono
Indonesia also took part in the expo.. Various WSS related information was made available in the stand. This stand is quite informative because of the amount of information made available to visitors. But the actual problem lies with how WSS-WG could put its ideals into implementation where many of the regions of Indonesia are not dealt with," said Sahroel Polantolo, one of the visitors to Percik. Further Sahroel felt pity that as an institution with so much information in hand and so many real activities being done yet the stand is too small. "It is pity, indeed, the space is too small that visitors looking for information cannot do it more freely," he said. World Water Day has been commemorated 15 times since its launching in 1992
by the United Nations that decided that 22 March as World Water Day. All nations of the world commemorate it every year. Based on common agreement among national stakeholders the theme for this year's commemoration is "Coping with Water Scarcity" in line with the integrated effort to overcome water scarcity and flood control. It is hoped that the expo as one of the World Water Day commemoration agenda does not end up at a mere ceremony. It is high time for the government and the community as well to take a serious consideration of the water scarcity problem. And the means to control flood that regularly hits many areas is also our responsibility. BW
Percik July 2007
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Various Offers of Potable Water
In the meantime, Shamsul n Indonesia, water ready for Huda, WHO Environmental drinking is not generally conHealth Adviser mentioned that sidered as a nationwide the discussion on household demand. While only 22 percent or level water treatment manage52 million of our population is still ment conforms to one of WHO foreign to access to water supply. To strategies. "This strategy is introduce several simple technoloaimed at increasing access to gies for producing drinkable water water supply through assessDept. Health in collaboration with ment of technology choices for WHO, and USAID held a presentathe provision of drinking tion cum discussion entitled water," he said. In this oppor"Socialization of Several New tunity several relatively simOptions for Household Level Water Presentation and discussion of various water treatment ple, non-costly yet effective Treatment" that took place at the technologies in Dept. Health. Photo: Bowo Leksono technologies related to water Office of the Directorate General for supply production such as air Environmental Health on 19 April. rahmat, aquatabs, purifier of water drinking. "This is an old practice. As a Dr. Wan Alkadri, Director of (PUR), sodis and simple filtration unit matter of fact there is no guarantee that Environmental Hygiene in his introducwere introduced. BW after boiling water is free from disease," tion mentioned that around 90 percent of he said Indonesian population boils water for
Five millions conservation workers are ready to make Indonesia "green"
he multidimensional crisis that continuously hits Indonesia is influencing all aspects of life, including the worsening of environmental condition. One of them is the effect of global warming that has been a problem for the entire world. This was revealed on the bestowal of Cadres of Environmental conservationists of Kebangkitan Bangsa Party (PKB) at the compound of the party's head office, Jakarta, on Sunday 22 April. This presentation was made on the day coinciding the Earth Day 2007. Before the inauguration, Th Party Chairman, Muhaimin Iskandar says that PKB has just declared that as green party determines to resolve many national problems through environmental aspect. In this occasion a dangdut singer Inul Daratista and a movie actor Tengku Firmansyah are named the Environmental Ambassadors of the political party. "I want Indonesia to become green again," says Inul after her inauguration. To conclude the occasion An Inconvenient Truth, a movie directed by Divis Guggehheim, winner of Oscar prize 2007 was put to screen. The mission of the political party with symbol globe is having
Inauguration of Inul Daratista and Tengku Firmansyah as Environmental Ambassadors. Photo: Bowo Leksono
5 million conservation workers ready to take conservation jobs all over the country. Can these 5 million workers turn Indonesia back to green? Let's see. BW
Percik July 2007
A R O U N D W SS
Let a lake be basin where water parks
LAKES HAVE TO BE PRESERVED
Created by Rudi Kosasih 2007
e hope that from now on no more lake is to be filled in and turned into real estate or residential area," says Djoko Kirmanto, Minister of Public Works firmly in his welcome speech in the Lauching of Revitalization of Lake Cikaret, at Kampung Tengah, Kecamatan Cibinong, Bogor, Wednesday 9 May. Before that, a signing of memorandum of understanding by three cabinet ministers, Public Works, Forestry and Agriculture. This marked the peak event of World Water Day XV 2007. In the common agreement the three government departments will formulate an integrated program and a synergy of land and water resources conservation. Lake conservation is indispensable, therefore there will be no more lake converted to other purposes. Djoko Kirmanto sees that the degradation of land and water resources has reached an alarming stage that it becomes the main cause for flood, landslide and drought. "We have to immediately restore lake and upper watershed as protection areas through active participation of the whole community," he says. One of the main causes for flood disaster is that many lakes have lost their capacity. Lakes must be seen as water parking area to let it gradually penetrates
deeper into the ground as water reserve. Therefore lake revitalization is deemed necessary. "We haven't treated the land around us in response to what it has been valuable to us. Watershed degradation from man's destructive hands will eventually cause harm to himself," says Djoko. It is planned that by 2009 more than 140 lakes in Jabotabekpunjur (Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang, Bekasi, Puncak and Cianjur) area will be revived to its former life. Department of Public Works has been allocated Rp 250 billion fund for this purpose. This year work is on going in 51 lakes, while in 2008 and 2009 another 51 and 40 lakes respectively. The revitalization consists of among others dredging, and physical construction such as spillway, intake sluice and paved track for jogging and amusement purposes. The Dept. of Public Works has started with the revitalization since 1996 and it has been heightened since the occurrence of the recent flood. Three government departments involved have tried to take improvement measures, through extension services, care development, technical counseling, advocacy, human resources and institutional capacity building, and counterpart provision. Minister of Public Works is convinced that the community will be
amenable once they understand what's it all about, and for this it is nescessary to have a national movement. In the meantine, Minister of Forestry MS Kaban disclosed that this year the Government has rehabilitated 110 ha upper watershed lands in the area of Jabotabekpunjur at a cost of around Rp 850 billion. The budget is integrated amounts in three Departments, Public Works, Forestry and Agriculture. "The leading agency for the operation is Public Works," he said. The Deputy Bupati of Bogor, Albert Pribadi is pleased with the Government effort. "There are in Kabupaten Bogor 93 lakes, of which 15 are in their worst condition. We, together with the community, are fully supporting the revitalization program," he says. Further Albert says that a firm steps will be taken for any building and construction that violate the spatial plan. "We have a Regional Government Regulation (Perda) on Spatial Plan. Any building constructied in violation of the spatial plan will be demolished immediately," says Albert firmly. Let's hope that lakes are really treated as basins where water parks to eventually function as water reserve and simultaneously flood control system. BW
Percik July 2007
The Launching of National Campaign for Wash Hands with Soap 2007
An Easy Path toward Hygienic Life
housands of primary school children standing in rows around the National Monument, Jakarta, on Sunday 6 May. They are smiling indicating happiness. What are they doing, actually? Yes, the pure hearted children are taking part in the campaign promoting thw habit of washing hands with soap. This habit is intended to improve community health through of hygiene behaviour. Hygiene behaviour must start early from childhood. The Coordination Minister for Welfare Aburizal Bakrie accompanied by
Minister Health, Minister of Education and State Minister of Women Empowerment marked the beginning of the campaign with releasing gas filled balloons into the air. The hand washing campaign at the same time also serves to commemorate the Education Day, was held simultaneously in Bandung, Medan and Surabaya. "This campaign is necessary because we want to introduce the correct way of washing hands," said Ical, so Aburizal Bakrie is intimately called, in front of 2,700 mothers and children from 25 pri-
mary schools of Jakarta and Bekasi. In fact, handwashing can reduce the risk of diarrhoea contamination by 40 percent and prevention of other diseases such as skin infection, pneumonia and avian flu. The Coordination Minister started with the practice of washing hands before the children and their parents. He washed his hands with soap, rinsed them with water, and mopped them with a dry towel. This was followed by Minister of Health, Minister of Education, State Minister of Women Empowerment, UNICEF representative and other Officials. It is hoped the campaign leads to community awareness of hygiene behaviour that eventually reduces prevalence of contagious diseases. Preceding the launching, a media campaign and wash hand with soap training as a simple means for hygiene life in various primary schools throughout Indonesia. In order to attract a wider audience about this national program the Coordination Minister with support from USAID through Environmetal Services Program undertakes an internet based campaign as complementary the Wash Hands With Soap Campaign 2007.
Little "doctors" are practising wash hands with soap during the launching of Wash Hands With Soap Program 2007 at the Jakarta National Monument. Photo: Bowo Leksono
Percik July 2007
kampanye berbasis internet sebagai penunjang kegiatan Kampanye Nasional Cuci Tangan Pakai Sabun 2007. Makna Cuci Tangan Pakai Sabun Cuci tangan pakai sabun adalah cara penting untuk bisa mencegah penyebaran penyakit menular, beberapa diantaranya diare, flu burung, dan tipes. Menurut penelitian, membiasakan cuci tangan pakai sabun dapat menekan angka kematian anak di Indonesia. Karena penyakit diare menjadi penyebab kematian bayi yang cukup tinggi. Diare bukan masalah yang sepele mengingat di Indonesia tercatat rata-rata terjadi 100 ribu kasus diare per tahun. Sehingga perlu dipahami dan disadari bersama bahwa mencuci tangan dengan sabun adalah perilaku yang mudah dilakukan dan efektif untuk mencegah diare. Badan kesehatan dunia WHO (World Health Organization) juga mencatat penyebab kematian terbesar bagi bayi dan balita (anak bawah lima tahun) di dunia adalah ISPA (infeksi saluran pernapasan atas) dan diare. Cuci tangan pakai sabun bisa melepaskan kuman penyebab infeksi dengan murah dan mudah, sehingga dianggap sebagai salah satu cara efektif mencegah terjadinya penyakit. Bagi Indonesia, cuci tangan pakai sabun ini bisa menurunkan angka kematian bayi dan balita di Indonesia yang saat ini tercatat 35 per 1000 kelahiran hidup untuk bayi 0-12 bulan dan 46 per 1000 kelahiran hidup untuk anak bawah lima tahun (balita). Program ini sebenarnya telah dihembuskan sejak Januari 2006 bahkan beberapa program telah dirintis dari tahun 2005 dengan tujuan; meningkatkan pengetahuan dan merubah sikap ibu rumah tangga yang mempunyai balita tentang manfaat cuci tangan pakai sabun. Mengembangkan kelompok-kelompok masyarakat yang mendukung masalah higinitas dan sanitasi termasuk perilaku cuci tangan pakai sabun. Dan mengembangkan metode, pesan-pesan, dan produk komunikasi versi komunitas.
Anak-anak Sekolah Dasar bergembira menyambut program Cuci Tangan Pakai Sabun. Foto: Bowo Leksono.
untuk melakukannya dengan benar pada saat yang penting. Langkah Tepat Cuci Tangan Pakai Sabun 1. Basuh tangan dengan air yang mengalir, cuci dengan sabun, dan gosok kedua tangan selama 20 detik hingga berbusa. Pastikan menggosok bagian di sela-sela jari, di bawah kuku, dan punggung tangan. 2. Bilas tangan dengan air mengalir selama 10 detik. 3. Keringkan tangan dengan menggunakan kain lap yang bersih dan kering. Waktu Penting Cuci Tangan Pakai Sabun 1. Sebelum makan. 2. Sesudah buang air besar. 3. Sebelum memegang bayi. 4. Sesudah menceboki anak. 5. Sebelum menyiapkan makanan. Mencuci tangan dengan menggunakan sabun akan mampu mengurangi hingga 47 persen penderita diare dan 30 persen untuk infeksi saluran pernafasan akut atau ISPA (infeksi saluran pernapasan atas). Tidak perlu mahal untuk hidup sehat dan dengan cara yang mudah pula. Jadi kapan lagi kita memulai hidup sehat? BW
Fakta Berbicara Angka-angka di atas menjadi acuan agar masyarakat sadar dan peduli arti pentingnya hidup sehat dengan memulainya dari kedua tangan. Untuk itu program kampanye dimaksudkan agar pemahaman masyarakat semakin kuat dan pada akhirnya dikembalikan pada manusianya sendiri. Berikut beberapa fakta tentang arti pentingnya kebersihan tangan: 1. Tangan adalah salah satu penghantar utama masuknya kuman penyakit ke tubuh manusia. Cuci tangan dengan sabun dapat menghambat masuknya kuman penyakit ke tubuh manusia melalui perantaraan tangan. 2. Tangan manusia yang kotor karena menyentuh feses mengandung kurang lebih 10 juta virus dan 1 juta bakteri. 3. Kuman penyakit seperti virus dan bakteri tidak dapat terlihat secara kasat mata sehingga sering diabaikan dan mudah masuk ke tubuh manusia. 4. Hampir semua orang mengerti pentingnya cuci tangan pakai sabun namun tidak membiasakan diri
Percik Juli 2007
A BS T R A C T
The Relationship between Water Supply and Sanitation Development with Health Improvement
(Case Study of the villages of Jambearjo and Klampok in Kabupaten Malang)
he government has implemented various Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation development projects/programs since Pelita-I till now. According to World Bank report using Susenas Data of 2004, only 48 percent of the population is currently covered with clean water service, 42 percent of urban and 51 percent of village population. It is also mentioned in the report that for the period of 8 years from 1994 till 2002 service coverage increase is only 9 percent, in the urban. Furthermore, 40 percent of the population is still defecating in a variety of improper places like garden, fish pond, lake, river and seafront. This has caused the relatively high prevalence of diarrhoea diseases at 280 per 1000 population and places third in the causes of infant mortality, second in children below 5 and fifth of general population and they frequently come as extraordinary occurrence with high mortality rate. The reason for the low water supply and sanitation service coverage is because the government does not consider it a priority. That's also the reason why the World Bank has provided a loan for water supply and sanitation development through WSLIC-2 project. Research Purpose and Method Applied The study was intended to measure WSLIC-2 project effectiveness as it relates to improvement of community health as indicated from reduction of diarrhoea cases in children under 5 years old and to identify the most dominant factors for the reduction. This study was a survey research (i.e non experimental). It was conducted through questionaires directed to housewives with children under five years old. The survey areas consist of a village with functioning water supply and sanitiation facility. As control, another village that in terms of geographical condition, socio-economic status and community habit are similar with the
focus villages, but without improved water supply and sanitation facility. Result Obtained A reduction on diarrhoea cases has been recorded after the water supply and sanitation facility has been functioning. This is indicated through comparing the control village (Klampok, 48 diarrhoea cases) with Jambearjo, 13 cases. In terms the general population regardless of age there is a reduction from 154 for every 1.000 people down to 90. The reduction of diarrhoea cases for children below 5 years old is considered as the result of the availability of clean water, facility for defecation, washing hands after defecation, washing hands after child cleansing, disposal of child faeces, waste disposal facility and better knowledge about environmental hygiene. Recommendation From the findings of the study and for the purpose of reducing the prevalence of diarrhoea diseases in other villages it is recommended that the regional government seriously considere the replication of WSLIC-2 approaches particularly in the toilet facility development, enhancement of hygiene behaviour especially washing hands with soap and development of waste disposal facility. It is also recommended to conduct a more detailed research especially with Jambearjo about the other diarrhoea causing factors, because the findings indicate that even after water supply facility has been running sufficiently well the diarrhoea problem in children prevails. As we know the causes of diarrhoea are not limited to water supply and sanitation only, there are other factors that may play some role.
Condensed from thesis by Rheidda Pramudhy Environmental Study Program Graduate School, University of Indonesia
Percik July 2007
I AT P I C L I N I C
Percik magazine in cooperation with the Association of Sanitation Engineers and Environmental Engineers maintains Clinic column. This column deals with question and answers on water supply and environmental sanitation.
Question can be forwarded through Percik magazine Contributors: Sandhi Eko Bramono (Sandhieb@yahoo.com), Lina Damayanti (Ldamayanti@yahoo.com)
HYACINTH FOR TREATMENT
OF HUMAN EXCREMENT
Question: Is it true that water hyacinth can be used to treat human excrement? Darma Pekanbaru Answer: Water hyacinth can be used for treatment of human excrement. This is because this plant thrives well on lands rich in organic compounds yet low in oxygen content. Water hyacinth uses the organic matter of human waste for nutrition. And besides, the plant is relatively resistant to nitrate and phosphate containing water such as the ponds that are highly polluted with detergents from domestic wastewater. However, uncontrolled water hyacinth population is detrimental because it may cause shallowing of water body from the piling up of dead stems bringing oxygen content extremely low (that makes septic-anaerobic condition as evidenced from dark water colour and smells bad that in the end kills all aquatic life). Water hyacinth seed can live a dormant life for a long time even in a very bad environmental condition. This means, if the seed are released into the environment (free water body) someday they will germinate and cause an uncontrolled water hyacinth field and weed problem far away from its place of origin.
Answer: Animal waste can be used to make composting process faster, because it improves C/N ratio of the solid waste. In its application, considering continuity and availability of supply, it is recommended to economize the use of the animal waste. The best waste for use is one produced from poultry farm (it needs the least amount), the least is goat waste because it needs 5-6 times the amount of chicken droppings for the same result. Based on the average solid waste characteristics in Indonesia, the ratio for a good composting process is 100 kg solid waste mixed with 12 kg chicken waste.
Question: In a leachate treatment of a TPA using the combination of aerator, alum addition, and filter: a. What is the right order of application for the above combination? And why? b. How long should the aerator be operated to treat 1.5 l/sec leachate discharge? c. What is the recommended alum dosage to treat the 1.5 l/sec leachate? Bambang Widiyoko Sleman
MAKES COMPOSTING FASTER
Question: Is it true that composting time can be shortened by adding animal manure? Then, what type of animal waste is the best used for it? Sopacua Ambon
Answer: a. The best recommended order is aeration (using aerator), followed by alum application, wait till sedimentation takes place, and finally filtration (refrain from direct filtering, but wait for a while till sedimentation takes place, this is to prevent clogging of filter element). b. It is recommendable that the time for the treatment is 1218 hours. c. The alum dosage is approx. 50-60 mg per litre of leachate. Assuming the discharge rate of 1.5 l/sec and alum purity at 60 percent, then alum requirement is 12.95 kg per day.
Percik July 2007
BO O K I N F O
ELIMINATE POVERTY SIGNIFICANTLY
ACCESS TO BASIC SERVICES FOR THE POOR THE IMPORTANCE OF GOOD GOVERNANCE
Author: Asia-Pacific MDG Study Series Publisher: UNESCAP-UNDP-ADB, 2007 Pages: 50 pages his book discusses matters related to good governance as it relates to MDGs achievement that has been a topic of discussion for some time. The explanation stresses more on poverty reduction to a significant level. The 50 page book also presents a number of strategies to overcome barriers faced by the community in obtaining public services in terms of financial, legal,
local socio-cultural including political aspects. This book is divided into 4 chapters, Barriers to Services, Strategies to Overcome Barriers, The Importance of
Good Governance, and Conclusion. It also discusses strategies to touch, involve and empower the poor communities in order to improve their life. Specific discussion on community empowerment is made in Chapter 3 under section Empowering the Poor. In brief the commitment to build good governance is important in strategy formulation for provision of basic services and poverty reduction effectively and sustainably. Good governance guarantees that poor community and other less privileged groups are involved in decision making about public services and their influence to their life. The involvement of the poor as party in the motivation towards self reliance. And transparancy is an important base for public service provision. BW
Development Planning and Community Empowerment
AUTONOMOUS REGION DEVELOPMENT PLANNING AND COMMUNITY EMPOWERMENT
Author: Dr. Drs. I Nyoman Sumaryadi, M.Si Publisher: Citra Utama, 2005 Pages: 290 pp (in Bahasa) Title actively participate in the development. Empowerment is a process for individuals in the community to be self reliant, motivated and sufficiently skilled. Empowerment also means improving productivity. The author discusses 5 aspects in empowerment to be taken into consideration. First, the leaders must fully understand the empowerment concept. Second, the empowerment concept assumes cultural, organizational and corporate changes. Third, the leaders must realize that in implementation of the concept there will be changes in role including reduction of the role of the leaders. Fourth, the community must also undergo some change in itself. And fifth, it must be realized that empowerment process is not a one shot deal. It needs time and patience. BW
his book consists of two parts each This book conssists of two parts each is divided into 5 chapters. Part one discusses autonomous region development planning. Part two about community empowerment. Part one describes that regional autonomy related development consists of three phases, i.e. pre planning, planning and implementation including its related supervision.
The pre planning phase stresses the importance of awareness campaign to all government officials, members of DPRD and others on matters related to the planning. Then comes the planning process following a preliminary comprehensive study of the area in order to get a basic knowledge about the area. While part two or community empowerment explains that empowerment is an effort for the community to become
Percik July 2007
W E BS I T E I N F O
The IRC International Water and Sanitation Center (IRC)
http://www.irc.nl/content/search/?Sea rchText=community+development&Sear chButton=Search
implementation. This site is maintained by Management Alternatives, a management consultant focussing on community, NGO and government based activities.
Community Development Xchange
http://www.cdx.org.uk/about/whatiscd.htm This site provides relatively sufficient information on community development from definition, glossary related to community development and tools for use for community development work effectively. Publication related to the topic is also available for the visitors to read. Some of the interesting topics to include: Community DevelopmentEverywhere and Nowhere: rediscovering the purpose and practice of community development, Political, Professional,
The Asset Based Community Development Institute
http://www.northwestern.edu/ipr /abcd.html Through this web the visitor may obtain various published materials on community development. Some of the interesting topics include: Building Communities from the Inside Out: a Path toward Finding and Mobilizing Community Asset Voluntary Association in Low Income Neighbourhood: An Unexplored Community Resources, A Guide to Evaluating Asset Based Community Development, and others. This web also provides discussion groups for interested visitors. This web is maintained by The Asset Based Community Development Institute who realizes that community assets are key to sustainable development and community revitalization efforts in rural areas.
In this website visitors may obtain a selection of as many as 3394 articles related to community development. These articles consist mainly of lessons learned from community development activities particularly within the realm of water and sanitation conducted by IRC in many countries. This site is maintained by IRC Water and Sanitation Center, a foundation focussing on water and sanitation for the purpose of facilitation sharing process, promotion, and application of the available knowledge so that government, professionals, and organizations could help the poor of the developing nations to obtain water and sanitation services they could operate and maintain by themselves.
Management Alternatives for Human Services
http://www.mapl.com.au/ComDev.htm This site does not specifically deal with community development, but through this site visitors may obtain brief explanation on the basic concept of community development, from different angles such as process, relationship with various aspects of life, and the outcome expected from community development
Powerful-understanding community development, Having Your SayResponses to 'Building Civil Renewal': A Review of Government Support for Community Capacity Building, Improving the Health of Communities: the Role of Community Development in Tackling Health Inequalities, and others. Also available discussion forum on selected topics. The website is maintained by Community Development Xchange, a non government organization intended to make changes through social justice and equality through socialization of values and community development approach.
http://www.infed.org/community/ b-comdv.htm In this web the visitor could obtain information about various aspects of community development, from the history of community development up to community participation and social capital. Also presentation of selected references on community development. This site is maintained by Infed, an independent NGO consisting of teachers and instructors. RR
Percik July 2007
"Musyawarah" is a form of community empowerment
usyawarah" a word adapted from the Arabic, meaning decision making through common deliberation to clear up differences. Musyawarah has long been adopted by Indonesians, and is key to community life. When the wheel of globalization and modernization is turning and grinding old values mercilessly, it seems as if "musyawarah" would be doomed forever. Especially of the urban community who tends to be individualistic. The show is neatly wrapped in a VCD to portray how the age long values and heritage are still relevant for application in this modern time. One form of community empowerment. The underlying principle is from the community, by the community, and for the community. Saiyo sakato , a musyawarah experience of Bukit Gombak, the World Bank facilitated video production starts with the background illustrating the community life of Jorong, Bukit Gombak, W. Sumatra. The leading performers are mainly women. Some of them are tapping for latex of rubber plants, others sell pandan mats. They work hard to make their family
survive. Although the people live in a scenic country it doesn't always mean that they live harmoniously. Individual disagreements may arise from time to time especially in the public bathing. They fight to be the first to enter. Everyone needs water, for bathing, washing and defecating. There is only one facility for all. "Musyawarah" is key. Every discussion is done through this community forum. The community has its unique way to get together. Saluang, one of the traditional music of Minangkabau, is made a tool to make the people come together. Differences must be honoured and valued as something natural that eventually will converge into agreement. The implementation is done through the communal work ("gotong royong"). The principle of carrying a burden together is effectively used in resolving water scarcity. Participaton of all members of the community is a form of empowerment. The 16 min. video is flowing nicely in local dialect with Minang traditional music for the background. BW
Empowerment Makes Dream a Reality
one of us is entirely penniless. Each has something, however small it may seem, at the least we have consent, honesty, and care which may serve as the basic moral capital. That is the opening statement of a 17 min. VCD entitled "Make Your Dream Come True". The docu-drama video that was produced in 2005 flows out of Ibu Yati's viewpoint. The mother of three children tells us her experience about the misfortune she and her family suffered during the monetary crisis. Unable to pay the educational cost was aggravated with the laying off of her husband from his job. The drama depicting Ibu Yati and her family sufficiently portrays how the poor should struggle and wake up towards a better life. When Ibu Yati joins others in a community group
named Puspasari, a new chapter of her family's life begins to take place. The group membership consists of various different background is determined to improve their living condition. It is not only in saving and loan activity, all other life improvement related issues are listed in the agenda for discussion (i.e. the musyawarah). As it is, this empowering group also discusses other things including hygiene, education, social, economic and political matters. Educational aspect includes literacy education. Everything seems easy if it is done collectively. Ibu Yati's patience and perseverance has led her to Puspasari Group Chairmanship. The lack of education that ends at poverty is being subjected for Urban Community Poverty Alleviation Project through this video. Empowerment makes the community learn a lesson, progressive, self reliant and free from poverty. BW
Percik July 2007
A G E N DA
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45
01 May 2007 1-2 May 2007
WS for Strategy Plan Formulation for Gorontalo City conducted by WASPOLA WS on Data Management conducted by WASPLOA in Kabupaten Bangka WS "Macro Study on Indentification of National Demand for Raw Water" held by Dit Gen Cipta karya Dept PW at Grand Mahakam Hotel World Water Expo XV 2007 held at the Dept. Public Works Office Follow up WS on the Strategy Plan Formulation for Bone Bolango and Pahuwato held by WASPOLA WS for Strategy Plan Formulation for Kabupaten Bangka Tengah conducted by WASPOLA WS "Study on Pollution of Drinking Water Supply" held the Office Dit. Gen PP&PL Dept Health MPA-PHAST Training for National WSS-WG held in Semarang by Dit. Gen PMD Dept. Home Affairs Follow up Strategy Plan Formulation for Kabs. Bima, Dompu, Lombok Tengah by WASPOLA WS on Data Management for NTT Province conducted by WASPLOA Launching of Lake Revitalization aand Singing MOU between Ministers PW, Forestry and Agriculture at Lake Cikaret conducted by WASPOLA WS on CB-WWS for Kab. Soppeng conducted by WASPOLA WS for Strategy Plan Formulation for Kabupaten Wajo, S. Sulawesi conducted by WASPOLA Meeting with Netherland Red Cross at the WSS-WG Office WS on Provincial ISSDP Sanitation Program Policy and Strategy held by ISSDP at W. Java Bappeda Office WS for Strategy Plan Formulation for Kabupaten Pemalang, C. Java conducted by WASPOLA Declaration of Gucialit Community's Freedom from Defecation in the Open at Dadapan village ProAir Techn. Training for Publ Works officials at ABP Training Centre, Surabaya WS for Strategy Plan Formulation for Kabs. Konawe Selatan and Konawe conducted by WASPOLA WS for Strategy Plan Formulation for Kab. Pesisir Selatan, W. Sumatra by WASPOLA WS on Basic Facilitator for W. Sumatra Province conducted by WASPOLA MPA-PHAST Preparation in Makassar conducted by DG Rural Development and WASPOLA WSS Talkshow: "Groundwater Pollution" at DAAI TV Monev by ProAir Technical Team in Kab. Ende conducted by Dit Gen. PP&PL Dept Health ToT for Strategy Plan Formulation for NTT Province held by WASPOLA WS for Strategy Plan Formulation for Kabupaten Bangka conducted by WASPOLA WS for Strategy Plan Formulation for Bukittinggi conducted by WASPOLA Monev by ProAir Technical Team in Kab. Alor conducted by Dit Gen. PP&PL Dept Health Kick Off Meeting WSLIC-2 Project held in Jakarta by Dit. Gen. PP&PL Dept Health Visit of WSLIC-2 Supervision Mission to Provinces of E. Java, NTB, S. Sulawesi and W.Sulawesi by DG PP&PL Dept. Health Finalising Strategy Plan Formulation for Kab. Tanah Datar, by WASPOLA Meeting on WSS Development Plan at Cisarua conducted by WSS-WG WS on Policy Review and Strategy Plan Formulation for Kab. Cilacap conducted by WASPOLA Training on Strategy Plan Formulation for Kab. Konawe conducted by WASPOLA Training on Strategy Plan Formulation for Kab. South Konawe conducted by WASPOLA Technical Consultation Hygiene Environment Program and Evaluation of Health Kabutaen and Kota Makassar, conducted by DG PP&PL Dept. Health CLTS Training for Kab. Tanah Datar conducted by Dit. Gen PP&PL Dept. Health MPA-PHAST Training for National WSS-WG held in Makassar by Dit. Gen PMD Dept. Home Affairs CWSHP Technical Training for the Province of Jambi held by Dept. Publ Works WS for Strategy Plan Formulation for Kabupaten Bone Bolango conducted by WASPOLA Indowater Expo & Forum at Jakarta Convention Centre held by Napindo Media Ashatama Interactive Dialogue "Where Goes My Clean Water" at Jakarta Convention Centre held by Napindo Media Ashatama within the framework of Indowater Expo and Forum 2007 Preparatory WWS thematic training for S. A. Tirtayasa University students prepared for field works CWSHP Technical Training at Pontianak W. Kalimantan held by Dept. Publ Works WS on synergy of WSLIC, UNICEF and WASPOLA in Sumbawa held by UNICEF
02 May 2007 2-4 May 2007 3-4 May 2007 04 May 2007 7-12 May 2007 7-11 May 2007 9-10 May 2007 09 May 2007 10 May 2007 12 May 2007 15 May 2007 15 May 2007 15-16 May 2007 21 May 2007 21 May 2007 21-24 May 2007 21 May 2007 22-24 May 2007 22-23 May 2007 24 May 2007 28-29 May 2007 28-30 May 2007 29-30 May 2007 29 May 2007 30-31 May 2007 04 June 2007 5-11 June 2007 6-7 June 2007 8-9 June 2007 11-15 June 2007 11-13 June 2007 14-15 June 2007 12-15 June 2007 11-15 June 2007 18-23 June 2007 18-22 June 2007 19-20 June 2007 20-22 June 2007 20 June 2007 25-29June 2007 25-29 June 2007 29-30 June 2007
Percik July 2007
W SS B I B L I O G R A P H Y
FIRST QUARTERLY REPORT 2007 ON PROGRESS OF COOPERATION BETWEEN BAPPENAS AND PLAN INDONESIA Publisher: Bappenas - Plan Indonesia, 2007 (in Bahasa) REPORT ON THE NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON STRATEGY FOR CLTS DEVELOPMENT Publisher: Dept. of Health, 2006 (in Bahasa) INTEGRATED CITARUM WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT PROGRAM (ICWRMP) Publisher: Dept. Public Works, 2006
PROFILE OF MULTILATERAL FUNDING INSTITUTION: ISLAMIC DEVELOPMENT BANK Publisher: Directorate of Multilateral Foreign Funding. Bappenas 2006 MANAGING WATER IN THE HOME: ACCELERATED HEALTH GAINS FROM IMPROVED WATER SUPPLY Publisher: WHO, 2002 COMMUNITY EMPOWERMENT PROGRAM WITH CIVIL SOCIETY IN INDONESIA (CEP) Publisher: Secretariate of PKPM-BAPPENAS-JICA, 2004 WATER CRISIS: MYTH OR REALITY? Publisher: Taylor & Francis / Balkema, 2006
B O O K
PROFILE OF MULTILATERAL FUNDING INSTITUTION: UNITED NATIONS Publisher: Directorate of Multilateral Foreign Funding. Bappenas 2006 (in Bahasa) PROFILE OF MULTILATERAL FUNDING INSTITUTION: WORLD BANK Publisher: Directorate of Multilateral Foreign Funding. Bappenas 2006 (in Bahasa) PROFILE OF MULTILATERAL FUNDING INSTITUTION: ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK (ADB) Publisher: Directorate of Multilateral Foreign Funding. Bappenas 2006 (in Bahasa) PROFILE OF MULTILATERAL FUNDING INSTITUTION: EUROPEAN UNION Publisher: Directorate of Multilateral Foreign Funding. Bappenas 2006 (in Bahasa)
R E G U L A T I O N
GOVERNMENT REGULATION No. 20 OF 2006 ON IRRIGATION REGULATION OF MINISTRY OF FINANCE No. 52/PMK.010/2006 ON PROCEDURE OF GRANT ALLOCATION TO THE REGION REGULATION OF MINISTRY OF FINANCE No. 53/PMK.010/2006 ON PROVISION OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT LOAN TO THE REGION WITH FUND OBTAINED FROM FOREIGN LOAN
MA G A Z I N E
PERCIK JUNIOR MAGAZINE, Edition II, April 2007 PERCIK MAGAZINE, April 2007 edition, English version CSR REVIEW MAGAZINE, Vol. I No. 3, May-June 2007 CIPTA KARYA BULLETIN No. 4, Year V, April 2007
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