Information Media for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Published by: Water Supply and Sanitation Working Group

Advisor: Director General for Human Settlement, Department of Public Works Board of Trustee: Director of Settlement and Housing, National Development Planning Agency Director of Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Health Director of Water Supply Development, Department of Public Works Director of Natural Resources and Appropriate Technology, Director General on Village and Community Empowerment, Department of Home Affairs Director for Facilitation of Special Planning Environment Management, Department of Home Affairs Chief Editor: Oswar Mungkasa Board of Editor: Zaenal Nampira, Indar Parawansa, Bambang Purwanto Editor: Maraita Listyasari, Rheidda Pramudhy, Raymond Marpaung, Fanny Wedahuditama Design/Illustrator: Rudi Kosasih Production: Machrudin Distribution: Agus Syuhada Address: Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat Phone/Fax.: 62-21-31904113 http://www.ampl.or.id e-mail: redaksipercik@yahoo.com redaksi@ampl.or.id oswar@bappenas.go.id Unsolicited article or opinion items are welcome. Please send to our address or e-mail. Don't forget to be brief and accompanied by identity. Cover: RudiKoz DESIGN idea by OM

From the Editor Your Voice Main Feature World Water Day 2008, Putting Forward Sanitation Issues The Celebration of World Water Day in Indonesia Sanitation Services Coverage per District/Municipal 2006 Sanitation Corner International Year of Sanitation 2008 Launching in Philippine Interview Ir. Susmono, Director of Settlement Environmental Sanitation Development, Department of Public Works: Integrated Program is Needed to Handle Sanitation Regulation Ministerial Decree of Public Works No. 21/PRT/M/2006 on The National Policy and Strategy of Solid Waste Management System Development Insight Measuring Diarrhoea with Figures Rote Ndao Prioritizes Water Source Protection Overview Banjarmasin, City of Thousand Rivers and Latrines Revolving Latrine and Well Reportage Green Office Inspiration Greening Bintaro Reflection Cipto Pratomo: Changing Waste into Art Our Guest Valerina Daniel (Environment Ambassador) Around WSLIC-2 Around ISSDP Around WASPOLA Around WSES Program Toyota Echo Youth: Increasing Young Generation's Awareness IATPI Clinic CD Info Book Info Website Info WSES Bibliography Agenda Glossary
Percik magazine can be accessed through WSS website http://www.ampl.or.id

1 2 3 4 8 10

13

14 16 18 20 21 22 23 24 26 28 30 32 37 45 47 48 49 50 51 52

FROM EDITOR
very year, since 16 years ago, every 22nd of March, we celebrate World Water Day (WWD). In line with launching of International Year of Sanitation (IYS) 2008, World Water Day this year also puts forward sanitation theme. In Indonesia, it was agreed that the WWD's theme is "Sanitation Conserves Water and Environment". Turning Sanitation as the theme of WWD is the right decision regarding the condition of sanitation in Indonesia, which is far from adequate and feasible. Around 77 percent of the population in Indonesia still do not have access to safe and proper sanitation facility. This amount is more or less 9 times of Jakarta's population. Do not expect our water and environment condition would be healthy if our sanitation is still a problem; when many of the population still defecate openly; when most of us have not fully understood the importance of hand washing with soap as the prevention of water borne diseases; when solid waste is still disposed openly, which become the source of diseases and floods; when household's waste water is let to be untaken care of, which also become the source of diseases. Meanwhile, it has become a hard fact that the awareness of the importance of sanitation is still far from adequate. The fact of government's low priority in sanitation sector can be seen from the investment for the sector for the last 30 years, where the government only allocated Rp. 7.7 trillion, which means only Rp. 200,per capita per year. On the contrary, the minimum requirement for a proper sanitation access is Rp. 46.000,- per capita per year. We have learned from our experiences that the awareness of the importance of sanitation would not be achieved by only sounding the fact that the economic loss caused by poor sanitation has caused potential economic loss up to Rp. 60 trillion, and the increase of the diarrhoea, which further causes the death of 100.000 children per year. We are starting to realize that to trig-

E

Water and Sanitation Networking booth during the exhibition of World Water Day 2008 at JIEXPO Kemayoran, Jakarta. Source: Bowo Leksono

ger the awareness of the decision-makers, and the society, it has to be done through all necessary means and collectively. Within this spirit, the national Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation (WSES) working group with other stakeholders under the umbrella of Water and Sanitation Networking Group participated in the World Water Day Exhibition, which was held by the Department of Public Works. The fact that sanitation has not become the main concern has become the trigger to motivate various stakeholders to collectively synergize to improve the awareness of the importance of sanitation. The message that sanitation has become a collective matter is clearly conveyed in the representativeness of all stake-

holders within the Water and Sanitation Networking booth during the exhibition. These stakeholders were universities such as Trisakti; NGO such as BORDA, PLAN Indonesia and Yayasan Air Kita; Association such as IATPI; Government in form of WSES Working Group; Project such as WSLIC-2, TSSM, ISSDP, WASPOLA, JAS, ESP; activities such as hand washing with soap. The message to be conveyed is that it is the time to handle sanitation together. The improvement of access to proper sanitation is not something that is unreachable. Congratulations on the World Water Day. May the celebration of it becomes the moment for all of us to stand together and synergize to improve the access of sanitation in Indonesia. Why not?

Percik March 2008

1

YOUR VOICE
Source of information and Reference
This media has given lots of inspirations and inputs for us in creating and improving the quality of water supply and environmental sanitation sector. We hope its existence can be the source of information and reference for all of stakeholders to address the problems in water supply and environmental sector, which eventually can support the achievement of Healthy Indonesia 2010 program.
Head of Community and Family Empowerment Agency of Depok City Ir. Hendra Fristoto, MM

to send them to you periodically. Regarding your journalistic background, recently a WSES related intermedia forum was established. If you don't mind, could we have your email address to be included in our mailing list as our tools to exchange information and to communicate. Thank you.

Thank you for Percik Magazine
Dear Percik, Alhamdullilah, we have receive Percik magazine of August and December edition in fine condition. Thank you for your attention and corporation. Wassalam.
Deny Helard Jurusan Teknik Lingkungan Fakultas Teknik Universitas Andalas Kampus Limau Manis Padang 25163

Inputs for Percik
Regarding the substance of Percik, here are some suggestions: a. Present the local wisdom in conserving the water source; b. Present a profile and evaluation on the management of sanitation which is implemented by the developer of Rumah Sangat Sederhana (RSS), Rumah Sederhana (RS), and elite housing, or organization and community who care about sanitation issues; c. Portrait of cities that succeed or failed in managing sanitation.
Head of BAPEDALDA, Province ofWest Sumatera Ir. Hermansyah, Dipl, SE., MM

Interested in Percik and WSES products
Hi, I am a journalist working for one of newspaper in Banten (Radar Banten). I am interested with the substance of Percik and book published by WSES working group related to water supply and environmental sanitation. Accordingly, I request to have Percik periodically, including the books published by WSES working group to support myself in writing articles on environmental issues. Thank you for your attention.

Request for Percik Delivery
Thank you for the answers to my questions (How to obtain Go Green School and The Adventur of Green books) in Percik December 2007. If we can get the copies, can they be sent to this address: Tauni Lidiawati Pusat Studi Lingkungan Universitas Surabaya Gedung TG Lt. IV Jl. Raya Kalirungkut Surabaya 60293 Thank you for your help.
Tuani Lidiawati PSL Ubaya

Dear Mr. Hermansyah, We are thankful for your constructive inputs. Of course it will be helpful if there is information regarding this and we will be gladly to publish the articles for those three topics you have suggested. Thank you.

Agus Priwandono Redaksi Radar Banten Jl. Letnan Jidun No. 7 Serang Banten

Dear Mr. Priwandono, Thank you for appreciation on our Percik and WSES products. We will try Dear Ms. Tuani, We will try to send you the copies.

2

Percik Maret 2008

M A I N F E AT U R E

World Water Day 2008 PROMOTING SANITATION ISSUES
orld Water Day is one of the international days, which declared by United Nations (UN) and commemorated every 22nd of March. The designation of World Water Day is based on the Resolution A/RES/ 47/1993 during the 47th United Nations' Conference on 22nd of December 1992, which acted as the conformity of the recommendation of chapter 18 of Agenda 21 from the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro or popularly known as Earth Summit. The World Water Day was to be observed starting from 1993 in every United Nations country member, including Indonesia. Officially, World Water Day is organized by UN-Water, which every year determine its theme. World Water Day's theme for 2008 is to promote sanitation issues, which coincide with the declaration of 2008 as the International Year of Sanitation (IYS). In Indonesia, the theme of World Water Day is "Sanitation Conserves Water and Environment". All of the world's societies are encouraged to commemorate World Water Day with focus on the sanitation issues, which is far from adequate, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Sanitation Messages Related to World Water Day, There are 5 sanitation messages that needs to be carefully observed, (i) Sanitation is vital for health. Human faeces are the main source of Diarrhoea pathogen. Without proper sanitation facility, the health condition of every single person is threatened; (ii) Sanitation is a good economic investment. Health impact of the poor

W

WORLD WATER DAY THEMES
Concern on water resources is everybody's business (1994) Water and Women (1995) Water for Dry Cities (1996) World's Water, Is it enough? (1997) Ground water - invisible sources (1998) Everybody lives in the Hilir (1999) Water for 21st century (2000) Water and Health (2001) Water for Development (2002) Water for the Future (2003) Water and Disaster (2004) Water for life (2005) Water and culture (2006), and; Addressing water scarcity (2007).

sanitation condition leads to economic and financial cost, including direct health cost, income loss as the result of decreasing productivity, and government's budget allocation for health services. Other than causing time loss, the impact also causes decreasing income from the tourism sector. The point is that when we do not do anything, the cost that we have to pay is to high; (iii) Sanitation contributes to social development. Sanitation has significant impact on the children development and their future; (iv) Sanitation helps the environment. Proper sanitation reduces the environmental burden, improves the natural resources' sustainability, and gives better opportunity for healthier future; (v) Sanitation is achievable. It's time to act. Households, communities, local and national governments, civil society, and private sector need to work together. What needs to be done? Great efforts are needed for sanitation issues to receive sufficient attention. Ac-

cordingly, making sanitation as important issues need to be done in a sustain manner by involving all stakeholders, particularly the local government, community, households, and private sector. The sanitation mainstreaming at the national level and the prioritization of sanitation in the national policy and strategy are the initial steps. The international partnership will improve and increase the investment and open-up opportunities of new technological options available. Nevertheless, this is the time to act. Let's together improve sanitation sector, all of us without exception. For further information on World
http://www.unwater.org/worldwaterday/flashindex.html http://www.worldwaterday.org http://worldwaterday.net http://www.pu.go.id/Publik/IND Event/HariAir2008 http://www.ampl.or.id OM (from various resources)

Percik Maret 2008

3

MAIN FEATURE

World Water Day XVI 2008 Commemoration in Indonesia
very year, Indonesia has never been left behind in celebrating World Water Day, which is observed every 22nd of March. This year, the national committee for World Water Day (WWD) 2008 had prepared a series of activities, which was triggered by the launching of WWD 2008 on the 5th of February 2008 at Department of Public Works. In general, the agenda which was held by the national committee consist of awareness on water campaign and international year of sanitation, conferences, community movement, encouragement of regional WWD, WWD exhibition, and publication & documentation. Exhibition and Conferences One of the activities in celebrating WWD XVI 2008 at the national level is exhibition and conference on water and sanitation (Indonesia exhibition and conferences for WWD 2008). The exhibition, which was held for three days from 27th-29th March 2008, at Jakarta International Expo (JIEXPO), was held by department of Public Works. WWD this year brought forward the theme of "sanitation", which is in line with the launching of International year of Sanitation 2008. Accordingly, the theme of WWD at the national level is Sanitation Conserves Water and Environment. The minister of Public Works, Djoko Kirmanto, in his opening remarks of the exhibition reminded the danger of waste against water sources. "It will be relevant with the condition of our sanitation, which is poor, not to mention our water condition that is in critical condition" he said. According to Djoko, speaking about water and sanitation is everybody's business. He explained that the investment in water and sanitation sector is still less than 10 percent of the total 36 trillion of Public works' budget. "Ideally it should be 30 percent, as for the other physical projects the budget have reached more than 50 percent. For that reason, support from all the local governments and the stakeholders are needed" he revealed. To mark the opening of the exhibition and conferences, the minister cut the ribbon and visited every booth. One of the booths was the joint booth of Water and Sanitation Networking Indonesia, which provide various product information related to water and environmental sanitation. It was planned that the peak of the WWD 2008 would be in the form of joint agreement to improve sub river basin, which was going to be held in Bengawan Solo, early April 2008.

E

Source: Bowo Leksono

Conference on "Sanitation Conserves Water and Environment" The conference was specifically held by the Directorate of Water Source, Department of Public Works, in between the Exhibition with theme on Sanitation Conserve Water and Environment, on the 27th March 2008 in the Rinjani Hall, JIEXPO. The conference presented four key speakers, which divided into two main topics. The first two key speakers were Muhammad Khalid Arya of ISSDP, focusing on "the Role of Provincial Government in Developing Sanitation Program", and Pri Joewono Guntoro, Chief of Sub Agency of Water Source

4

Percik March 2008

MAIN FEATURE

Management Program of Central Java, focusing on "The Community Technical Assistance in Conserving Water Source Towards Participatory Water Source Management". Oswar Mungkasa of Bappenas moderated the first session. In his presentation, M. Khalid questioned the need of sanitation. According to him, sanitation gives great impact on the water sources, economically, health, and livelihood quality. "According to the data, 50 out of 1000 people die because of poor sanitation" he said. M. Khalid explained that Indonesia's sanitation problems are the ineffective use of available sanitation facilities, bureaucracy gap between central and district, which makes Provincial government plays an important role, sectoral approach in sanitation development, low priority for sanitation and minimal budget allocation for sanitation sector development. Meanwhile, Pri, who is involved in river restoration and conservation sector, continuously raise the awareness on wa-

ter sources. "The success of water sources restoration depend on the success of creating community behavioural change towards the surrounding environment" he said. The topic for the second session were on the "Bio Pore Holes to Reduce The Surface Run-off and Solid Waste, and to Improve Soil Fertility" by Kamir Brata, Department of Soil Sources, Bogor Institute of Agriculture; and "Utilization of Domestic Solid Waste Processing Technology for Biogas on MCK++ (Technology Buffled Reactor & Biogas Digester), by Irwansyah Irdus, Chief of RW 08, Kelurahan North Petojo, sub district of Gambir, Central Jakarta. Dina Hendrawan of Trisakti University moderated this session. The conclusion of both sessions were was delivered by Agus Suprapto, who, in general, stated that sanitation is not only related to the provision of physical facility, but also related closely to the behavioural change of the community and the change of perspective of the stakeholders,

particularly the decision-makers in order to give sanitation higher priority in the development. "Beside, related to water source management, concrete actions are needed, including sanitation" he explained. Conference on Final Solid Waste Processing Facility (FSWPF) This conference was also meant to observe the International Year of Sanitation 2008, on 24th March 2008, in Jakarta, held by Department of Public Works, through the Directorate of Environmental Sanitation Settlement Development. Through the conference, several technologies and latest innovations in managing the FSWPF were introduced and discussed. Ayako Tanaka and Yasushi Matsufuji, researchers of Graduate School of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Fukuoka University, Japan, presented the studi on "Biodegradation Process of Municipal Solid Waste by Semi-aerobic Landfill Type". In general, the study was aimed to obtain the difference between biodegradation processes on landfill anaerobic and semi-aerobic types. The result shows that the use of semiaerobic type proves to be more useful in maintaining the environmental functions. On the other sessions, both researchers also presented "Concept of Safety Closure and Reuse of Completed Landfill sites", which in general explains the process, steps and indicators needed in utilizing landfill disposal facility safely. Another interesting discussion occurred in the session with focus on the case study of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project in Malaysia, presented by the several researcher representatives from several institution: Fukuoka University, Tokyu Construction Co. Ltd, National Institute for Environmental Studies, New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). Overall, the study is aimed to obtain the answers to the challenges of CDM project in term of the changing of anaerobic condition towards semi-aerobic condition or speed up the stabilization of

Source: Bowo Leksono

Percik Maret 2008

5

MAIN FEATURE

landfill disposal facility by using steel pipe casing method. The benefits in implementing this method are: (i) earlier achievement of stable state for poorly managed landfill disposal facility; (ii) reduction of environmental pollution; (iii) contribute to improvement of environmental support capacity in anticipating the global warming. Meanwhile, the issue on Rehabilitation-Reclamation of final solid waste disposal facility was presented by Prof. Ir. Enri Damanhuri of Bandung Institute of Technology. As for the head of Sanitation agency of Pontianak,the presentation was focusing on the management of final solid waste disposal facility based on the CDM principles. All of the efforts cannot stand alone, rather, they need to be implemented integratedly by the community in form of 3R principles (reduce, reuse and recycle), and the governments are required to implement the eco-labelling principle through the improvement of environmental friendly material use by producers. KRuHA In Action During WWD 2008 Not only with seminars and workshops, the WWD 2008 also celebrated with an action from one of NGOs which are concerns with the condition of water in Indonesia. The People's Coalition for The Rights of Water (PCRW/KRuHA Koalisi Rakyat untuk Hak Atas Air), an NGO, performed demonstration in front of the Presidential Palace and RRI Jakarta building on Saturday, 22nd March 2008. The Demonstration was begun with a long march from the Horse statue of Merdeka Street up to the Presidential Palace. The demonstrators refuse all kinds of privatization of water sources. They felt that the government is selling water resources to the private sectors through water privatization. Based on that, KRuHA forced the provincial government of DKI Jakarta to cancel or break the contract of water supply services, which are controlled by both

of its partner. Hamong, as the national coordinator of KRuHA argue that the breaking of the contract should be directed towards the returning of the rights of water to the public through PAM Jaya. "For this reason, beside the management and financial aspects, including the work force, preparation on the political side is needed" he said.

The Commemoration of World Water Day XVI in the Regional Level
Water Subscriber Communication Forum (WSCF) Established Subscriber Complaint Centre In order to celebrate the WWD 2008, WSCF together with YLKI of North Sumatera established subscriber complaint centre and would held a series of activities in River Cleaning Movement (RCM) package, which would be started on the 26th February - 26th March 2008. Azri SMAK as the chief of WSCF stated that the activities are, among others, Clean River Awareness campaign to all the community in the Sunggal-Belawan

riverbank, speech competition on WWD at the High school level. The establishment of the subscriber complaint centre is meant as the commintment of WSCF and YKI of North Sumatera to protect the existence of water subscriber to receive their normative rights as stated in the Law of Customer No. 8 1999. Meanwhile, the Clean River Awareness campaign gives the knowledge and understanding to all the community on the importance of the cleanliness of the river. The river is not meant as the garbage bin, and there is a great danger on health caused by a polluted river. As for the speech competition, 200 students from high school in Medan city, with "save my river from pollution" as the theme, joined it. It aims to increase the awareness and responsibility of young generation, particularly the youth in conserving the river and to enable them to dare to say "War on River Pollution". Commemoration of WWD 2008 in Lampung In the province of Lampung, the celebration of WWD 2008 was conducted on

One-day workshop on Sanitation Conserves Water and Environment at JIEXPO, Jakarta. Source: Bowo Leksono

6

Percik March 2008

MAIN FEATURE

the 26th March 2008, located in Adipura Monument Boulevard (Elephant Boulevard), Raden Intan Street, Bandar Lampung. The activity was held by Lampung Post daily newspaper and Coca Cola, in collaboration with BPDAS Way Seputih Way Sekampung, Forest Agency of Lampung Province, Mapala of Bandar Lampung University, IAIN Raden Intan, and Water Boards of Bandar Lampung city. The celebration was filled with distribution of plant seeds to the community of highway user, who were driving through the boulevard. The distribution of the seeds was based on the theme of the activity, which is "Water for Life. Save Water by Planting Trees". With the commemoration of WWD, it is expected that all stakeholders pay their attention on how to: maintain the quality of environment; revitalize the forest's functions as water reservoir, revitalization of ground water as the source of clean water for most of Indonesian's population and so forth; ensure water availability for community in term of quantity and quality. It can be started from each individuals by saving water in daily use. One-Day Workshop in Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB) In celebrating the WWD 2008, Bandung Institute of Technology in collaboration with the Directorate of Settlement, Department of Public Works, held a one-day workshop with theme of "Water and Sanitation Appreciation in Kawasan budi Daya, Now and The Future", on the 31st March 2008, West Hall, ITB. The workshop was officially started by the Rector of ITB, which was followed by a short film on water and its condition in 2070. Director General of Cipta Karya, Ir. Budi Yuwono, explained on the importance of strategic policy for sustainable development in the Urban and Rural Area. He advises active participation from all stakeholders to support sustainable development.
Source: Fanny Wedahuditama

LOCAL WATER SUPPLY AND ENVIRONMENTAL WORKING GROUP'S ACHIEVEMENT
Following the agreement of Policy Implementation Consolidation workshop in Bali on 2nd - 6th March 2008, several local WSES working groups have participated in celebrating the WWD 2008 in their own districts. The provincial WSES working group of West Sumatera in collaboration with WASPOLA held a workshop on communication strategy for the development of community-based water and environmental sanitation on 25-27 March 2008. The provincial WSES working group of Central Java has held a talk show in Female radio 106,1 FM, with Agung Tejo Prabowo (Provincial WSES working group of Central Java) and Unicef's representative. On the second week of April, a celebration of WWD in big events was planned, with agenda, among others, visits to community, media gathering and conferences. In the district of Serang, the local government has held a ceremony of WWD on the 31st March 2008. Beside that, banners were also posted in several strategic points in Serang city. Further, the publication of article by Serang's WSES working group on WWD in Radar Banten newspaper also being done. In Sumbawa, NTB, the WSES working group also celebrated WWD by posting a big ballyhoo on Water and Sanitation Campaign

The lessons learned from the regional cooperation, which has been accommodated in the 2004 joint agreement by the governor of West Java, Head of District of Bandung, Sumedang and the mayor of Bandung and Cimahi, in ensuring the sustainable development of cekungan (water catchment area) in Bandung shows the intended active participation. 12 key speakers supported the workshop, which was divided in three sessions. At the end of the workshop, Prof. Djuli Soemirat delivered the conclusion of all 12 topics, which was not a new thing in the water and sanitation sector. "The development of water and environmental Sanitation sector needs to be accompanied by the change of behaviour towards clean and healthy living, and changing behaviour towards environment" he said. Beside that, technological aspect alone will not be sufficient to produce sustainable development. Several key words in this workshop in principal are coordination, integration and consistencies, hygiene and environmental education from early stage, and community-based approach. Community Movement and WWD Appreciation Selected as the implementation of this activity was the district and city of Tangerang, on 12th April 2008. Related with the Sanitation theme, several strategic places were visited, which are SANIMAS in Sepatan village, sub district of Kedaung Wetan, MCK ++ at Jatake, and community-based solid waste management in Mustika Tigaraksa estate. As for the other activities, there were several activities such as blood donor at Department of Public Works and community movement on Hand Washing with Soap, which was held together with activities in SANIMAS location, Sepatan village.
BW/OM/FEW/berbagai sumber

Percik March 2008

7

MAIN FEATURE

Sanitation Services Coverage* Based on Districts/Cities in Indonesia 2006
NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 NAME OF DISTRICT/CITY City of Banda Aceh City of Semarang City of Tegal City of Madiun City of Yogyakarta City of Mojokerto City of Cimahi City of Medan City of Pontianak City of Cirebon City of Surakarta City of Jakarta Selatan City of Jakarta Utara City of Pekan Baru City of Depok City of Jakarta Timur City of Balikpapan City of Bekasi City of Denpasar City of Jakarta Pusat City of Pare-pare City of Tebing Tinggi City of Jambi City of Palangka Raya District of Badung City of Ambon City of Blitar City of Bukittinggi City of Bontang City of Magelang District of Gianyar City of Makassar City of Jakarta Barat City of Surabaya City of Palu City of Padang District of Sidoarjo District of Sleman City of Kediri City of Ternate District ofSorong City of Pangkal Pinang City of Malang City of Bandar Lampung City of City of Jayapura District of Klungkung City of Salatiga City of Tidore Kepulauan District of Klaten District of Sukoharjo City of Binjai City of Palembang City of Tangerang City of Sabang District of Deli Serdang City of Padang Panjang City of Banjar Baru City of Bogor City of B A T A M District of Karanganyar District of Buleleng City of D U M A I City of Solok City of Cilegon District of Kuningan District of. Jembrana District of Tabanan City of Bengkulu City of Tanjung Balai District of Kudus SERVICE COVERAGE (%) 93.33 93.27 91.94 90.31 89.58 88.28 87.38 86.88 86.68 86.67 86.56 86.50 86.03 85.14 84.42 83.31 82.74 82.26 81.25 80.94 80.21 80.10 79.96 78.16 78.08 78.06 77.97 77.50 77.00 75.99 75.88 75.65 75.61 74.11 72.57 72.43 72.26 71.90 71.72 71.22 71.06 70.72 69.68 69.32 68.85 68.27 67.23 65.56 65.53 65.44 65.11 64.81 63.82 63.80 63.64 62.47 62.28 61.84 61.69 61.68 61.26 61.20 60.94 60.93 60.83 60.69 60.04 59.95 59.87 59.78 NO 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 NAME OF DISTRICT/CITY SERVICE COVERAGE (%) 59.46 59.30 59.28 58.89 58.83 58.60 57.78 57.73 56.84 56.63 56.58 56.46 55.68 55.21 55.07 54.16 54.06 53.67 53.12 52.72 52.68 52.65 52.42 52.28 52.21 52.14 51.66 51.53 51.43 51.11 50.87 50.85 50.45 50.37 50.10 49.74 49.54 49.48 49.22 49.17 48.65 48.17 47.89 47.34 47.19 47.16 47.12 46.88 46.77 46.43 46.32 45.90 45.88 45.74 45.73 45.61 45.44 44.44 44.11 44.07 43.85 43.83 43.80 43.69 43.28 43.05 43.01 42.17 41.89 41.49 NO 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 NAME OF DISTRICT/CITY SERVICE COVERAGE (%) 41.40 41.39 40.80 40.78 40.71 40.63 40.56 40.31 40.25 40.10 40.02 39.95 39.90 39.65 39.25 39.06 38.97 38.90 38.66 38.49 38.46 38.09 37.97 37.53 37.33 37.23 37.02 36.91 36.85 36.85 36.83 36.79 36.73 36.73 36.73 36.56 36.51 36.40 36.30 36.26 36.07 35.84 35.72 35.72 35.63 35.61 35.60 35.40 35.36 34.60 34.45 34.42 34.31 33.81 33.80 33.68 33.39 33.38 33.27 33.19 32.99 32.71 32.58 32.22 31.89 31.72 31.56 31.47 31.46 31.36 City of Lhoksumawe District of Sidenreng Rappang District of Pinrang District of Indramayu City of Langsa District of Toba Samosir District of Tangerang City of Pematang Siantar District of Gresik City of Manado District of Aceh Besar District of Magetan City of Bau-bau City of Pekalongan City of Samarinda City of Probolinggo City of Kendari District of Kulon Progo District of Minahasa Selatan District of Barru District of Bekasi City of Palopo District of Gowa City of Tarakan District of Majalengka City of Lubuklinggau City of Prabumulih District of Hulu Sungai Utara District of Bangka District of Cirebon District of Biak Numfor District of Bangka Tengah City of Pasuruan District of Minahasa District of Purworejo District ofSorong Selatan City of Gorontalo City of Metro District of Serdang Bedagai City of Payakumbuh District of Mojokerto District of Mimika District of Minahasa Utara District of Bangka Barat City of Bitung District of Kebumen District of Semarang City of Mataram City of Bandung Kepulauan Riau District of Kolaka District of Takalar District of Lamongan City of Tanjung Pinang District of Ogan Komering Ulu District of Jombang District of Karo City of Batu District of Halmahera Tengah City of Banjarmasin District of Penajam Paser Utara District of Tulungagung District of Maros District of Purwakarta District of Ponorogo District of Berau District of Bangka Selatan District of Bengkalis District of Enrekang District of Halmahera Utara City of Banjar District of Poso City of Sibolga District of S I A K District of Sumedang District of Bandung District of Banyumas District of Pati District of Tapanuli Utara City of Bima District of Tegal District of Demak District of Asahan District of Labuhan Batu District of Kepulauan Sangi District ofTeluk Bintuni District of Serang District of Madiun District of Jayapura District of Cilacap District of Subang District of Langkat District of Kediri District of Jepara District of Grobogan District of Temanggung District of Sikka District of Karimun District of Malang City of Sawah Lunto District of Bogor District of Bulukumba District of Boyolali District of Ciamis District of Pekalongan District of Sragen District of Brebes District of Magelang District of Bolaang Mongondow District of Nganjuk District of Pangkajene Kepulauan District of Sumbawa Barat District of Kampar District of Aceh Tamiang District of Belitung City of Tomohon District of Pidie District of Bengkayang District of Bangli District of Simalungun District of Kerinci City of Singkawang District of Karawang District of Belitung Timur District of Agam District of Karang Asem District of Kepulauan Talau District of Lampung Selatan District of Buton District of Muara Enim District of Sambas District of Humbang Hasundu District of Banyuwangi District of Samosir District of Sumbawa District of Mamuju Utara District of Halmahera Timur District of Banyu Asin District of Kendal District of Dairi

8

Percik March 2008

MAIN FEATURE

NO 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286

NAME OF DISTRICT/CITY

SERVICE COVERAGE (%) 31.17 31.02 30.97 30.94 30.91 30.87 30.82 30.76 30.75 30.72 30.63 30.59 30.56 30.27 30.26 30.24 29.87 29.79 29.65 29.43 29.33 29.21 28.86 28.59 28.29 28.26 28.18 27.94 27.40 27.10 27.02 26.79 26.77 26.74 26.50 26.47 26.28 26.26 26.01 25.71 25.52 25.41 25.41 25.24 25.02 25.00 24.95 24.73 24.67 24.45 24.39 24.36 24.25 24.07 23.89 23.88 23.85 23.83 23.82 23.75 23.74 23.48 23.43 23.43 23.22 23.16 23.04 22.96 22.94 22.71 22.66 22.63 22.61 22.59 22.41 22.39

NO

NAME OF DISTRICT/CITY

SERVICE COVERAGE (%) 22.25 22.10 22.05 21.86 21.75 21.67 21.63 21.62 21.28 21.25 21.04 20.85 20.85 20.76 20.55 20.51 20.48 20.27 20.21 20.20 20.18 20.15 20.11 20.10 20.08 20.01 19.99 19.79 19.77 19.68 19.65 19.63 19.55 19.42 19.15 19.13 18.81 18.74 18.69 18.26 18.07 17.86 17.79 17.61 17.50 17.48 17.44 17.34 17.20 17.18 17.15 17.14 17.08 16.97 16.93 16.85 16.83 16.82 16.59 16.40 16.30 15.81 15.75 15.43 15.34 15.32 15.12 14.94 14.94 14.81 14.72 14.55 14.49 14.49 14.46 14.38

NO 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435

NAME OF DISTRICT/CITY

SERVICE COVERAGE (%) 14.20 14.19 14.09 14.08 13.98 13.91 13.86 13.78 13.59 13.56 13.33 13.20 13.07 13.02 12.98 12.24 12.18 11.84 11.68 11.64 10.94 10.89 10.80 10.58 10.44 10.12 10.08 10.03 9.96 9.92 9.71 9.50 9.39 9.13 9.00 8.97 8.41 8.37 8.10 7.79 7.36 7.26 7.08 7.08 6.96 6.90 6.41 6.28 6.25 6.09 6.06 5.99 5.73 5.65 5.41 5.32 4.31 4.28 3.65 3.37 3.31 2.81 2.64 2.51 2.49 2.13 1.82 1.79 0.86 0.65 0.52 0.00 0.00 40.67

287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 *) Percentage of septic tank as the faeces final disposal

District of Selayar District of Aceh Tengah District of Aceh Utara District of Trenggalek District of Bulongan District of Padang Pariaman District of Pemalang District of Toli-toli District of Rejang Lebong District of Barito Timur District of Purbalingga District of Luwu Utara District ofSorong District of Aceh Barat City of Kupang District of Parigi Moutong District of Kotawaringin Barat District of Ogan Ilir District of Barito Selatan District of Blitar District of Pasuruan District of Bantaeng District of Kutai District of Bungo District of Banggai City of Padang Sidempuan District of Bone District of Lembata District of Wonosobo City of Tasikmalaya District of Tanggamus District of Seram Bagian Barat District of Tebo District of Halmahera Barat District of Banjar District of Aceh Singkil District of Dompu District of Pontianak District of Bireuen District of Rembang District of Tana Toraja District of Seluma District of Polewali Mamasa District of Rokan Hulu District of Kutai Timur District of Balangan District of Wonogiri City of Pagar Alam District of Tojo Una-una District of Blora District of Soppeng District of Lampung Utara District of Aceh Timur District ofKaimana District of Buol District of Aceh Selatan District of Jeneponto District of Hulu Sungai Selatan District of Tulangbawang District of Fak-Fak District of Merangin District of Lampung Timur District of Ketapang District of Buru District of Lahat District of Morowali District of Tuban District of Wajo District of Tanjung Jabung District of Kolaka Utara District of Bojonegoro District of Pesisir Selatan District of Banggai Kepulauan District of Tabalong District of Boalemo District of Luwu

District of Bengkulu Utara District of Pandeglang District of Luwu Timur District of Wakatobi District of Kepulauan Sula District of Sawahlunto/sijunjung District of Pakpak Barat District of Gunung Kidul District of Pohuwato District of Jember District of Flores Timur District of Batang District of Sarolangun District of Nagan Raya District of Lumajang District of Maluku Tengah District of Bangkalan District of Sinjai District of Ogan Komering Ilir District of Lebak District of Kepulauan Riau District of Mukomuko District of Lombok Barat District of Mamuju District of Sukabumi District of Bombana District of Tapin District of Teluk Wondama District of Majene District of Kendari District of Musi Banyu Asin District of Donggala District of Ende District of Sanggau District of Batang Hari District of Gorontalo District of Pasaman Barat District of Dharmasraya District of Nabire District of Halmahera Selatan District of Muna District of Bener Meriah District of Lombok Timur District of Ogan Komering Utara District of Kepulauan Seribu District of Lampung Tengah District of Kutai Barat District of Solok District of Tanah Datar District of Kepahiang District of Cianjur District of Musi Rawas District of Pasaman District of Muaro Jambi District of Ogan Komering Utara District of Konawe Selatan District of Ngawi District of Aceh Jaya District of Malinau District of Tapanuli Selatan City of Pariaman District of Aceh Barat Daya City of Sukabumi District of Indragiri Hulu District of Solok Selatan District of Gayo Lues District of Sumba Timur District of Lombok Tengah District of Tapanuli Tengah District of Kapuas District of Garut District of Maluku Tenggara District of Pelalawan District of Rokan Hilir District of Hulu Sungai Tengah District of Banjarnegara

District of Alor District of Bone Bolango District of Barito Kuala District of Pasir District of Situbondo District of Bima District of Nunukan District of Lingga District of Sampang District of Pacitan District of Aceh Tenggara District of Raja Ampat District of Bengkulu Selatan District of Lima Puluh Koto District of Merauke District of Simeulue District of Indragiri Hilir District of Kaur District of Barito Utara District of Tanah Laut District of Keerom District of Kepulauan Aru District of Paniai District of Gunung Mas District of Maluku Tenggara District of Belu District of Bondowoso District of Melawi District of Manokwari District of Natuna District of Kuantan Singing District of Sumenep District of Tasikmalaya District of Kapuas Hulu District of Probolinggo District of Jayawijaya District of Tanjung Jabung District of Manggarai Barat District of Seruyan District of Sukamara District of Sintang District of Lampung Barat District of Mamasa District of Pamekasan District of Landak District of Timor Tengah Utara District of Kupang District of City of Baru District of Asmat District of Seram Bagian Timur District of Lamandau District of Tanah Bumbu District of Sarmi District of Mandailing Natal District of Nias District of Manggarai District of Kepulauan Mentawai District of Way Kanan District of Rote Ndao District of Lebong District of Katingan District of Pulang Pisau District of Ngada District of Kotawaringin Timur District of Nias Selatan District of Sumba Barat District of Timor Tengah Selatan District of Puncak Jaya District of Sekadau District of Murung Raya District of Mappi District of Yahukimo District of Pegunungan Bintuni INDONESIA

Source: Statistic Bureau

Percik March 2008

9

TSI CORNER2008

Launching of International Year of Sanitation 2008 in Philiphine

HUMBLE BUT MERRY
hen receiving offer from Eco-Asia Program to participate the launching of International Year of Sanitation (IYS) 2008 in Philippines, what was being imagined was a huge launching. On the contrary, the event was held in a humble manner in a small city of Mandaluyong, a part of Manila's Metropolitan, but it was held in a merry and inspirational mood. This article tries to describe the situation of IYS launching. Launching in Three Sessions The launching of IYS 2008 was centred in Mandaluyong city, Metro Manila, in the sessions, which was started at the city level, and then national level and ended at the school level. The launching at the city level was held in a sport field that was turned into a stage. The selection of Monday as the day and the sport field as the location for the launching was not decided without a good reason. Mandaluyong city was chosen based on the Mandaluyong's Mayor position as the chief of League of Cities of The Philippines/LCP. It was expected that other city members could also be inspired. Meanwhile, the selection of Monday as the launching day was based on the routine activities of all cities, where all mayors and all of the staff conduct a meeting with the community. It was expected that during the launching, many people would participate in the weekly meeting. On that day, in line with the launching, commemoration of WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene) Promotion day also would be held. At the national level, the event was held in the city hall, and attended by minister of Health, minister of Environment and Natural Resources of Philippine, Philippine congressional member; also act as the chairman of committee on Ecology, UNDP representatives, and Mayor of Mandaluyong. On that occasion, the mayor emphasized the importance of the municipal and district government to adopt sanitation program to avoid the cost of poor sanitation. Meanwhile, the congress members emphasized their commitment to support sanitation program. Other than that, several important documents were launched, such as book of Sanitation Condition of East Asia, Manual for Faeces and Domestic Wastewater treatment, Study on Sanitation Economic Impact in Philippines, and Sanitation Info Kit. After the launching in the city hall, the participants moved to the next launching location, which is in one the school nearby.

W

The stage was built in a simple but interesting manner. Source: OM

The main agenda is to promote hand washing with soap (HWwS), which would conducted together by the mayor, ministers, miss Earth of Philippines, miss pageant of Mandaluyong, and WASH captain, who was the icon of WASH campaign). The promotion on HWwS was conducted in front of the audience who were mostly students and mass media. The launching was officially closed by a press conference that was attended by 10 electronic and print mass media. Activities' Momentum Different with Indonesia that came late in preparing the commemoration of IYS 2008, Philippine have prepared a series of activities far before it is due. Holding the Philippine Sanitation Summit I 2006 soon after the United Nations (UN) declared year 2008 as the International Year of Sanitation began the series of activities. The next several activities were meant to maintain the momentum of the coming activities such as Regional Sanitation Summit 2007: Region XI and XII in Davao city, 26-27 June 2007, and the East Asia Ministerial Conference

10 Percik 2008 March

TSI CORNER2008
on Sanitation and Hygiene (EASan) in Beppu, Japan, 30 November - 1 December 2007. During EASan, Philippine's delegation planned the signing of Action Agenda by the Philippine's President, which mainly states the declaration of 2008 as the International Year of Sanitation, as well as declaring the fourth week of June as the Sanitation Week. However, until the last minute of the launching event, there was no sign of signing activity as mentioned previously. The Launching Another thing that is different with Indonesia is that the planning and organization of the IYS 2008 launching in Philippine was implemented by The Philippine Ecological Sanitation Network (PEN), an informal network consists of central government, donors, program/project, universities and NGOs. The network was considered to be successful in holding the event of The Philippine Sanitation Summit 2006 together with Health Department and Environmental and Natural Resources Department of Philippine. Meanwhile, The holding of IYS 2008 launching was also supported by many stakeholders, such as WSP - World Bank, USAID, SIDA, GTZ, WHO, PLAN International, and City Association, including several of its member. In Indonesia, the commemoration of IYS 2008 is coordinated by department of Public Works by involving all stakeholders from the government as well as the non-government components; however, the involvement from the donors is still need to be increased. Theme and Motto The main motto of IYS 2008 in Philippine is "Sanitation is the Solution". Concise, clear and firm. Several other key messages that were already prepared were (i) sanitation is vital for human health; (ii) sanitation generates economic benefits; (iii) sanitation contributes to dignity and social development; (iv) sanitation helps the environment; and (v) improving sanitation is achievable. Stakeholders Involvement During the launching, many stakeholders were involved in the process. Starting from the Pageant Queen, who was specifically prepared to light up the event; Captain WASH, who is the mascot of behaviour change campaign, school children, until the community themselves were parading. The queen's involvement did not stop in the first day, but they also had received training on sanitation and other related aspects. It was clearly expressed when the queen was interviewed by the media. She could give inspirational answers not the normative ones, as the government officials usually answer. The involvement of community needs to be given appreciation. In the form of banners full with their handwriting, many of the community's feelings and expectation towards sanitation were being expressed. One of them is by

SANITATION FACTS IN PHILIPPINE
Around 20 million people do not have safe access to sanitation In average, 31 under-five die every day of diarrhoea Cost of poor sanitation reaches Rp. 19,5 Trillion or equal to 1,5% of Philippine's GNP 2005 (Economics of Sanitation Initiative/ESI)

Philippine have prepared a series of activities far before it is due. Holding the Philippine Sanitation Summit I 2006 soon after the United Nations (UN) declared year 2008 as the International Year of Sanitation began the series of activities.
UNICEF also contributed in term of advocacy activities and the improvement of public awareness.

Source: OM

Percik March 2008

11

TSI CORNER2008
encouraging hand washing with soap, proper toilet use, or simply by saying welcome to the IYS 2008, and many more. The most surprising thing was the involvement of Manila Water, a company who receive water supply concession for eastern part of Manila, who was very active during the event. The company was very active, from preparing the convertible vehicles, water tank truck, and even participated in the press conference. Parliament Support The participation of one of the parliament member, who is also the chairman of Committee of Ecology of Philippine and the chairman of Philippine delegation for EASan in Japan, showed a strong support from the legislative. Sambil Menyelam Minum Air The launching of IYS 2008 was also related to other activities such as the WASH campaign, Hand Washing with Soap Promotion, launching and dissemination of several books and document of many stakeholders. At least, there were several books and documents to be noted (i) publication of "Universal Sanitation in East Asia: Mission Possible?" by WSPWHO-UNICEF; (ii) manual on "Operation Manual on The Rules and Regulations Governing the Collection, han-

One of the demonstration tools of proper 3 dimension toilet. Source: OM

dling, Transport, Treatment and Disposal of Domestic Sludge and Septage" by Health Department of Philippine; (iii) Sanitation study by WSP-EAO World Bank, and ECO-Asia Program USAID; and (iv) Information Kit on Sanitation by Local Initiatives for Affordable Wastewater Treatment (LINAW) USAID. Close Corporation Among Donors and between Donors with Stakeholders One of many interesting things from the success of IYS 2008 launching was the close corporation among and between

donors with other stakeholders. This was reflected since the event of Philippine Sanitation Summit 2006. This condition was possible because of the establishment of Philippine Ecological Sanitation Network (PEN), which is the place of coordination between donors, government, NGOs and other stakeholders. Different with what happen in Indonesia, which recently established donor group for sanitation, known as Sanitation Donor group, coordinated by World Bank. None of its activities are being conducted. Dreaming of Sanitation Coming back from the launching event, many expectations come up, or should they be called sanitation dreams. How Indonesia can hold an event, international and national event, in a humble manner, but merry, rather than huge and extravagance but does not has any meaning? How Indonesia will have a forum to facilitate donors, and between donors and other stakeholder? How the legislative can give support and attention to Sanitation, which is the basic needs of every human being. And still many more dreams...... (OM)

The Community is very enthusiastic in waiting for the convoy of IYS 2008 while holding a banner. Source: OM

12

Percik March 2008

INTERVIEW

Ir Susmono

INTEGRATED PROGRAM TO ADDRESS SANITATION
ficient budget allocation by the central,
It seems Indonesia's complex sanitation problems will not be solved in the near future. This sector is not considered as priority of the development by the decision-maker. Not to mention the difficulties in trying to obtain higher allocation to address sanitation issues. Increasing awareness and commitment for the decisionmakers and all other stakeholders is very much needed, beside keep on hammering all of the stakeholders with the clean and healthy living behaviour campaign. How is the condition and the role of stakeholders in addressing sanitation issues in Indonesia? Below is the interview between Percik and Director of environmental Sanitation Settlement Development, Directorate of Settlement, Department of Public Works, Ir. Susmono.

provincial and district/municipal government, and of course the community. On the implementation, the planning, implementation and post-construction stages have to be integrated. What are the constraints? Some of the crucial constraints are: a. Limited capacity of budget, where sanitation still receives low priority. b. Weak coordination, particularly in the district level, where everything in general is still partial-oriented. What have your department done about this? As the substantial role of the department, our department is oriented more towards the community empowerment aspects within the development of sanitation. These are being done through facility activities, trainings of stakeholders in the district with a hope that they will be the main stakeholders in their region in socializing and facilitating sanitation program. How ready is Indonesia in reaching MDGs targets 2015 for sanitation sector? The government of Indonesia has estimated of 77 percent of the target. It can only be achieved if the government put sanitation as the priority and backed up by sufficient funding - which is now only 2 percent of the total national budget - to achieve the target.
Bowo Leksono

H

ow is the condition of sanitation in Indonesia nowadays?

process of water supply and environmental sanitation sector; b. The limited capacity of the government in providing the proportional budget allocation for water supply and environmental sanitation; c. The lack of policy and regulation on the management of hidden potential within the community; d. Low priority on the environmental sanitation sector. Who is actually responsible for the poor sanitation in Indonesia? All of us are responsible for this. The government of Indonesia, right from the central government to the provincial, district, municipal government, and also the community as the users are being held responsible for the poor performance on sanitation. How to address it? One of the solution is by developing an integrated program supported by suf-

There are several progress, particular-

ly on the increasing rate of access to water supply and environmental sanitation, which is indirectly has impact on the improvement of community's health level. This performance is supported by the data of Statistical bureau 2002, where the proportion of household using toilets and septic tank is up to 63,5 percent (urban 78 percent, rural 52 percent) and the Indonesia's water supply condition is only at + 45 percent. However, if we compare with other countries in South East Asia, particularly Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand, we are still way behind. What are the factors that influence the poor sanitation condition in Indonesia? In general, the factors that influence our poor sanitation condition are: a. Inefficiency and ineffectiveness of investment in the development

Percik March 2008

13

REGULATION

Ministerial Decree of Public Works No. 21/PRT/M/2006 on The National Policy and Strategy of Solid Waste Management Development (NPS-SWMD)

T

he decrease of solid waste management performance in these recent years has been influenced by the restructure of Indonesian government during reformation era,

regional autonomy, and economic crises that had happened in all Indonesia. The change of policy focus in urban infrastructure development, the strengthening of autonomy ego, the decrease of regional funding, the decrease of community's income level and awareness have become the trigger of the urban environmental degradation, including the urban solid waste issue. The degradation of the performance is shown by the decrease of human resources capacity caused by the personnel replacement that have never received any training in solid waste sector; unclear status of solid waste management organization caused by the maximum and minimum pattern policy change of every agency; less budget allocation for solid waste management, less income retribution; less services; less quality of waste facilities, which most of them have become open dumping facilities causing the increase of social friction; irresponsible solid waste processing, which cause deaths, as the land slide case happened in Leuwigajah and Bantar Gebang solid waste facilities; the absent of sanction for littering, and so forth. Until now all process of solid waste processing ends in the final waste facility, causing more burdens to the waste facility. Beside the need of a large space, the cost of maintaining and the environment also becoming more expensive. It all happens because the initiative to reduce waste from the source itself has not been done, including the separation of dangerous waste (toxic waste) at the domestic/household level. Based on the regulations in Indonesia, government has to provide a solid waste management system services that follows the technical, economic, and environmental principles. The government of Indonesia has also been involved in ratifying many international commitments, which have to be fulfilled by every dignified country. The commitments cover, among others, Agenda 21 on the decrease of solid waste processed in the waste facilities (3R/reduce-reuse-recycle),
Source: Bowo Leksono

Dublin principles, Rio Agreement, Kyoto Protocol on the Clean Development Mechanism. In order to achieve these goals, and as the follow up of the Government Regulation No. 16/2005 on the development of water supply system; therefore, a strong and realistic national policy and strategy on solid waste management system development was formulated and used as the guidance for central and

14

Percik March 2008

REGULATION
regional government to improve the solid waste management system in a sustainable and environmental friendly manner. Objectives The national policy and strategy is meant as the guideline in formulating the technical policy, planning, programming and other activities related to solid waste management, whether it is at the department level, non-department level, regional government, or the community and the private sector. As for the objective, the national policy and strategy is aimed to achieve the solid waste development targets through planning, programming and other integrated, effective and efficient activities. The policy is used as the guideline for controlling, holding and developing environmental friendly solid waste management system at the central and regional level, according to the local context. Meanwhile, for the technical arrangement and more detail guideline, the relevant agencies need to develop further. Vision and Mission To achieve a healthy and prosperous society in the coming future, a healthy environment is needed. From the health aspect, the word health means a condition that can only be achieved if waste can be managed properly from within the human settlement. In general, urban an rural area that receive proper solid waste management have condition as the following: a. All the community will have access to solid waste management services for the daily activities at the household level, up to the public level; b. The community will have clean environment settlement since the solid New Approach A new approach has to be understood and followed by knowing that solid waste can be reduced, reused, and recycled. This approach is known as the 3R (reduce, reuse, recycle). Actually, this In order to fulfil the vision of Solid waste management Development, Several missions have been formulated: 1. Reducing the volume of solid waste for sustainable solid waste management 2. Increase the coverage and quality of service of the solid waste management system 3. Empowers the community and increase participation of private sector 4. Improves the management capability and institutionalization in the solid waste management system in line with the good and corporate governance principle 5. Mobilizes funding from various recourses for the solid waste management system development 6. Enforcing the law and consolidates the regulation to improve solid waste management system More Elaboration The national policy and strategy of solid waste management system is still need to be elaborated into detail action plan by many stakeholders in solid waste management sector, so that the vision can be achieved. The technical elaboration or interpretation through the preparation of regulations, planning, programming, implementation and monitoring and development management will be conducted at every level of government, centrally and locally. Further, there is the need to have an agreement between central and local action plan in implementing the national policy and strategy of solid waste management development, as well as its coordination mechanism. The pattern of community and private sector participation is still need to be elaborated based on the needs at the central and local level.
BW

waste can be properly managed; c. The community will have the ability to maintain its health level since there is no potential solid waste to turn into contagious diseases, such as diarrhoea, typhus, dysentery and so forth; and also other environmental pollution such as water, air and soil pollution; d. The community and private sector have the chance to participate in managing the solid waste, therefore, receive the benefits.

approach is not new, because it has been applied in developed country and succeeded in improving the efficiency of solid waste management significantly. By reducing solid waste right from its source, the burden of a city can be reduced and the budget and facilities can be utilized more efficiently. The burden caused by pollution can be reduced and helps to maintain the environment. The global targets of the national policy and strategy of solid waste management refer to the measured targets of the national mid-term development planning 2004-2009 (RPJMN 2004-2009), and MDGs' targets, as well as other target measured targets. In addition to that, it also refers to other normative targets such as the government regulation No. 16 Year 2005 on the development of system.

Percik March 2008

15

INSIGHT
developed KAP (Knowledge, Attitude, Practise) Survey on water, hygiene and sanitation for elementary school students. The survey was conducted by using pictorial self-administered questionnaire that made it efficient in acquiring data of diarrhoea prevalence, attitude, practice and knowledge. One or several teacher without high cost interviewer/enumerators could cover many school children. The survey is also proven best in avoiding the cultural constraints related to diarrhoea. As known, for most of the children, diarrhoea is considered to be embarrassing. For example, in the conversation of most Sundanesse children, diarrhoea is also known as "mencret" or often used as a joke "Kacapirit", which means uncontrollable defecation. Children are embarrassed to joke for that. The pictorial self-administered questionnaire has been tested by JHU/CCP in several provinces, which are Nangroe Aceh Darusallam

MEASURING DIARRHOEA WITH PICTURES
By Risang Rimbatmaja * ening along the increase of age, but still, it can be reduce learning and playing time of many children. Diarrhoea prevalence studies on children are usually conducted indirectly or verbally. The survey is usually conducted with the adults at home, usually mothers, with questionnaire such as, "Is there any member of the family that defecate more than three times a day?" If the respondent's answer is yes then the question is followed with "who is she/he?". For school children, the situation is completely different. They possess different verbal capacity to answer verbal questions, even the written questions. This capacity can be further utilized for the diarrhoea prevalence study. Pictorial self-administered questionnaire John Hopkins University/Centre for communication program Indonesia (JHU/CCP) with funding from Unicef, has

(NAD), Yogyakarta, and Central Java. 2134 student in 8 districts have joined the survey unsing pictorial self-administered questionnaire. The 8 districts are City of Banda Aceh, Aceh Besar, Sleman, Gunung Kidul, Bantul, Kulon Progo, Yogyakarta and Klaten. The pictorial self-administered questionnaire consists of 28 main questions that can be finished in 15-20 minutes. Around 2 percent of the total questions are question with pictorial answers that makes it easy for the children to answer. The rest of the questions are open-ended questions that can be answered in a concise way, and question with the true or false answer. Important Findings From the KAP Survey, it was found that in NAD, the diarrhoea prevalence was around 18%. It means that 1/5 of the elementary students in fourth and fifth grade in both districts had experienced diarrhoea within the recent week when the survey was conducted. The percentage of male students was found at 21 percent or 7 percent higher compare to female students, which only centred around 14 percent. Meanwhile, in Yogyakarta and Central Java, diarrhoea prevalence was found lower compare to NAD, only 8.5 percent. From the value and beliefs side, it was found that there is a same pattern of data in NAD, Yogyakarta and Central Java. Through the factor analysis and consistency analysis, using Cronbach alpha, the framework of thinking of the students related to diarrhoea was found. The framework showed several solid indicators used by the students to assess the cause of diarrhoea. In the questionnaire, 10 pictures were presented to the students to choose which activities are believed to be the cause of

I

n under-five category, diarrhoea is the second highest cause of deaths after acute respiratory system infection (ARSI). For school children, diarrhoea can be less threat-

16

Percik March 2008

INSIGHT
diarrhoea. From the analysis, it was found 3 dimensions which statistically significant: 1. Environmental factors a. Littering openly b. Open defecation 2. Hygiene related factors a. Drinking un-boiled water b. Eating in a places full of flies c. Drinking from open sources 3. Non-hygiene factors a. Eating ice cream b. Wet of rain c. Demon/ghost Further analysis showed that the students, in general, do not believe the first factor. AS an illustration, in NAD, 70 percent of the total students comply negatively to the role of environmental dirtiness (open defecation and littering openly) in causing diarrhoea. In other words, sanitation factors are not believed as the cause of diarrhoea. For the hygiene factor, the position is equal. Half of the students believe that drinking un-boiled water, eating in place full of flies and drinking water from open source can be the cause of diarrhoea. The other half did not believe it. For non-hygiene factor, the majority's tendency is found. Most of the student perceived sceptically things like eating ice cream, wet cause by rain and ghost as the cause of diarrhoea. From the practise side, there were several things that can be grasped through the questionnaire, among others are toilet facility provide by school and hand washing with soap at critical time. As an illustration, in Yogyakarta and Central Java, it was found that 70 percent of the total students in recent semester had not used the school's toilet to defecate. 22 percent reported
Diagram: Hand washing survey results in NAD N = 914 Filter: Students who used soap today and yesterday, self-administered, recorded Source: Question # 11: please remember, for what purpose the soap was used? Since yesterday I have used soap for …….
Rain Ghost littering openly Eating in a place full of flies Drinking and eating from open source Open defecation Drinking unboiled water Eating in a place full of flies Eating ice cream

Now please think, which pictures (below) that can be the cause of "mencret" or diarrhoea? Answers can be more than one. Give (x) mark.

to have used it once. The reason for this is that they have done it at home (41 percent), school's toilet is dirty and smelly (37 percent), no time/chance (23 percent) and do not want to be the joke for others (22 percent). For hand washing with soap, in NAD, it was found that 14 percent of the total students reported to have done it at one critical time, which is before meal or after defecation. The majority was found not practising it. Future Implementation As has been featured previously, the use of pictorial selfadministered questionnaire in survey can reveal many important dimensions in KAP of students related to water, hygiene and sanitation. For further use, the revision of the questionnaire is still needed. The experiences in the field shows that (i) several instruction are still not clear that students have to ask their teacher for clarification; (ii) the use of pictures still can be increased more than 20 percent. For further use, questions of verbal instruction need to be reduced, and additional pictures that are easy to understand needs to be increased; (iii) the need to develop more practical and detail questionnaire so that the school can apply and analyse the data collected; (iv) the need to test the validity of the questionnaire. Beside the internal validity, which most of them have been tested through factor analysis, external validity test is also needed, e.g. by verifying data from the survey with incidence in the next period after survey. For example, the report of the hand washing with soap and diarrhoea incidences in the coming weeks.
* Researcher at John Hopkins University/Centre Communication Program (JHU/CCP)

Used for hand washing at critical times

Used for hand washing at non-critical time

Used for non hand washing activities

Percik March 2008

17

INSIGHT

Prioritizing Water Sources Conservation
t is interesting what has been done by the WSES (Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation) Working Group of Rote Ndao District. When all other districts facilitated by WASPOLA tend to prioritize piped water supply facilities (whether it is gravitation system, generator, drilled well, etc), Rote Ndao chose to be different. By considering many experiences in the past, the condition of the environment, all kind of incidence occurred in other districts and the social and cultural reality of its community, WSES working group of Rote Ndao, NTT, chose to protect its water sources with physical model and conduct reforestation around the water source areas. Where is Rote Ndao? Rote Ndao is not as popular as Sabang and Merauke, even though geographically

ROTE NDAO
By : Alma Arief * dan Joseph L. Kale**
it is has important meaning, since this island is the most south of Indonesia. Beside the mailand that shares its borders with the sea, most of Rote Ndao consists of mountains. Not more than 500 meters from the shoreline, the road is beginning to go up and down and up again. Rote Nado is 1280 km2 divided into 8 sub districts. In overall, Rote Ndao consist of 73 villages and 7 kelurahan. The total villages in the coastal area are 48 villages/kelurahan. Rote Ndao consist of 102 islands, where 7 of the are inhabited (Rote, Nuse, Landu, Nusa Manuk, Usu I, Usu II) and 95 of noninhabited islands. The total population based on the statistic of 2005 is 106.272 people; the density of the population is at 83 people/km2. From the human resources aspect, the reality of Rote Ndao is quite controversial.

I

In NTT province, Rote Ndao is known as region that produces human resources that capable to compete, whether in provincial, national or international level. However,, from the statistic data, the quality of human resources still needs more attention from the government. WSES Development in Rote Ndao The low level of understanding of the community on the utilization and management pattern of WSES facilities, also the weak support and policy from the government have made ineffective WSES development. Up to now, the coverage of PDAM is still limited to Ba'a and its surrounding. This does not mean for the community lives in the remote area has never been touched by piped water system, even, it is one to many; however, it is also often not being properly utilized because of broken or dislike by the community. For example, the pipe installation from the government of Belgium; the main pipe is still left on the

Kelfao water source conservation at Olafuliha village, Sub district of Pantai Baru (100%). Source: Alma Arief

18

Percik March 2008

INSIGHT
side of the street and other assistances are suffering from the same condition.
TABLE I TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE FOR WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM FACILITIES IN ROTE NDAO

is often receives higher attention compare to the physical needs fulfilment. The community is willing to bring water from hundreds of meters just to meet relatives, friends, listen to stories, even dating. Year built 2002 2004-2007 2005-2007 2004-2007 Condition of Facilities Functioning Broken/ properly not functioning 1 3 0 4 0 11 8 1

No

Source of Fund

Total Facility 4 4 11 9

01. 02. 03. 04

Belgium grant Central government (APBN) Local government (APBD II) WVI

The topographic Characteristic of Rote Ndao, which is hilly, is one of the factors that influence the development of WSES sector. To fulfil the needs of the community with low-income income, which live on high area, pipe installation with generator to is needed to pum the water to the community directly or via reservoir, which then distributed to the community. This is, of course, will need a high operational cost (to buy the fuel and maintenance), while the community itself is, in general, a lowincome category and even non-permanent. Beside that, to maintain the generator, it will need mid-level technical skill. It is not surprising if many facility built by high cost often broken, ignored, and not being utilized. Social cultural factors also seem to be the constraint for the sustainability of the facilities. Beside the conflict of water source utilization and the social gap caused by limited coverage, which leads to the destruction of facilities, there are other social cultural aspects that involves in adding the constraint. The community of Rote Ndao, also in Java and other places in Indonesia, uses the water source as a place for social gathering. At particular hours, the water source will be crowded. In this place, the community fulfil their social needs: to share information, communal level economy transaction, so forth. The fulfilment of social needs

Actually, there is a wish to build pipe facilities again, with new approach as recommended by the national policy, which is the implementation of demand responsive approach (DRA) that places community as the main actor of development and decision matter. However, the failures from the past have been shadowing so deeply that make it hard to move on. Beside that, to implement the national policy at the community level, there is the need to have basic facilitation, which is not in place until now. There is the need of training to be able to facilitate the community on how to plan, make decision, acquire technical skills decide the contribution, organize meetings, and so forth. All these will need special trainings. Water Sources as priority in Strategic Plan The working group has shown its determination in implementing the conservation of water resources. The survey on water resources has been conducted and more information is still flowing in, whether from the government or the legislative member/parliament. From the survey done by Bappedalda, currently, there are 110 water sources/springs in Rote Ndao district, distributed in 8 sub-districts. From all of the springs, there are 19, which have been already protected/con-

vserved. They are Futuno, Lalukoen, Ndapa, Oehendi I, Oehendi II, Kalfao, Mbokak, Noas, Olonoen, Oekima, Oebau, Otenggai, Mberoen, Oepiak, Oesambokak. The construction of the conservation was funded by APBD II 2006-2007. In the fiscal year 2008, Bappedalda is planning to build 39 springs conservation in the 8 sub-districts. The conservation is prioritized in the strategic plan and become the basis of consideration why water source conservation is being prioritized in line with the tendency of decreasing water source debit. This is happening because of the mass illegal logging by the community. According to the head of Bappedalda Rote Ndao, Marthen L. Saek, the result of doing consevation can be truly seen. By doing the planting of trees and conserving the water sources with physical model, water sources debit now is increasing. In doing the conservation, in 2007, Rote Ndao had allocated budget Rp. 150 million, and in 2008 the allocation is Rp. 485 million. Closing By building the conservation of water sources and the greening of the surrounding, the debit of water sources is now increasing. Water that is absorbed in to the ground is far greater; water run-off is decreasing causing the decreasing in erosion. The water sources conservation and its surrounding not only guarantee the fulfilment of water needs, but also prevent flood, landslide and drought. From hygiene aspect, as the research of Bappedalda shows, the water is safe although it is still not potable. Beside, the time line of the construction is quite fast, while the risk of damage is very low. It is true that there is still weakness, which is the householdbased facility that is still not thought about.
* Consultant of WASPOLA ** Staff of Bappedalda of Rote Ndao District

Percik March 2008

19

OVERVIEW

BANJARMASIN
City of A Thousand Rivers, A Thousand MCK

ronment quality. The water turned to brown and filled with enceng gondok (a kind of water plant parasite). Some even turned to black and grey. Since that time, the community of the riverbank no longer used the water. "Previously, the community often suffer from diarrhoea. Because of that, the community then subscribed to PDAM" Khariyah remembers. Polluted Rivers It has been a long time since Banjarmasin has the title of "city of a thousand rivers". When touring in this capital of South Kalimantan, no far distance is needed to find another long bridge. It means Banjarmasin is being crossed by big rivers, such as Barito an Martapura. The houses that are built by the community are made of wood and very close to each other. At the back of the houses, facing the river, there is the place where the community build the MCK (Mandi Cuci, Kakus/Bath, Wash, Defecate). Every morning and afternoon, male and females, children and adults, are lining up to do their daily activities. Sadly, the community of Banjarmasin cannot maintain the river environment quality. How to maintain when all of the activities are being done in the riverbank? It can be assured that the river is polluted with human excretion, which, in turn, turns the condition of the river contaminated with e-coli that is very dangerous for the community's health. All these because of the community's habit in doing open defecation at the river. Disappearing Rivers It seems, the title "city of a thousand rivers" can be soon gone if the local government and the community cannot maintain the existing rivers. Day by day, the sustainability of the rivers in Banjarmasin is threatened. Based on the data from the Settlement and City Infrastructure Agency of Banjarmasin, as quoted by the Banjarmasin Post (24 March 2008), in these past 9 years 57 rivers had gone missing from Banjarmasin. In 1995, there were 117 rivers flowing in Banjarmasin. In 2002, only 70 were still flowing. Two years later, 2004, it decreased again to 60 rivers. In average, 6 rivers are missing from the city's surface every year. If this condition is kept on going, counting the existing rivers, it is no impossible that in 10 year, all rivers in Banjarmasin will disappear. The cause of the missing rivers is the settlement that has been overtaking parts of the river area. Consequently, the river is tightening and eventually gone into a new settlement. Beside, low awareness of the community that keeps on throwing waste into the river causing the shallowness of the river, which leads to the missing river because it turns into land. Not only that, the decreasing of river area has potential risk of causing flood. BW

Source: Bowo Leksono.

T

hat morning, Khariyah (28), only wrapped up in batik cloth, sat down in the wooden harbour in the back of houses located in Barito riverbank, city of Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan. She is doing her daily activities such as defecation, washing clothes, brushing teeth and bathing. These are the ritual for every single day, morning, and afternoon, for Kharitah and the whole community living in the riverbank in Banjarmasin. This poor sight has been going on for quite a long time. "Years ago, the river used to be clean. Even for drinking and cooking purpose we took from this river" Said Kariyah who owns a small warung (food shop) at her house in Kuin Kelurahan, subdistrict of North Banjarmasin. In the 1980s, the quality of water in the rivers of south Kalimantan was decreasing pararel with the degradation of envi-

20

Percik March 2008

OVERVIEW

REVOLVING TOILETS AND WELL
Lubuk Kilangan, City of Padang. The low awareness of clean and hygiene behaviour and also the absent of proper toilets have made the community do open defecation in the river of irrigation river (banda). Not only toilet issue, the community also suffer problem of water availability. So far, the community obtain water by building well. However, the water from the well is often dirty, brown in colour. This is because the ground water is already contaminated by chemicals particle for the agriculture, and also caused by improper construction of the well, which do not use ring concrete. Meanwhile, the service coverage of PDAM only covers new housing settlement area near the current local community's settlement that is now being developed. The local community has tried to propose to PDAM to have the water connection; however, it was not possible, since the economic condition of the local community cannot guarantee that the implemented tariff will be paid regularly to PDAM. The issue of water and toilets is beginning to be solved with the technical assistance of ESP-USAID and supported by local NGO. The local community finally received their assistance, both in technical and financial aspects, to construct toilets and well. What is unique is that the construction of toilets and well is funded by a rolling funding system. The assistance is given in form of package, where one package consists of the construction of toilet and well. The community can choose to propose assistance in form of package or in form of toilet only or well only. In the beginning of the program, only 13 household received assistance, where 8 of them received in form of package, 3 household received in form of toilet only and 2 household in form of well only. For the household who propose only for toilet or well, the
One of the septic tank, which is the output of revolving toilets and wells program. Photo: Dyota Condrorini

O

ften seen that areas, which are inhabited by lowincome community, have poor sanitation. This is what happens in kelurahan Koto Lalang, sub-district of

assistance that is given is around Rp. 400.000,- to Rp. 600.000,-. Meanwhile, for the household who propose to have the package assistance, the fund that is given is around Rp. 1.000.000,- to Rp. 1.500.000,-. The funding assistance is more focused for the purchase of the material. As for the construction, usually the community will contribute voluntarily. This is possible considering several households are still relatives. The channelling of funding for the revolving toilets and wells is done by credit once a month for 10 months period for the beneficiary with package assistance, and 6 months for beneficiary with toilet or well only assistance. Furthermore, the collected fund will be revolved to other households that need the assistance. However, considering the community's low-income, the payments sometimes are delayed. Nevertheless, the community still try to pay. Only the period becomes longer. The management of the revolving fund is being done by the local community-based organization. The staffs of the organization usually are women. The manager is responsible for building agreement on the pattern of revolving toilets and wells, receiving proposals, monitor the purchase of material, and monitor the construction of each member every month. This way the role of local community organization is important for the sustainability of the program. Up to date, from all funding assistance, which have been given for 13 households, some of the funding have been channelled to help 3 households. Meanwhile, there are still 5 households in the waiting list that have already proposed to obtain the assistance.
DYO

Percik March 2008

21

REPORTAGE

GREEN OFFICE

W

hat it meant by green office on the above title is emphasized more to the environmental principles compare to the meaning related to tree planting. Many offices are built without paying attention to the environmental principles, except for the office of Perum Jasa Tirta I, which is located in Surabaya Street 2A, Malang, East Java. Actually, the attention is triggered by the contrast condition in Malang city. With a quite high elevation, more than +440 dpl in average, the city with relatively cool environment is always in alert situation when hard rain comes. It is unavoidable, that the poor drainage system and decreasing green spaces are always the one to blame. With a commitment "Starting with one self". An idea of a method to address the flooding issue has been developed. The basic framework of the idea is simple. First, how to prevent the rainwater in the office area not to spill over to the outside office's perimeter. If the method is found, implemented and succeeded, the second step is how to implement or apply it in a larger environment (scale up). The answer is to build Absorption Well. According to the drainage system and its capacious, in the office environment 5 locations for absorption well are made, where the function is to act as common well or hole in the ground surface to harvest the rain-water so that the rain water can be absorbed in to the ground, which in turn, increase the level of ground water and reduce the surface run-off. Absorption well is different from the common well, which function to increase the level of ground water to the surface. Beside the above functions, the absorption well also functions as flood control, protecting and improving the ground water and reducing erosion. By building these 5 absorption well, practically up to 80 percent of rainwater that fall into the office's area is absorbed to the ground. The construction of the absorption well is the same as the construction of dug well that is complemented with wall, with well space being kept empty in order to harvest rain water up to its maximum dimension. The esthetical constraint can be addressed by covering the well's top using concrete plate and soil and mud or even with combination of garden. The dimension of absorption well is the volume of the absorption, which is calculated based on the Direktorat Jendral

Source: Exclusive

Reboisasi dan Rehabilitasi Lahan's regulation No. 051/KPTS/V/1994 on the guideline for the absorption well construction plan. Beside the function as water conservation, this system has many benefits, among others, to reduce sea water intrusion for coastal urban area, reduce the drainage network dimension up to the zero level, minimizing the probability of flood on the downstream, decrease the concentration of water pollution, maintain the level of ground water, prevent the land subsidence, sustain the traditional technology as the nation culture, increase the community's participation in the development, and to increase the awareness of a sustainable environmental capacity. In 2008, it is planed that Perum Jasa Tirta I will help to build several absorption well of several schools in Malang. Beside its benefit for the environment, it also acts as the education media for the students.
Yunus Achmadi Public relation of Central office of Perum Jasa Tirta I

22

Percik March 2008

INSPIRATIONI

GREENING B I N TA R O

Foto: Istimewa)

Bintaro Jaya housing complex is one of the exclusive /elite housing complex located in Jakarta's suburban, in district of Tangerang, Province of Banten, to be precise. Not few of housing complex management that ignore the environmental area. Because of that, very often the existing of housing complex is the main cause of flooding in the surrounding area or even the complex itself. What about Bintaro Jaya? t cannot be deny that the developer of Bintaro Jaya has done the management and sustainment of the environment. The Bintaro Jaya Management has done the monitoring of the environment consistently and sustainably. In every new developed land, trees are planted. Even in areas, which have been long developed. The developer consistently does the management and maintaining of the environment. This is to show the commitment of the manage-

ment to fulfil the ideal ratio between building coefficient and the green space. Bintaro Area Management Unit Environmental manager of Bintaro Jaya, Ir. L. Devayanti A. Wulaning Tyas, explained that Bintaro Jaya Housing Management has already far ahead in applying the greening program in 2008. "This Year, through the Bintaro Management Unit (BMU), environmental greening have been launched instensively that the housing complex can be beautiful, healthy, and comfortable, of course by involving its community" Said Deva, her nickname. This BMU, she further explained, holds activities with environmental theme and not just a mere competition between RW, which is the routine activities for every year.

I

In time for The Birthday Celebration To implement the environmental management unit programs, Deva explained, the environmental units focuses on the greening the whole housing complex by planting trees in empty land yet to be developed, also by improving land that has not become effective along the main road and clusters, also the planting of trees of Trembesi, Mahogani and Sengon types. Deva said that year 2008 has become the starting point of the awareness of Bintaro Jaya management on the sustainable environment. "it is also related to the celebration of Bintaro Jaya 29th birthday on the 26 of May, and environment day on 5 of June" she said. Along this year, there are several activities related to environment In early of last December, symbolic tree planting had been done to support the government's program: "Plant 10 millions trees". For Bintaro's area, dozens of trees were planted in the CBD kavling in front of Menteng residence cluster, sector 7. Deva also explained that there are 5 main agenda with different themes, sucah as greening competition between clusters or RT/RW hold in mid-February up to May 2008 with "Keep Your Neighbourhood Green and Clean" as the theme. For three months, the community's environment will be assessed and the prize for that reaches up to hundreds millions rupiah. According to Deva, planting trees program in every area is the next support of government programs "Plant 10 millions Trees". "Up to May 2008, the BMU had targeted to plant 3000 trees" she revealed. On the peak of Bintaro Jaya's birthday celebration, there were 2 main agenda, plant decoration competition, which involved participant from the local community, and healthy walking and happy bicycling. BW

Percik March 2008

23

REFLECTION

C i p t o

Changing Waste into Art

Pr a t o m o

O

ne feature of a true artist is the never-ending creativity. Even in a limited situation, a true

artist will never suffer from short of ideas. On the contrary, a new art is born. It is as what Cipto Pratomo, an artist from Banyumas, Central of Java, has done in creating arts in form of Kolase from used material or anorganic waste. There are used materials such as cans, plastics, iron, cable, hose parts; which through Cipto's hands are turned into a very interesting wall decoration. Kolase is an art made from glued materials or layered materials. "In the beginning I wanted to paint, but the materials were not available. In that limited condition, I had the idea of making painting from used materials. From then on, I started to look around the complex for any useful used materials" said the artist who started to his idea in 1996 to Percik at his home. Helping to reduce Inorganic Waste Cipto explained the process of making the kolase, starting from collected waste/used materials to the arrangement on the board into many kind of shapes according to the idea, such as mask, or insects. "After the form is beginning to show, then it can be glued to each other or nailed and then sparyed with paint" said the artist who works as art teacher in SMP 5 (Junior High School) of Purwokerto. If seen from a distance, the kolase is not seemed as waste, and it is beautiful.
Cipto Pratomo in front of his art. Source: Bowo Leksono

Up to now, there are 15 kolase art that decorate his house's wall. Every time doing kolase art, Cipto collects waste from around the house and the neighbourhood first. "After that. It is time to develop an idea and implement it", said father of one son. Practically, not much cost has to be spent. The art will need only paint, glue, nail. The rest can be freely obtained. Because of that, this 52 years old man is helping to reduce inorganic waste. Of course if the community is creative in reusing inorganic waste, more or less it will help to reduce the waste. Passing It on to The Student In several exhibitions, Cipto had the chance to present his arts. Even though he did not intent to sell, his first art was sold for 500 thousand Rupiah. "For this art, I do not determine the price. It is up to the buyer to put a price on my art, since it is merely my hobby and entertain-

ment", said the teacher who is the alumni of Art Science of IKIP, Yogyakarta. Up to this date, Cipto's hobby and entertainment in creating kolase has reached the stage of knowledge transferring to his students. Many of Cipto's activities were done together with his students of SMP 5 Purwokerto, such as making mass accecories of OndelOndel up to 25.000 units, giant wayang character (Gunungan) of 670 meter height of paper kolase, building the place for wudhu (a place to clean the body before praying) made from 1038 used can. Most activities can be registered to the Indonesia Record Museum (MURI). There is one Cipto's kolase with high Javanese philosophy. The kolase, which made from shoes, cable, and laundry board, is titled "Sikil Ngo Ndas, Ndas Ngo Sikil" (foodtas head, head as foot)", which represent the oppressed society, who has worked hard but still helpless.
BW

Percik March 2008

24

ABSTRACTION

Externality Internalisation in The Solid Waste Management in City of Bandung

I

n mid up to the end of 2005, a research on domestic and nondomestic waste management pattern in Bandung was conducted by using random and proportional questionnaire distribution. The direct household questionnaire distribution was divided into 3 (three) economic categories (low-middlehigh income) proportionally for each kelurahan as the research basis; also random questionnaire by phone as the data comparison. As for the non-domestic research, the questionnaire used was the direct questionnaire with sub-district as the research basis. The results showed that there was increasing volume of domestic solid waste to 3,52 lt/person/day, which based on the calculation, the domestic solid waste of Bandung had reached 7.481 m3/day at the source, or 4.987 m3/day with compactor integrated in the transportation vehicle. Only 53,54 percent of respondents admit that 100 percent of the produced solid waste are being transported to waste facility. For the solid waste management at the household level that cause economic externality (negative), if ranked based from the highest proportion are waste combustion up ti 28,84 percent (with participation rate of 0,63 times/week or 63 times in 100 weeks), open dumping in empty space/land up to 5,87 percent (0,14 times/week), and burying waste up to 4,54 percent (0,04 times/week). Meanwhile, the positive externality of solid waste management shows that 38,85 percent of the total respondents

have recycled and done the composting, both directly and indirectly. The volume of solid waste produced reaches 2.566,77 m3/day. The composting activity on the sources of non-domestic waste has reached up to 1,83 percent of the total volume per each object. Furthermore, the proportion of recycled waste reaches 3,94 percent of the total volume. The result of the research shows that waste from various non-

The environmental cost that has to be spent to recover the environment quality, which has suffered from the diseconomy externality on the selected scenario, has reached up to Rp. 501.966.526.899,- (35,44 percent of the total cost) for 20 years period of planning.
domestic waste sources, which have been analysed, have received transportation services by the field officer by 4,15 times/week; As for the self-transportation to temporary waste facility or final waste facility, only 1,33 times/week. Meanwhile, the management for the other type of waste is quite various; the solid waste management by combustion shows the highest frequency, up to 0,61 times/week or 61 times in 100 weeks. Based on the specific site source, tourism places are registered as the highest place

where combustion of waste has been done, up to 2,38 times/week or 238 times/100 weeks. As for the open dumping of waste to empty land/space, is up to 0,15 timer /week in average or 15 times per 700 days or 100 weeks. Dumping waste to the river is registered up to 0,09 times/week in average. Based on the primary data of the research, and supported by the secondary data, a dynamic model simulation has been developed (using Powersim Studio software 2005) to assess the scenario of solid waste management of Bandung city as the basis to determine the policy planning for 20 years (2006-2026). The optimum scenario has been developed with maximising the target of 3-R (reuse, recycle, recovery) achievement and minimizing the negative externality of solid waste management (diseconomy externality), so that the accumulation of waste volume that will be dump to the landfill will only occurs at 17,76 percent of the total volume of solid waste at the source for the 20 years period of planning. The environmental cost that has to be spent to recover the environment quality, which has suffered from the diseconomy externality on the selected scenario, has reached up to Rp. 501.966.526.899,(35,44 percent of the total cost) for 20 years period of planning.
Summarized from the thesis of I Made Wahyu Widyarsana, titled "Re-evaluation (updating) the Potential of Waste Recycling of Bandung City as The Basis of The 3-R-based Solid Waste Management" at Faculty of Environmental Engineering of ITB.

25

Percik March 2008

26

O u r

G u e s t

D

espite of her busy activities, this pretty lady agreed to make time to have an interview on her experiences regarding the environmental issue. That time, Valerina Daniel, the name of this tall lady who was the runner-up of Putri Indonesia 2005, was nominated for the second time as the brand ambassador of Toyota Eco Youth 2008, Toyota's CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) program in environmental sector. Val, nickname of Valerina, has received many titles after being nominated as the runner up of Putri Indonesia. Among others are the automatic titles that she received as the runner-up, which are Putri Puspa and Miss Environment 2005, also the ambassador of environment of State Ministry of Environment. These titles have given the chance for Val in acquiring many experiences in the environment sector. For example, her experience in the remote area of Siak River in Riau. "I saw how almost all of the community's lives depend on the river. Which means they defecate in the river, and use the water from the river for their daily needs" remembers None Jakarta 1999, whose full name is Valerina Novita Daniel. According to Val, the cause of the lack of access to safe water is the low economic capacity of the riverbank community, which in turn force them to get whatever is available. There is no need to go far to Riau. In around Jakarta, Val remembered walking through the Angke river until to Jakarta bay with the same condition. "they wash clothes, clean fishes, throw waste and take water from the same source. It can be imagined how horrible the impact to their health", said the presenter of one of national television. Val also saw how plastic waste has crowded Angke riverbank that her motor boat had trouble with the plast i c ,

Percik

March 2008

27

causing the journey to stops several time. According to this Miss Indonesia, the joint solid waste management of Jakarta and other cities is no longer can be delayed. "Jakarta bay is the meeting point of 13 rivers in Province of DKI Jakarta, West Java and Banten" said Val. Sanitation Needs Attention ADB's data of 2005 shows that only 69 percent of the urban population and 46 percent of rural population (55,43 percent in average) have access to safe and proper sanitation. The rest still does not have access to sanitation. "The sanitation condition in Indonesia is quite poor and need more serious attention from all the stakeholder" said Val who also nominated as the Ambassador of Mitra Lingkungan. The development coverage and population distribution, and the limited development budget are the factors that influence the sanitation condition in Indonesia. Once, Val read in the newspaper about the oil subsidy that reaches up to Rp. 107 trillions, or 214 times of current sanitation budget. According to this public figure whose name became famous through the television show "Spesial Pake Telor", this is caused by the low awareness and attention of the decision-makers in improving sanitation sector in Indonesia. "Moreover, the low education and awareness of the community on the provision and maintaining of proper sanitation has caused tremendous delay in achieving the goal of proper sanitation access provision", said Val. S a n i t a t i o n , W h o ' s Responsibility? According to Val, the one most responsible of the availability of access to sanitation is the government, both at the central level and the regional level. But all of this will not successful if not supported by the community. For that, it is important to implement sanitation development program that involves the community so the demand and ownership of the community will

increase. "Partnership is also need to be conducted more intensively and continuous between the government, the private sector and community" Said the lady who was born in Jakarta, on the 25th of November 1978. Val explained further that there are two approaches which need to be implemented in order to improve sanitation condition in Indonesia, they are technical and non-technical approaches. Increasing the number of sanitation facilities can be done through technical approach, both in rural and urban area. "In Jakarta, almost 60 percent of households owns well with distance from the septic tank less than 10 meters. Of course this will have negative impact for the users of the well since they are vulnerable to e-coli bacteria, which is often found in faeces", said this tall lady of 167 cm and weight 53 kg. As for the non-technical approach, she further explained, it is related to the community awareness that needs to be improve and their participation in sanitation development program. "However, before expecting the awareness of community, the most important thing is to build the attention and awareness of the decision -maker, both the executive legislative, and judicative, so that the cross-sector partnership is built". Sanitation and MDGs Target Up to this time, Indonesia keeps on doing many efforts in achieving the MDGs targets. In 2015, Indonesia is expected to achieve the target of 65 percent of the total population has access to proper basic sanitation. In 2007, MDGs report revealed that the access to sanitation in Indonesia had reached 68 percent, which means Indonesia pass over the MDGs target. However, the data is considered to not valid since many of the sanitation facili-

ties are not properly built and do not meet the requirement of proper sanitation; So quantitatively, the target is fulfilled, but qualitatively, it is still far from the target. According to Val, all of these have to be returned back to the political will of the decision-makers in this country. Whether making sanitation as the main element of community's life sustainability or not? If yes, said the doughter of Daniel A. Sani and Nurdini, of course it will have an impact on the maximum achievement of MDGs target, through the programs, trainings, incentive and the improvement

Photo: Bowo Leksono / Created by RudiKoz

of community's awareness on the importance of proper sanitation. "Consequently, better behaviour and responsibility are formed. Even more better if the impact of poor sanitation will influence the social and economic aspects", said the ambassador of environment who also has talent on journalistic. Val encourage everyone to become a "virus" of life style changing to all of the people in order to apply the clean and healthy behaviour at all time. "Lets care for the proper sanitation for the people" asked the writer of campaign material titled Efficient and Effective Steps to Maintain The Earth. BW

WSLIC ROUNDABOUT

WSLIC-2 SUPERVISION MISSION XI

W

ith the ending of the second Water and Sanitation For Low-Income Communities (WSLIC-2) program, on the mid-term of 2001-2007, a supervision mission XI to several program districts has been conducted. The activity was conducted during 10-13 of March 2008. Previously, the supervision mission was intended to two provinces, South Sulawesi and East of Java. However, in the end, only four districts of East Java province were visited; district of Lamongan, Malang, Sumenep and Sampang. The supervision team consist of central government from different institutions, WSLIC-2 facilitators, and Local Government. In order to have an effective and efficient supervision, the team was split into two teams, one for district of Malang and Lamogan, the other team to Sumenep and Sampang. Percik was in the first team. Here is the report. Lamongan District In several locations of water and sanitation community user association (HIPPAMS) that were visited, the community welcome the implementation of this program, and even propose to extend it in 2009. The sustainability of the program is highly dependent to the commitment and the policy of the local government to have the faith that water supply and environmental sanitation (WSES) is important for the community. The head of social and cultural Bappeda Lamongan, Bambang Pramono, said that the local government is still committing to the program of community empowerment that is related to WSES. "The basis of the commitment of the local government will be carried on to the budget committee in order to maintain the sustainability of the program brought in by World Bank", He said. Meanwhile, CPMU WSLIC-2, Imam Syahbandi, said that in this supervision, it is hoped that many findings can be obtained, especially those findings related to the risky programs in several area so that it can be our lessons learned to, later on, improve the project design. "This is our duty to keep it synergy and easy to control", he revealed. Water and Sanitation Community User Association (HIPPAMS) Village HIPPAMS has established associations of HIPPAMS that acts as a forum to coordinate, communicate, consult, and find solution so that the water facility can be maintain profes-

Source: Bowo Leksono.

sionally. This association is named HIPPAMS Banyu Urip Association. This association was established on the 30th of June 2003 and officially turned into cooperation (Koperasi) on the 24th of Februari 2005. Now the association already has 119 village HIPPAMS members, 40 villages; Among other, is the project of Public Works Department. The Chief of Association, as well as the Koperasi Serba Usaha (KSU) HIPPAMS Banyu Urip, Kasdan, explained that so far, the association and Koperasi have relied on the own capital supported by the members contribution up to Rp. 5 millions for each village HIPPAMS. "Now, KSU HIPPAMS Banyu Urip is managing asset over Rp. 200 millions, which is used as the soft loan program", he said. The association and KSU HIPPAMS Banyu Urip is doing the replication program to 40 villages in Lamongan District. "We expect capital assistance for the Koperasi's sustainability" said Kasdan. Supervision to HIPPAMS Villages The first village visited by the team was Geger village, of Turi Sub-district. This village owns a quite new drilled well that was not yet two years old. Previously, the community used water from the river or lake to fulfil their needs. Aorung 476 head of households (55 percent of the total head of the households) in Geger village have subscribed to village HIPPAMS. The rest is accessing water through public hydrant available, which the maintenance and operational is conducted by the low-income community for the tariff of Rp. 100/3 litters. According to the chief of HIPPAMS of Geger village, Khoirul Hudah, the income of HIPPAMS has reached Rp. 2 millions per

28

Percik March 2008

WSLIC ROUNDABOUT

month. "Currently we have Rp. 30 millions in our cash which will be used for livestock investment for low-income community" he said. The head of the Geger village, Bambang S., said that the availability of water has encourage the behaviour change of the community towards clean and healthy behaviour, especially for the elementary students in the village. "The women activities via PKK also came back to life with the support of HIPPAMS", said he. The behaviour change also influence to the defecation habit. Before, many unpleasing behaviour. The community practised open defecation nearby the house or the river. Then WSLIC contributes 111 revolving toilets. Unfortunately, the success of water availability was not followed by the improvement of drainage system, which caused water clogging in almost every corner of the village. From Geger village, the supervision moved on to Sidogogem village, sub-district of Mulyo. The drilled well of 60 meters depth was built since 2004 located next to the village office. Several public hydrants also were built at the corner of the village, maintained by the low-income community with income of Rp. 100 per two bucket of clean water. Before, the community accessed the water by making a dam and flow it to the Prigetan Dam. Malang District The supervision in this district was conducted in two villaged, Putukrejo and Karangsuko. The head of BAPPEDA Malang, Nehruddin, said that the WSLIC-2 program in these 5 years is considered to be helpful for the local community. "From 390 villages in Malang district, 40 percent of them are experiencing problems with access to water", he said. In village Putuk rejo, sub-district of Gondanglegi, the construction of water facility had begun since 2004. However, after three times of drilling, no results was found, until it finally changed to another option, which was by getting the water from the Sira water source that capable of flowing water for padi filed up to 700 hectare. It was only in 2006 that the community of Putukrejo enjoyed clean water by building Pump well with the debit of 7 litter/second. In order to manage the community's need of water, a management unit of Sira Water Source was established (it called BPABS: Badan Pengelola Air Bersih dan Sanitasi/Water and sanitation management unit). The establishment of this unit was through the process as follow: (i) community meeting and (ii) decision making meeting followed by the village head decision. BPSABS has been active since January 2007. The average income per month for BPSABS is Rp. 7 millions. For the incentives of the staffs including the caretaker is Rp. 2,5 millions, depreciation Rp. 500.000, contingency Rp. 1 million and the saldo is Rp. 1 million. BPSABS of Sira Water Source also able to cover other village, which is Sumber Jaya Village and Ketawang village with connec-

tion fee up to Rp. 1 million for neighbouring village and Rp. 500.000 for the original village. Now there are 433 subscribers and on going. According to the chief of BPSABS Putukrejo, H. Rusdi, for sanitation, Putukrejo village has not achieve much, sicne WSLIC-2 only going on for 14 months. "we still need more time to improve and rehabilitate the sanitation facilities and the behaviour change", he said. Meanwhile, in Karangsuko village, sub-district of Pagelaran, before clean water is available, the community took the water from the irrigation. Only in 2005, WSLIC-2 came in. there are 5 water sources, which one of them is the Maron water source that is being utilized for the debit of 460 litter/second, but only used for 4 litter/second. In the end of 2006, the village had the capacity to share the water with its neighbouring village, Sukasari and Gondanglegi Kulon. Now, there are 739 consumers. The chief of BPSABS of Karangsuko, Saayyid Muhammad said that to encourage the clean and healthy behaviour change, it has been done through the sanitarians and cadres. "So far we are able to build 4 posyandu for the elderly, and are palnning to buy ambulance car for the village", he said. For sanitation matter, Sayyid admitted that there are several people that still practice open defecation in the river. "We don't want to prohibit them without any solution that can be offered to them. We are planning to build public toilets near the river", he said. Interesting Findings In general, the availability of water for the community has helped to increase the village's economy. It can be said based on the growth of the BPSABS ' asset, and even the administration system of Sira Water Source BPSABS, which is supported by the computer hardware and its customer payment software. The weaknesse is that the low attention on the availability of drainage system once the community has access to clean water. Beside that, as also happened in district of Malang and Sumenep, there is a competition between BPSABS/HIPPAMS and PDAM. There are community that subscribe to both, or change subscription from PDAM to BPSABS. This condition is better to be avoided because it will lead to over investment in one location. There should be established a regulation to address the competition, so at least there is a synergy between both of them. The self-empowered community in managing the facility has been proven, including the strong willingness of the local government to replicate WSLIC-2. However, there are, of course, many homework's to do, such as the government should has the development plan of water supply system as mandated by the national regulation. This will make it easier in synergizing the effort to provide water supply, whether by piping system or non-piping system by the government, private and community. BW/OM

Percik March 2008

29

ISSDP ROUNDABOUT

ISSDP Phase I Evaluation Workshop
Sanitation Development Technical Team Action Plan Consolidation
he implementation of the Indonesia Sanitation Sector Development Program (ISSDP) phase I was started in April 2006 has ended in March 2008. Three core activities of ISSDP are to facilitate the central government in developing the framework of the sustainable sanitation development, improvement of awareness on sanitation and clean and healthy behaviour change, and capacity building of municipals in the development of City Sanitation Strategy. Beside producing many kinds of products of those activities, in line with the program progress, there are new sanitation issues that needs to be further discussed and further action plan. The discussion and action plan will be conducted by the Sanitation Development Technical team, which was formed by the decree of Deputy of Infrastructure Bappenas No. KEP.01/D.VI/11/2007. I the decree, the team is consist of five working groups, which are health sector in relation to the improvement of the quality life of the community, and the technical sector related to the construction of water supply and sanitation facility. As for the institutional sector, it is related to the aspects of institution regulation in the Sanitation development. For the community empowerment sector, it is relted to the community participation and community cooperation in the sanitation development. Lastly, is the sector of funding (financial), which is related to the aspcets of funding of the sanitation development, both by internal or external funding. Related to the end of ISSDP phase I,

T

which has been implemented in 6 cities (Blitar, Solo, Denpasar, Jambi, Banjarmasin and Payakumbuh), the program will be extended to phase II which will be begun by April 2009. In this phase II, the program will be more focused to the replication in several other cities supported by a more communicative process between central, provincial and municipal government. The concept of ISSDP phase II will become one of the main agenda, which will be discussed during the workshop on ISSDP phase I evaluation in Bogor, 5-6 Februari 2008. The workshop is a consolidation forum for the integrated action plan of the technical team. The workshop that is officially opened by the director of Settlement and Housing Baappenas, Budi Hidayat, was expected to produce the action plan of technical team regarding the ISSDP activities, particularly for 2008. One of the activities in the workshop was the discussion on the working group of each sector that produced several recommendations and action plan. Helat sector will implement evaluation strategy

of five sanitation campaigns, also include the Environmental Health Risk Assessment (EHRA) in the National and Regional MidTerm Investment Development Plan. Technical sector will have a socialization of Minimum Service Standard to all regions, also develop the Sanitation Guide book. Institutional sector is expected to conduct the preparation of provinces to establish the technical team of water supply and environmental sanitation and sanitaSource: ISSDP tion technical team, the development of national framework, also the improvement of sanitation regulation, and replication of best practices of ISSDP through provinces to other cities. The Community empowerment sector will implement the development of basic facilitation module and TOT (Training of Trainers) at the provincial level, the development of syllabus of City Sanitation Strategy and the determination of capacity building as the main requirement of the implementation of sanitation development. Meanwhile, the financial sector is planning to develop channelling fund for sanitation and the utilization of the existence of Working group as the alternative of funding based on the off-budget system where each institutions will fight for it sanitation budget through SKPD. The workshop was officially closed by Nugroho Tri Utomo by explaining the follow up action plan of the workshop, which is to plan further meeting with the technical team to discuss issues that have not been discussed and the development of program to welcome the International Sanitation year 2008. ISSDP Team

30

Percik March 2008

ISSDP ROUNDABOUT

White Book, a Comprehensive Image of Sanitation
the data exist, usually only consists sectoral data depends on which sector the data covers. Sometimes, the data provided collides with other data, resulting confusion when it comes to determining which data must be used for sanitation strategy formulation. Therefore, the early step before building City Sanitation Strategy (CSS), is for cities to produce the sanitation white book. This book is a compilation of secondary data from all related sectors. The white book consist city basic data such as: residents, housing, density, border, poverty indicators, sanitation-based map, services, etc. The book should also consist of the role and institutional responsibility for executing and implementing agency of the infrastructure services including the existing project initiatives. The data found in the white book is a basic data which describe service level, needs, and priority that must be taken for future sanitation development. In the next step, the white book also consist the Environmental Health Risk Assessment (EHRA). This assessment result is a primary data which is taken directly from the society through a survey by the society itself. This data later on will be used in developing action plan and sanitation development priority on certain city areas. Sanitation Workgroup It's not an easy job to compile all the spread data and do a city sanitation assessment which involves many sectors. To develop the white book and further understanding in developing City Sanitation Strategy needs cooperation and mutual commitment. This step can be done if there's coordination between sanitation stakeholders and support from policy makers. Formally form a workgroup is a way to accommodate that effort. Bappeda can
Source: ISSDP

N

owadays, there are only a few cities that have a complete and integrated sanitation data. If

be a forming initiator, also coordinates the workgroup activities. Elements of

The white book also consist the Environmental Health Risk Assessment (EHRA)

health, public work, environmental, education, etc are included in this workgroup. The whereabouts of sanitation workgroup must be fully support by the Head of the District and District Representative. Why? Because authority delegation is needed by the working group to run its activites. Furthermore the workgroup task is more than just forming a new group. Sanitation workgroup is a locomotive to sanitation development. Therefore, institutional and individual capacity building is a must. An effective performance by sanitation workgroup will guarantees a good output. The white book is a one of the early indicators to the sanitation workgroup success.
Mujiyanto

Percik March 2008

31

WASPOLA ROUNDABOUT

Consolidation of Community Based Water and Environmental Sanitation National Policy Results in Districts Workshop

I

t has been four years since 2004, WASPOLA had given technical assistance to 49 districts/cities doing adoption and implementation of CommunityBased Water and Environmental Sanitation National Policy, resulting many progress achieved. From the total districts/cities, 44 have already had their own strategic plans for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation (WSES) development. Almost half of them now are doing follow ups to that plans. Not all of the assisted districts/cities has done follow ups to their strategic plan, many others has yet to adopt the WSES National Policy, while the WASPOLA 2 will end in the end of the year. In response to this condition, WASPOLA and WSES National Workgroup held Consolidation of Community Based Water and Environmental Sanitation National Policy in Districts Workshop on 2nd - 6th of March 2008 in Bali. WASPOLA, WSES National Workgroup, provincial and district government did evaluation, coordination, and consolidation of the result of policy implementation. At least there are three results expected from this workshop which are finding out what needs to be done, agenda agreement between central and district governments, and agreement on central and district follow up mechanism after WASPOLA ended. A talk show has been held during the workshop. The talk show presents three head districts, Gusmal, Solok head district, Siti Qomariyah, Pekalongan head district, and Iwan Bokings, Boalemo head district. From this talk show experience from the

Source: Dormaringan.

districts leaded by names mentioned before is shared. How they adopt and implement WSES policy and what innovation they did to overcome obstacles. The presences of the three head districts hopefully can bring inspiration for other district in responding to multiple issues in AMPL development. In this talk show, also present some representatives from the central government to give a general view towards the policy implementation in districts. They are Budi Hidayat, Director of Settlement and Housing Bappenas, Wan Alkadri, Director of Environemental Sanitation Health Department, dan Soesmono, Director of Environmental Sanitation of Settlement Department of Public Works. From the experience of the three sources, it turns out that reserved fund in APBD (District Income and Spending Budget) can be used as an accessible fund

source for WSES sectors, like what's been done in Pekalongan. Boalemo has been able to capture funding opportunity from external sources such as CARE International. Meanwhile in Solok can be seen a form of decentralization of responsibility throughout the community. These things become inspirations for other districts to break their limitations. In the end of the workshop, several things has been agreed, such as (i) the increase of corporation between National WSES Workgroup and District WSES Workgroup by making Province WSES Workgroup as a frontline for coordination, facilitation, and counsel from the National WSES Workgroup to the District WSES Workgroup; (ii) establishing focal points in each district workgroup as the mediator between workgroups; (iii) the increase of public campaign and participating in Hari Air Dunia (World's Water Day) 2008. FN

32

Percik March 2008

WASPOLA ROUNDABOUT

Consolidation of Community Based Water and Environmental Sanitation National Policy Results in Districts Workshop
WSES services will reduce the risk of health disease which eventually will reduce medication cost. In the other hand, an adequate WSES services because lack of investments will increase health disease risk, and eventually will create new costs. Ironically, according to several participants, hospital institutions are being targeted as one of the district income. Sectoral Ego Workshop participants felt that all this time, sectoral ego practices are still conducted in WSES development. Many departments are included, but each with its own policy and this creates a chain link with its department's policy. All sectoral ego must be banished. Then all the participants yelled: "Go Sinergy!"

Foto: Sekretariat KHPPIA Jateng

trategic Planning for WSES Development Workshop in Central Java Province is an initiative from WSES Workgroup to follow up the result of policy implementation facilitation. This workshop is held in 25th 26th of March 2008 in Salatiga, sponsored by Central Java UNICEF. UNICEF support in this strategic planning is expected to be an entry point for UNICEF in developing environmental sanitation program in Central Java, which until today only been conducted in Klaten District. This workshop attended by 30 participants from Province Workgroups, all WSES related department, and representatives from Kebumen, Grobogan, and Pekalongan as sources. Over 26 Million People Haven't Receive Proper WSES Services According to WSES development progress report by Kimtaru Agency, there

S

are still 25 million people in Central Java who haven't received proper access to water supply. This condition requires Central Java WSES Workgroup to act and initiative through WSES Strategic Plan Development Preparation, which is later, will become reference in developing Governments Task Force Unit/Satuan Kerja Perangkat Daerah (SKPD) Workplan. Rp 1,7 Trillion Investment Needed for Water Supply and Sanitation According to Kimpraswil agency, to accommodate water supply and sanitation thoroughly in cities and villages, Rp 1,7 Trillion is needed. There are Still Perception that Investment in Water Supply and Sanitation as A Cost. This way of thinking is the main cause why water supply and sanitation haven't considered as a priority in development. Kimtaru agency stated that investment in

WORKSHOP FOCUS
Three Strategic Issues in WSES Development This workshop intensively discusses several issues or problems brought up by Settlement Spatial Planning, Health, Bapedal, and Natural Resources Institution in WSES development management. More than 50 problems were listed which categorized to 3 basic problems which will be explained as strategic issues in Province WSES Strategic Plan Document. These three issues are: low commitment from the policy makers towards WSES, the degrading quality of environment (as water resource), and low society awareness towards clean and healthy behavior.

Percik March 2008

33

WASPOLA ROUNDABOUT
WSES Data Specifically, WSES Data topic is discussed in group discussion. Data is an entry point towards WSES strategic planning. Data problem is a rather complicated problem which is also happened in national level. This workshop has formulated general data which will become base of strategic planning without reducing specific data according to agency job description and finalization will be done in steps because the upcoming strategic plan is a dynamic an always up to date document. District Expectations Three districts which appointed as resources stated their views, inputs, and expectations toward province strategic plan based on what issues faced by them. Those hopes and inputs are: 1. The policy to encourage districts/cities leaders to put WSES as one of the priority in development. 2. The policy about partnerships with various internal institutions to

Source: Sekretariat KHPPIA Jateng

increase WSES services in districts. 3. The policy about capacity building for district WSES Workgroup human resources, which oriented on

environmental continuity. 4. Encourage and support district's efforts in Community Based Sanitation program. This expectations and inputs need to be completed by asking inputs from other districts that haven't participate in this workshop, especially regarding relevant issues faced by district governments nowadays. Follow Up Plan Agreement From this workshop has been agreed so that follow up workshops will be done as much as 3 times until the preparation for strategic planning document has finished. The first follow up will be done in April with information collecting, strategic issues analysis, policy analysis, and strategic program as main issues. The expected output is 1st draft of strategic plan document. The next follow ups will be adjusted by the agreement on upcoming workshop in April. Subari, Bambang

Source: Sekretariat KHPPIA Jateng

and Huseiyn.

34

Percik March 2008

WASPOLA ROUNDABOUT

FLASHBACK
Result of National Policy of CB-WSES (Community Based-Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation) Facilitation in Districts

government (stakeholders) in the water and environmental sanitation paradigm. The policy facilitation journeys from 2003 until 2007, giving a lot of valuable experience for central and district government. Development Continuity, Policy Essence Policy has given a new pathway in understanding the new WSES development paradigm, especially awareness of the importance of continuity development and the process of putting the society as main actors in development. Policy is aimed specifically to produce continuity and effective use, which principally existed through 11 general principles of policy. This process is based on the logical frame that a (national) policy will be implemented by districts if that the policy is understood and received as a reference and then implemented into program through government body and related institution function in districts. In WASPOLA's facilitation context, the facilitation sequences are based on a continuity of milestones, as described:
Milestones Policy is understood and accepted
Districts interest for technical assistance Politic support from district leaders

N

ational Policy of CB-WSES (Community Based-Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation) Facilitation in Districts is a learning process for central and district

national level attended by potential districts, policy dissemination workshop in district and policy road show to district leaders to collect supports to policy implementation in districts and policy dissemination to public through media. The result are satisfying and until now there are already 62 districts that received policy implementation facilitation services, policy adoption to related projects, and donor's interest to adopt national policy as WSES implemented project platform. Field Assistance Field assistance is implemented based on request. This action is in line with one of the demand responsive approach principles. Dynamically, assistance implementation has evolve from district based assistance in 2003-2004 to province based assistance in 2005 and since 2007 intensive assistance has turned into non intensive assistance based on the agreed agenda except for two new province which is South East Sulawesi and Nusa Tenggara Timur. The change in approach shows district independency growth especially province in managing policy implementation activities. This also indicates facilitation skills transformation from consultant to district WSES workgroup. The result from the evolved assistance process is district's initiative to do follow up policy implementation from consultant based implementation

Districts prepare policy implementation stakehold"WSES workgroup preparation "Allocation and operational for policy implementation

Districts formulate a continuous WSES development
"WSES workgroup capability in policy implementation "District strategic plan is formulated,

Districts implement strategy into operational
"Adoption of principal policy into WSES development "Strategic plan implementation move and policy principal

to district based implementation and consultant is positioned as information sources. In other words, whether there is consultant or not, policy implementation activity is still on the move especially in West Sumatera, Banten, Central Java, and Gorontalo, while the other provinces still need special encouragements. Capacity Building Capacity building through series of workshops and trainings is thematically designed by balancing strategic values towards policy implementation continuity. Generally capacity building activity consist three domains which are knowledge development, behavior change, and skills development. From a series of thematic workshops/trainings, strategic planning training is an activity that answers directly to district strategic planning needs, basic facilitation training directly

Policy dissemination Promotion and policy marketing

" Field technical assistance " Capacity building through series of workshops and thematic trainings

Monitoring and evaluation (monev)

Intervensi

Policy Promotion/Marketing Policy promotion is the most important part in policy implementation facilitation services. Promotion is developed before, during, and after policy facilitation. In district selection, policy existence is promoted through dissemination workshop in

Percik March 2008

35

SEPUTAR WASPOLA
answers to implementation skills needs, and CLTS training encourage district initiative in community based sanitation development program. Policy Implementation Result ConDistricts Responses Post Workshop Direct responses from each districts has been shown in the World Water Day and International Year of Sanitation planning, and each workgroup has done follow up coordination with its head districts. Other example is shown by Central Java district by holding Strategic Plan Preparation Workshop through cooperation with UNICEF. Short Term Plan In order of program continuity especially through province's role, the next important agenda before the project is over is holding workshops in each province in order to prepare Mid Term Policy Implementation Work Plan which is expected to be referred in further development activities. solidation Policy implementation result consolidation workshop is held in Bali, 2nd-6th March 2008. The workshop discuss various aspects in policy implementation continuity efforts in districts such as newest progress mapping, strategic issues, handling priority, post project national agenda, coordination mechaWSES champion, and limited funding in district's APBD. province in doing follow ups for the policy implementation facilitation.

TIME

FOR

DISTRICTS

TO

ACT

Seeing The End of WASPOLA-2 As an activity, or we could say project, WASPOLA-2 will end officially in June 2008 and it's time for district government to take over the activities to do follow ups of the results of policy implementation policy. Facilitation Skills Advance Training This training is meant to answer issues and limited capacity and human resources problem in the district. The training is held in Yogyakarta, 19th - 23rd of December 2007 is attended by Provincial WSES Workgroup members. This activity held great benefits for the participants. The participants get to prove their increase of facilitation skills in Implementation Workshop which is facilitated by all the participants that have received this training. Finalization and District Strategic Plan Follow Up District strategic plan is one of the instruments of policy implementation continuity. All the 46 districts/cities that were facilitated by WASPOLA-2 have done their strategic plans, except for Dompu, Bima, and East Sumba is which already in the finalization process. Some of the districts has shown initiative in doing follow ups to WSES strategic plan, and policy adoption varies depends on their characteristics. Problems and obstacles in implementing WSES strategic plan is also faced by some districts because of these factors: change of leaders, workgroup member transfer so that there is a vacancy for

REFLECTION
What have we produced? Series of intervention and activities throughout the WASPOLA project has gained important result notes and lesson learned as reflective material. Those materials are promotion and policy communication, field assistance, capacity
Source: WASPOLA

building, and district WSES strategic plan. Where are we? Until the end of WASPOLA project, WSES working group has spread the CBWSES development concept and paradigm in broad scale through the existing media. Currently WASPOLA and WSES Workgroup has become resource center for WSES related materials and has built partnership throughout 62 districts/cities including the 2007's technical assistance.
SBR/SI/DHS

nism and post project communication. This workshop presents three head districts from Solok, Pekalongan, and Boalemo to express their view and experience in implementing and doing follow up for the policy implementation facilitation. Besides head districts, this workshop also presents practitioners from NGOs and projects to share their experience in developing Community Based-WSES and specific experience from districts and

36

Percik March 2008

WSES ROUNDABOUTS

Workshop on Community-Based Solid Waste
n important workshop titled "Workshop on CommunityBased Solid Waste Management" is held in Jakarta, 16th17th January 2008. This workshop is held by Water Supply and Environment Sanitation (WSES) Network through Gugus Tugas Pengelolaan Sampah (Solid Waste Management Task Force) supported by Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) and Mercy Corps. Until now, there is no city/district which is able to fully manage solid waste while increasing rate of sewage volume reached 4 percent each year. Not to mention the low awareness from the community, while the stakeholders who are concern with this matter still doing their each separated efforts. This condition emphasizes the importance of this workshop. Bappenas's Deputy of Infrastructure Dedy Supriadi Priatna in his welcoming speech, represented by Director of Settlement and Housing Budi Hidayat, stated that this workshop is a form of national and international commitment towards continuous solid waste management through awareness building and synergized efforts from the stakeholders. Interactive Dialogue In interactive dialogue session, attended four main speaker which is Director of Settlement Environmental Sanitation Directorate General of Human Settlement Susmono, Department Assistant of Domestic Sewage Control, USK Ministry of Environment Tri Bangun Laksono, Legislative member Tjatur Sapto Edi, and Head of Sanitation Agency Surabaya Tri Rismaharini, moderated by Lula Kamal. Lula Kamal starts the dialogue with questioning the fate of amendment plan on waste management which hasn't been legalized for three years now. Tjatur Sapto Edi stated that the amendment plan has already received by the legislative's task committee. "By God's grace, the amendment can be legalized in March 2008" said Tjatur. Tri Bagus Laksono stated that what have done here all this time is no more above hobbies and cleanliness competition in villages, but there is never a solid and thorough solution. "We need a locomotive in entering solid waste management era, which is amendment." Said Tri Bagus. While Susmono discuss further, not only about solid waste management, but also about waste. "Altough the waste management amendment hasn't been legalized yet, we can implement it with the existing law/rules because basically it has the same concept, which is changing the paradigm from collect-transportdump to collect-transport-manage." He said. Meanwhile Tri Rismaharini shares the Surabaya's success in

A

Source: Bowo Leksono.

doing community based solid waste management. "The acceleration of the success is because we always work together with City Government, NGOs, mass media, business people, and the society." The second day of the workshop is entirely filled with panel and group discussion. And still presents decision makers and the practitioners of community based solid waste management. Tri Bangun Laksono (Sony) which is known for his vocal words is brought back in discussion along side with Endang, the Head Section of Sewage and Drainage Directorate Environment Settlement Sanitation Development Directorate General of Human Settlement. The key to waste management problems, according to Sony, the first thing to be fixed is the government performance, not the society. But it doesn't mean that the society cannot participate in solid waste management. "City and district management cannot just help, but do the waste management because it is related to public services." He said. While Endang describes the reason why we cannot reduce the number of scavengers. Not only in Java, even in Papua, solid waste has a tremendous magnet effect to scavengers. "It means, there are still economical values in solid waste. But, quoting Percik magazine theme, waste is still considered as 'waste'" she said. Workshop on Community-Based Solid Waste Management is ended with group discussion that is led by a team from WASPOLA and officially closed by kasubdit Persampahan dan Drainase Bappenas Oswar Mungkasa. Bowo Leksono

Percik March 2008

37

WSES ROUNDABOUTS

Media Discussion
Welcoming the 2008 Year of Sanitation

D

uring the last 30 years, He said While Budi Hidayat explains how Indonesian government only The truth is, sanitation and environbadly is the sanitation management in provided 7,7 trillion rupiahs for ment problem is a political problem, Indonesia. Currently there are 6 million sanitation sector. That means only 200 because political problem is all about tons of feces and 6 million cubic of urine rupiahs per year for each Indonesian citinegotiations, now government must coneach year, 70% have been able to be manzen. Meanwhile the minimum need to stantly negotiate to legislative members aged and well compounded. "Then where access proper sanitation is 47 thousand for this matter. the 30% or 1,8 million tons per year of the rupiahs per year. That fact is writremaining goes?" he asked. ten in the book "Urban Sanitation: Furthermore, economPortrait, Hope, and Chance" which ically, Indonesia is suffering a is published by Bappenas, WSPdeficit of 6 million US$ per year EAP, and World Bank. Imagine, from sanitation sector. "But the how can the development in priority is not on the budget, the Indonesian sanitation reach the most important thing is so that 2015 MDG goal? community can live in a healthy A media discussion is held to way." Budi said. begin the 2008 Year of Sanitation. According to Budi Yuwono, The discussion which is held by the sanitation development in ESP-USAID in Tuesday, 22th Indonesia, although is not be seen January 2008 in Jakarta presents by sight, hasn't perform a proper Former MDG Ambassador for Asia sanitation management. "It is a Pacific Erna Witoelar, Director of technical challenge for our sanitaSettlement and Housing Budi tion which is by far, left behind Media Discussion Welcoming the 2008 Year of Sanitation, held by Hidayat, Directorate General of from other countries." He said ESP/USAID in Tuesday, 22nd of January 2008 in Jakarta. Human Settlement Department of He explains that Department Source: Bowo Leksono. Public Work Budi Yuwono, and 7th of Public Works, in this case, Commission Legislative member Directorate General of Human Tjatur Sapto Edi as resources. According to Erna Witoelar, achieveSettlement has policies in sanitation secEveryone admitted that sanitation is ment in sanitation must be achieved tor, one of them is to increase in waste an important issue, it even has become together. We must find a way to synergize management in environment, territory, one of the MDG achievements, but it hasthe budget -which only covers a part of and community scale. "But the obstacle n't become a major issue that affects Indonesia- between government, private me met are limited budget, the low conpolitic issue in this country. No wonder if sector, and donor institution. "A good cern in district governments, and weak allocated budget for sanitation is very sanitation management is a responsibility institutional power." He said small compared to other sectors. for the district government." She said. All of those obstacles, according to Tjatur Sapto Edi stated that a develGovernment, she continues, must be a Tjatur, need to set sanitation as a nationopment sector usually has political facilitator for the community in managal policy priority. "It will need a major strength depends on budget strength, or ing sanitation. "The more advance a change of awareness in the central and has a great encouraging force. "Sanitation country is, it will not consider feces and district government especially and sociedoesn't give major encouragement for the urine as waste, but as a resource that ty in general. BW government, from way back until now." needs to be managed."

38

Percik March 2008

WSES ROUNDABOUTS

Launching of World Water Day 2008 Exhibition and Seminar

I

with water." He said on Tuesday n order to celebrate the 16th Hari 5th of February 2008, in the Air Dunia-HAD (World Water Department of Public Work's office Day), which falls one 22nd of building. March 2008, Department of Public Furthermore, Agus Works in cooperation with PT said, according to 2005 starting Napindo Media Ashatama held data, water supply for urban areas World Water Exhibition and Seminar has reached 41% while for rural 2008 in Jakarta International Expo areas only 8%. "According to (JIEXPO), Kemayoran, Jakarta. Rencana Kerja Jangka Menengah The theme of this year's (Mid Term Work Plan), we must be HAD is a sanitation in line with the able to provide water supply until appointing of 2008 as the Year of 66% for urban areas till the end of Sanitation. This appointment is Launching of World Water Day Exhibition and Seminar 2008, 2009." He said. meant to remind the importance of held by Department of Public Works in cooperation with PT Napindo Media Ashatama. Source: Bowo Leksono. In this exhibition's water and sanitation for human life series, also held seminar and business to the nations and people around the Agus Widjanarko, stated that this theme forum that discuss obstacles and opporworld. reminded us to the danger of water contunities in water management presenting Minister of Public Works Djoko tamination as the human life source. experts and practitioner in water manKirmanto, represented by Secretary "However, sanitation cannot be separated agement. BW General Department of Public Works

WSES Network Member Meeting
munication bowl for WSES sector stakeholders, is constantly try to strengthen its networking. Member meeting with the agenda WSES Network Budget and Ethic Code formulation is held on Thursday, 14th February 2008, in Department of Health Auditorium Building, Jakarta. In this opportunity is also done explanation and discussion for WSES Network programs including Waste Management Task Force and Sanitation Task Force. Director of Settlement and Housing Budi Hidayat in his welcoming speech said that WSES sector still needs attention and commitment form the central
The Founders of WSES Network at member meeting, with budget and ethic code formulation, Thursday, 14th February 2008, in Department of Health Auditorium, Jakarta. Source: Bowo Leksono.

S

ince first created in 8th October 2007, WSES or Watsan Networking Indonesia, as a com-

This WSES Network activity is held thanks to the cooperation of Environmental Services Program (ESP) with Plan Indonesia. Municipal Water Services Advisor ESP Foort Bustran said that WSES Network is needed to increase the synergy of the programs to make better results. "WSES Network is also needed to cover issue and communication strategy for people who need it." He said. These WSES Network members have reached 43 institutions from various sectors, which are government institution, private institution, NGO, school, mass media, and individuals. On this opportunity, WSES Network Budget and Ethic Code by the 9 Directing Committees are also signed.
BW

government and stakeholders. "WSES sector is still considered small and unnoticed. In the other hand, the implementation is not integrated, while in community the awareness of clean and healthy lifestyle is still low." He said.

Percik March 2008

39

WSES ROUNDABOUTS

ANTI PLASTIC BAG CAMPAIGN IN ITB

H

ands reaching for help for anyone who is able, but no one else are left to help because all the earth citizens are buried under millions of plastic waste. That is the message written in the installation art created by a student from Art & Design Faculty, Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), which participates in Anti Plastic Bag Campaign, 5th-6th February 2008, in ITB campus. It's estimated over 500 million to 1 billion plastic bag is consumed each year throughout the world. That means almost 1 million plastic per minute. Besides that, plastic needs 500 years to fully decompose. According to British Antarctic Survey, plastic bags have changed from being rare in the early 80's to almost everywhere now. Plastic waste that is thrown recklessly clogged sewerage and water gate not only threatens the environment but also threatens urban residents. As proof, big flood in Bangladesh1998 and in India-2002 were happened because the river was clogged with plastic waste. In order to support Anti Plastic Bag Campaign, the Himpunan Mahasiswa Teknik Lingkungan (Environmental Technique Student Association) held a series of event to gather and educate the society about the danger of excessive use plastic bags, starting from young generation with the support government and non government organizations so hopefully later will create an awareness trend to care more about environment in Indonesia. According to head committee Cinta Azwiendasari, Anti

An art installation created by a student from Art & Design Faculty, Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), which participates in Anti Plastic Bag Campaign, 5th-6th February 2008, in ITB campus. Source: Bowo Leksono.

As much as 1000 environmental poems from elementary students in Bandung also are exhibited. Source: Bowo Leksono.

Plastic Bag Campaign is one of the action forms of student's concern in order to keep environmental long life. "This campaign brings the plastic bag reduction theme as focus because it is considered a form of a simple and applicative clean technology in the society." She said. Before doing campaign to public, this anti plastic bag movement is first campaigned to college students. As much as 1000 environmental poems from elementary students in Bandung also are exhibited. Although still young they have realized that our environment is becoming more and more polluted. This show not only presents entertainment from local bands, this event icon, Dewi "Dee" Lestari also participates. Visitors can also share their concern by signing a petition wall as a form of support towards Anti Plastic Bag Campaign and wrote their hopes on an earth shaped installation with a hole filled with plastic in the center. On the 9th Februari 2008, Ganesha road is transformed into Plastic Phobia Road. As replacement for plastic bags, HTML produces fabric bags with I'm Your Shopping Bag written on it. The bag is sold for Rp 20.000 each. Several NGOs like USAID, WWF, Pelangi Foundation Indonesia, Walhi, Dana Mitra Lingkungan, Greenpeace, ITB U-Green unit, and Greeners Magazine also open stands in this show. "This show is a form of student concern in their effort to maintain environment," said Cinta. The target of this campaign is to create a trend in youngster to bring their own bags when shopping replacing plastic bags so they can reduce plastic waste. "The target of this campaign is indeed youngsters, aging from 15 to 25." BW

40

Percik March 2008

WSES ROUNDABOUTS

concerning urban slums in eastern Indonesia, Bappenas and UNICEF held . In his welcoming speech representing Director of Settlement and Housing Bappenas, Oswar Mungkasa said that this workshop is a first step in solving eastern Indonesia urban slum WSES problems. A representative from the Netherland Embassy also shares the welcoming speech. UNICEF WES Specialist Afroza Ahmed in her presentation said that eastern Indonesian urban slum WSES problems is related to unhealthy life style, lack of drainage facility, the use of contaminated water for daily purposes, skin disease and malnutrition, and other issues.
Water and Environmental Sanitation Urban Project Design Workshop on 22nd February in Jakarta. Source: Bowo Leksono.

T

Water and Environmental Sanitation Urban Project Design Workshop
o get inputs from various sources that are related to WSES sector especially Sources from various institutes like BORDA, GTZ, Care International ESP/USAID, Mercy Corps and ISSDP, is present in this workshop. Beside lesson learned presentation from them, focus group discussion is also held. This workshop has concluded that in implementation, this project is too short and too ambitious to plot three years for two steps of the project. Besides that, cooperation from other institute is needed, especially in community capacity building, clean and healthy behavior change by promoting clean and healthy sanitation, increase access to water supply, waste management, and KAP baseline.
DH

Strategic Plan and Public Toilet Opening Ceremony

P

adang sanitation strategic planning presentation is held on 4th of March 2008 in Padang's Bappeda office. The event was started with the welcoming speech of the 2nd Assistant City of Padang Government Indra Cater. In his speech he said that this strategic plan hopefully doesn't consist of conventional steps because in handling sanitation problems, conventional steps are not a proper solution. "Padang City must think tactically, strategically, and innovatively in handling sanitation problems." He said. After the strategic plan presentation, the event was continued by the opening ceremony of public toilets that is located in Purus beach area by Padang's

cation. In his speech, Mayor stated that Padang will allocate funds to replicate that public toilet along Purus beach. This event is also attended by Co-Head of Padang Legislatives Panji Alam. Panji stated that the existence of public toilets is not only useful for surrounding communities, but also support tourism in Purus beach. The management of this public toilet will be handled by community group named Source: Exclusive Kelompok Sanitasi Masyarakat (Community Sanitation Group) Ombak Purus. The opening of mayor Fauzi Bahar. This public toilet is this public toilet reflects a starting point built with the support of ESP, BORDA, for Padang's commitment in fixing saniand BEST to surrounding Purus commutation sector. DYO nity, who has high rates in reckless defe-

Percik March 2008

41

WSES ROUNDABOUTS

Media Workshop
on Sanitation Handling
ass media is considered to be the spear-end of information and knowledge transformation of the society. More often than not, important information concerning the majority living standard is not widely conversant; as such, the effort to overcome the sanitation problems in Indonesia. Therefore, the Government of Indonesia, in cooperation with Water and Sanitation Program-East Asia and the Pacific (WSP-EAP) held a Media Workshop. The workshop that was attended by various national and local media was held at Sanur, Bali on 25-28 February 2008. The workshop inquiring active role of the media persons had carried the program of Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing (Sanitasi Total dan Pemasaran Sanitasi - StoPS) in developing the community-based total sanitation approach in all level of kabupaten in the East Java Province. During the opening ceremony, WSPEAP Regional Team Leader, Almud Weitz presented the sanitation condition of Indonesia that has influenced the economic potential. "Bad sanitation has affected the economic potential loss of 60 trillion rupiah for Indonesia, and responsible for the spreading of diarrhea, which in turn, is responsible for the death of approximately 100.000 children every year," he said. In the same occasion, representative of the Government of Indonesia, Bappenas Head of Solid Waste and Drainage Division, Oswar Mungkasa, acknowledged the need to cooperate more with the mass media regarding the application of sanitation programs in Indonesia. "It is acknowledged that the role of mass media is crucial in the wide-spread information of Government programs to the public. With

M

Photograph of journalists from various national and local media taking a break by performing games. Source: Bowo Leksono.

regard to the sanitation development of the public, Government cannot work alone. The work of every party is essential, including the work of media," he said. The Role of Media in Developing the WSES (Water Supply Environmental Sanitation) Sector The freedom of the press has made it convenient for the public to access and choose various kind of information they required. Various mass media (printed and electronic) has thrived in the land of Indonesia, with various concepts and segments. Nevertheless, some has collapsed. As such is the case of electronic media, especially television. Numbers of national television stations are competing in drawing beholders using the applied rating system. In fact, in the last three years, local television stations have thrived in various kota, even all the way to the kabupaten. These are proofs of press freedom that has provided wide opportunities to the public in obtaining the required information. News Release Priority Every mass media has its own character and policy of news release. For ge-

neral/public mass media, politic and economic sectors have deeper portion of the news. Whereas for mass media with special segmentation, the news are provided accordingly with the requirement of the readers, beholders, or listeners. Where is the news value regarding the WSES stands? WSES sector news release that was acknowledged to be lacking does not seem to be the priority, which is not the case for politic and economic sectors. WSES sector is usually placed in the health or environmental sections. In many cases, WSES sector news release will be the main news when large impacts are present. Especially those related with casualties, such as diarrhoea plague, flood, drought, etc. In terms of mass media business, it is obvious that WSES sector is not the kind of sector that will drastically boost the rating or circulation which in turn will attract advertisers. Special policy from the media companies is required to be truly consistent and providing room for WSES issues in order for the public to be able to conveniently and quickly acquire information regarding WSES . Inter-Media Communication Forum Involvedness of the media persons in almost every events and activities regarding the WSES sector is not yet maximized. In several occasions, there were not too many media persons showed. The saying that WSES issues are not as attractive as other issues in the country might be true. In the workshop, both national and local media persons have gathered and tried to form a communication forum which will hopefully be able to provide the need for data and information to be latter used as the news release material in every media. BW

42

Percik March 2008

WSES ROUNDABOUT

Panel Discussion of Water and Sanitation of Indonesia

T

hus far, sanitation is merely considered to be part of infrastructure; whereas sanitation is also part of national social and cultural sector. This was caused by the lack of vision from the leaders of this nation. The statement was given by national legislative assembly member Tjatur Sapto Adi during the panel discussion of "Water and Sanitation of Indonesia", 14 March 2008, in Jakarta. The event was initiated by Unicef together with Directorate General Cipta Karya of Public Work Department (Dirjen Cipta Karya Departemen PU) and Kompas media. The panel discussion in order to welcome 2008 International Sanitation Year represents various speakers. Other than Ir. Tjatur Sapto Adi, Directorate General of Cipta Karya Budi Yuwono, Directorate General of Disease Control and Environmental sanitation of Health Department (Dirjen Pengendalian Penyakit dan Penyehatan Lingkungan) I Nyoman Kandun, ex MDGs Embassador for Asia Pacific Erna Witoelar, Researcher at Johns Hopkins University Risang Rimbatmaja, and Rachmadi Purwana from University of Indonesia were also present. On the occasion, Erna Witoelar presented MDG target achievement of the sanitation sector in Indonesia which was not in proportion with the exceeding numbers of the people. According to her, 30.7% of the total community is without proper access to sanitation. "Which means around 72.5 million people has to live with bad sanitation; holistic and integrated approach is necessary in the sanitation development." According to Budi Yuwono, the lack of awareness among us with regard to the sanitation perspective is like a "timebomb". "Pollution process caused by

"Water and Sanitation of Indonesia" panel discussion, 14 March 2008, in Jakarta. The event was initiated by Unicef together with Directorate General Cipta Karya of Public Work Departement and Kompas media. Source: Bowo Leksono.

sanitation is a long-term process, that we are unaware of it". I Nyoman Kandun added the MDG target of 69% in the year 2015 requiring access for 3.7 million people every year. "This requires the budget of 600 million dollar per year, whereas the current investment is only 27 million dollar per year." Nyoman presented a new operational strategy of Community-Based Total Sanitation (Sanitasi Total Berbasis Masyarakat - STBM). The strategy, he continued, was based on past-experience learning and consensus from various inter-sectoral stakeholders. "The STBM strategy will support local governments who currently have the decentralisation task and responsibility of planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating to accelerate the sanitation improvement," Nyoman stated. This year, Decree of the Health Minister regarding the STBM is expected to be issued.

In term of access improvement to the proper sanitation facilities on rural and urban household proportion, steady improvement is present from 30.9% (year 1992) to 69.3% (year 2006). Whereas the tentative target of the year 2015 is 65.5%. Thus, the target in reducing proportion of the community without access to the basic sanitation facilities by half for the year 2015 has been exceeded in the year 2006. According to Erna, it is unjust that the MDG goal of the year 2015 is improving access to the clean water and sanitation by half. "What will happen with the other half? It should be fully accessible to everyone," she explained. Tjatur Edi underlined that sanitation is not a priority in this country, thus it is very difficult to fight for the budget. Budget allocation increment for sanitation, Tjatur explained, is not simply increasing fund for things without economical added value. "Good sanitation will draw economic benefit." BW

Percik March 2008

43

WSES ROUNDABOUT

Seminar on Overcoming River Pollution Through the TSSM Program

I

t is common awareness that the sanitation condition may affect the quality of the river. As location of the TSSM project, approximately 34% of the community of East Java Province are still disposing biological waste in inappropriate places, including the river, whereas the river itself is still the main water supply for the community. This is causing river pollution; increasing water treatment cost, which in turn, increasing the PDAM tariff and the cost of community health improvement. Therefore, it is considered to be necessary to held a meeting between stakeholders in order to share experiences. The meeting was held in the form of a Seminar on Overcoming River Pollution Through the Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing (TSSM) on 17-19 March 2008 in Surabaya. The seminar was held by cooperation between the Health Department and the World Bank WSP. On this occasion, several speakers were present; from the National level, Bappenas Director of Forestry and Water Resources

Conservation, Bappenas Director of Housing and Settlement Agency; whereas from the local level, Health Agency of Kabupaten Sambas, and Health Department of Jambi Province, who was presenting the learning gained from the implementation program of Community-Based Total Sanitation (STBM). Moreover, East Java Province Health Department presenting the learning gained from TSSM program, while learning gained from overcoming biological waste disposal was presented by Jasa Tirta Public Company (Perum Jasa Tirta) of East Java Province together with Sub Agency of River Area Management of East Java Province. No less interesting was the interactive discussion with the community of one of the villages of Kabupaten Nganjuk, who have succeeded to be in Open Defecation Free (ODF) phase which means no more inappropriate biological waste disposal. The outcome of the seminar is the action plan of TSSM application on the river area. OM

Competition of FORKAMI Documenter Movie

F

inally, three best movies are selected in the event of Documenter Movie Competition with the theme of "People and Water" which was initiated by Clean Water Quality Management Communication Forum of Indonesia (Forum Komunikasi Pengelolaan Kualitas Air Minum Indonesia - FORKAMI). The first winner is a movie with the title of "Sweaty Back on Cracked Soil (Conversation with Mbok Giyem)" directed by M. Toha Nuhson Hajji from Surakarta, the second winner is Bowo Leksono from Purbalingga with his movie called "The Water Master", while "Badai (Berharap Air di Atas Air - Longing for Water Above Water) by Ony Kresnawan from North Sumatera is the third winner. Winner awarding was held in the Cultural Centre of French (CCF) Jakarta on Saturday evening, 29 March 2008. Two days previous, the 11 movie finalists from 42 contestants were presented, along

The Winners of FORKAMI Documenter Movie Competition during the awarding night, Saturday 29 March 2008, at the Cultural Center of France (CCF) Salemba. Source: Exclusive.

with non-competition movies of water issues. Water-theme exhibition was also presented. The General Director of FORKAMI Abdullah Muthalib explained that the competition is a form of FORKAMI concern as water observer organisation in Indonesia especially in the form of clean water quality management, in the effort of improving awareness of the importance of water as the source of daily living of

the community. "The winning movies will be campaign materials for FORKAMI in the program of improving awareness of the importance of water conservation." This competition was supported by Water and Sanitation Network (Water), Thames PAM Jaya (TPJ), Environmental Service Program - United States Agency for International Development (ESPUSAID), and PAM Lyonnaise Jaya (Palyja). Bowo Leksono

44

Percik March 2008

PROGRAM

Growing Concern among the Youth Generation

Toyota Eco Youth

Z

ero Waste, that was the title of scientific paper by students of Semen Gresik High School (SMA) in East Java which has given them the first prize of the third Toyota Eco Youth in the Year 2008. The crowning of the prestigious national event for high school students in the environmental sector was held on Saturday, 29 March 2008, at Taman Menteng, Central Jakarta. SMA Semen Gresik has won the first prize and entitled for a trophy and 75 million Rupiah. The second prize was won by SMAN 8 Pekanbaru with the total prize of 45 million Rupiah, the third winner was SMKN 2 Palembang with the total prize of 20 million Rupiah, whereas the best exhibition stand was won by SMK 6 Jayapura with the total prize of 5 million Rupiah. Toyota Eco Youth Program is a contest of improving environmental quality for high school students (SMA or SMK). Through this program, contestants will receive basic knowledge regarding the environmental issue and are expected to perform a project to improve the environmental quality within the school area and the vicinity. President Director of PT Toyota Astra Motor Johnny Darmawan explained that the prize will not be given entirely in the form of cash money, but will also given in the form of equipments and facilities that will support the school activities, especially in the environmental sector. "The prize will be fully entitled by the school to be used to improve infrastructures and

the winners of TEY with the sponsor and actress Bunga Citra Lestari. Source: Bowo Leksono.

facilities in order to improve quality and creativity of education." For this contest, TEY established a theme of "Waste Problems in My School". Other than the crowning, the yearly event also presented exhibition stands from the selected 30 schools from the total of 300 schools in Indonesia. The exhibition presents various creative merchandises made by the students, mostly from waste products around them. On the occasion, also present the Deputy of Communication and Community Empowerment of the Environmental Ministry, Sudaryono. He is hoping that the program will be able to be continued in the coming years and received supports from various parties as for the community to better appreciate their environment. "With strong commitment to environment issues, students will

also capable to educate community to improve awareness on the environment." Every year, TEY presents public figure as the brand. This year, 1999 Miss Indonesia runner-up, Valerina Daniel, who is also the Environment Ambassador present as the TEY Brand Ambassador together with increasingly famous actress and singer, Bunga Citra Lestari. Involving High Schools of Indonesia The first TEY was held on November 2005 - June 2006 with contestants from 10 SMA and SMK in Jakarta and the surrounding area (DKI Jakarta, West Java, and Banten) with the theme of "Waste Management". The second TEY was held on November 2006 - March 2007 with contestants from 15 SMA and SMK of Java and Bali with the theme of

Percik March 2008

45

PROGRAM
"Reforestation and Energy Saving". Whereas the third TEY was held on September 2007 - March 2008 with the total contestants of 300 SMA and SMK from all over Indonesia. This year, 300 schools came from 13 provinces which were recommended by the Education Department. They had to go through a selection process of scientific paper on September last year which 30 schools were then selected as the finalists and entitle to compete in running waste management projects within the school area. Every contestant was provided with 7.5 million Rupiah to produce the scientific paper. The finalists are entitled to follow the following phases; workshop, project selection, project verification, project accomplishment, and judging. On the judging phase, every project will be judge with the focus not only on the quality of the project, but also on the ability of the contestants in socialising and gathering support from every school component, including the surrounding community. What is Toyota Eco Youth? Toyota Eco Youth (TEY) is the latest effort of Toyota in Indonesia to provide contribution, even in the smallest form, in the effort of saving the environment. The purpose of this program is to grow and improve awareness among the young generation and community in general. TEY vision is to transform Indonesian youths to be green generation with great concern to the environmental issues; whereas the mission is to inspire the community, that even the smallest effort from us to the environment may bring great impacts when the effort is completed together. The target of TEY contestant is student (young generation) because youths still have flexible way of thinking in accepting new and better habits. Moreover, they will be leaders of the will determine the best contestant is how far the contestant manage to involve as much school elements and the surrounding community in implementing their project of environmental improvement. TEY is a continuous program from Toyota Indonesia through PT Toyota Motor Manufacturing Indonesia (TMMIN) and PT Toyota Astra Motor (TAM). In the implementation, TMMIN and TAM are cooperating with Yayasan Kirai Indonesia, an environmental NGO, and fully supported by Toyota dealer networks of Indonesia. For Toyota, TEY represents a global program because it was held in a number of countries in the world. The program is focusing on improving awareness and concern of youths in improving quality of life. In Indonesia, the TEY program is a pioneer in inter-school competitions in term of environment issues on the national level. Bowo Leksono

Toyota Eco Youth (TEY) is the latest effort of Toyota in Indonesia to provide contribution, even in the smallest form, in the effort of saving the environment
nation, in politic, social, or economy sector, that in turn will decide the future direction of the nation. Every year, TEY program has the big theme of "Waste Management". The theme was chosen because waste is very close to daily activities and waste tends to be ignored without special attention. While the most important point of judging that

A student and a teacher from SMKN 6 Jayapura in front of the exhibition stand during the 3rd TEY, Saturday, 29 March 2008, at Taman Menteng, Central Jakarta. Source: Bowo Leksono.

46

Percik March 2008

IATPI CLINIC
Percik Magazine in cooperation with the Association of Environmental Engineering Experts of Indonesia (Ikatan Ahli Teknik Penyehatan Lingkungan Indonesia), has opened the Clinic column. The column contains questions and answers regarding the clean/drinking water and environmental improvement.
Questions can be send through the editorial staff of Percik Magazine Contributor: Sandhi Eko Bramono (Sandhieb@yahoo.com), Lina Damayanti (Ldamayanti@yahoo.com)

DRINKING WATER
Question: Due to the area that has not been served by PDAM and the bad quality of the ground water, I am currently trying to develop a Rain Water Catcher (Penangkap Air Hujan - PAH) for the source of drinking water. Can rain water be drink directly, because I heard that rain water is pure enough to be drink directly?
(Lukman, Cileungsi)

solved gas decrease pH until <5.3 (corrosive). According to the standard of drinking water, rain water is not suitable to be use as the source of drinking water. It is even hazardous for the health if it is drink directly. If you are going to use the rain water, it is advised to perform additional treatment. You can use active sand filter which is currently available in the market to improve quality of the rain water. The active sand filter should be equipped with neutralist powder (to neutralise the pH), which commonly are lime compound (Ca(OH)2). After the pH is neutralised into 7.0, the rain water should be filtered by the sand filter that is capable to catch the dissolved particulate. The sand should be activated by using the KMnO4 solution, so it can oxidise the organic compound that was dissolved in the rain water. It is highly recommended to also add chlorine (Ca(ClO)2 as disinfectant of the pathogen micro-organism in the water. After the process, the treated water can be kept in the reservoir to be consumed.

PLASTIC WASTE
Question: What are the classifications of plastic waste to be separated in order to have high value when it is sold to the plastic recycling industries?
(Wawan, Jakarta)

Source: Bowo Leksono

Answer: Rain water in the urban area is relatively not clean or pure. This was caused by the high level of air pollution in the urban area which will influence the rain water quality. Moreover, Cileungsi is the industrial area near Jakarta. The main cause is the air pollution coming from the fixed source (such as industrial chimney) and mobile source (such as motor vehicle). Air pollutant in the form of particulate or gas (especially Cox, NOx, and SOx), will be dissolved in the rain water and pollute the water. Dissolved particulate will cause the water to be muddy (consisting turbidity and possibly containing heavy metal), while dis-

Answer: Plastic waste is commonly classified to be: Poly Ethylene Terephtalate (PETE), for example is carbonated drinking bottle. High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), for example is milk bottle. Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC), for example is plastic pipe. Low Density Poly Ethylene (LDPE), for example is babies tampon. Poly Propylene (PP), for example plastic bottle cap. Poly Styrene (PS), for example is food container Styrofoam. Mixed plastic, for example is ketchup or sauce wrapper.
* The writer is a doctorate program student in the Division of Environmental Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore. Contact: sandhieb@yahoo.com

47

Percik March 2008

CD INFO

Video of STBM (Community-Based Total Sanitation) Learning
eople say that in this millennium era, everything is very sophisticated and influencing various lines of life. Everything is completed with machine power thus producing a more practicable and efficient outcome. However, there are plenty of people in this part of the world who are still practicing inappropriate biological waste disposal; including the people of Indonesia. This is not a matter of old-fashioned as it is of habits. Thus, great changes are required. Currently, in Indonesia, the effort of changing the habits of disposing biological waste on the river into proper disposal on the toilet is adopted from India, with the concept approach of Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS). In the year 2005, Indonesia is starting to apply the CLTS concept which latter adopted to be Community-Based Total Sanitation (STBM). The program was initiated by try outs

P

in six kabupatens of Indonesia. Among others is Kabupaten Muara Enim, South Sumatera. The exact location was several villages of Lembak District (Kecamatan). It only required four weeks until drastic changes occurred on the community, making Kecamatan Lembak free from improper disposal of biological waste.

The success in Kabupaten Muara Enim is also be used as learning example which latter packed into one video recording of 24 minutes. In one year, several villages of Kecamatan Lembak managed to build 4,338 units of toilets independently. With the approximate cost for one toilet is 300 thousand Rupiah, then the community efforts has cost them approximately 1.3 billion Rupiah. However, the physical numbers of toilets built was not the measurement of success; it was the habit changes from disposing biological waste on the river into the proper disposal using the family toilet. This shows big changes that were not present in the various projects. Video of STBM Learning is a product of WSES (Clean Water and Environmental Sanitation) Pokja (Task Force) together with Directorate General Cipta Karya of Public Work Department. VCD is available at WSES Pokja library of Jl. Cianjur 4 Menteng Central Jakarta. BW

Video of Community-Based Solid Waste Management Workshop

T

he video is a recording of a workshop with the title of "Community Based Solid Waste Management" that was held in Jakarta, 16-17 January 2008. The workshop represents one of the efforts to fulfil national and international commitment of sustainable solid waste management through improving awareness and synergy effort from the parties involved. The DVD was produced by the Secretariat of Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation (WSES) Pokja. The workshop was held by the AMPL network through the Solid Waste Task Force (Gugus Tugas Pengelolaan Sampah GTPS) supported by Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) and Mercy Corps. On the first day, the session of inter-

active dialog represented four key note speakers, namely Director of Settlement Environmental Sanitation of Directorate General Cipta Karya of Public Work

Department (Direktur Penyehatan Lingkungan Permukiman Ditjen Cipta Karya Departmen PU) Susmono, Assistant to the Deputy of Domestic Waste Pollution (Asdep Urusan Pengendalian Pencemaran Limbah Domestik) and Environmental Ministry USK Tri Bangun Laksono, National Legislative member Tjatur Sapto Edi, and the Head of the Cleansing Department of Surabaya Tri Rismaharini with moderator Lula Kamal. The second day was fully filled with panel and group discussions. Still presented by policy makers and community based solid waste managers; Central, Provincial, and Local Government, private sector, universities, up to NGOs. The DVD is available at WSES Working Group’s Library, on Jl. Cianjur 4, Menteng, Central Jakarta. BW

48

Percik March 2008

BOOK INFO

Sanitation in the Slum Area
TITLE TIPS OF SANITATION WORKS IN SLUM AREAS: EXCERPTION OF THE STUDY RESULT OF LOW INCOME COMMUNITY SANITATION IN THE URBAN AREA
PUBLISHER: BAPPENAS-DOMESTIC AFFAIR DEPARTMENT-HEALTH DEPARTMENT-PUBLIC WORK DEPARTMENT-INDUSTRIAL DEPARTMENT-ENVIRONMENTAL COMMISION-WSP-EAP, JAKARTA, 2007 THICKNESS: 33 HALAMAN

anitation improvement of urban slum areas is constantly facing many challenges. Not just the difficult physical condition, but also the social-economic condition of the community. It is necessary to be really careful in planning the sanitation for those areas due to the specific issues to be considered. A

S

more creative and accommodative approach needs to be combined with the scientific side of the improvement effort. The book contains seven tips regarding various issues to be considered by planners of sanitation improvement of an urban slum area. Tips and information in this book are put together based on the facts found on Sanitation Study of Low Income Community in the Urban Area; National General Portrait. Some facts reveal the truth that change the old myth or general stereotype regarding the sanitation problems in the slum area. The 33 pages book consists of chapters with the titles of: Regarding the Content, Do Not Fooled by the Numbers, Unfamiliar Thus Unconcern, They Want Better, My Home is not My Palace, Not Everything Can Be Chose, Bitter Talking Since the Start, and Willing to Pay As Long As Convenient. It is also completed with appendixes regarding the Study of the 8 Cities.
ICA

WSES Website Catalogue
TITLE WSES WEBSITE CATALOGUE
WRITER: OSWAR MUNGKASA AND ASTRI HANDAYANI PUBLISHER: WSES WORKING GROUP JAKARTA 2007 THICKNESS: 188 PAGES

ssues of clean water and environmental improvement are never far from life. Various efforts have been done by various parties; however time did not solve the problems, only creating new problems triggered by the rapidly increasing number of community, along with its social-economic issues. Therefore, a media that can quickly and sustainably monitor the issues surrounding the clean water and environmental improvement (AMPL) sector is necessary. In order to maintain updates of such rapidly growing issues of clean water and environmental improvement, the internet media is considered to be the appropriate and reliable media in acquiring various information and/or references with regard to

I

the AMPL sector because internet can store plenty of data and information, with wide range of users and interactive capability. Nevertheless, the large numbers of websites regarding the AMPL sector sometimes make it inconvenience for the user to be explored one by one, due to the limited time or other activities of the day. The website catalogue is expected to be one of the solutions in providing the internet user with information regarding which website contains WSES information accordingly to each need, whether the information came from Indonesia or from abroad. The 188 pages book contains list of websites containing information regarding the water supply and environmental sanitation (WSES) completed with brief description of contain of the addressed website. The book that was published by the WSES working group is divided into two parts; Part I is Available Topics and Part II is Website Calatogue. Part I consists of four Chapters, namely A. Gender, Water, and Sanitation, B. Privatisation, C. 3Rs Solid Waste Management, and D. Community Development. While Part II consists of A. Government Agencies, B. Donors Institutes, C. Non Government Organisation, D. UN, E. Companies, and F. Education Institutes. ICA

49

Percik March 2008

WEBSITE INFO
The International Benchmarking Network for Water and Sanitation Utilities
http://ib-net.org he International Benchmarking Network for Water and Sanitation Utilities (IBNET) is a website that provides database regarding water and sanitation utilities. IBNET support and promote best practices of water and sanitation services by providing information of indicators, definition and method of data collecting, facilitating national and regional standard development, developing relation between facilities provider association and policy makers.

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance
http://www.sustainable-sanitationalliance.org/

T

S

ustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) is motivated by the UN decree in promoting the year 2008 as the International Sanitation Year, where in the year 2007, numbers of active organisations in the sanitation sectors have decided to establish a sustainable sanitation network to support the International Sanitation Year. The urgency in accomplishing actions of sanitation sector is obvious considering 2.6 billion people in the world without access to the proper sanitation, and 2.2 million death per year (mostly children under 5 years) that were generally caused by bad-sanitation-related disease and poor living condition.

also be accessed. Not less interestingly, the site also provides opportunity for everyone to join the mailing list of the network. WSES Network or Watsan NetworkingINA is a place to synergised potencies of information, knowledge and communication between stakeholders in cooperation with mutual benefit for all parties.

WSES Network
http://jejaring.ampl.or.id he first meeting of AMPL Network, 27 February 2007 at Bappenas resulted in a decree to establish Communication Network between stakeholders of the sector, followed by more intensive meetings on July and August 2007 which eventually resulted on strategic directive and concept for the future of WSES Network. The concept provides the reason/background of the Network member's decree and become a mandate to be latter completed by a directive team. As the follow up and application of the network, a communication and information media in the form of site is necessary. The site provides information regarding the WSES Network, history, vision and mission, goals, role, principles, foundation, membership, and work program of the network. Moreover, the site also provides information regarding the founder team completed with their contact numbers. The result of various network activities can

T

Solid Waste Management Task Force
http://gtps.ampl.or.id

S

This is important, because properly operated water facilities are very important to sustain the life of lots of people. Only the most efficient and financially viable facilities that can provide respond to the city growth, assisting the weak and improving waste water disposal practice. The purpose of IBNET is to support access and compare information in promoting best practice among water and sanitation providers all over the world and to provide access for the consumer in getting good quality and affordable water and sanitation facilities.

olid Waste Management Task Force (SWM-TF) is a place to synergise potencies of information, knowledge and communication between WSES network members in the sector of solid waste in cooperation with mutual benefit for all parties. To support the synergy, a site media accessible for anyone in term of solid waste management and environmental improvement is necessary. If you require more information, you can sign up as the member of the site. The site has interested display with adequate content. News, articles, clipping, organisation list related with environmental sanitation, and GTPS are available. Available also on the site good practices with regard to the solid waste management and environmental improvement in general. DH/BW

50

Percik March 2008

WSES PUBLICATION R E P O R T s

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT AND TREATMENT Publisher: Penebar Swadaya, Jakarta, 2008 WATER SUPPLY PRICING IN CHINA: ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY, ENVIRONMENT, AND SOCIAL AFFORDABILITY Publisher: World Bank, Washington DC, 2007

ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL ACTIVITIES REPORT 2007 Publisher: Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC), 2007 POOR HOUSEHOLD, ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICE AND OUTCOME: SURVEY ON THE COMMUNITY OF KELURAHAN PENJARING, NORTH JAKARTA Publisher: HP3

M A G A Z I N E
PERCIK Edition 19, August 2007 (English Version) DRINKING WATER Edition 148, January 2008 CIPTA KARYA BULLETIN No 01/Year VI/January 2008 CAPS NOTES Voume 1, Third Quarter 2007 SERASI Edition November 2007 PERCIK Edition 21, December 2007 TEKNO LIMBAH Volume 6, 2007 ENVIRO MAGZ Edition 1, Volume 2, 2008 NEWSLETTER AMPL Edition February 2008 NEWSLETTER AMPL Edition March 2008

L A W
ENVIRONMENTAL MINISTRY DECREE NO 50 YEAR 1996 REGARDING THE STANDARD OF ODOUR ENVIRONMENTAL MINISTRY DECREE NO 09 YEAR 2007 REGARDING THE STANDARD OF WASTE WATER FOR INDUSTRIES AND/OR INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES OF THE AREA ENVIRONMENTAL MINISTRY LAW NO 10 YEAR 2007 REGARDING THE STANDARD OF WASTE WATER FOR INDUSTRIES AND/OR INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY OF PURIFIED TEREPHTHALIC ACID AND POLY ETHYLENE TEREPHTALATE

B O O K
ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF SANITATION IN SOUTEAST ASIA SUMMARY Publisher: WSP, World Bank East Asia & The Pacific Region, November 2007 ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF SANITATION IN THE PHILIPPINES SUMMARY Publisher: WSP, World Bank East Asia & The Pacific Region, January 2008 CONTRIBUTION OF SOLID WASTE ON GLOBAL WARMING Publisher: Ministry Deputy of Environmental Pollution Control, Environmental Ministry, Jakarta, 2007

C

D

INTERACTIVE CD SERIES 01: KNOWING THE ENVIRONMENT Publisher: Environmental Ministry, 2007 SERIES 02: KNOWING THE SOIL Publisher: KLH, 2007 SERIES 05: KNOWING THE AIR Publisher: Environmental Ministry, 2007

Percik March 2008

51

AGENDA
NO
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

TIME
8 January 2008 14 January 2008 15 January 2008 15-17 January 2008 16-17 January 2008 16-19 January 2008 21 January 2008 22 January 2008 23 January 2008 29 January - 1 February 2008 5 February 2008 5-6 February 2008 12 February 2008 13 February 2008 14 February 2008 19-21 February 2008 19-22 February 2008 22 February 2008 25-28 February 2008 27 February 2008 28 February 2008 2-6 March 2008 3-6 March 2008 10-13 March 2008 14 March 2008 14 March 2008 17-19 March 2008 18 March 2008 25-27 March 2008 24 March 2008 25-26 March 2008 26 March 2008 27-29 March 2008 27 March 2008 27-29 March 2008 31 March 2008

A

C

T

I

V

I

T

Y

Meeting of Directive Team of WSES working group at PDAM Tirta Pakuan Kota Bogor Wrap Meeting ADB Review Mission Project CWSH in Bappenas Presentation of the Final Design of WASPOLA Facility in AusAID Office Jakarta Discussion of Final Report of Policy Implementation in Kabupaten Soppeng South Sulawesi Province held by AMPL Pokja Kabupaten Soppeng Workshop of Community Based Solid Waste Management in Balai Kartini Jakarta held by TSSM Project Meeting on Dissemination of TSSM Guidelines in Yogyajarta held by TSSM Project Pamsimas Meeting in Public Work Department held by Directorate Bina Program Directorate General Cipta Karya Media Discussion Toward the International Sanitation Year 2008 in Jakarta held by ESP/USAID Workshop on Finalisation of the Strategic Plan (Renstra) of Kabupaten Bone Bolango Gorontalo Province held by AMPL Pokja District of Bone Bolango Meeting of Awarding System of SToPS! Program of East Java in Bandung held by TSSM Project Launching Exhibition and Seminar of World Water Day 2008 in Public Work Department held by Public Work Department ISSDP Evaluation Phase I in Bogor held by ISSDP Coordination Meeting of Preparation of Renstra Document of Clean Water and Sanitation Development in Semarang held by WSES working group Central Java Province Socialisation Meeting of AMPL National Policy on Kabupaten Baru (Brebes, in Semarang held by AMPL Pokja Central Java Province) Meeting of 5 WSES Network in Multifunction Hall of Health Department Jakarta held by Plan Indonesia and ESP USAID Training of WSES Media Avocation in Bangka Balitung Province held by WASPOLA Workshop of Renstra Finalisation of Kabupaten Dompu held by WSES working group Kabupaten Dompu Workshop of Urban Slum Area WSES of East Indonesia in Jakarta held by UNICEF and WSES working group Media Workshop Relating Sanitation Management in Bali held by WSP-EAP Kick off Meeting Mission Review Project WSLIC-2 in Jakarta held by Bappenas Coordination Meeting of Central Stakeholder regarding Clean Water Management in Household Level in Jakarta held by the Health Department Workshop Consolidation of the Result of AMPL-BM National Policy Application in Local, held in Bali by WASPOLA and National WSES working group Production Training of WSES Media in Kabupaten Kebumen held by WASPOLA and AMPL Pokja of Kabupaten Kebumen Mission Visit Supervision XI WSLIC-2 Activity in East Java and South Sulawesi held by WSLIC-2 Panel Discussion Water and Sanitation of Indonesia in Jakarta held by UNICEF and Kompas Discussion on MoU Grant AusAid for PAMSIMAS Program in Jakarta held by Directorate General Cipta Karya Seminar of River Pollution Management through TSSM Program in Surabaya held by TSSM Workshop of Clean Water Supply and Treatment and Integrated Environmental Improvement for Low Income Community in Kabupaten and Kota Serang Banten Province held at Serang by UNICEF and AMPL Pokja Kabupaten Serang Workshop Communication Strategy of West Sumatera in Padang held by AMPL Pokja West Sumatera Province Revitalisation Seminar of Solid Waste Final Disposal (TPA) held at Jakarta by Directorate General Cipta Karya Public Work Department Workshop to Establish WSES Renstra of Central Java Province at Salatiga held by WSES working group Central Java Province Workshop of Surface Water Conservation Effort at Jakarta held by Directorate General Cipta Karya Public Work Department World Water Day (HAD) Exhibition in PRJ Kemayoran held by Public Work Department 2008 HAD Seminar "Sanitation, Conserve Water and Environment" in PRJ Kemayoran held by Public Work Department FORKAMI Documenter Movie Festival at CCF Salemba held by FORKAMI 2008 HAD Seminar "Water Appreciation at the Managed Area, Now and Future" at Bandung held by ITB

52

Percik March 2008

VOCABUL ARY
Protective lining
One of preventive actions in managing the risk of corrosion on the pipe by covering the (outer) surface of the pipe with anti-corrosion material, such as asphalt, cement mortar, paint, zinc, etc.

Psycoda fly in trickling filter
Species of fly that grows in the mud layer covering the Trickling Filter that may cause problems in the treatment installation location or the surrounding area.

Pt
Platinum chemical compound symbol with atomic number 78, and atomic mass 195

Pu
Plutonium chemical compound symbol with atomic number 94, and atomic mass 244.0642

Public hydrant-HU
Public hydrant is one of the (indirect) connections of clean water to the communal consumer (to be used together/for several families). Consist of the inlet pipe (service pipe from the distribution network), water tank equipped with opening valves.

Public tap-KU
Public tap is is one of the (indirect) connections of clean water to the communal consumer (to be used together/for several families). Consist of the inlet pipe (service pipe from the distribution network), straight pipe and lateral pipe equipped with opening valves.

Public use of water
Clean water for indoor consumer of public facility and social facility. For example, inside the hospital, school, hotel, office, restaurant, movie theatre, university, park, sport facility, road washer, waste water network, etc.

Public utility
Environment supporting infrastructures for public service.

Pulverized limestone
Coagulant additive material to improve clarification process in the coagulation process.

Pump
Mechanic equipment to transport material (liquid/gas) from one place to another, whether in different or same elevation.

Pumping
Mechanically transport of a volume of material from one place to another.

Pumping intake
Classification of raw water catcher facility identified by the need of pump to suck/push/flow the water.

Pumping station
Facility to place one or more pump unit(s). Built at location or area near the material (liquid/gas) to be pumped.

Quoted from the Dictionary of Environmental Improvement Technique Term and Abbreviation. Publisher: Trisakti University

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful