# MECHANICS

**UNIT I Mechanical Systems : The Mechanical System - Gen-
**

eralized Coordinates - Constraints - Virtual work - Energy and Mo-

mentum. Chapter 1 : Sections 1.1 to 1.5.

UNIT II Lagrange’s Equations : Derivation of Lagrange’s equa-

tions - Examples - Integrals of motion. Chapter 2 : Sections 2.1 to 2.3

(omit sec 2.4)

UNIT III Hamilton’s Equations : Hamilton’s Principle - Hamil-

ton’s Equation - Other variational Principle. Chapter 4: Sections 4.1

to 4.3 omit Section 4.4.

UNIT IV Hamilton - Jacobi Theory : Hamilton Principle func-

tion - Hamilton - Jacobi Equation - Separability. Chapter 5 : Sections

5.1 to 5.3

UNIT V Canonical Transformation : Diﬀerential forms and gen-

erating functions - Special Transformations - Lagrange and Poisson

brackets. Chapter 6 : Sections 6.1, 6.2 and 6.3 (omit sections 6.4, 6.5

and 6.6)

Contents and Treatment as in : D. Greenwood. classical Dynam-

ics. Prentices, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi, 1985.

Reference :

1. H. Goldstein, Classical Mechanics, (2nd Editin) narosa Publish-

ing House, New Delhi.

2. N.C. Rane and P.S.C. Joag, Classical Mechanics, tata McGraw

Hill, 1991.

3. J.L. Synge and B.A. Griﬀth, Principles of Mechanics (3rd Edi-

tion) MCGraw Hill Book Co New yuk, 1970.

1

UNIT I

Introduction :

Mechanics forms the basis of physics it contributes to our knowl-

edge of people working of nature and universe classical mechanics deals

with the description of actual or possible motion of points like as well

as extended bodies.

The motion of celestial bodies as well as man made objects such as

space problems. Satellites etc., are ﬁelds. The various classical dynam-

ics, Hamilton mechanics, provides most modern research in frontial ar-

eas. Particularly relation between symmetric property or conservation

law.

Application :

Mechanics is the study of motion of physical bodies. The motion

of celestial bodies planets, stars etc., path of an artillery shell or of a

space satellites send from a earth to a planet are among its problems.

Classical mechanics denotes part of Mechanics. Classical dynamics

will also be interpreted to include the type of mechanical assising to

include the type of Mechanical assising out of the special theory of

relativity. Mechanics of a system of particles :

When a Mechanical system consists of two (or) more particles we

must distinguish between the external forces acted upon the particles

of the system forces not belongs to the system. The internal forces

assising on account of interaction between themselves.

Mechanics of a particles :

Let r be a radius of the particle from some given origin and v its

the vector velocity then

v =

dr

dt

.

The linear momentum p of the particle is deﬁned as the product

of particle mass and its velocity. In consequence of interaction with

external objects and ﬁeld the particle may experience forces of various

types.

2

For example, gravitation or electro dynamics.

The Mechanic of particle is contained in Newton second law mo-

tion.

Equation of Motion :

The motion of particle is described by the diﬀerential equation

F ∝ a

−→

F = m

−→

a

= m

_

d

−→

v

dt

_

=

d

dt

(m

−→

v ) =

d

dt

(p)

−→

F =

dp

dt

F =

d

dt

(mv)

= m

d

dt

_

dr

dt

_

= m

d

2

r

dt

2

∴ F = m

d

2

r

dt

2

Thus the equation of motion is a diﬀerential equation of second

order.

Equation of motion of System :

The equation of motion of a system of N particles is written as

m

i

··

−→

r =

−→

F

i

+

−→

R

i

(i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , N)

where m

i

is the mass of the i

th

particle,

−→

F

i

is the applied force

and

−→

R

i

the constraint force.

Generalized coordinates :

To described the conﬁguration of the system we select the smallest

possible number of variables which deﬁne conﬁguraiton of the system.

These are called the generalized co-ordinates of the system.

3

Conﬁguration :

A set of generalized co-ordinates is any set of co-oirdinates which

described the conﬁguration.

Notation for generalized Co-ordinates :

Generalized co-ordinates are q

1

, q

2

, · · · , q

n

(q

i

, i = 1, 2, · · · , n) the

symbols q

1

, q

2

, · · · , q

n

corresponding to the co-ordinates that we choose

to describe the motion.

1. When the particle move in a plane it described by cartesian co-

ordinates (x, y) or polar co-ordinates and soon

q

1

= x

q

2

= y

or

q

1

= r

q

2

= θ

2. Some spherical symmetry the sherical co-ordinates is

q

1

= r =

_

x

2

+ y

2

q

2

= θ = cot

−1

_

z

_

x

2

+ y

2

_

q

3

= φ = tan

−1

_

y

x

_

Deﬁnitions :

1. Newton fundamental equation

2. System of particle

3. Degree of freedom

4. Generalized Co-ordinates

5. Conﬁguration space

6. Holonomic constraints

7. Non polynomic constraints

4

8. Scleronomic constraints

9. Rheonomic constraints

10. Clarnomic system

11. Realnomic system

12. Polyateral constraints

13. Unilateral constraints

Degree of freedom :

The number of degree of freedom is equal to the number of co-

ordinates minus the number of independent equation of constraints.

(or)

If the conﬁguration of a system of a N particles described using de-

gree N cartesian relation these co-ordinates then the degrees of fredom

equals 3N −ℓ.

Example :

Let 3 particles connected by the rigid rods to form a triangular

body with the particles are at the corners. There particles are ﬁxed

by a cartesian co-ordinates each rigid rod is represonted mathemati-

cally by indepenent constraints equation. All together there are three

constraints. Hence degree of freedom equals 9 −3 = 6.

Generalized co-ordinates :

A set of parameters used to represent the conﬁguration of a system

without ambiguity are called Generalized co-ordinates.

Conﬁguration Space :

Let n be the degree of freedom of a system of N - particles. Let

its conﬁgurations be speciﬁed by n - generalized co-ordinates.

The n - dimensional space representing these Co-ordinates as a

single point q (q

1

, q

2

, · · · , q

n

) is called a conﬁguation space.

Holonomic constraints :

Let the conﬁguration of a system be speciﬁed by n - generalized

Co-ordinates (q

1

, q

2

, · · · , q

n

).

5

Let us assume that ethere are k independent equation of constraints

of the form

φ

j

(q

1

, q

2

, · · · , q

n

, t) = 0, j = 1, 2, 3, · · · , k.

A constraints which can be expressed in this fashion is known as a

Holonomic constraints.

Holonomic system :

A system is said to be Holonomic if its constraints are always Holo-

momic.

Example :

Consider the motion of 2 particles connected by a rigid rod of length

ℓ in xy - plane constraint equation is given by

(x

2

−x

1

)

2

+ (y

2

−y

1

)

2

= ℓ

2

.

Scleronomic constraints :

The constraints is said to be scleronomic if time t does not appear

explicity.

Example:

Consider the motion of two particle in the xy plane they are con-

nectd by a rigid rod of length ℓ. The corresponding constraint equation

is

ℓ

2

= (x

2

−x

1

)

2

+ (y

2

−y

1

)

2

.

where x

1

, x

2

, y

1

, y

2

are cartesian co-ordinates of 2 particles.

The equation does not contain the time t explicity.

Scleronomic system :

A system is said to be scleronomic if its constraints are scleronomic.

Rhenomic system :

A system is said to be Rhenomic if its constraints are Rhenomic.

Rhenomic constraints :

If the length ℓ have been generalized as an explicity function of

time then the constraint is Rhenomic. OR Constraint relation depend

6

explicity on time.

Non - Holonomic constraints :

Let a system has m contraints which are non - integrable and dif-

ferential expression is of the form

n

i=1

a

ji

dq

i

+ a

jt

dt = 0, j = 1, 2, 3, · · · , m

where a

′

s is a function of the q

′

s and t.

This type of constraints are known as non- Holom Holkonomic

constraints.

Bilateral constraints :

If any conﬁguration of the system for every small allowable dis-

placement in any ﬁxed time. The negative displacement is also al-

lowable then the constraints are called bilateral constraint. They are

expressed as equalities.

Unilateral constraint :

In any conﬁguration of the system for every small allowable dis-

placement in any ﬁxed time either a positive or negative displacement

is allowable then the constraints are called unilateral constraints. They

are experessed as in equlities.

f (q

1

, q

2

, · · · , q

n

, t) ≤ 0 (unilateralconstraints)

f (q

1

, q

2

, · · · , q

n

, t) = 0 (Bilateral)

Example :

Let a free from particle be contained in a ﬁxed hollowsphere of

radius r if its centre at the origin of a cartesian co-ordinates system.

If (x, y, z) are the co-ordinates of the particle then x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

≤ 0

where r is trhe radius.

Virtural displacement :

Let a system of N particles is given by 3N cartesian co-ordinates

x

1

, x

2

, · · · , x

3N

with respect to some intertial frame adn may be subject

7

to the contraints. At any given time let us assume that the co-ordinates

have small inﬁnite displacement δx

1

, δx

2

, · · · , δx

3N

.

They are assumed to occure without passing of tiem and donot

necessary conform to the constraints. These small change Sk in the

conﬁguration is known as Virtual displacement.

Virtual work :

Consider a system of N particles. Let the conﬁguration to repre-

sented by the cartesian co-ordinates x

1

, x

2

, · · · , x

3N

.

Let f

1

, f

2

, · · · , f

3N

are the component forces applied at the corre-

sponding

Co-ordinates in a positive sense then the virtual workdone (δW)

of these forces for a virtual displacement δx is given by

δW =

3N

j=1

−→

F

j

−−→

δx

j

Note :

In a vector form δW =

N

i=1

−→

F

i

· δ

−→

r

i

where

−→

F

i

is the applied force of

i

th

particle

−→

r

i

is the positive vector.

The forces are assumed to be constant through out the virtual

displacement.

Workless constraints :

A workless constraints is any bilateral constraint such that the

virtual work done by the corresponding constraint force is zero for any

virtual displacement, which is consistent with the constraint.

Examples :

1. Sliding motion on a frictionless susface.

2. Rolling contact without slipping.

Book work : The virtual displacement is not ingeneral a possible

real displacement.

Proof : In the virtual displacement, the moving constraints are

8

assumen to be slopped.

Let the system have k holonomic constraints.

φ

j

(q

1

, q

2

, · · · , q

3N

, t) = 0, j = 1, 2, 3, · · · , k. (1)

Let us take the totla diﬀerential of φ and obtain

dφ

j

=

∂φ

j

∂q

1

dq

1

+

∂φ

j

∂q

2

dq

2

+· · · +

∂φ

j

∂q

3N

dq

3N

+

∂φ

j

∂t

dt = 0.

Suppose the system is subject to k holonomic constraints

φ

j

(x

1

, x

2

, · · · , x

3N

, t) = 0, j = 1, 2, 3, · · · , k.

dφ

j

=

∂φ

j

∂x

1

dx

1

+

∂φ

j

∂x

2

dx +· · · +

∂φ

j

∂x

3N

dx

3N

+

∂φ

j

∂t

dt = 0.

Virtual displacement

dx

i

= δx

i

, dt = 0 (2)

dφ

j

=

3N

i=1

∂φ

j

∂x

i

dx

i

+

∂φ

j

∂t

dt = 0, j = 1, 2, 3, · · · , k.

Case (i) :

Suppose te system has non-holonomic constraint. Then

3N

i=1

a

ji

dx

i

+ a

jt

dt = 0, j = 1, 2, 3, · · · , k.

Virtual displacement dt = 0, dx

i

= δx

i

n

i=1

a

ji

δx

i

= 0 (j = 1, 2, 3, · · · , m)

Form (1) and (2) shows that any holonomic constraint must also

9

be scleronomic constraint

i.e.,

∂φ

j

∂t

= 0, j = 1, 2, 3, · · · , k

Suppose non-holonomic constraint a

j

= 0 . These constraint are

not ment in the general case.

Hence a virtual displacement is not possible as a real displacement.

State and prove the principle of virtual work :

Statement:

The necessary and suﬃcient condition for the static equilibrium of an

initially mottionless sceleronomic which is subject of the system in to

the virtual workdone for an arbitrary virtual displacement satisfying

the constraint is zero.

Proof :

Case (i)

Let us assume that we are given an sclernomic system of N particles.

Let us assume that their system is in static equilibirium. Then for

each particle

−→

F

i

+

−→

R

i

= 0

where

−→

F

i

is the external force.

−→

R

i

is the constraint force acting on i

th

particle is

_

−→

F

i

+

−→

R

i

_

δ

−→

r

i

= δW, i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , n

where

−→

r

i

is the position vector of i

th

particle.

∴ Virtual workdone by all the force in moving through an arbitrary

vitrual displacement consistant with the constraint is zero.

N

i=1

_

−→

F

i

+

−→

R

i

_

δ

−→

r

i

= 0

N

i=1

−→

F

i

δ

−→

r

i

+

N

i=1

−→

R

i

δ

−→

r

i

= 0

10

constraints are workless, then

N

i=1

−→

R

i

δ

−→

r

i

= 0

N

i=1

−→

F

i

δ

−→

r

i

= 0

i.e., δW = 0

⇒workdone = 0, i.e., the virual workdone by the applied force is zero.

Case (ii) :

Let us assume that the same system of particles are initially mo-

tionless. But it is not in static equlibirium.

The motion is s to C we can always choose a virtual displacement

in the direction of actual motion at each particle.

In this case, the virtual work is positive

N

i=1

−→

F

i

δ

−→

r

i

+

N

i=1

−→

R

i

δ

−→

r

i

> 0

δW =

N

i=1

−→

F

i

δ

−→

r

i

> 0,

−→

F

i

s = 0

δW > 0

If the system is not in equlibrium then the virtual workdone is not

zero.

1. Show that virtual workdowne by the constraint forces

on a system of two particles connected by the rigid massless

rod is zero.

Solution :

−→

R

i

,

−→

R

i

are the constraint force along the rod on the 2 particles.

They are opoosite in sense with equal magnitude.

−→

e

r

is the unit vector along the rod. δ

−→

r

1

, δ

−→

r

2

are the virtual dis-

placement at the ends virtual workdone by a constraint force is given

11

by

δW

C

=

−→

R

1

δ

−→

r

1

+

−→

R

2

δr

2

−→

R

1

= R

1

(−

−→

e

r

) = −R

−→

e

r

−→

R

2

= R

2

(

−→

e

r

) = −R

1

virtual displacement along the rod all equal

δ

−→

r

1

e

r

= δ

−→

r

2

e

r

δW

C

= −R

1

−→

e

r

δ

−→

r

1

+ R

2

−→

e

r

δ

−→

r

2

= (R

2

−R

1

)

−→

e

r

δr

1

δW

C

= 0 (∵ R

2

= R

1

equal magnitude) .

Example for bilateral constraints :

2. Given an equation of scleronomic with workless constraints

(bilateral) to which the principle of the virtual work can be

applied (or)

Two frictionless blocks of equal mass m all connected by

the massless rigid rod using x

1

and x

2

as co-ordinates. Solve

for the force F

2

. If the system is in static equlibirium.

Solution :

R

1

and R

2

are the external constraint acting at the wall and ﬂoor

repectively.

The applied forces are the gravitational force acting in the blocks

and the external forces F

2

system is in static equlibirium.

Virtual workdone by external force (F) = 0

Workdone by constraint force (R) = 0

We have

mg(δx

1

) +F

2

(δx

2

) = 0. (1)

The virtual displacement along the rod at ends are equal.

∴ δx

1

sin θ = δx

2

cos θ (2)

12

Multiply (1) by sin θ,

⇒mg sin θδx

1

+ F

2

sin θδx

2

= 0

mgδx

2

cos θ + F

2

sin θδx

2

= 0

(mg cos θ + F

2

sin θ) δx

2

= 0.

But displacement δx

2

= 0.

A frictionless system which is constrained to move in the vertical

plane.

mg cos θ + F

2

sin θ = 0

F

2

sin θ = −mg cos θ

F

2

= −mg cot θ

3. Using a suitable example, show how the concept of

virtual work can be applied to system with unilateral con-

straints.

Solution :

Let us assume a cube of mass is placed between two frictionless

mutually perpenticular plane.

Assume that the motion is an vertical plane. Le x

1

= x

2

= 0 at the

equilibirium position then unilateral constraints are x

1

≥ 0, x

2

≥ 0.

The only applied force is the weight mg. It has components F

1

, F

2

in

x

1

and x

2

direction.

m

45

0

45

0

g

x

1

R

1

R

2

x

2

When in equilibuim R

1

= −F

1

and R

2

= −F

2

δW

C

=

mg

√

2

(δx

1

+ δx

2

) > 0

13

F

1

= F

2

= −

mg

√

2

Virtual workdone by applied forces is

δW =

−mg

√

2

(δx

1

+ δ

2

) ≤ 0

Thus the virtual δW ≤ 0 for any virtual displacement consistent

with unilateral constraints.

To ﬁnd workdone by constraint forces

R

1

= R

2

=

mg

√

2

Virtual workdone by constraint forces

δW

C

= R

1

δx

1

+ R

2

δx

2

=

mg

√

2

(δx

1

+ δx

2

) ≥ 0.

Hence for a system with unilateral constraints

1. Workdone by external force is −ve.

2. Workdone by constraint force is + ve.

D’ Alembert’s Principle :

Let the system has N particles. Consider on i

th

particle to the

system m

i

is the mass of the particle.

−→

r

i

is the position vector of particle.

−→

F

i

is applied force of particle.

Let

−→

R

i

be constraint force of particle.

Let

··

−→

r

i

be the acceleration of i

th

particle relative to an inertial

frame.

−→

m

i

··

−→

r

i

is the intertial force acting on the i

th

particle.

Now we have the equation

−→

F

i

+

−→

R

i

−

−→

m

i

··

−→

r

i

= 0, i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , N. (1)

(The sum of all the force real and inertial acting on each particle of a

system is zero)

This result is known as D’ Alembert’s principle.

14

Note :

−→

F

i

and

−→

R

i

together are called as real forces.

Lagrange’s form of D’ Alembrt’s Principle :

Let us assume that the system has N particles. Let m

i

be the mass

of the i

th

particle frame.

−→

F

i

is the applied forced and

−→

R

i

is the constraint force on the i

th

particle.

−

−→

m

i

··

−→

r

i

is inertial force acting on the particle. Now we have the

equation

−→

F

i

+

−→

R

i

−

−→

m

i

··

−→

r

i

= 0 (i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , N) .

Now the virtual workdone by the system is

N

i=1

_

−→

F

i

+

−→

R

i

−

−→

m

i

··

−→

r

i

_

δ

−→

r

i

= 0

−→

R

i

is the workless constraint forces

N

i=1

−→

R

i

δ

−→

r

i

= 0

N

i=1

_

−→

F

i

−

−→

m

i

··

−→

r

i

_

δ

−→

r

i

= 0.

This equation is the Lagrange’s form of D’ Alemberts principle.

1. Obtain the diﬀerential equation of the given pendulum

(sphericla pendulum) or A particle of mass m is subspended

by a massless wire of length r = a +bcos ωt(a > b > 0) to form

a sphorical pendulum. Find the equation of motion.

Solution :

Let us assume that the spherical co-ordinates θ and φ.θ is mea-

sured from the upward vertical. φ is the angle between a verticla

plane through a supporting point and a vertical plane containing the

pendulum.

15

O

r

m

e

f e

q

e

r

g

q

f

The acceleration of a particle whose spherical co-ordinates are

(r, θ, φ) is as follows

··

−→

r =

_

··

r −r

·

θ

2

−r

·

φsin

2

θ

_

−→

e

r

+

_

r

··

θ + 2

·

r

·

θ −r

·

φ

2

sin θ cos θ

_

−→

e

θ

+

_

r

··

φsin θ + 2

·

r

·

φsin θ + 2r

·

θ

·

φcos θ

_

−→

e

φ

where

−→

e

θ

,

−→

e

r

,

−→

e

φ

are unit vectors forming an orthogonal triad.

A virtual displacement constraint with the constraint is,

δ

−→

r = rδθ

−→

e

θ

+ r sin δφ

−→

e

φ

.

The applied gravitational force is,

−→

F = mg cos

_

180

0

−θ

_

−→

e

r

+ mg sin

_

180

0

−θ

_

−→

e

θ

−→

F = −mg cos θ

−→

e

r

+ mg sin θ

−→

e

θ

we have

_

−→

F −m

··

r

_

δ

−→

r = 0 (By D’ Alemberts principle)

16

(−mg cos θ

−→

e

r

+ mg sin θ

−→

e

θ

) −m

__

··

r −r

·

θ

2

−r

·

φsin

2

θ

_

−→

e

r

_

+

_

r

··

θ + 2

·

r

·

θ −r

·

φ

2

sin θ cos θ

_

−→

e

θ

+

__

r

··

φsin θ + 2

·

r

·

φsin θ + 2r

·

θ

·

φcos θ

_

−→

e

φ

_

×rδθ

−→

e

θ

+ r sin θδφ

−→

e

φ

= 0

Taking dot product,

mgr sin θ −mr

_

r

··

θ + 2

·

r

·

θ −r

·

φ

2

sin θ cos θ

_

δθ

−m

_

r

··

φsin θ + 2

·

r

·

φsin θ + 2r

·

θ

·

φcos θ

_

r sin θδφ = 0

δφ and δθ are independent Virtual displacements.

∴ co-eﬃceient are equal to zero respectively

mr

_

g sin θ −

_

r

··

θ + 2

·

r

·

θ −r

·

φsin θ cos θ

__

= 0 (1)

Since mr sin θ = 0

−sin θmr

_

r

··

φsin θ + 2

·

r

·

φsin θ + 2r

·

θ

·

φcos θ

_

= 0 (2)

r = a + b cos ωt

r = −bω sin ωt

(1) ⇒(a + b cos ωt)

··

φsin θ−2bω sin ωt

·

θ−(a + b cos ωt)

·

φ

2

sin θ cos θ−g sin θ = 0

(2) ⇒(a + b cos ωt)

··

φsin θ−2bω sin ωt sin θ

·

φ+2 (a + b cos ωt)

·

θ

·

φcos θ = 0.

These are diﬀerential equation of the motion.

Generalized forces :

Let us assume that a given set of force F

1

, F

2

, · · · , , F

3N

is applied

to system of N particles.

17

The virtual workdone by these force is

δW =

3N

j=1

F

j

δx

j

(1)

Let us suppose that the 3N ordinary constraint co-ordinates are

related with the n - generalized co-ordinates q

1

, q

2

, · · · , q

n

.

Let these are related by the relations

x

j

= x

j

(q

1

, q

2

, · · · , q

n

, t), j = 1, 2, 3, · · · , 3N.

Using displacement is virtual workdone we get,

dx

j

=

∂x

j

∂q

1

dq

1

+

∂x

j

∂q

2

dq

2

+· · · +

∂x

j

∂q

n

dq

n

+

∂x

j

∂t

dt

δx

j

=

∂x

j

∂q

1

δq

1

+

∂x

j

∂q

2

δq

2

+· · · +

∂x

j

∂q

n

δq

n

δx

j

=

n

i=1

∂x

j

∂q

i

δq

i

(j = 1, 2, · · · , 3N)

(1) ⇒δW =

3N

j=1

F

j

_

n

i=1

∂x

j

∂q

i

δq

i

_

=

n

i=1

_

3N

j=1

F

j

∂x

j

∂q

i

_

δq

i

3N

j=1

F

j

∂x

j

∂q

i

is called the generalized force.

δW =

n

i=1

Q

i

δq

i

.

Principle of work and kinetic evergy :

Statement:

The increase in K.E. of a particle as its moves from one arbitary point

to another point is equal to the workdone by the force acting on the

particle during the given intervals (or) chang in K.E. = workdone.

Proof:

Kinetic Energy is given by T =

1

2

mv

2

v is the velocity of particle and

18

m is the mass of the particle.

Let W be the workdone by the force

−→

F in moving particle from A

to B is

W =

B

_

A

−→

F · d

−→

r

=

B

_

A

m

··

−→

r d

−→

r , ∵

−→

F = m

··

−→

r

= m

B

_

A

··

−→

r d

−→

r

W =

1

2

m

B

_

A

d

dt

_

·

−→

r

·

−→

r

_

dt

=

1

2

m

B

_

A

d

_

·

−→

r

_

2

=

m

2

B

_

A

d

_

·

−→

r

_

2

=

m

2

B

_

A

d

_

v

2

_

=

m

2

_

v

2

_

B

A

=

m

2

_

v

2

B

−v

2

A

_

=

1

2

mv

2

B

−

1

2

mv

2

A

W = T

B

−T

A

Book work : State and prove the principle of conservation of

energy.

Statement: Let the only force acting on the given particle be conser-

vative.

Proof : Let

−→

F be the conservative force acting on the particle at the

19

point (x, y, z).

m is the mass of the particle.

T is the K.E. of the particle.

W is the workdone of the particle, from A to B

W = V

A

−V

B

= T

A

−T

B

Since the points A and B are arbitrary.

T

A

+V

A

= T

B

+T

B

= E of the energy is conservative. We conclude

that the total mechanical evergy E remains constant during the motion

of the particle.

This is the principle of conservation of evergy.

Book work :

An equilibrium conﬁguration at a conservative holonomic system

with workless ﬁxed constraints must occur at a position where the P.E.

has a stationary value.

Proof :

consider a system of N particles whose applied forces are conser-

vative and derived from the P.E. function V (x

1

, x

2

, · · · , x

3N

).

The virtual workdone by the forces

δW =

3N

j=1

Fx

j

δx

j

But Fx

j

=

−∂V

∂x

j

Workdone δW =

3N

j=1

_

−∂V

∂q

i

_

δx

j

= −δV.

This is the ﬁrst variation of the P.E.

By principle of virtual work the necessary condition for the static

equilibrium of the system is δW = 0, δV = 0.

∂V

∂x

j

= 0, j = 1, 2, 3, · · · , 3N.

20

Let us assume the P.E is interms of generalized co-ordinates

V = V (q

1

, q

2

, · · · , q

n

)

δV =

n

i=1

∂V

∂x

i

(δq

i

) , q

′

s are independent

We conclude that an equilibrium conﬁguration of a conservative

holonomic system with workless ﬁxed constraints must occur at a po-

sition.

Where the P.E has a stationary value. Consider the stability of

this system at position of static equilibrium.

∴ δV = 0

⇒

∂V

∂q

i

= 0, i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , n.

These condition imply that the P.E. is at a stationary value system.

Expanding the P.E. function V (q

1

, q

2

, · · · , q

n

) about the reference

value V

0

, we have

V = V

0

+

_

∂V

∂q

1

_

0

δq

1

+

_

∂V

∂q

2

_

0

δq

2

+· · ·

+

1

2

_

∂

2

V

∂q

2

1

_

(δq

1

)

2

+· · · +

_

∂

2

V

∂q

1

∂q

2

_

(δq

1

δq

2

) +· · ·

∴ ∆V is the change in P.E. from its value of equation position.

∆V = V −V

0

=

1

2

_

∂

2

V

∂q

2

1

_

_

δ

2

q

1

_

+

_

∂

2

V

∂q

1

∂q

2

_

(δq

1

δq

2

) +

1

2

_

∂

2

V

∂q

2

2

_

_

δ

2

q

2

_

+· · ·

where a zero subscript on a function implices that it is to be evalu-

ated at the reference value of the q’s. The δq’s represent inﬁnitesimal

change from this reference conﬁguration.

(i) If ∆V > 0 ⇒ The equilibrium is stable

(ii) If ∆V < 0 ⇒ The equilibrium is unstable

21

(iii) If ∆V = 0 ⇒ The equilibrium is nutral.

K

..

onig’s Theorem :

The total K.E. of a system is equal to the sum of

(i) The K.E. due to a particle having a mass equal to the total mass

of the system and moving with the velocity of the centre of mass

and

(ii) the K.E. due to the motion the system relative to its centre of

mass.

Find the K.E. of the system of particle.

Proof :

Consider a system of N particles.

Let

−→

r

i

be the position vector of the i

th

particle (whose mass is no)

relative to a point O ﬁxed in an inertial frame.

j

m

i

m

y

O

i

r

r

i

m

. c m

C

r

r

C

r

r

x

z

Let

−→

r

C

be the position vector of the mass centre om.

Let m

i

be the mass of the system.

Let T be the K.E. of the system.

T =

N

i=1

1

2

m

i

·

−→

r

2

·

−→

r =

·

−→

r

C

+

·

−→

ρ

i

22

·

−→

r

2

=

·

−→

r

2

C

+

−→

ρ

i

2

+ 2

·

−→

r

C

·

−→

ρ

i

T =

1

2

_

N

i=1

m

i

_

·

−→

r

2

C

+

1

2

N

i=1

m

i

·

−→

ρ

i

2

+

N

i=1

m

i

_

·

−→

r

C

·

−→

ρ

i

_

=

1

2

·

−→

r

2

C

N

i=1

m

i

+

1

2

N

i=1

m

i

·

−→

ρ

i

2

+

·

−→

r

C

N

i=1

m

i

·

−→

ρ

i

=

1

2

·

−→

r

2

C

N

i=1

m

i

+

1

2

N

i=1

m

i

·

−→

ρ

i

2

_

∵

N

i=1

m

i

·

−→

ρ

i

= 0

_

T =

1

2

m

·

−→

r

2

C

+

1

2

N

i=1

m

i

·

−→

ρ

i

2

T = K.E of mass centre + K.E. relative to the centre of mass.

K.E. of a particle of mass m with vector of c.m.(centre of mass)

Book work :

Kinetic Energy of a system of a particle using an arbitrary reference

point.

Proof :

Consider a system of N - particle. Let

−→

r

i

be the position vector

of an i

th

particle (mass m) relative to a point O ﬁxed in an inertial

frame.

Let P be an arbitrary point.

−→

r

C

is the position vector of mass

centre c.m.

k

m

y

O

i

r

r

i

m . c m

P

C

r

r

i

r

r

C

r

r

z

23

−→

ρ

c

is the position vector of mass centre relative to the point P.

Let T be the kinetic energy of the system.

T =

N

i=1

1

2

m

i

·

−→

r

2

·

−→

r =

·

−→

r

ρ

+

·

−→

ρ

i

·

−→

r

2

i

=

_

·

−→

r

ρ

+

·

−→

ρ

i

_

2

=

·

−→

r

2

ρ

+

·

−→

ρ

i

2

+ 2

·

−→

r

ρ

·

−→

ρ

i

T =

1

2

N

i=1

m

i

·

−→

r

2

ρ

+

1

2

N

i=1

m

i

·

−→

ρ

i

2

+

N

i=1

m

i

·

−→

r

ρ

·

−→

ρ

i

=

1

2

N

i=1

m

i

·

−→

ρ

i

2

+

1

2

·

−→

r

2

ρ

m +

·

−→

r

ρ

N

i=1

m

i

·

−→

ρ

i

T =

1

2

m

·

−→

r

2

ρ

+

1

2

N

i=1

m

i

·

−→

ρ

i

2

+

·

−→

r

ρ

m

·

−→

ρ

C

_

ρ

C

=

1

m

m

i

·

−→

ρ

C

_

Hence the total K.E. is the sum of this 3 parts.

1. The K.E. due to the particle having a mass and moving with

reference point P.

2. The K.E. of the system due to its motion relative to P.

3. The sclar product of the velocity of the reference point and the

linear momentum of the system relative to a reference point.

Note :

ρ

i

= ρ

C

+ ρ

j

·

ρ

i

=

·

ρ

C

+

·

ρ

j

m

·

ρ

i

=

m

·

ρ

C

+

m

·

ρ

j

But

mρ

j

= 0,

m

·

ρ

i

=

m

·

ρ

C

24

Kinetic Energy of rigid body :

Take CM as the origin of vectors. Let dV be a small volume element

of a rigid body with density.

Each element of the rigid body is having in general translational

and rotational velocity.

We can assume that the rigid body is having instantaneous axis of

rotaion. The typical volume element dV can be chosen so small.

ie, rotational K.E is negligibe compared with its translational K.E

Each element of a rigid body can be considered as a particle of

inﬁnite small mass.

m = V ×ρ

Hence the limiting case of K.E of system of N - particles.

Then the K.E of the system

T =

1

2

m

·

−→

r

2

C

+

1

2

N

i=1

m

i

·

−→

ρ

2

i

=

1

2

m

·

−→

r

2

C

+

1

2

_

V

ρ

·

−→

ρ

2

i

dV

−→

ρ is the position vector of volume element dV relative to mass

centre c.m.

m is the mass of the body. The ﬁrst term is called translational

K.E. and second term is called rotational K.E.

Let assume that the body be rotating with angular velocity

−→

ω .

To ﬁnd

·

−→

ρ =

−→

ω ×

−→

ρ

·

−→

ρ

2

= (

−→

ω ×

−→

ρ )

2

=

−→

ω ·

−→

ρ ×

·

−→

ρ

= (

−→

ω ×

−→

ρ ) ·

·

−→

ρ =

−→

ω ·

_

−→

ρ

_

−→

ω ×

·

−→

ρ

__

·

−→

ρ

2

=

−→

ω · [(

−→

ρ ·

−→

ρ )

−→

ω −(

−→

ρ ·

−→

ω )

−→

ρ ]

25

=

−→

ω ·

_

−→

ρ

2−→

ω −(

−→

ρ ·

−→

ω )

−→

ρ

¸

·

−→

ρ

2

=

−→

ω ·

_

−→

ρ

2−→

ω −(

−→

ρ ·

−→

ω )

−→

ρ

¸

Let ρ = x

i + y

j + z

k ω = ω

x

i + ω

y

j + ω

z

k

ω ·

_

ρ

2

ω −(ρ · ω)ρ

¸

=

_

_

x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

_

ω

x

i −(xω

x

+ yω

y

+ zω

z

)

·

x

i

_

ω

=

__

y

2

+ z

2

_

ω

x

−xyω

y

−xzω

z

¸

=

_

__

y

2

+ z

2

_

ω

x

−(xyω

y

+ xzω

z

)

¸

i

+ [ ]

j

+ [ ]

k

_

ω

T =

1

2

_

V

−→

ρ

.

−→

ρ

2

dV

=

1

2

ω

_

_

_

_

V

−→

ρ

___

y

2

+ z

2

_

ω

x

−(xyω

y

+ xzω

z

)

¸

i

+[ ]

j

+ [ ]

k

_

ω

_

dV

Deﬁne m.I and product of inertial as follows. Let

I

xx

=

_

V

_

y

2

+ z

2

_

−→

ρ dV

I

yy

=

_

V

_

z

2

+ x

2

_

−→

ρ dV

I

zz

=

_

V

_

x

2

+ x

2

_

−→

ρ dV

I

xy

= I

yx

= −

_

V

(xy)

−→

ρ dV

I

yz

= I

zy

= −

_

V

(yz)

−→

ρ dV

26

I

zx

= I

xz

= −

_

V

(zx)

−→

ρ dV

T

rot

=

1

2

I

xx

ω

2

x

+

1

2

I

yy

ω

2

y

+

1

2

I

zz

ω

2

z

+ I

xy

ω

x

ω

y

+ I

yy

ω

y

ω

z

+ I

zx

ω

z

ω

x

=

3

i=1

3

j=1

1

2

I

ij

ω

i

ω

j

=

1

2

−→

ω

T

I

−→

ω

=

1

2

_

_

_

_

ω

x

ω

y

ω

z

_

_

_

_

T

_

_

_

_

I

xx

I

xy

I

xz

I

yx

I

yy

I

yz

I

zx

I

zy

I

zz

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

ω

x

ω

y

ω

z

_

_

_

_

=

1

2

(

−→

ω )

T

−→

I (

−→

ω )

Kinetic Enery of rigid body =

1

2

m

·

−→

r

c

+

−→

ω

T

I

−→

ω

Angular Momentum of a system :

The angular momentum of a system of N particles and the total

mass ‘M’ about a ﬁxed point O is equal to the angular momentum

about θ of a single particle of mass m which is moving with centre of

mass plus the angular momentum of the system about the centre of

mass m.

Find the angular momentum of a system of particles about a ﬁxed

point θ.

moment of momentum = Angular momentum.

Proof :

Let us consider a system of N - particles Let m

i

is the mass of the

i

th

particle whole position vectors given by

−→

r

i

.

The angular momentum of the i

th

particle = r ×ρ

= r ×mv

27

= m

·

−→

r ×r

AM =

−→

r

i

×m

·

−→

r

Angular momentum of the system H =

N

i=1

−→

r

i

×m

·

−→

r .

But

N

i=1

m

i

−→

ρ

i

= 0 ⇒

N

i=1

m

·

i

−→

ρ

i

= 0

Angular momentum of the system

=

_

×

·

−→

r

C

_

m + 0 + 0 +

N

i=1

−→

ρ

i

×m

·

−→

ρ

=

−→

r

C

×m

·

−→

r

C

+

N

i=1

−→

ρ

i

×m

·

−→

ρ

H =

_

−→

r

C

×m

·

−→

r

C

_

+ H

C

wher H

C

is the angular momentum of the system relative to a

centre of mass.

Note :

T

ra

=

1

2

−→

ω

_

η

−→

ρ ×(

−→

ω ×

−→

ρ ) dV

=

1

2

−→

ω

−→

H

C

Angular momenum of a rigid body :

Le dV be small volume element of a rigid body having density η.

Each element of the rigid body is having translation and relation.

We can assume that the rigid body is having instantaneous axis of

rotation.

The typical volume element dV can be chosen so small.

28

Its rotational K.E is negligible compared with its translational K.E

each element of rigid body can be considered as particle of inﬁnite

decimal mass.

The angular momentum of a systme of particle

−→

H =

−→

r

C

× m

·

−→

r

C

+

N

i=1

−→

ρ

i

×m

·

−→

ρ

C

.

In the case of rigid body

−→

H =

−→

r

C

×m

·

−→

r

C

+

_

V

η

_

−→

ρ ×

·

−→

ρ

_

dV

But

·

−→

ρ =

−→

ω ×

−→

ρ , where

−→

ω is the angular velocity of the rigid body.

∴

−→

ρ ×

·

−→

ρ =

−→

ρ ×(

−→

ω ×

−→

ρ ) =

−→

ρ

2−→

ω −(

−→

ρ ·

−→

ω )

−→

ρ

Let us consider a cartesian system with its origin at the centre of mass.

−→

ρ

i

= x

−→

i + y

−→

j + z

−→

k ,

−→

ω = ω

x

−→

i + ω

y

−→

j + ω

z

−→

k

ρ

2

ω· ( ω)ρ =

_

x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

_

ω

x

−(xω

x

+ yω

y

+ zω

z

)

−→

x

I

=

_

y

2

+ z

2

_

ω

x

−(xyω

y

+ xzω

z

)

−→

i

=

_

_

y

2

+ z

2

_

ω

x

−(xyω

y

+ xzω

z

)

_

i

I

xx

=

_

V

_

y

2

+ z

2

_

ηdV

I

yy

=

_

V

_

z

2

+ x

2

_

ηdV

I

zz

=

_

V

_

x

2

+ y

2

_

ηdV

I

xy

= I

yx

= −

_

V

(xy) ηdV

I

yz

= I

zy

= −

_

V

(yz) ηdV

I

zx

= I

xz

= −

_

V

(zx) ηdV

29

∴

_

V

η

_

−→

ρ ×

··

−→

ρ

_

dV

=

_

V

η

_

−→

ρ

2−→

ω −(

−→

ρ ·

−→

ω )

−→

ρ dV

¸

=

_

V

_

__

ηy

2

+ z

2

_

ω

x

−ηxyω

y

−ηxzω

z

¸

−→

i

+

_

η

_

z

2

+ x

2

_

ω

y

−ηyzω

x

−ηyxω

x

¸

−→

j

+

_

η

_

x

2

+ y

2

_

ω

x

−ηzxω

y

−ηzyω

y

¸

−→

k

_

dV

= I

xx

ω

x

−→

i + I

yy

ω

y

−→

j + I

zz

ω

z

−→

k + I

xy

ω

y

−→

i

+I

yz

ω

z

−→

j + I

zx

ω

x

−→

k + I

xz

ω

z

−→

i + I

yx

ω

x

−→

j + I

zy

ω

y

−→

k

−→

H

C

= (I

xx

ω

x

+ I

xz

ω

z

+ I

xy

ω

y

)

−→

i + (I

yy

ω

y

+ I

yz

ω

z

+ I

yx

ω

x

)

−→

j

+(I

zz

ω

z

+ I

zx

ω

x

+ I

zy

ω

y

)

−→

k

−→

H

C

= I

−→

ω where I =

_

_

_

_

I

xx

I

xy

I

xz

I

yx

I

yy

I

yz

I

zx

I

zy

I

zz

_

_

_

_

∴

−→

H =

−→

r

C

×m

·

−→

r

C

+

−→

H

C

where

−→

H

C

= I

−→

ω .

Problem:

Prove that T

rot

=

1

2

−→

ω ·

−→

H

C

.

Proof:

The rotational K.E of a rigid body M given by

T =

1

2

_

V

η

·

−→

ρ dV (1)

η is the density of the rigid body,

−→

ρ is the position of the rigid

body is the position vector of elementary volume dv with respect to

centre of mass.

Let

−→

ω be the angular velocity of the body. Let

−→

r

C

be the position

30

vector of centre of mass w.r. to origin ‘O’. Then

−→

H =

_

−→

r

C

×m

·

−→

r

C

_

+

−→

H

C

where

−→

H

C

=

_

V

η (

−→

ρ ×(

−→

ω ×

−→

ρ )) dV (2)

But

·

−→

ρ

2

=

·

−→

ρ

·

·

−→

ρ =

·

−→

ρ · (

−→

ω ×

−→

ρ )

= (

−→

ω ×

−→

ρ ) ·

·

−→

ρ

=

−→

ω ·

_

−→

ρ ×

·

−→

ρ

_

=

−→

ω ·

_

−→

ρ ×

_

·

−→

ρ ×

−→

ω

__

T

rot

=

1

2

_

V

·

−→

ρ

2

ηdV

=

1

2

_

V

η

−→

ω [

−→

ρ ×(

−→

ω ×

−→

ρ )] dV

=

1

2

−→

ω ·

−→

H

C

( using (2))

Angular momentum with respect to an arbitrary point :

Let P be arbitrary point,

−→

r

P

is the position vector of P w.r. to O,

m

i

is the position of the i

th

particle with position vector

−→

r

i

, c.m. is

the centre of mass of the system,

−→

ρ

i

is the position vector of the i

th

particle w.r. to ‘P’.

Angular momentum of the i

th

particle w.r.to p = ρ

i

m

i

·

−→

ρ

i

.

Angular moment of the system about the position P is

−→

H

P

=

N

i=1

−→

ρ

i

×m

i

·

−→

ρ

i

−→

ρ

i

=

−→

r

i

−

−→

r

P

31

But

−→

r

P

=

−→

r

C

−

−→

ρ

C

−→

ρ

i

=

−→

r

i

−

_

−→

r

C

−

−→

ρ

C

_

=

−→

r

i

−

−→

r

C

+

−→

ρ

C

·

−→

ρ

i

=

·

−→

r

i

−

·

−→

r

C

+

·

−→

ρ

C

−→

H

P

=

N

i=1

_

−→

r

i

−

−→

r

C

+

−→

ρ

C

_

×m

i

_

·

−→

r

i

−

·

−→

r

C

+

·

−→

ρ

C

_

=

N

i=1

m

i

_

−→

r

i

×

·

−→

r

i

−

−→

r

i

×

·

−→

r

C

+

−→

r

i

×

·

−→

ρ

C

−

−→

r

C

×

·

−→

r

i

+

−→

r

C

×

·

−→

r

C

−

−→

r

C

×

·

−→

ρ

C

+

−→

ρ

C

×

·

−→

r

i

−

−→

ρ

C

×

·

−→

r

C

+

−→

ρ

C

×

·

−→

ρ

C

_

AM of the system about the arbitrary point

=

N

i=1

−→

r

i

×m

i

·

−→

r

i

−

N

i=1

m

i

−→

r

i

×

·

−→

r

C

+

N

i=1

m

i

−→

r

i

×

.

−→

ρ

C

−

−→

r

C

×

N

i=1

m

i

·

−→

r

i

+

−→

r

C

×m

·

−→

r

C

−

−→

r

C

×m

·

−→

ρ

C

+

−→

ρ

C

×

N

i=1

m

i

·

−→

ρ

i

−

−→

ρ

C

×m

·

−→

r

C

+

−→

ρ

C

×m

·

−→

ρ

C

But

−→

r

C

=

N

i=1

m

i

−→

r

i

N

i=1

m

i

⇒

N

i=1

m

i

−→

r

C

=

N

i=1

m

i

−→

r

i

·

−→

r

C

=

N

i=1

m

i

·

−→

r

i

32

AM of the system about the arbitrary point

−→

H

P

=

−→

H · m

−→

r

C

×

·

−→

r

C

+ m

−→

r

C

×

·

−→

ρ

C

−

−→

r

C

×m

·

−→

r

C

+

−→

r

C

×m

·

−→

r

C

−

−→

r

C

×m

·

−→

ρ

C

+

−→

ρ

C

×m

·

−→

r

C

−

−→

ρ

C

×m

·

−→

r

C

+

·

−→

ρ

C

×m

·

−→

ρ

C

=

−→

H −

−→

r

C

×m

·

−→

r

C

+

−→

ρ

C

×m

·

−→

ρ

C

=

N

i=1

−→

r

i

×m

i

·

−→

r

i

−

−→

r

C

×m

·

−→

r

C

+

−→

ρ

C

×m

·

−→

ρ

C

1. Considering the K.E of a system of N particles show with usual

notation that

T =

1

2

m

·

−→

r

2

C

+

1

2

N

i=1

m

i

·

−→

ρ

2

i

2. Prove with usual notation that

T

rot

=

1

2

−→

ω

−→

H

C

3. Obtain the expression for the rational K.E. (Rigid body on sys-

tem of particle)

Generalized Momentum :

Consider a system with n - generalized co-ordinates q

1

, q

2

, · · · , q

n

.

Let T be K.E of the system. V is the potential energy of the

system. Let us deﬁned the Lagrangian function L

_

q,

·

q, t

_

as follows

L = T −V .

The generalized momentum p

i

associated with q

i

is deﬁned as

p

i

=

∂L

∂

·

q

i

=

∂T

∂

·

q

i

_

∵

_

∂V

∂

·

q

i

_

= 0

_

.

Note : i) L is almost a function of quadratic in q

′

s. Hence p

i

is a

linear function of q

′

s. If V = V (q, t), then

∂L

∂q

i

=

∂T

∂q

i

−

∂V

∂q

i

.

ii) Consider a particle of mass in with cortesian co-ordinates (x, y, z).

33

The K.E of the particle is given by

T =

1

2

m

_

·

x

2

+

·

y

2

+

·

z

2

_

p

x

=

∂T

∂

·

x

=

1

2

m2

·

x = m

·

x

Similarly p

y

= m

·

y and

p

z

= m

·

z

p

x

is the x component of the linear momentum. If the position of the

particle is given by spherical polar co-ordinates (r, θ, φ) ,then

T =

1

2

m

_

·

r

2

+ r

2

·

θ

2

+ r

2

·

φ

2

sin

2

θ

_

p

r

=

∂T

∂

·

r

=

1

2

m2

·

r = m

·

r

p

θ

=

∂T

∂

·

θ

=

1

2

mr

2

2

·

θ = mr

2

·

θ

p

φ

=

∂T

∂

·

φ

=

1

2

mr

2

2

·

φsin

2

θ = mr

2

sin

2

θ

·

φ

p

r

is called linerar momentum component radial direction.

p

θ

is called horizandal component of hte angular momentum.

p

φ

is called vertical component of angular momentum.

1. Three particles are conneeted by 2 rigid rods having a joint be-

tween them to form a system verticla force F and a momentum

M are applied as shown in ﬁgure. The conﬁguration of the sys-

tem is given by the ordinary co-ordinates (x

1

, x

2

, x

3

) or by the

generalized co-ordinates (q

1

, q

2

, q

3

) where x

1

= q

1

+q

2

+

1

2

q

3

; x

2

=

q

1

−q

3

; x

3

= q

1

−q

2

+

1

2

q

3.

Find the expression for K.E and gen-

eralized momentum.

Solution :

Let T be the K.E. of the system.

∴ T =

1

2

m

_

·

x

2

1

+

·

x

2

2

+

·

x

2

3

_

34

x

1

= q

1

+ q

2

+

1

2

q

3

x

2

= q

1

−q

3

x

3

= q

1

−q

2

+

1

2

q

3

·

x

1

=

·

q

1

+

·

q

2

+

1

2

·

q

3

·

x

2

=

·

q

1

−

·

q

2

·

x

3

=

·

q

1

−

·

q

2

+

1

2

·

q

3

∴ T =

1

2

m

_

3

·

q

2

1

+ 2

·

q

2

2

+

3

2

·

q

2

3

_

p

1

=

∂T

∂

·

q

1

=

1

2

m3

_

2

·

q

1

_

= 3m

·

q

1

p

2

=

∂T

∂

·

q

2

=

1

2

m4

·

q

2

= 2m

·

q

2

p

3

=

∂T

∂

·

q

3

=

1

2

m

3

2

2

·

q

3

=

3m

2

·

q

3

p

1

, p

2

, p

3

are called the generalized moment equal are inertial co-eﬃceient.

2 Three particles are connected by two rigid rods having a joint

between them to form the system shown in the ﬁgure. A virtual

force F and momentum m are applied to the system as shown the

conﬁguration of the system is given by the ordinary co-ordinates

(x

1

, x

2

, x

3

) or by the gneralized co-ordinates (q

1

, q

2

, q

3

), where

x

1

= q

1

+ q

2

+

1

2

q

3

; x

2

= q

1

− q

3

; x

3

= q

1

− q

2

+

1

2

q

3.

Find the

generalized force Q

1

, Q

2

, Q

3

l l

m

m

m

M

3

4

l

2

x

3

x

1

x

Solution :

Assume small motions the applied force on the systemF

1

=

3F

4

, F

2

=

F

4

−

m

ℓ

, F

3

=

m

ℓ

.

35

Let Q

1

, Q

2

, Q

3

be the corresponding generalized forces on the sys-

tem.

Q

i

=

3N

j=1

F

j

∂x

j

∂q

i

⇒

3N

j=1

F

j

∂x

j

∂q

i

Q

1

= F

1

∂x

1

∂q

1

+ F

2

∂x

2

∂q

1

+ F

2

∂x

3

∂q

1

=

3F

4

(1) +

_

F

4

−

m

ℓ

_

+

m

ℓ

=

3F

4

+

F

4

= F

Q

2

= F

1

∂x

1

∂q

2

+ F

2

∂x

2

∂q

2

+ F

2

∂x

3

∂q

2

=

3F

4

(1) +

_

F

4

−

m

ℓ

_

(0) +

m

ℓ

(−1)

=

3F

4

−

m

ℓ

Q

1

= F

1

∂x

1

∂q

1

+ F

2

∂x

2

∂q

1

+ F

2

∂x

3

∂q

1

=

3F

4

_

1

2

_

+

_

F

4

−

m

ℓ

_

(−1) +

m

ℓ

_

1

2

_

=

3F

8

−

F

4

+

m

ℓ

+

m

2ℓ

=

F

8

+

3m

2ℓ

Thus Q

1

= F, Q

2

=

3F

4

−

m

ℓ

and Q

3

=

F

8

+

3m

2ℓ

.

Energy of momentum conservative systems :

Let (x, y, z) be the position of a particle. Let

−→

F be the total force

acting on the partical with components

F

x

= −

∂V

∂x

, F

y

= −

∂V

∂y

, F

z

= −

∂V

∂τ

where V (x, y, z) is the potential energy function depending on position

only. In this case F is called conservative force.

Book work : Prove that for any constervative force

_

−→

F ×d

−→

r = 0

Proof : Let

−→

F be the conservative force acting on the particele at

36

(x, y, z). Let V (x, y, z) be the potential energy of the particle.

F

x

= −

∂V

∂x

, F

y

= −

∂V

∂y

, F

z

= −

∂V

∂y

Workdone =

_

F

x

−→

i + F

y

−→

j + F

z

−→

k

_

· d

_

x

−→

i + y

−→

j + z

−→

k

_

W =

_

Fdr

dW =

−→

F · dr = F

x

dx + F

y

dy + F

z

dz

=

_

−

∂V

∂x

_

dx +

_

−

∂V

∂y

_

dy +

_

−

∂V

∂z

_

dz

= −

_

∂V

∂x

dx +

∂V

∂y

dy +

∂V

∂z

dz

_

dW = −dV (x, y, z)

Thus dW is an exact diﬀerential equation

−→

F · d

−→

r = −dV

Let W be the workdone by the force

−→

F is the moving particle from

A to B.

Total workdone = W =

B

_

A

−dV = −

B

_

A

dV = −[V ]

B

A

= V

A

−V

B

∴ Workdone on the particle is depending on the initial and ﬁnal

positions.

Workdone is moving around a closed curve is

_

−→

F d

−→

r = 0

_

∵

√

A =

√

B

_

37

UNIT II

Lagrange’s Equation :

Let us consider a system of N particles whose positions relative to

an inertial frame are given by the cartesian co-ordinates x

1

, x

2

, · · · , x

3N

.

Kinetic energy of the system

T =

1

2

3N

k=1

m

k

·

x

2

k

(1)

where m

1

= m

2

= m

3

, m

4

= m

5

= m

6

is the mass of the ﬁrst particle,

second particle respectively.

Let q

1

, q

2

, · · · , q

n

be the generalized co-ordinates of the system.x

k

=

x

k

(q, t) , k = 1, 2, 3, · · · , 3N where we assume that tehse functions are

twice diﬀerentiable with respect to the q

′

s and t. We ﬁnd that

·

x

k

_

q,

·

q, t

_

=

n

i=1

∂x

k

∂q

i

·

q

i

+

∂x

k

∂t

·

x

k

=

∂x

k

∂q

1

·

q

1

+

∂x

k

∂q

2

·

q

2

+· · · +

∂x

k

∂q

n

·

q

n

+

∂x

k

∂t

·

x

k

=

n

i=1

∂x

k

∂q

i

·

q

i

+

∂x

k

∂t

Put in (1), we get

∴ T =

1

2

3N

k=1

m

k

_

n

i=1

∂x

k

∂q

i

·

q

i

+

∂x

k

∂t

_

2

=

1

2

3N

k=1

m

k

_

n

i=1

n

j=1

∂x

k

∂q

i

∂x

k

∂q

j

·

q

i

·

q

j

+ 2

n

i=1

∂x

k

∂q

i

·

q

i

∂x

k

∂t

+

_

∂x

k

∂t

_

2

_

=

1

2

n

i=1

n

j=1

_

3N

k=1

m

k

∂x

k

∂q

i

∂x

k

∂q

j

_

·

q

i

·

q

j

+

n

i=1

_

3N

k=1

m

k

∂x

k

∂q

i

∂x

k

∂t

_

·

q

i

+

1

2

3N

k=1

m

k

_

∂x

k

∂t

_

2

.

38

Let

3N

k=1

m

k

∂x

k

∂q

i

∂x

k

∂q

j

= m

ij

and

3N

k=1

m

k

∂x

k

∂q

i

∂x

k

∂t

= a

i

T =

1

2

n

i=1

n

j=1

m

ij

·

q

i

·

q

j

+

n

i=1

a

i

·

q

i

+

1

2

3N

k=1

m

k

_

∂x

k

∂t

_

2

T

_

q,

·

q, t

_

= T

2

+ T

1

+ T

0

.

where T

2

is a homogeneous quadratic in q

′

s, T

1

is homogeneous linear

function in

·

q

i

, T

0

is a function of q

′

s and t

′

s in general.

Note:

(i) T is a functin of

_

q,

·

q, t

_

.

∴ T = T

_

q,

·

q, t

_

(ii) For a sceleronomic system T

0

= 0

T

1

= 0

since

∂x

k

∂t

= 0

In this case T = T

2

.

2. Obtain Lagrange’s equatin from D’ Alembert’s principle interms

of generalized co-ordinates.

Proof :

Let us assume that the system has N particles with 3N cartesian

co-ordinates from D’ alembert’s principle, we have

3N

k=1

_

F

k

−m

k

··

x

k

_

δx

k

= 0 (1)

where F

k

is the applied force component associated with x

k

.

39

Let us assume that the system is determined by n-generalized co-

ordinates q

1

, q

2

, · · · , q

n

.

x

k

= x

k

(q, t)

x

k

= x

k

(q

1

, q

2

, · · · , q

n

, t)

δx

k

=

n

i=1

∂x

k

∂q

i

δq

i

+

∂x

k

∂t

δt

(1) ⇒

3N

k=1

_

F

k

−m

k

··

x

k

_

n

i=1

∂x

k

∂q

i

δq

i

= 0

n

i=1

3N

k=1

_

F

k

−m

k

··

x

k

_

∂x

k

∂q

i

δq

i

= 0 (2)

·

x

k

=

n

i=1

_

∂x

k

∂q

i

·

q

i

_

Diﬀerentiating w.r.to

·

q

i

∂

·

x

k

∂

·

q

i

=

∂x

k

∂q

i

(3)

d

dt

_

∂

·

x

k

∂

·

q

i

_

=

d

dt

_

∂x

k

∂q

i

_

=

∂

·

x

k

∂q

i

T =

1

2

3N

k=1

m

k

·

x

2

k

p

i

=

∂T

∂

·

q

i

=

1

2

3N

k=1

m

k

2

·

x

k

∂

·

x

k

∂q

i

=

3N

k=1

m

k

·

x

k

∂

·

x

k

∂q

i

d

dt

_

∂T

∂

·

q

i

_

=

3N

k=1

_

m

k

··

x

k

∂

·

x

k

∂q

i

+ m

k

·

x

k

d

dt

_

∂

·

x

k

∂q

i

__

40

=

3N

k=1

m

k

∂x

k

∂q

i

··

x

k

+

3N

k=1

m

k

·

x

k

∂

·

x

k

∂q

i

(4)

∂T

∂q

i

=

1

2

3N

k=1

m

k

2

·

x

k

∂

·

x

k

∂q

i

(5)

d

dt

_

∂T

∂q

i

_

−

∂T

∂q

i

=

3N

k=1

m

k

··

x

k

∂x

k

∂q

i

(6)

Let us deﬁne the generalized force Q

i

asq

Q

i

=

3N

k=1

F

k

∂x

k

∂q

i

By (2) we have

n

i=1

_

3N

k=1

F

k

∂x

k

∂q

i

−

3N

k=1

m

k

··

x

k

∂x

k

∂q

i

_

δq

i

= 0

n

i=1

_

Q

i

−

d

dt

_

∂T

∂

·

q

i

_

+

∂T

∂q

i

_

δq

i

= 0 (7)

This is the Lagrange’s form of D’ Alemberts principle interms of gen-

eralized co-ordinates.

The above discussion the system is under instantaneous constraints.

Let us assume the system be holonomic and described by n- inde-

pendet generalized co-ordinates q

1

, q

2

, · · · , q

n

.

The δq

′

i

s are independent.

Hence the co-eﬃceient of δq’s in equation (7) must be zero. q’s are

independent.

∴ co-eﬃcient of δq = 0

d

dt

_

∂T

∂

·

q

i

_

−

∂T

∂q

i

= Q

i

, i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , n.

These equations are Lagrange equations from holonomic system.

Book work : Obtain the standard form of Lagrange’s equation for a

41

holonomic system.

Proof : Let us assume that all the generalized forces are derivable form

a potential function V (q, t) as let the system is holonomic conservative.

Q

i

= −

dV

dq

i

=

d

dt

_

∂T

∂

·

q

i

_

−

∂T

∂q

i

= −

∂V

∂q

i

d

dt

_

∂T

∂

·

q

i

_

−

∂T

∂q

i

+

∂V

∂q

i

= 0

d

dt

_

∂T

∂

·

q

i

_

−

∂

∂q

i

(T −V ) = 0

Let L = T −V (Lagarangian function) T = L + V.

∂T

∂

·

q

i

=

∂L

∂

·

q

i

_

∵ L

_

q,

·

q, t

__

d

dt

_

∂T

∂

·

q

i

_

−

∂L

∂

·

q

i

= 0, i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , N.

Note :

1. The standard form of Lagrange’s equations

d

dt

_

∂T

∂

·

q

i

_

−

∂L

∂q

i

= 0, i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , N.

since p

i

=

∂L

∂

·

q

i

∴

d

dt

(P

i

) −

∂L

∂q

i

= 0

where p

i

=

∂L

∂q

i

, i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , n.

2. Let us assume the generalized forces Q

i

is not completly deriva-

42

tive from a potential function

Q

i

= −

∂V

∂q

i

+ Q

′

i

we have

d

dt

_

∂T

∂

·

q

i

_

−

∂T

∂q

i

= Q

i

d

dt

_

∂T

∂

·

q

i

_

−

∂T

∂q

i

= −

∂V

∂

·

q

i

+ Q

′

i

d

dt

_

∂T

∂

·

q

i

_

−

∂L

∂

·

q

i

+

∂T

∂q

i

= Q

′

i

Let L = T −V.

d

dt

_

∂T

∂q

i

_

−

∂L

∂

·

q

i

= Q

′

i

, i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , n.

Book work : Obtain the Lagrange’s equation for a non-holonomic

system.

Proof : Let us assume that system has ‘m’ non holonomic constraint

equation

n

i=1

a

ji

dq

i

+ a

ji

dt = 0 (j = 1, 2, 3, · · · , m) .

Let us assume a virtual displacement consistent with the con-

straints.

Now we have

n

i=1

a

ij

δq

i

= 0, j = 1, 2, 3, · · · , m (1)

The constraints are assumed to be workless. Hence we have,

n

i=1

c

i

δq

i

= 0 (2)

43

where c

i

is the generalized constraints force

Multiply equation (1) by Lagrange’s multiply λ

j

λ

j

n

i=1

a

ji

δq

i

= 0, j = 1, 2, 3, · · · , m (3)

Adding these m equations and subtracting from (2) we get

(2) −(3) ⇒

n

i=1

_

c

i

−

m

j=1

λ

j

a

ji

_

δq

i

= 0

Choose the λ

′

s arbitrary such that

c

i

=

m

j=1

λ

j

a

ji

, i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , m

of the generalized forces are not wholly derivable form a potential

function.

QQ

i

= −

∂V

∂q

i

+ Q

′

i

;

we have

d

dt

_

∂L

∂ξ

i

_

−

∂L

∂ξ

i

= Q

′

i

, i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , n

In our discussion Q

′

i

nothing but the c

i

d

dt

_

∂L

∂

·

q

i

_

−

∂L

∂q

i

=

m

j=1

λ

j

a

ji

, i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , n.

This is the standard form of Lagrange’s equation for the non-holonomic

systyem.

1. Find the diﬀerential equation of motion for a spherical pendulum

of length ℓ (using Lagrange’s equation).

Solution : Let use the spherical co-ordinates θ and φ. θ is mea-

sured from the upward vertical, φ is the angle between a vertical plane

through supporting point ‘O’ and a vertical plane containing the pen-

44

dulum.

The spherical co-ordinates are (r, θ, φ) for this problem.

r = ℓ (constant) ⇒r

′

= 0

Let T be the K.E. and V is the P.E.

T =

1

2

m

_

ℓ

2

·

θ

2

+ ℓ

2

·

φ

2

sin

2

θ

_

V = −mg (−ℓ cos θ) = mgℓ cos θ

L = T −V

=

1

2

m

_

ℓ

2

·

θ

2

+ ℓ

2

·

φ

2

sin

2

θ

_

−mgℓ cos θ

The Lagrange’s equation is given by

d

dt

_

∂L

∂

·

q

i

_

−

∂L

∂q

i

= 0. For our

problem, q

i

= ℓ, q

2

= 0, q

3

= φ, we have

d

dt

_

∂L

∂

·

θ

_

−

∂L

∂θ

= 0

d

dt

_

1

2

mℓ

2

2

·

θ

_

−

_

1

2

mℓ

2

·

φ

2

2 sin θ cos θ + mgℓ sin θ

_

= 0

mℓ

2

··

θ −mℓ

2

·

φ

2

sin θ cos θ −mgℓ sin θ = 0

Dividing by mℓ

ℓ

··

θ −ℓ

·

φ

2

sin θ cos θ −g sin θ = 0 (1)

q

f

mg

sin l q

cos l q

l

O

180 q -

45

Also

d

dt

_

∂L

∂

·

φ

_

−

∂L

∂φ

= 0

d

dt

_

1

2

mℓ

2

2

·

φsin

2

θ

_

−0 = 0

d

dt

_

mℓ

2

·

φsin

2

θ

_

= 0

Diﬀerentiating w.r.to t

mℓ

2

sin

2

θ

··

φ + 2m

·

φℓ

2

sin θ cos θ

·

θ = 0

Dividing by mℓ

cos h l q =

cos

h

l

q =

g

h

m

sin

2

θ

··

φ + 2 sin θ cos θ

·

φ

·

θ = 0 (2)

sin θ

··

φ + 2 cos θ

·

φ

·

θ = 0

we have

∂L

∂φ

= 0

d

dt

_

∂L

∂

·

φ

_

= 0

46

∴

∂L

∂φ

= p

φ

= constant

i.e., mℓ

2

sin

2

θ.

·

φ = p

φ

= constant

where p

φ

is the angular momentum above a vertical axis ﬂow the sup-

porting point.

Inertial Co-eﬃceient :

The co-eﬃcient of the q is the expression for the generalized mo-

ments are known an inertial co-eﬃceient.

In the Book work 2, 3n, 2m,

3m

2

are inertial co-eﬃceient.

2 A doubel pendulum consists of particles supported by mass less

rods assuming that all motions take place in a vertical plane.

Find the diﬀerential equation of the motion linearise these equa-

tions assuming small motions.

Solution :

Let T be the K.E of the system and V is the potential energy of

the system.

Let L = T −V. Let V be the velocity of the particle.

V = The velocity of upper particle + velocity of the lower particle.

l

f

&

l

f

&

l

q

&

l

f q -

f q -

q

O

q

m

B

T =

1

2

mv

2

1

+

1

2

mv

2

2

v

1

= ℓ

·

θ

v

2

=

_

ℓ

2

·

φ

2

+ ℓ

2

·

θ

2

+ 2ℓ

·

φℓ

·

θ cos (φ −θ)

T =

1

2

mℓ

2

·

θ

2

+

1

2

m

_

ℓ

2

·

φ

2

+ ℓ

2

·

θ

2

+ 2ℓ

·

φℓ

·

θ cos θ

_

47

=

1

2

mℓ

2

_

2

·

θ

2

+

·

φ

2

+ 2

·

φ

·

θ cos (φ −θ)

_

V = −mg [ℓ cos θ + ℓ cos φ + ℓ cos θ]

= −mg (2 cos θℓ + ℓ cos φ)

L = T −V

=

1

2

mℓ

2

_

2

·

θ

2

+

·

φ

2

+ 2

·

φ

·

θ cos (φ −θ)

_

+ mg (2 cos θ + ℓ cos φ)

l cosq l

B

A

C

std level

cosf l

cosq l

( )

1

p mg

f

f

mg

∴The equation

d

dt

_

∂L

∂

·

θ

_

−

∂L

∂θ

= 0

d

dt

_

1

2

mℓ

2

2.2

·

θ +

1

2

mℓ

2

.2

·

φcos (φ −θ)

_

−

1

2

mℓ

2

2

·

θ

·

φ{−sin θ (φ −θ) (−1)} + (−2mgℓ sin θ) = 0

48

l

O

q

f

g

l

m

mℓ

2

d

dt

_

2

·

θ +

·

φcos (φ −θ)

_

−mℓ

2

·

θ

·

φsin (φ −θ) + 2mgℓ sin θ = 0

mℓ

2

_

2

··

θ +

··

φcos (φ −θ) +

·

φ(−sin (φ −θ))

_

·

φ −

·

θ

_

−mℓ

2

·

θ

·

φsin (φ −θ) + 2mgℓ sin θ

_

= 0

mℓ

2

_

2

··

θ +

··

φcos (φ −θ) −

·

φ

2

sin (φ −θ)

_

+ 2mgℓ sin θ = 0 (1)

Now the equation

d

dt

_

∂L

∂

˙

φ

_

−

∂L

∂φ

= 0

d

dt

_

1

2

mℓ

2

_

2

˙

φ + 2

´

θ cos (φ −θ)

_

−

1

2

mℓ

2

2

˙

θ

˙

φ(−sin (φ −θ)) −mgℓ sin φ

_

= 0

mℓ

2

d

dt

_

˙

φ +

˙

θ cos (φ −θ)

_

+ mℓ

2

˙

θ

˙

φsin

_

˙

φ −

˙

θ

_

+ mgℓ sin φ = 0

mℓ

2

_

¨

φ +

¨

θ cos (φ −θ) +

˙

θ

2

sin (φ −θ)

_

+ mgℓ sin φ = 0 (2)

49

(1) and (2) are the diﬀerential equation of motion linearise the

equation. Let us assume the system having small oscillations (θ, φ)

are small.

∴ sin θ = θ, sin φ = φ

cos (φ −θ) = 1, sin (φ −θ) = φ −θ

Neglecting higher order terms equation (1) becomes

mℓ

2

_

2

¨

θ +

¨

φ

_

+ 2mgℓθ = 0

and equation (2) becomes

mℓ

2

_

¨

θ +

¨

φ

_

+ mgℓφ = 0

3 A block of mass m

2

can slide on another block of mass m

1

which

in turn, slides on a horizontal surface, as shown in the ﬁgure.

Using x

1

and x

2

as co-ordinates, obtain the diﬀerential equations

of motion. Solve for the accelerations of the two blocks as they

move under the inﬂuence of gravity, assuming that all surfaces

are frictionless. Find the fore of interaction between the blocks.

Solution : Let x

1

be the displacement of m

1

, let x

2

be the dis-

placement of m

2

relative to m

1

. Let v

1

be the velocity of m

1

and v

2

be the velocity of m

2

relative to m

1

.

T =

1

2

m

1

v

2

1

+

1

2

m

2

v

2

2

v

1

= ˙ x

1

v

2

=

_

˙ x

2

1

+ ˙ x

2

2

−2 ˙ x

1

˙ x

2

cos 45

0

=

_

˙ x

2

1

+ ˙ x

2

2

−

√

2 ˙ x

1

˙ x

2

∴ T =

1

2

m

1

˙ x

2

1

+

1

2

m

2

_

˙ x

1

+ ˙ x

2

−

√

2 ˙ x

1

˙ x

2

_

.

50

2

m

2

x

1

x

0

45

Let V be the P.E. of the system

V −m

2

gx

2

sin 45

0

= −

1

√

2

m

2

gx

2

∴ L = T −V

=

1

2

m

1

˙ x

2

1

+

1

2

m

2

_

˙ x

2

1

+ ˙ x

2

2

−

√

2 ˙ x

1

˙ x

2

_

+

1

√

2

m

2

gx

2

x

1

− Lagrange’s equation is

d

dt

_

∂L

∂ ˙ x

1

_

−

_

∂L

∂x

1

_

= 0

d

dt

_

1

2

m

1

2 ˙ x

1

+

1

2

m

2

2 ˙ x

1

_

−

1

√

2

m

2

¨ x

2

= 0

m

1

¨ x

1

+ m

2

¨ x

1

−

1

√

2

m

2

¨ x

2

= 0

(m

1

+ m

2

) ¨ x

1

−

1

√

2

m

2

¨ x

2

= 0 (1)

[width=6cm]m12

x

2

− Lagrange’s equation is

d

dt

_

∂L

∂ ˙ x

2

_

−

_

∂L

∂x

2

_

= 0

d

dt

_

1

2

m

1

2 ˙ x

2

−

1

√

2

m

2

˙ x

1

_

−

1

√

2

m

2

g = 0

m

2

¨ x

2

−

1

√

2

m

2

¨ x

1

=

1

√

2

m

2

g (2)

51

(1) + (2)

1

√

2

m

2

¨ x

2

−

1

√

2

m

2

¨ x

1

=

1

√

2

m

2

g

(1) ⇒(m

1

+ m

2

) ¨ x

1

=

1

√

2

_

1

√

2

m

2

¨ x

1

+ m

2

g

_

_

m

1

+ m

2

−

m

2

2

_

¨ x

1

=

1

√

2

m

2

g

√

2

¨ x

1

=

m

2

g

2m

1

+ m

2

(1) ⇒ (m

1

+ m

2

)

m

2

g

2m

1

+ m

2

=

1

√

2

m

2

¨ x

2

¨ x

2

=

√

2

(m

1

+ m

2

) g

2m

1

+ m

2

4 A particle of mass m can side without friction on the inside of a

small tube which is bent in the form of a circle of radius r, the

tube rotates about a vertical diameter with a constant angular

velocity ω, as shown in ﬁgure write the diﬀerential equation of

motion.

Solution :

Let ‘O’ be the centre of the tube and r be the radius of the tube.

Let T be the K.E of the particle of mass m,V is the P.E. of the

particle.

T =

1

2

m

_

r

2

˙

θ

2

+ r

2

ω

2

sin

2

θ

_

=

1

2

mr

2

_

˙

θ

2

+ ω

2

sin

2

θ

_

V = mgh = mgr cos θ

L = T −V

=

1

2

mr

2

_

˙

θ

2

+ ω

2

sin

2

θ

_

−mgr cos θ, r is constant

52

The Lagrange’s equation is

d

dt

_

∂L

∂

˙

θ

_

−

∂L

∂θ

= 0

d

dt

_

1

2

mr

2

2

¨

θ

_

−

_

1

2

mr

2

ω

2

2 sin θ cos θ + mgr sin θ

_

= 0

d

dt

_

mr

2

¨

θ

_

−

_

1

2

mr

2

ω

2

2 sin θ cos θ + mgr sin θ

_

= 0

mr

2

¨

θ −mrω

2

sin θ cos θ −mgr sin θ = 0

5 Mass spring system : A particle of mass m is connected by a

massless spring of stiﬀness K and unstressed length r

0

to a point

P which is moving along a circubr path of radius a at a uniform

angular rate ω. Assuming that the particle moves without friction

on a horizontal plane, ﬁnd the diﬀerential equations of motion.

Solution :

Resolving ˙ r and ˙ r

˙

θ along aω and r

˙

θ .

In this probem, we have dealing with a single particle of mass ‘m’.

Let O taken as origin of refeence length ℓ.

r

P

is the position vector of the point P w.r.to the point O.

·

ρ is the velocity of the particle w.r.to P.

Let T be the K.E. of the particle, V is the P.E of th+e particle.

T =

1

2

m

·

r

·

r

P

+

1

2

m

·

ρ

2

+

·

r

P

m

·

ρ

O

·

ρ

O

is the position vector of the system w.r.to ρ.

In the above case, ρ

C

= ρ

T =

1

2

m

·

r

·

r

P

+

1

2

m

·

ρ

2

+

·

r

P

m

·

ρ

C

·

r

P

= aω

·

ρ

2

= ˙ r

2

+ r

2

˙

θ

2

·

r

P

m

·

ρ = maω

_

˙ r sin (θ −ωt) + r

˙

θ cos (θ −ωt)

_

53

T =

1

2

ma

2

ω

2

+

1

2

m

_

˙ r

2

+ r

2

˙

θ

2

_

+maω

_

˙ r sin (θ −ωt) + r

˙

θ cos (θ −ωt)

_

V =

1

2

K (r −r

0

)

2

L = T −V

=

1

2

ma

2

ω

2

+

1

2

m

_

˙ r

2

+ r

2

˙

θ

2

_

+maω

_

˙ r sin (θ −ωt) + r

˙

θ cos (θ −ωt)

_

−

1

2

K (r −r

0

)

2

The Lagrange’s r equation is

d

dt

_

∂L

∂ ˙ r

_

−

∂L

∂r

= 0

d

dt

_

1

2

m2 ˙ r + maω sin (θ −ωt)

_

−

_

1

2

m2r

˙

θ

2

+ maω

_

˙

θ cos (θ −ωt)

_

−

1

2

K2 (r −r

0

)

_

= 0

m¨ r + maω cos (θ −ωt)

_

˙

θ −ω

_

−mr

˙

θ

2

−

maω

˙

θ cos (θ −ωt) + K (r −r

0

) = 0

m¨ r −maω

2

cos (θ −ωt) −mr

˙

θ

2

+ K (r −r

0

) = 0

The Lagrange’s θ equation is given by

d

dt

_

∂L

∂

˙

θ

_

−

∂L

∂θ

= 0

d

dt

_

1

2

m2r

2

˙

θ + maω cos (θ −ωt)

_

−

maω ˙ r cos (θ −ωt)

_

−maωr

˙

θ sin (θ −ωt)

_

= 0

mr

2

¨

θ + 2m˙ r

˙

θ + maω ˙ r cos (θ −ωt) −

maωr

˙

θ sin (θ −ωt) + maωr

2

sin (θ −ωt) −

maω ˙ r cos (θ −ωt) + maω ˙ r sin (θ −ωt) = 0

m¨ r + 2m˙ r

˙

θ + maω

2

r cos (θ −ωt) = 0

54

Knife edge problem :

Example of a non-holonomic rheonomic system.

Two particles are connected by a rigid massless rod of length ℓ

which rotates in a horizontal plane with a constant angular vlocity

ω. Knife - edge supports at the two particles prevent either particle

from having a velocity component along the rod, but the particles can

slide without friction in a direction perpendicular to the rod. Find the

diﬀerential equations of motion. Solve for x, y and the constraint force

as functions of time if the center of mass is initially at the origin and

has a velocity v

0

in the positive y direction.

Solution :

Let (x, y) be the co-ordinates of the CM at time the system has

translational and rotational K.E

Velocity component along the rod = 0

∴ ( ˙ x

1

+ ˙ x

2

) cos ωt + ( ˙ y

1

+ ˙ y

2

) sin ωt = 0 (1)

T =

1

2

m

_

˙ x

2

1

+ ˙ y

2

1

_

+

1

2

m

_

˙ x

2

2

+ ˙ y

2

2

_

=

1

2

m

_

˙ x

2

1

+ ˙ x

2

2

+ ˙ y

2

1

+ ˙ y

2

2

_

=

1

2

m

_

2 ˙ x

2

+ 2 ˙ y

2

+ ℓ

2

ω

2

2

_

= m

_

˙ x

2

+ ˙ y

2

_

+ +mℓ

2

ω

2

4

∴ V = 0

Lagrange’s equation of for non-haolonomic system is

d

dt

_

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

_

−

∂L

∂q

i

=

m

i=1

λ

j

a

ij

= λ

1

a

11

.

The velocity of centre of mass exsited only in a direction perpen-

dicular to the rod. Hence it has no velocity along the rod.

55

x

1

= x −

ℓ

2

cos ωt

y

1

= y −

ℓ

2

sin ωt

x

2

= x +

ℓ

2

cos ωt

y

2

= y +

ℓ

2

sin ωt

˙ x

1

= ˙ x +

ℓω

2

sin ωt

˙ y

1

= ˙ y −

ℓω

2

cos ωt

_

¸

_

¸

_

(2)

˙ x

2

= ˙ x −

ℓω

2

sin ωt

y

2

= ˙ y +

ℓω

2

cos ωt

From (1) and (2)

˙ x cos ωt + ˙ y sin ωt = 0

˙ x cos ωt + ˙ y cos

_

90

0

−ωt

_

= 0

˙ x cos ωt + ˙ y sin ωt = 0 (A)

_

˙ x +

ℓω

2

sin ωt + ˙ x −

ℓω

2

sin ωt

_

cos ωt +

sin ωt

_

˙ y −

ℓω

2

cos ωt + ˙ y +

ℓω

2

cos ωt

_

= 0

2 ˙ x cos ωt + 2 ˙ y sin ωt = 0

cos ωtdx + sin ωtdy = 0

n

i=1

a

ji

dq

i

+ a

jt

dt = 0

a

11

˙ x + a

12

˙ y = 0, ˙ q

1

= ˙ x

1

, ˙ q

2

= ˙ y

2

56

a

11

= cos ωt

a

12

= sin ωt

_

n

i=1

a

ji

a

ij

= 1

d

dt

_

∂L

∂ ˙ x

_

−

∂L

∂x

= λa

11

L = T −V

= m

_

˙ x

2

+ ˙ y

2

_

+

m

4

ℓ

2

ω

2

∂L

∂ ˙ x

= 2m˙ x

∴

d

dt

(2m˙ x) −0 =

n

i=1

λ

j

a

ji

= λ

1

cos ωt

2m¨ x = λ

1

cos ωt (B)

d

dt

_

∂L

∂ ˙ y

_

−

∂L

∂y

= λa

12

d

dt

(2m˙ y) = λ

1

a

12

2m¨ y = λ

1

sin ωt (C)

(C)

(B)

⇒tan ωt =

¨ y

¨ x

˙ xcos ωt + ˙ y sin ωt = 0

−

˙ x

˙ y

= tan ωt

¨ y

¨ x

= −

˙ x

˙ y

2¨ x ˙ x + 2¨ y ˙ y = 0

2 ˙ xd ( ˙ x) + 2 ˙ yd ( ˙ y) = 0

d

dt

_

˙ x

2

+ ˙ y

2

_

= 0

d

dt

_

2 ˙ x

2

+ 2 ˙ y

2

_

= 0

2 ˙ x

2

+ 2 ˙ y

2

= constant

57

Initially ˙ x = 0, ˙ y = 0,

0 + v

2

0

= 0,

˙ x

2

+ ˙ y

2

= v

2

0

˙ xcos ωt + ˙ y sin ωt = 0

Hence the centre of mass moves with constant velocity, satisfying those

equation, we have

˙ x = −v

0

sin ωt

˙ y = v

0

cos ωt

dx

dt

= −v

0

sin ωt

dx = −v

0

sin ωtdt

_

dx = −

_

v

0

sin ωtdt

x =

v

0

ω

cos ωt + C

1

x = 0, t = 0

0 =

v

0

ω

+ C

1

C

1

= −

v

0

ω

x =

v

0

ω

cos ωt −

v

0

ω

=

v

0

ω

(cos ωt −1)

y

0

= 0; t = 0

C

2

= 0

∴ y =

v

0

ω

sin ωt

Eliminating t by ω, x and y we have circular path. The generalized

58

forces are

C

i

=

m

i=1

λ

j

a

ji

, j = 1, 2, 3, · · · , m

C

1

= λ

1

a

11

C

1

= cos ωt

2m¨ x

cos ωt

_

∵ λ

1

=

2m¨ x

cos ωt

_

˙ x = −v

0

sin ωt

¨ x = −v

0

ω cos ωt

∴ C

1

= −2m(v

0

cos ωt)

C

2

= λ

2

a

12

=

2m¨ y

cos ωt

sin ωt

=

−2mv

0

sin ωt cos ωt

cos ωt

= −2mv

0

sin ωt

Note:

In the above case,

x =

v

0

ω

(cos ωt −1)

x +

v

0

ω

=

v

0

ω

cos ωt

_

x +

v

0

ω

_

2

= y +

v

2

0

ω

2

Hence the system moves in a circular path with radius v

0

/ω.

2.3 Integrals of the motion:

Ignorable co-ordinates:

Let the holnomic system be described by n standard Lagrange’s

equation

d

dt

_

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

_

−

∂L

∂q

i

= 0, i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , n

Let (q, ˙ q, t) containing all ˙ q

1

, ˙ q

2

, · · · , ˙ q

n

, but some of the q

′

s, say q

1

, q

2

, · · · , q

n

are missing from the Lagrangian. These k− co-ordinaties are called ig-

norable co-ordinates. Since

∂L

∂q

i

is zero for each ignorable co-ordinate,

59

it follows that

d

dt

_

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

_

= 0, (i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , k) ,

or

p

i

=

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

= β

i

, i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , k

where the β

′

s are constants evaluated from the initial conditions. Hence

we ﬁnd that the generalized momentum corresponding to each ignor-

able co-ordinate is constant, that is, it is an integral of the motion.

Example :

Let us consider the Kepler’s problem, that is, the problem of the

motion of a particle of unit mass which is attracted by an inverse square

gravitational force to a ﬁxed point O. Using polar co-ordinates, the

kinetic and potential evergies are

T =

1

2

_

˙ r

2

+ r

2

˙

θ

2

_

V = −

µ

r

where µ is a positive constant known as the gravitational coeﬃceient.

The Lagrangian function is

L = T −V =

1

2

_

˙ r

2

+ r

2

˙

θ

2

_

+

µ

r

L is a independent co-ordinates

Lagrangian ‘r’ equation is

d

dt

_

∂L

∂ ˙ r

_

−

∂L

∂r

= 0

d

dt

( ˙ r) −

1

2

_

2r

˙

θ

2

_

+

µ

r

2

= 0

¨ r −r

˙

θ

2

+

µ

r

2

= 0. (1)

Since θ does not appear explicity in the Lagrangian function, it is an

60

ignorable co-ordinate. The θ equation of motion is

d

dt

_

r

2

˙

θ

_

= 0

or

∂L

∂

˙

θ

= constant

1

2

r

2

2

˙

θ = β ⇒

˙

θ =

β

r

2

r

2

=

β

˙

θ

(2)

where β is constant and is equal to the angular momentum of the

particle about the attracting centre O.

¨ r −r

β

2

r

4

+

µ

r

2

= 0 ( using (2) in (1))

¨ r −

β

r

3

+

µ

r

2

= 0

The Routhian function :

Consider a standard holonmic system with q

1

, q

2

, · · · ., q

k

are ignor-

able co-ordinates

L = L(q

k+1

, · · · , q

n

, ˙ q

1

, ˙ q

2

, · · · , ˙ q

n

, t) .

Now let us deﬁne a Routhian function

R(q

k+1

, · · · , q

n

, ˙ q

k+1

, · · · , ˙ q

n

, β

1

, β

2

, · · · , β

k

, t)

as follows,

R = L −

k

i=1

β

i

˙ q

i

where β

i

=

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

, i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , k.

Obtain the Lagrange’s equation using Routhian funcion.

Solution :

61

Consider the holonomic system with ‘n’ independent generalized

co-ordinates

q

1

, q

2

, · · · .., .q

n

. Letq

1

, q

2

, · · · .., q

k

be the ignorable co-ordinates. The

Legrangian function is

L = L(q

k+1

, · · · , q

n

, ˙ q

1

, ˙ q

2

, · · · , ˙ q

n

, t) .

Now

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

= β

i

, i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , k (1)

Now the Routhian funciton is given by

R = L −

k

i=1

β

i

˙ q

i

(2)

Subsitute the values for ˙ q

1

, ˙ q

2

, · · · , ˙ q

k

Using (1) we have

R = R(q

k+1

, · · · , q

n

, ˙ q

k+1

, · · · , ˙ q

n

, β

1

, β

2

, · · · , β

k

, t) .

Diﬀerentiating (2)

δR = δL −δ

k

i=1

β

i

˙ q

i

(3)

δL =

n

i=k+1

∂L

∂q

i

δq

i

+

k

i=1

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

δ ˙ q

i

+

n

i=k+1

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

δ ˙ q

i

+

∂L

∂t

δt

δR =

n

i=k+1

∂R

∂q

i

δq

i

+

n

i=k+1

∂R

∂ ˙ q

i

δ ˙ q

i

+

n

i=1

∂L

∂β

i

δβ

i

+

∂R

∂t

δt (4)

δ

k

i=1

β

i

˙ q

i

=

k

i=1

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

δ ˙ q

i

+

k

i=1

˙ q

i

δβ

i

62

(3)⇒

δ

_

L −

k

i=1

β

i

˙ q

i

_

=

n

i=k+1

∂L

∂q

i

δq

i

+

n

i=k+1

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

δ ˙ q

i

−

k

i=1

˙ q

i

δβ

i

+

∂L

∂t

δt (5)

From (4) and (5)

The corresponding coeﬃcients must be equal.

∂L

∂q

i

=

∂R

∂q

i

, i = k + 1, k + 2, k + 3, · · · , n

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

=

∂R

∂ ˙ q

i

, i = k + 1, k + 2, k + 3, · · · , n

_

¸

_

¸

_

(6)

and

˙ q

i

= −

∂R

∂β

i

, i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , k

∂L

∂t

=

∂R

∂t

.

Now let us substitute from equation (6) in to Lagrangian equations

and obtain

d

dt

_

∂R

∂ ˙ q

i

_

−

∂R

∂q

i

= 0, i = k + 1, k + 2, k + 3, · · · , n

∂R

∂β

i

= −˙ q

i

, i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , k

Illustrate Kepler’s problem using Routhian method.

Solution :

Let us assume that the particle has unit mass. Let (r, θ) be the

polar co-ordinates of the particle.

Let T be the kinetic energy of the particle. V is the potential evegy

of the particle.

T =

1

2

_

˙ r

2

+ r

2

˙

θ

2

_

V = −

µ

r

L = T −V

63

=

1

2

_

˙ r

2

+ r

2

˙

θ

2

_

+

µ

r

∂L

∂θ

= 0

∴ θ is ignorable solution

∂L

∂

˙

θ

= β ⇒r

2

˙

θ = β

Now the Routhian function is given by

R = L −β

˙

θ

=

1

2

_

˙ r

2

+ r

2

˙

θ

2

_

+

µ

r

−β

˙

θ

=

1

2

˙ r

2

+

1

2

r

2

β

2

r

4

+

µ

r

−

β

2

r

2

=

1

2

˙ r

2

+

µ

r

−

1

2

β

2

r

2

Routhian equation is given by

d

dt

_

∂R

∂ ˙ q

i

_

−

_

∂R

∂ ˙ q

i

_

= 0

d

dt

_

∂R

∂ ˙ r

_

−

_

∂R

∂ ˙ r

_

= 0 (1)

Here there are two co-ordinates (r, θ)

∂L

∂

˙

θ

= β ( constant)

∴The Routhian equation is only at r

d

dt

( ˙ r) −

_

_

−

µ

r

2

_

−

1

2

β

2

_

−2r

−3

_

_

= 0

¨ r +

µ

r

−

β

2

r

3

= 0

or

¨ r −

β

2

r

3

+

µ

r

= 0

64

Conservative system :

Write down the 3 condition deﬁning a conservative system

and show that these conditions are suﬃceient to ensure the

existence of an energy integral or Jacobi integral.

Proof :

1. The standard form of Lagrange’s equation (holonoic or nonholo-

nomic) applies.

2. The Legrangian function L is not an explicit function of time.

3. Any constraint equatins can be expressed in the diﬀerential form

n

i=1

a

ji

dq

i

= 0, j = 1, 2, 3, · · · , m

ie, all the coeﬃcients are equal to zero.

Consider the standard nonholonomic form of Lagrange’s equation

d

dt

_

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

_

−

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

=

n

i=1

λ

j

a

ji

, i = 1, 2, · · · , n (1)

where L(q, ˙ q) is not an explicit function of time.

Now let us consider the total derivative

α

jt

=

∂φ

∂t

dL

dt

=

n

i=1

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

¨ q +

n

i=1

∂L

∂q

i

˙ q

i

(2)

(1) ⇒

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

=

d

dt

_

∂L

∂q

i

_

−

m

j=1

λ

j

a

ji

(2) ⇒

dL

dt

=

n

i=1

_

d

dt

_

∂L

∂q

i

_

−

m

j=1

λ

j

a

ji

_

˙ q

i

+

n

i=1

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

¨ q

i

65

=

n

i=1

_

d

dt

_

∂L

∂q

i

_

˙ q

i

+

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

¨ q

i

_

−

n

i=1

m

j=1

λ

j

a

ji

˙ q

i

=

d

dt

_

n

i=1

_

∂L

∂q

i

_

˙ q

i

_

−

m

j=1

_

n

i=1

a

ji

˙ q

i

_

λ

j

dL

dt

=

d

dt

_

n

i=1

_

∂L

∂q

i

_

˙ q

i

_

−0

d

dt

_

L −

n

i=1

_

∂L

∂q

i

_

˙ q

i

_

= 0

d

dt

_

n

i=1

_

∂L

∂q

i

_

˙ q

i

−L

_

= 0

Integrating w.r.to t

n

i=1

_

∂L

∂q

i

_

˙ q

i

−L = h( constant)

∴ h =

n

i=1

_

∂L

∂q

i

_

˙ q

i

−L

L =

n

i=1

_

∂L

∂q

i

_

˙ q

i

−h

h = T

2

−T

0

+ V

=

n

i=1

_

∂L

∂q

i

_

˙ q

i

−L

This integral is called Jacobi integral or energy integral. This en-

ergy integral exists for all conservative system.

Book work :

Deﬁne a natural system. Prove that for a conservative

system, Jacobi integral is not equal to the total evergy.

Proof :

For every conservative system

h = T

2

−T

0

+ V

66

For the conservative system energy integral

h =

n

i=1

_

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

_

˙ q

i

−L (1)

L = T −V

= T

2

+ T

1

+ T

0

−V

We know that

T

2

=

1

2

n

i=1

m

j=1

m

ji

˙ q

i

˙ q

j

T

1

=

n

i=1

a

i

˙ q

i

T

0

=

1

2

3N

k=1

m

k

_

∂x

k

∂t

_

2

∴

n

i=1

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

˙ q

i

=

n

i=1

∂T

∂ ˙ q

i

˙ q

i

=

n

i=1

_

∂T

2

∂ ˙ q

i

+

∂T

1

∂ ˙ q

i

+

∂T

0

∂ ˙ q

i

_

q

i

= 2T

2

+ T

1

+ 0

(1) ⇒h = 2T

2

+ T

1

−T

1

−(T −V )

= 2T

2

+ T

1

−T

2

−T

0

+ V

= T

2

−T

0

+ V = T

′

+ V

′

∴ The energy T

′

+ V

′

is constant for any conservative system but

it is not equal to total energy.

Natual system :

A natual system is a consevative system.

Proof :

A system is said to be natural system if

67

(i) it is described by standard form of holonomic Lagrangian equa-

tion.

(ii) the Lagrangian function L is not an explicit function of time.

(iii) any constraint equation can be expressed in the diﬀerential form

n

i=1

a

ji

dq

i

= 0

(iv) the K.E is expressed as homogeneous quadratic functio of q’s.

To prove Jacobi integral = Total energy for the natural system.

T =

1

2

n

i=1

m

j=1

m

ij

q

i

q

j

= T

2

T

0

= 0; T

1

= 0

We know that

L = T −V, L = T

2

−V

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

=

∂T

2

∂ ˙ q

i

n

i=1

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

˙ q

i

=

n

i=1

∂T

2

∂ ˙ q

i

˙ q

i

= 2T

2

[ by the above Book work]

h =

n

i=1

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

˙ q

i

−L

= 2T

2

−(T

2

−V )

= T

2

+ V

Jacobi integral = Total evergy.

Example : 1 Suppose a mass - spring system is attached to a

frame which is translating with a uniform velocity v

0

as shown

in ﬁgure. Let ℓ

0

be the unstressed spring length and use the

elongation x as the generalized co-ordinate. Find the Jacobi

integral for the system.

68

Solution : Let m be the mass of the body. Let x be the displacement

of the body from the relating postion at time t .

0

v

k

m

0

x + l

Velocity of the body = ˙ x

Velocity of the system = v

0

+ ˙ x

The K.E of the system =

1

2

m(v

0

+ ˙ x)

2

T =

1

2

m

_

v

2

0

+ ˙ x

2

+ 2v

0

˙ x

_

T

2

=

1

2

m˙ x

2

T

1

=

1

2

mv

0

˙ x

T

0

=

1

2

mv

2

0

Let V be the potntial Energy of the system.

∴ V =

1

2

kx

2

L = T −V

=

1

2

mv

2

0

+

1

2

m˙ x

2

+ mv

0

˙ x =

1

2

kx

2

L is independent of ‘t’

Hence the system is conservative.

Jacobian integral h = T

2

−T

0

+ V

h =

∂L

∂ ˙ x

˙ x −L

= (m˙ x + mv

0

) ˙ x −

_

1

2

mv

2

0

+

1

2

m˙ x

2

+ mv

0

˙ x

2

−

1

2

kx

2

_

69

= m˙ x

2

+ mv

0

˙ x −

1

2

mv

2

0

−

1

2

m˙ x

2

−mv

0

˙ x

2

+

1

2

kx

2

=

1

2

m˙ x

2

−

1

2

mv

2

0

+

1

2

kx

2

= T

2

−T

0

+ V

Example 2 : A small tabe, bent in the form of a circle of

radius r, rotates about a vertical diameteer with a constant

angular velocity ω. A particle of mass m can slide without

friction inside the tube. At any given time, the conﬁguration

of the system is speciﬁed by the angle θ which is measured

from the upward vertical to the line connecting the center O

and the particle. Find the Jacobi integral.

Solution :

w

g

O

q

r

m

Let O be the center of the tube. The transformation equations

relating the generalized co-ordinate θ and the position (x, y, z) of the

particle.

x = r sin θ cos ωt

y = r sin θ sin ωt

z = r cos θ

70

AP

OP

= sin θ ⇒AP = r sin θ

OA

OP

= cos θ ⇒OA = r cos θ

where r is the radius of the tube.

Let T be the K.E of the particle of mass m, V is the P.E of the

particle

T =

1

2

m

_

r

2

˙

θ

2

+ r

2

ω

2

sin

2

θ

_

=

1

2

mr

2

_

˙

θ

2

+ ω

2

sin

2

θ

_

V = mgr cos θ, T

2

=

1

2

mr

2

˙

θ

2

, T

1

= 0, T

0

=

1

2

mr

2

ω

2

sin

2

θ

L = T −V =

1

2

mr

2

_

˙

θ

2

+ ω

2

sin

2

θ

_

−mgr cos θ

L is independent of t.

Hence the system is conservative Jacobi method.

h =

n

i=1

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

˙ q

i

−L

=

∂L

∂

˙

θ

˙

θ −L

=

_

mr

2

˙

θ

_

˙

θ −

_

1

2

mr

2

˙

θ

2

+

1

2

r

2

ω

2

sin

2

θ −mgℓ cos θ

_

=

1

2

mr

2

˙

θ

2

−

1

2

r

2

ω

2

sin

2

θ + mgℓ cos θ

= T

2

−T

0

+ V.

Example 3 :

Two particles, each of mass m, are connected by a rigid mass-

less rod of length ℓ. The particles are supported by knife

edges placed perpendicular of the rod. Assuming that all

moion is conﬁned to the horizontal xy plane, ﬁnd the Jacobi

integral.

Solution: Let (x

1

, y

1

), (x

2

, y

2

) be the co-ordinate of the two ends of

71

the rod at time ‘t’.

Let (x, y) be the co-ordinates of the cm and we have holonomic con-

straint

(x

1

−x

2

)

2

+ (y

1

−y

2

)

2

= ℓ

2

(1)

We know that

tan ωt =

y

2

−y

1

x

2

−x

1

y

2

−y

1

= (x

2

−x

1

) tan ωt (2)

x

1

= x −

ℓ

2

cos ωt

x

2

= x +

ℓ

2

cos ωt

y

1

= y −

ℓ

2

sin ωt

y

2

= y +

ℓ

2

sin ωt

x

1

+ x

2

= 2x

y

1

+ y

2

= 2y

Let T be the K.E. of the system. Let V be the P.E. of the system.

V = 0

T =

1

2

m

_

˙ x

2

1

+ ˙ y

2

1

_

+

1

2

m

_

˙ x

2

2

+ ˙ y

2

2

_

˙ x

1

= ˙ x +

ℓ

2

ω sin ωt

˙ x

2

= ˙ x −

ℓ

2

ω sin ωt

˙ y

1

= ˙ y −

ℓ

2

ω cos ωt

˙ y

2

= ˙ y +

λ

2

ω cos ωt

˙ x

2

1

+ ˙ x

2

2

+ ˙ y

2

1

+ ˙ y

2

2

= 2

_

˙ x

2

+ ˙ y

2

_

+

ℓ

2

2

ω cos

ω

2

= 2

_

˙ x

2

+ ˙ y

2

_

+ 2

ℓ

2

ω

2

4

72

T = m

_

˙ x

2

+ ˙ y

2

_

+

mℓ

2

ω

2

4

V

0

= 0, T

2

= m˙ x

2

+ m˙ y

2

T

0

=

mℓ

2

ω

2

4

,

h = T

2

−T

0

+ V

L = T −V = T −0 = T

L is independent of t.

cos ωt ˙ x + sin ωt ˙ y = 0

a

ji

t = 0

The system is conservative.

Jacobi integral h =

n

i=1

∂L

∂q

i

q

i

−L

=

∂L

∂ ˙ x

˙ x +

∂L

∂ ˙ y

˙ y −L

= (2m˙ x) ˙ x + (2m˙ y) ˙ y −

_

m˙ x

2

+ m˙ y

2

+

mℓ

2

ω

2

4

_

= m˙ x

2

+ m˙ y

2

−

1

4

mℓ

2

ω

2

.

These result show that the toal mass is M.I about the cente of mℓ

2

/2.

Orthogonal System :

Orthogonal system is an natural system. A natural system is said

to be orthogonal if

i) It is described by standard holonomic Lagrangian equation.

ii) The Lagrangian function L is not an explicit functio of time.

iii) The K.E contain’s only ˙ q

2

i

and no cross products in the ˙ q

′

s.

Liouville’s system :

A system is said to be Liouville’s system if

73

i) It is described by standard holomic Lagrange’s equation.

ii) The Lagrange’s function is not an explicit function of time.

iii) Any constraint equation can be expressed in the diﬀerential form

n

i=1

a

ji

dq

i

= 0, j = 1, 2, 3, · · · , m

iv) The K.E. Tand P.E. V are given by

K.E.T =

1

2

f

n

i=1

m

i

(q

i

) (q

i

)

2

where m

i

(q

i

) > 0

P.E.V =

1

f

n

i=1

v

i

(q

i

)

f =

n

i=1

f

i

(q

i

> 0)

Liouville’s system special case of orthogonal system.

Book Work : Liouville’s system special case of orthogonal system

(OR)

With usual notation show that the following system is separable (or)

Reduce the orthogonal system to quadrature. (Or)

Explain one of the Quadratic system to be orthogonal system.

T =

1

2

f

n

i=1

q

2

i

V =

1

f

n

i=1

v

i

(q

i

)

f =

n

i=1

f

i

(q

i

> 0)

Proof : Lagrange’s equation is in the form

d

dt

_

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

_

−

∂L

∂q

i

= 0

74

f = f

1

(q

1

) + f

2

(q

2

) +· · · + f

i

(q

i

) +· · · + f

n

(q

n

)

L = T −V

d

dt

_

∂ (T −V )

∂ ˙ q

i

_

−

∂ (T −V )

∂q

i

= 0

d

dt

_

∂T

∂ ˙ q

i

_

−

∂T

∂q

i

+

∂V

∂q

i

= 0

d

dt

(f ˙ q

i

) −

1

2

∂f

i

∂q

i

n

i=1

˙ q

2

i

+

_

1

f

∂v

i

∂q

i

−

1

f

2

∂f

i

∂q

i

n

i=1

v

i

(q

i

)

_

= 0

d

dt

(f ˙ q

i

) −

1

2

∂f

i

∂q

i

n

j=1

˙ q

2

j

+

1

f

∂v

i

∂q

i

−

v

f

∂f

i

∂q

i

= 0 (1)

This is a natural system.

∴ T + V = h; q

i

= q

j

1

2

f

n

j=1

˙ q

2

j

+ V = h

1

2

n

j=1

˙ q

2

j

=

h −V

f

(1) ⇒

d

dt

(f ˙ q

i

) −

h −V

f

_

∂f

i

∂q

i

_

+

1

f

_

∂v

i

∂q

i

_

−

V

f

_

∂v

i

∂q

i

_

= 0

d

dt

(f ˙ q

i

) −

h

f

_

∂f

i

∂q

i

_

+

1

f

_

∂v

i

∂q

i

_

= 0

Multiply 2f ˙ q

i

on both sides

2f ˙ q

i

d

dt

(f ˙ q

i

) −2f ˙ q

i

_

h

f

__

∂f

i

∂q

i

_

+

2f ˙ q

i

f

_

∂v

i

∂q

i

_

= 0

2f ˙ q

i

_

d

dt

(f ˙ q

i

)

_

−2hf ˙ q

i

_

∂f

i

∂q

i

_

+ 2 ˙ q

i

_

∂v

i

∂q

i

_

= 0

d

dt

_

f

2

˙ q

2

i

_

−2h

_

dq

i

dt

__

∂f

i

∂q

i

_

+ 2 ˙ q

i

_

∂v

i

∂q

i

_

= 0

d

dt

(f ˙ q

i

)

2

−2h

_

dq

i

dt

__

∂f

i

∂q

i

_

+ 2 ˙ q

i

_

∂v

i

∂q

i

_

= 0

75

d

dt

(f ˙ q

i

)

2

−2h

_

dq

i

dt

__

∂f

i

∂q

i

_

+ 2

_

∂v

i

∂q

i

__

dq

i

dt

_

= 0 (2)

d

dt

(f ˙ q

i

)

2

−2h

_

∂f

i

∂t

_

+ 2

_

∂v

i

∂t

_

= 0

d

dt

(f ˙ q

i

)

2

= 2h

_

∂f

i

∂t

_

−2

_

∂v

i

∂t

_

= 2

d

dt

(hf

i

−v

i

)

T + V =

1

2

f

n

i=1

q

2

i

+ V = h

1

2

f

n

i=1

˙ q

2

i

+ 2

n

i=1

v

i

(q

i

) = h

Multiﬂy 2f on both sides,

f

2

n

i=1

˙ q

2

i

+ 2

n

i=1

v

i

(q

i

) −2fh = 0 (3)

(2) ⇒

d

dt

_

f

2

i

˙ q

2

i

_

= 2

_

d

dt

(hf

i

−v

i

)

_

_

d

dt

_

f

2

˙ q

2

i

_

= 2

_ _

d

dt

(hf

i

−v

i

)

_

f

2

˙ q

i

= 2 (hf

i

−v

i

) + 2c

i

˙ q

2

i

=

2

f

2

(hf

i

+ c

i

−v

i

)

Let 2c

i

= f

2

˙ q

2

i

−2fh

i

+ 2v

i

.

2

n

i=1

c

i

= 0 ⇒

n

i=1

c

i

= 0 [by (3)]

Here c

′

i

s and h together comprise n - independent constant of mo-

tion.

76

˙ q

2

i

=

2

f

2

i

[(hf

i

−v

i

) + c

i

]

˙ q

i

=

_

2 [(hf

i

−v

i

) + c

i

]

f

dq

i

dt

=

_

2 [(hf

i

−v

i

) + c

i

]

f

dq

i

_

2 [(hf

i

−v

i

) + c

i

]

=

dt

f

dq

1

_

2 [(hf

1

−v

1

) + c

1

]

=

dq

2

_

2 [(hf

2

−v

2

) + c

2

]

= · · ·

· · · =

dq

n

_

2 [(hf

n

−v

n

) + c

n

]

=

dt

f

= dτ (4)

Hence required system reduced to quadratures.

Note:

Replacing dq

i

by

_

m

i

(q

i

)dq

i

T =

1

2

f

n

i=1

m

i

(q

i

) ˙ q

2

i

where m

i

(q

i

) > 0

V =

1

f

n

i=1

v

i

(q

i

)

i

; f =

n

i=1

f

i

(q

i

) > 0

A natural system of this type is Liouville’s system.

The equation (4) ⇒

dq

1

_

Q

1

(q

1

)

=

dq

2

_

Q

2

(q

2

)

= · · · =

dq

n

_

Q

n

(q

n

)

=

dt

f

= dτ

Q

i

(q

i

) =

2

m

i

(hf

i

−v

i

+ c

i

) , i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , n

f

1

dq

1

_

Q

1

(q

1

)

=

f

2

dq

2

_

Q

2

(q

2

)

= · · · =

f

n

dq

n

_

Q

n

(q

n

)

=

f · dt

f

77

f

1

dq

1

_

Q

1

(q

1

)

+

f

2

dq

2

_

Q

2

(q

2

)

+· · · +

f

n

dq

n

_

Q

n

(q

n

)

=

(f

1

+ f

2

+· · · + f

n

)

f

dt

=

f

f

dt = dt

∴ dt =

n

i=1

f

i

dq

i

_

Q

1

(q

i

)

= t + β

1

, whereβ

1

is constant.

Show that spherical pendularn problem can be solved com-

pletly by quadratures.

Solution :

T =

1

2

m

_

ℓ

2

˙

θ

2

+ ℓ

2

˙

φ

2

sin

2

θ

_

V = mgℓ cos θ

where m is the mass of the particle.

h = T + V, L = T −V

The system is conservative and natural.

h =

1

2

m

_

ℓ

2

˙

θ

2

+ ℓ

2

˙

φ

2

sin

2

θ

_

+ mgℓ cos θ

L =

1

2

m

_

ℓ

2

˙

θ

2

+ ℓ

2

˙

φ

2

sin

2

θ

_

−mgℓ cos θ

L is an independent on φ, ∴ φ is ignorable.

∂L

∂

˙

φ

= a constant = αφ

1

2

mℓ

2

2

˙

φsin

2

θ = αφ

˙

φ =

2φ

mℓ

2

sin

2

θ

(1) ⇒h =

1

2

mℓ

2

˙

θ

2

+

1

2

mℓ

2

αφ

2

sin

2

θ

m

2

ℓ

4

sin

4

θ

+ mgℓ cos θ

=

1

2

mℓ

2

˙

θ

2

+

αφ

2

2mℓ

2

sin

2

θ

+ mgℓ cos θ

78

Multiply by 2mℓ

2

sin

2

θ,

m

2

ℓ

4

sin

2

θ

˙

θ

2

+ 2φ

2

= 2mℓ

2

sin

2

θ (h −mgℓ cos θ)

˙

θ =

_

2mℓ

2

sin

2

θ (h −mgℓ cos θ) −2φ

2

mℓ

2

sin θ

˙

θ =

dθ

dt

.

This values apply dφ

θ

_

θ

0

mℓ

2

sin θ

_

2mℓ

2

sin

2

θ (h −mgℓ cos θ) −2φ

2

dθ =

t

_

t

0

dt = t −t

0

And

αφ

mℓ

2

sin

2

θ

=

˙

φ

dφ

dt

=

αφ

mℓ

2

sin

2

θ

dφ =

αφ

mℓ

2

sin

2

θ

dt

(1) ⇒

αφ

mℓ

2

sin

2

θ

dt =

mℓ

2

sin θdθ

2mℓ

2

sin

2

θ

×

αφ

mℓ

2

sin θ

(h −mgℓ cos θ) −αφ

2

=

αφdθ

sin θ

_

2mℓ

2

sin

2

θ (h −mgℓ cos θ) −αφ

2

φ

_

φ

0

dφ =

θ

_

θ

0

αφdθ

sin θ

_

2mℓ

2

sin

2

θ (h −mgℓ cos θ) −αφ

2

φ −φ

0

=

θ

_

θ

0

αφdθ

sin θ

_

2mℓ

2

sin

2

θ (h −mgℓ cos θ) −αφ

2

where φ

0

= φ(t

0

) .

Now we have obtained the required four constraints of motion

79

namely αφ, h, t

0

, φ

0

.

Discuss probem of the spherical pendulum considering it as

a Lioville’s system.

Solution : We know that

T =

1

2

m

_

ℓ

2

˙

θ

2

+ ℓ

2

˙

φ

2

sin

2

θ

_

V = mgℓ cos θ

For Lioville’s system

T =

1

2

f

_

n

i=1

m

i

(q

i

) ˙ q

2

i

_

V =

1

f

n

i=1

v

i

(q

i

)

i

1

2

(f

θ

+ f

φ

) = mθ

˙

θ

2

+ mφ

˙

φ

2

=

1

2

_

mℓ

2

˙

θ

2

+ mℓ

2

sin

2

θ

˙

φ

2

_

(f

θ

+ f

φ

) M

θ

= mℓ

2

(f

θ

+ f

φ

) M

φ

= mℓ

2

sin

2

θ

M

θ

M

φ

=

1

sin

2

θ

, M

φ

= 1, M

θ

=

1

sin

2

θ

(f

θ

+ f

φ

) v = v

1

(θ) + v (φ)

_

Mℓ

2

sin

2

θ

_

×mgℓ cos θ = v

1

(θ)

v

θ

= m

2

gℓ

3

sin

2

θ cos θ

v

1

(θ) = m

2

gℓ

3

sin

2

θ cos θ

f

θ

+ f

φ

= mℓ

2

sin

2

θ

f

θ

= mℓ

2

sin

2

θ [∵ f

φ

= 0]

We know that

φ

i

(q

i

) =

2

M

i

(hf

i

−v

i

+ c

i

) (i = 1, 2, · · · , n)

φ

θ

=

2

M

θ

(hf

θ

−v

θ

+ c

θ

)

80

=

2

M

θ

_

hmℓ

2

sin

2

θ −m

2

gℓ

3

sin

2

θ cos θ

¸

= 2 sin

2

θ

_

Mℓ

2

sin

2

θ (h −mgℓ cos θ) + c

θ

¸

φ

φ

=

2

M

φ

[hf

φ

−v

φ

+ c

θ

]

= 2 [h(0) −0 + c

φ

]

= 2c

φ

Using

f

2

φ

2

i

= 2 [hf

i

(g

i

) −v

i

(q

i

) + c

i

]

n

i=1

c

i

= 0

= 2 [hf

φ

−v

φ

+ c

φ

]

∂L

∂φ

= mℓ

2

φsin

2

θ = αφ

(f

θ

+ f

φ

)

2

˙

φ

2

= 2 [h(0) −0 + c

φ

]

mℓ

2

φsin

2

θ = 2c

φ

2c

θ

= −2c

φ

= −2φ

2

2c

φ

= −2c

θ

=

_

mℓ

2

˙

φsin

2

θ

_

2

= αφ

2

n

i=1

_

f

i

dq

i

_

φ

i

(q

i

)

= t + β

1

θ

_

θ

0

f

θ

dθ

_

φ

θ

(θ)

= t −t

0

θ

_

θ

0

mℓ

2

sin

2

θ

_

φ

θ

(θ)

dθ = t −t

0

We have

_

dq

1

_

φ

1

(q

1

)

−

_

dq

i

_

φ

j

(q

j

)

= β

j

, j = 1, 2, 3, · · · , n

81

θ

_

θ

0

dθ

_

φ

0

(θ)

=

φ

_

φ

0

dφ

_

2c

φ

_

∵ φ

φ

= 2c

φ

¸

θ

_

θ

0

α

φ

dθ

_

φ

0

(θ)

= φ −φ

0

Now we have obtained four required constraint c

θ

, c

φ

, φ

ℓ

, φ

0

.

Book work :Small Oscillations

Obtain the equation of the natural system by given a small

motion about its equilibrium position. OR

Obtain the equation of natural system in matrices form as

m¨ q + kq = 0

Proof :

Let the natural system be given by ‘n’ independent generalized co-

ordinates q

1

, q

2

, q

3

, · · · · · · ., q

n

. Let us assume all the q

′

s all measurable

from a position of equilibrium.

Consider small motion about this equilibrium position.

Let v

0

be the reference point is zero. The P.E. can be written in

the form

∴ V =

1

2

n

i=1

n

j=1

_

∂

2

v

∂q

i

∂q

j

_

0

q

i

q

j

= 0.

Neglecting terms of higher p order terms the second in the q

′

s we obtain

V =

1

2

n

i=1

n

j=1

_

∂

2

v

∂q

i

∂q

j

_

0

q

i

q

j

V =

1

2

n

i=1

n

j=1

k

ij

q

i

q

j

where k

ij

=

∂

2

v

∂q

i

∂q

j

is the stiﬀness co-eﬃcient.

V is the homogenous as quoctratic of the q

′

s for small motion near.

Small motion near a positon of equilibrium.

Let us assume the system consists N - particles with caresian Co-

82

ordinates x

1

, x

2

, · · · .., x

3N

then the K.E of the system is given by

T =

1

2

n

i=1

n

j=1

m

ij

˙ q

i

˙ q

j

where m

ij

= m

ji

=

3N

k=1

m

k

_

∂x

k

∂q

i

__

∂x

k

∂q

j

_

L = T −V

=

1

2

n

i=1

n

j=1

m

ij

˙ q

i

˙ q

j

−

1

2

n

i=1

n

j=1

k

ij

q

i

q

j

(1)

The standard Lagrange’s equation for a holomic system is

d

dt

_

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

_

−

∂L

∂q

i

= 0, i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , n

(1) ⇒

n

j=1

m

ij

¨ q

j

+

n

j=1

k

ij

q

j

= 0

m

j

¨ q

j

+ k

ij

q

j

= 0

∴ m¨ q + kq = 0

This is the equation of natural system

Memory point : i) For a spherical pendulum

L = T −V

T =

1

2

m

_

ℓ

2

˙

θ

2

+ ℓ

2

˙

φ

2

sin

2

θ

_

V = mgℓ sin θ

ii) For double pendulum

v

1

= ℓ

˙

θ, v

2

=

_

ℓ

2 ˙

θ

2

+ ℓ

2 ˙

φ

2

+ 2ℓ

˙

θ

˙

φcos (φ −θ)

T =

1

2

m

_

v

2

1

+ v

2

2

_

83

=

1

2

mℓ

2

˙

θ

2

+

1

2

m

_

ℓ

2

˙

θ

2

+ ℓ

2

˙

φ

2

+ 2ℓ

˙

θ

˙

φcos (φ −θ)

_

V = −mgℓ (2 cos θ + cos φ)

iii) For a small tube bent is

T =

1

2

m

_

r

2

˙

θ

2

+ r

2

ω

2

sin

2

θ

_

L = mgr cos θ

iv) For mass storing system

T =

1

2

m˙ r

2

ρ

2

+

1

2

m

·

ρ +

·

r

P

m

··

ρ

C

=

1

2

m

·

r

2

P

+

1

2

m

·

ρ

2

+

·

r

P

·

r

P

= aω,

·

ρ = ˙ r

2

+ r

2

˙

θ

2

·

r

P

m

··

ρ = maω

_

˙ r sin (θ −ωt) + r

˙

θ cos (θ −ωt)

_

T =

1

2

ma

2

ω

2

+

1

2

m

_

˙ r

2

+ r

2

˙

θ

2

_

+maω

_

˙ r sin (θ −ωt) + r

˙

θ cos (θ −ωt)

_

V =

1

2

k (r −r

0

)

2

v) For Kepler’s Probem

T =

1

2

_

˙ r

2

+ r

2

˙

θ

2

_

V = −

µ

r

, L = T −V

R = L −β

˙

θ

vi) Two particles each of masses m ﬁnd Jjacobi integral.

(x

1

−x

2

)

2

+ (y

1

−y

2

)

2

= ℓ

2

tan ωt =

y

2

−y

1

x

2

−x

1

(y

2

−y

1

) = (x

2

−x

1

) tan ωt

84

UNIT III

Hamilton’s Equations

Stationary Value :

To ﬁnd the stationary values of the function f = z subject to

constraints

φ

1

= x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

−4 = 0

φ

2

= xy −1 = 0

combined force F = f + λ

1

φ

1

+ λ

2

φ

2

.

Solution:

Let augmented function be

F = z + λ

1

φ

1

+ λ

2

φ

2

= z + λ

1

_

x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

−4

_

+ λ

2

(xy −1)

∂F

∂x

= 2xλ

1

+ λ

2

y = 0 (1)

∂F

∂y

= 2yλ

1

+ λ

2

x = 0 (2)

∂F

∂z

= 1 + 2zλ

1

= 0 (3)

∂F

∂λ

1

= x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

−4 = 0 (4)

∂F

∂λ

2

= xy −1 = 0 (5)

(2)

(1)

⇒

2y

2x

=

−x

−y

⇒ x

2

= y

2

⇒x = ±y ⇒y = ±x

(5) ⇒ xx −1 = 0

x

2

−1 = 0

x

2

= 1

85

x = ±1

If x = 1, y = 1 and if x = −1, y = −1

(4) ⇒x = 1, y = 1 ⇒ 1 + 1 +z

2

−4 = 0

z

2

= 2 ⇒z = ±

√

2

Here solving the equation, we have stationary at

_

1, 1,

√

2

_

,

_

1, 1, −

√

2

_

,

_

−1, −1,

√

2

_

and

_

−1, −1, −

√

2

_

.

(3) ⇒ 1 + 2zλ

1

= 0 ⇒λ

1

=

−1

2

√

2

if z =

√

2

If z = −

√

2, λ

1

=

1

2

√

2

, λ

1

= ±

1

2

√

2

(2) ⇒ 2 (1)

1

2

√

2

+ λ

2

= 0

λ

2

= −

1

√

2

, λ

2

=

1

√

2

λ

2

= ±

1

√

2

It is seen that

_

1, 1,

√

2

_

,

_

−1, −1,

√

2

_

are the constraints of maxi-

mum oints and the other two points are minimum points.

Euler Lagrage equation or stationary values a deﬁnite inte-

gral.

Solution : Suppose we wish to ﬁnd the stationary of

I =

x

1

_

x

0

f [y (x) , y

′

(x) , x] dx

where y

′

(x) =

dy

dx

and the limits are ﬁxed.

Let us assume that derivatives f (y, y

′

, x) has two continuous deriva-

tives in each of its arguments. We have to ﬁnd a function y

′

(x) which

86

gives a stationary value for I we’ve

y (x) = y

′

(x) + δy (x)

where δy (x) is small variation in y. But small variation

δy = αη (x)

∴ δy (x) = αη (x)

∴ y (x) = y

∗

(x) + 2η (x)

where η (x) is a arbitary function having the required smoothness and

α is an parameter which does not independent of x.

Hence for any given η (x) we can consider the varied curve y to be

function of α and x.

i.e., y (α, x) = y

∗

(x) + αη (x) .

Let us assume the variation δy = 0 at the end points

2η (x

0

) = 0 and αη (x

1

) = 0

∴ y (x

0

) , y (x

1

) are ﬁxed.

We see that the integral I is a function of α only for any given

η (x) .

I having a stationary value y

∗

(x)

δI =

_

dI

dα

_

α=0

= 0

∴ x

0

, x

1

are independent on α

y (x, α) = y

∗

(x) + αη (x)

∂y

∂α

= η (x) ;

∂y

′

∂α

= η

′

(x)

87

I =

x

_

x

0

f (y, y

′

, x) dx

dI

dx

=

x

_

x

0

_

∂f

∂y

∂y

∂α

+

∂f

∂y

′

∂y

′

∂x

_

dx = 0

x

_

x

0

∂f

∂y

η (x) dx +

x

_

x

0

∂f

∂y

′

η

′

(x) dx = 0

Since η (x

0

) = 0, η (x

1

) = 0, we have

x

_

x

0

∂f

∂y

η (x) dx +

_

η (x)

∂f

∂y

′

_

x

x

0

−

x

_

x

0

η (x)

d

dx

_

∂f

∂y

′

_

dx = 0

x

_

x

0

∂f

∂y

η (x) dx +

_

η (x)

∂f

∂y

′

_

x

x

0

−

x

_

x

0

η (x)

d

dx

_

∂f

∂y

′

_

dx = 0

x

_

x

0

∂f

∂y

η (x) dx −

x

_

x

0

η (x)

d

dx

_

∂f

∂y

′

_

dx = 0

Since η (x) is arbitary we have

∂f

∂y

−

d

dx

_

∂f

∂y

′

_

= 0

⇒

d

dx

_

∂f

∂y

′

_

−

∂f

∂y

= 0

This equation is known as Euler- Lagrage’s equation for any curve

y = y

∗

(x) which result in a stationary value of I.

Branchistochrone Probem :

It is a ﬁnd a curve y (x) between origin ‘O’ and the point (x

1

, y

1

)

such that a particle starting from rest at ‘O’ and sliding down the

curve without friction under the inﬂuence of uniform gravity ﬁeld in a

minimum time to reach the end of the curve.

88

Solution :

The vertical distance described by the particle to corresponding to

the point (x

1

, y

1

) is x with velocity.

Let P be the position of the particle at time with velocity v.

From principle of conservation of energy we obtain

mgx =

1

2

mv

2

v = ±

_

2gx

Let t be the time taken to reach the point (x

1

, y

1

) is found by noting

ﬁrst that an inﬁnitesimal path element ds is given by from O

ds = ±

_

1 + y

′2

dx

t =

s

_

0

ds

v

=

x

1

_

0

_

1 + y

′2

√

2gx

dx.

Let f (y, y

′

, x) =

¸

1 + y

′2

2gx

. The Euler Lagrang equation is

∂F

∂y

−

d

dx

_

∂F

∂y

′

_

= 0 (1)

∂F

∂y

= 0

0 −

d

dx

_

∂F

∂y

′

_

= 0

∂F

∂y

′

= C where C is constant

∂F

∂y

′

=

∂

∂y

′

_

_

¸

1 + y

′2

2gx

_

_

= C

89

⇒

1

2

¸

1 + y

′2

2gx

·

2y

′

2gx

= C

y

′

√

2gx

_

1 + y

′2

= C

y

′2

= C

2

_

2gx

_

1 + y

′2

_¸

= 2C

2

gx + 2gxC

2

y

′2

=

_

1 −2gxC

2

−2gxC

2

_

y

′2

−2gxC

2

y

′2

= 2C

2

gx ⇒y

′2

_

1 −2gxC

2

_

= 2C

2

gx

y

′2

=

2C

2

gx

(1 −2gxC

2

)

y

′

=

¸

2C

2

gx

(1 −2gxC

2

)

Let x = a (1 −cos θ) where a =

1

4gC

2

.

y

′

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

2gC

2

·

1

4gC

2

(1 −cos θ)

1 −2gC

2

1

4gC

2

(1 −cos θ)

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

1

2

(1 −cos θ)

1 −

1

2

(1 −cos θ)

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

1

2

(1 −cos θ)

1 −2gC

2

1

4gC

2

(1 −cos θ)

_

1 −cos θ

2 −cos θ

=

_

1 −cos θ

1 + cos θ

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

2 sin

2

θ

2

2 cos

2

θ

2

dy

dx

=

sin

θ

2

cos

θ

2

⇒dy =

sin

θ

2

cos

θ

2

dx

dy =

sin

θ

2

cos

θ

2

a sin θdθ

90

=

sin

θ

2

cos

θ

2

a2 sin

θ

2

cos

θ

2

dθ

= 2a sin

2

θ

2

dθ

_

dy =

_

2a sin

2

θ

2

dθ = a

_

(1 −cos θ) dθ

y = −a (θ −sin θ) + c

At x = ˙ y = 0, θ = 0 ⇒c = 0.

Path is y = a(θ − sin θ), x = a (1 −cos θ) which is cycloid. The

constant ‘a’ is choosen δt the poth always through the point (x

1

, y

1

).

By comparing other paths through ‘O’ and (x

1

, y

1

) we can prove only

the cycloid path has minimum time.

Note:

y

′2

−1 −y

′2

√

α −y

_

1 + y

′2

= c

−1

√

α −y

_

1 + y

′2

= c

−

_

1 + y

′2

√

α −y =

1

c

Taking square on both sides

_

1 + y

′2

_

(α −y) =

1

c

2

= c

1

y

′2

=

c

1

α −y

−1 =

c

1

−α + y

α −y

y

′

= ±

_

c

1

−α + y

α −y

take y

′

= −

_

c

1

−α + y

α −y

dy

dx

= −

_

c

1

−α + y

α −y

√

α −y

√

c

1

−α + y

dy = dx (1)

91

Take α −y = c

1

sin

2

θ

2

, dy = −c

1

2 sin

θ

2

cos

θ

2

d

θ

2

Geodesic Problem :

Deﬁnition :

The Problem of ﬁnding the shortest path between two points in a

given space is called geoclesic.

The shortest path between two points is given space is the path

which forms a greaest circle which is the geodesic.

To prove this let us consider the equation of the problem.

Find the geodesic for the spherical surface.

(or)

Find the path of minimum length between two given points on the

two dimensional surface of a sphere of radius ‘r’

Let the spherical co-ordinate, (θ, φ) of the point of spherical surface.

Proof:

Let us use the spherical co-ordinate (θ, φ) as variable since r is a

constant.

We know that

x = r sin θ cos φ

y = r sin θ sin φ

z = r cos θ

The diﬀerential elements of length ds is given by

ds

2

= r

2

dθ

2

+ r

2

sin

2

θdφ

2

= r

2

dθ

2

_

1 + sin

2

_

dφ

dθ

_

2

_

ds = r

¸

1 + sin

2

_

dφ

dθ

_

2

dθ

s = r

θ

′

_

θ

0

_

1 + φ

2

1

sin

2

θdθ where φ

′

=

dφ

dθ

.

92

Let f (φ, φ

′

, θ) =

_

1 + φ

′2

sin

2

θ.We want to ﬁnd the shortest dis-

tance of the path P and Q.

∴we have to ﬁnd the stationary value of Euler - Lagrangian equa-

tion is

∂f

∂y

−

d

dx

_

∂f

∂y

′

_

= 0.

But here f is a function of (φ, φ

′

, θ) .

The new Euler’s Lagrangian equation for thus problem is

∂f

∂φ

−

d

dθ

_

∂f

∂φ

′

_

= 0.

But f =

_

1 +φ

′2

sin

2

θ.

∴

∂F

∂φ

= 0,

∂f

∂φ

′

=

1

2

_

1 +φ

′2

sin

2

θ

2φ

′

sin

2

θ

∴ Using (1) Euler’s Lagrangian equation

d

dθ

_

∂f

∂φ

′

_

= 0

∂f

∂φ

′

= c

∂F

∂φ

′

=

φ

′

sin

2

θ

_

1 + φ

′2

sin

2

θ

= c

φ

′

sin

2

θ = c

_

1 + φ

′2

sin

2

θ

Squaring and rearranging we get

sin

4

θφ

′2

= c

2

_

1 + φ

′2

sin

2

θ

_

sin

2

θφ

′2

_

sin

2

θ −c

2

_

= c

2

φ

′2

=

c

2

sin

2

θ

_

sin

2

θ −c

2

_

φ

′

=

c

sin θ

_

sin

2

θ −c

2

φ =

_

c

sin θ

_

sin

2

θ −c

2

dθ

93

=

_

c

sin

2

θ

_

1 −

c

2

sin

2

θ

dθ

φ =

_

c

sin

2

θ

√

1 −c

2

cosec

2

θ

dθ

=

_

c cosec

2

θ

√

1 −c

2

cosec

2

θ

dθ

= c

_

cosec

2

θ

_

1 −c

2

(1 + cot

2

θ)

dθ

= −c

_

d (cot θ)

√

1 −c

2

−c

2

cot

2

θ

= −c

_

d (cot θ)

c

¸

_

1 −c

2

c

2

_

−cot

2

θ

φ = cos

−1

_

_

_

_

_

_

cot θ

¸

_

1 −c

2

c

2

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

+ φ

0

= cos

−1

_

_

_

_

_

_

cot θ

¸

_

1 −c

2

c

2

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

= cos

−1

_

c cot θ

√

1 −c

2

_

cos (φ −φ

0

) =

c

√

1 −c

2

cot θ

=

c cot θ

√

1 −c

2

cos φcos φ

0

−sin φsin φ

0

=

c

√

1 −c

2

cos θ

sin θ

Multiply by r sin θ,

r sin θ cos φcos φ

0

+ r sin θ sin φsin φ

0

=

c

√

1 −c

2

cos θ

sin θ

r sin θ

=

c

√

1 −c

2

r cos θ

94

The above equation becomes

xcos φ

0

+ y sin φ

0

=

c

√

1 −c

2

z

Then the equation of the form ax + by + cz = 0 . This represents

the plane through the origin. This plane intersects the sphere along a

great circle which is geodesic.

Here φ

0

and c are two constants which are adjustable such that the

greats circle will pass through P and Q.

General Euler’s Lagrangian equation :

Let

I =

x

1

_

x

0

f (y

1

, y

2

, · · · , y

n

, y

′

1

, y

′

2

, · · · , y

′

n

, x) .

We have found a necessary condition for a stationary value of I.x

0

, r

are ﬁxed limits.

State and prove Hamilton’s principle :

Variational principle or integration principle[Integrated form

of D’Alemberts principle]

Statement :

The actual path in conﬁguration space followed by a holonomic

dynomical system during the ﬁxed interval t

0

to t

1

is such that the

integral I =

t

1

_

t

0

Ldt is the stationary value with respect to path vari-

ation which vanish at the end points δI = 0. Here L is a function

L(q, q

′

, t) .q is a n dimensional point q

1

, q

2

, · · · , q

n

.

Proof :

Let r

1

, r

2

, · · · , r

N

be the position vectors of the N particles.

By the form of D’ Alembert’s principle

r

N

i=1

_

F

i

−m

i

··

r

i

_

δr

i

= 0

95

where

F

i

is the applied force acting on the i

th

particle.

N

i=1

F

i

δr

i

−

N

i=1

m

i

··

r

i

δr

i

= 0 (1)

Virtual work of A.F.workdone = δW =

N

i=1

F

i

δr

i

.

Now variation in K.E.

δT = δ

_

1

2

N

i=1

m

i

·

r

i

_

=

1

2

N

i=1

m

i

2

·

r

i

δ

·

r

i

δT =

N

i=1

m

i

·

r

i

δ

·

r

i

(2)

But

d

dt

_

N

i=1

m

i

·

r

i

δr

i

_

=

N

i=1

m

i

··

r

i

δr

i

+

N

i=1

m

i

·

r

i

δ

·

r

i

(3)

where

d

dt

(δr

i

) = δ

·

r

i

= δW + δT

From (2) and (1)

d

dt

_

N

i=1

m

i

·

r

i

δr

i

_

=

N

i=1

m

i

··

r

i

δr

i

+

N

i=1

m

i

δ

·

r

i

·

r

i

= δT +

N

i=1

F

i

δr

i

⇒δT + δW =

d

dt

_

N

i=1

m

i

·

r

i

δr

i

_

(∵ equation (3))

⇒(δT + δW) dt = d

_

N

i=1

m

i

·

r

i

δr

i

_

96

t

1

_

t

0

(δT + δW) dt =

t

1

_

t

0

d

_

N

i=1

m

i

·

r

i

δr

i

_

=

_

N

i=1

m

i

·

r

i

δr

i

_

t

1

t

0

= 0

Now let us assume that the conﬁguration of the system is ﬁxed at the

time t

0

to t

1

implying the variation δr

i

are zero at these times.

⇒

N

i=1

_

m

i

·

r

i

δr

i

_

t

1

t

0

= 0

⇒

t

1

_

t

0

(δT + δW) dt = 0 (4)

For a given virtual displacement and a time the value of δT and

δW are independent of these Co-ordinates system.

This case of generalized forces equation (4) can be written in the

form

t

1

_

t

0

_

δT +

N

i=1

Q

i

δq

i

_

dt = 0 (5)

Version of Hamilton’s principle :

Let us assume all the applied forces and derivable from a potentaial

function V (q, t) .

∴ δW = −δV

(4) ⇒

t

1

_

t

0

(δT + δW) dt =

t

1

_

t

0

(δT −δV ) dt = 0

=

t

1

_

t

0

δ (T −V ) dt = 0

=

t

1

_

t

0

δLdt = 0

97

= δ

t

1

_

t

0

δLdt

δI = 0 ⇒δ

t

1

_

t

0

Ldt = 0 is Hamilton’s principle.

Hamilton principle and lagrangian equation are equiva-

lent.

(Or)

Derive the lagrangian equation from Hamilton principle.

Solution :

By Hamilton’s principle

δI = 0

where I =

t

1

_

t

0

L(q, ˙ q, t) dt.

Hence L(q, ˙ q, t) corresponds to f(y, ˙ y, x). Assuming δq

′

s are inde-

pendent and using Euler Lagrangian equation takes the form

∂L

∂q

i

−

d

dt

_

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

_

= 0

d

dt

_

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

_

−

∂L

∂q

i

= 0 for all i = 1 to n.

Hamilton’s equation or Hamilton’s cononical equation of

motion :

Consider a holonomic system which can be described by the stan-

dard form by of lagrangian equation, namely.

d

dt

_

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

_

−

∂L

∂q

i

= 0 , i = 1 to n. (1)

The generalized momentum conjugate to q

i

is given by

p

i

=

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

(2)

98

(1) ⇒

d

dt

(p

i

) −

∂L

∂q

i

= 0

d

dt

(p

i

) =

∂L

∂q

i

∂L

∂q

i

= ˙ p

i

(3)

Now, let us deﬁne the Hamilton’s function H (q, p, t) for the system

as

H (q, p, t) =

n

i=1

p

i

˙ q

i

−L(q, ˙ q, t) (4)

H is an explict function of q

′

s and p

′

s and t

H (q, p, t) =

N

i=1

p

i

˙ q

i

−L(q, ˙ q, t)

δH =

n

i=1

∂H

∂q

i

δq

i

+

n

i=1

∂H

∂p

i

δp

i

+

∂H

∂t

δt

=

n

i=1

p

i

δ ˙ q

i

+

n

i=1

∂H

∂p

i

δp

i

−

n

i=1

∂L

∂q

i

δp

i

−

n

i=1

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

δ ˙ q

i

−

∂L

∂t

δt

n

i=1

∂H

∂q

i

δq

i

+

n

i=1

∂H

∂p

i

δp

i

+

∂H

∂t

δt =

n

i=1

p

i

δ ˙ q

i

+

n

i=1

˙ q

i

δp

i

−

n

i=1

˙ p

i

δq

i

−

∂L

∂t

δt

Equating co-eﬃcients on both sides

δp

i

⇒

∂H

∂p

i

= ˙ q

i

δq

i

⇒

∂H

∂q

i

= −˙ p

i

;

∂L

∂t

= −

∂H

∂t

∂H

∂p

i

= ˙ q

i

;

∂H

∂q

i

= −˙ p (5)

∂L

∂t

= −

∂H

∂t

The 2n ﬁrst order Lagrangian equations is given the set of equation

(5) is called Hamilton equationn of motion.

Hamiton’s funciton is generalized quadratic in the p’s or

99

the form of Hamiltons’s function.

Proof :

We have

∂T

∂ ˙ q

i

= p

i

=

n

j=1

m

ij

(q, t) ˙ q

j

+ a

i

(q, t)

=

n

j=1

m

ij

˙ q

j

+ a

i

n

i=1

p

i

˙ q

i

=

n

i=1

n

j=1

m

ij

q

i

q

j

+

n

i=1

q

i

˙ q

i

= 2T

2

+ T

1

We know that

H =

n

i=1

p

i

˙ q

i

−L(q, ˙ q, t)

=

n

i=1

p

i

˙ q

i

−(T −V )

= 2T

2

+ T

1

−T

1

−T

2

−T

0

+ V

= T

2

−T

0

+ V

T

2

=

1

2

n

i=1

n

j=1

m

ij

˙ q

i

˙ q

j

.

This can be put in the matrix form as follows

T

2

=

1

2

m

T

˙ q ˙ q.

But ˙ q = b (p −a) bm

−1

. Both b, m are symmetric matrix.

∴ b

T

= b, m = m

T

∴ T

2

=

1

2

b

T

(p −a)

T

bb

−1

(p −a)

=

1

2

b (p −a) (p −a)

T

100

Expanding this

T

2

=

1

2

n

i=1

n

j=1

b

ij

p

i

p

j

−

n

i=1

n

j=1

b

ij

a

i

p

i

+

1

2

n

i=1

n

j=1

b

ij

a

i

a

j

T

0

, V are function of q

′

s and t adding we have

H (q, p, t) =

1

2

n

i=1

n

j=1

b

ij

p

i

p

j

−

n

i=1

n

j=1

b

ij

a

i

p

i

+

1

2

n

i=1

n

j=1

b

ij

a

i

a

j

−T

0

+V

Grouping term by their degree

H = H

2

+ H

1

+ H

0

H

2

=

1

2

n

i=1

n

j=1

b

ij

p

i

p

j

H

1

= −

n

i=1

n

j=1

b

ij

p

j

a

i

H

0

=

1

2

n

i=1

n

j=1

b

ij

a

i

a

j

−T

0

+ V

Hence the Hamilton’s function is in general quadratic in p’s.

The Hamilton function of scleronomic system is equal to

toal energy.

Let us consider a system of cartesian co-ordinates do not certain

time t explicity.

It follows that a’s all zero and T = T

2

.

In sceleronomic system T

0

= T

1

= 0.

H

2

= T

2

∴ T

1

= T

2

and H

1

= 0; H

0

= V

i.e., H = T + V

101

∴The Hamilton’s function of sceleronomic system is equal to T.K.

∴ H (q, p, t) =

1

2

n

i=1

n

j=1

b

ij

p

i

p

j

+ V (q, t)

Non - holonomic system has a constant Hamilton’s func-

tion.

Solution :

Let us have a conservative holonomic system we have H = H (q, p, t) .

dH

dt

=

˙

H =

n

i=1

__

∂H

∂q

i

∂q

i

∂t

_

+

_

∂H

∂p

i

∂p

i

∂t

__

+

_

∂H

∂t

∂t

∂t

_

˙

H =

n

i=1

__

∂H

∂q

i

˙ q

i

_

+

_

∂H

∂p

i

˙ p

i

__

+

∂H

∂t

Using Hamilton’s canonical equation

∂H

∂p

i

= ˙ q

i

,

∂H

∂q

i

= −˙ p

i

(A)

and

∂H

∂t

= −

∂L

∂t

∴

˙

H =

n

i=1

(−˙ p

i

˙ q

i

+ ˙ p

i

˙ q

i

) −

∂L

∂t

= −

∂L

∂t

.

If the system is conservative. L does not contain t explicity.

∴

∂L

∂t

= 0 ⇒

˙

H = 0

∴ H = C ( constant)

Hence the proof.

Phase space :

Hamilton’s canonical eqn of motion consisting of a set of 2n ﬁrst

order equation giving ˙ q, ˙ p as function q’s, p’s are after considered as

components of a single vector X.

Thus the equation of motion for a standard holonomic system can

102

be written as ˙ x = X (x, t) where X is a 2n dimensional vector consist-

ing of nq’s and np’s.

Consider the q’s as x

1

, x

2

, · · · , x

n

and p’s as x

n+1

, x

n+2

, · · · , x

2n

.This

2n dimensional x space is called phase space.

Extended phase space :

In a non-holonomic conservative system, let us consider the variable

q

n+1

as choose a parameter q as the new independent variable. This

system consist of (n + 1)q’s and corresponding (n + 1)p’s.

This space is called extened phase space.

Autonomous - Non autonomous :

In a conservative system H is not explicit function of time and

conﬁguration of motion of form ˙ x = X (x) .

A holonomic system described by equation of this form is called

autonomous where as ˙ x = X (x) is called non autonomous.

Liouville’s theorem :

The phase ﬂuid incompressibel.

Proof :

Let a holonomic system be described by n independents q’s.

Let us consider a gropp of phase p’s described fraectorcies in a 2n

dimensional phase space.

Considering the moving points in a small elementry volume dV =

dq

1

, dq

2

, · · · , dq

n

; dp

1

, dp

2

, · · · , dp

n

.

Consisting the moving points of a ﬂuid being called phase ﬂuid.

The phase velocity v of a ﬂuid. Particle is given by the 2n component

( ˙ q

i

, ˙ p

i

) these can be expresed as function of q’s and p’s by canonical

equation

˙ q

i

=

∂H

∂p

i

, ˙ p

i

= −

∂H

∂q

i

As a given volume elements of the phase ﬂuid moves it will ingeneral

change in it shape. But the neighbouring particles will remain close to

each other. We can show that volume of each phase ﬂuid is constant

103

during the motion.

∇v =

n

i=1

_

∂

∂q

i

˙ q

i

+

∂

∂p

i

˙ p

i

_

=

n

i=1

_

∂

∂q

i

_

∂H

∂p

i

_

+

∂

∂p

i

_

−

∂H

∂q

i

__

=

n

i=1

_

∂

2

H

∂q

i

∂p

i

−

∂

2

H

∂p

i

∂q

i

_

= 0

∇v = 0

A geometric interpretation of this results that the phase ﬂuid is

incompressible.

Kepler’s problem :

Use the Jacobi form of the principle of least action. Obtaing the

orbit for the Kepler’s problem.

Solution :

Let a particle of mass m be attracted to a ﬁxed point O by an

inverse square force.

V = −

µm

r

, F

r

= −

µm

r

2

T =

1

2

mv

2

=

1

2

m

_

˙ r

2

+ r

2

˙

θ

2

_

h = T + V

=

1

2

m

_

˙ r

2

+ r

2

˙

θ

2

_

−

µm

r

(1)

By Jacobi form of principle of least action

δ

_

_

2 (h −v)ds = 0

⇒δ

_

_

2

_

h +

µm

r

_

ds = 0 (2)

104

we have ds

2

= m

_

dr

2

+ r

2

dθ

2

_

_

ds

dθ

_

2

= m

_

_

dr

dθ

_

2

+ r

2

_

= m

_

r

′2

+ r

2

_

ds

dθ

=

_

m(r

′2

+ r

2

)

ds =

_

m(r

′2

+ r

2

)dθ

⇒ δ

_

_

2

_

h +

µm

r

_

_

m(r

′2

+ r

2

)dθ = 0

⇒ δ

_

_

2m

_

h +

µm

r

_

(r

′2

+ r

2

)dθ = 0

where the end points this is the form of

δ

θ

_

θ

0

f (r, r

′

) dθ = 0

where f (r, r

′

) =

_

2m

_

h +

µm

r

_

(r

′2

+ r

2

).

Applying the Euler’s Lagrange’s equation for f (r, r

′

) we have

d

dθ

_

∂f

∂r

′

_

−

∂f

∂r

= 0.

The corresponding energy integral

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

˙ q

i

−L = h

∂f

∂r

′

r

′

−f = C ( constant)

f (r, r

′

) =

_

2m(r

′2

+ r

2

)

_

h +

µm

r

_

105

∂f

∂r

′

=

2m

_

h +

µm

r

_

2r

′

2

_

2m(r

′2

+ r

2

)

_

h +

µm

r

_

=

2m

_

h +

µm

r

_

r

′

_

2m(r

′2

+ r

2

)

_

h +

µm

r

_

=

¸

¸

¸

_

2m

_

h +

µm

r

_

(r

′2

+ r

2

)

r

′

r

′

∂f

∂r

′

−f = C

¸

¸

¸

_

2m

_

h +

µm

r

_

(r

′2

+ r

2

)

r

′

· r

′

−

_

2m(r

′2

+ r

2

)

_

h +

µm

r

_

= C

_

2m

_

h +

µm

r

_

_

r

′2

_

(r

′2

+ r

2

)

−

_

(r

′2

+ r

2

)

_

= C

_

2m

_

h +

µm

r

_

_

r

′2

−r

′2

−r

2

_

(r

′2

+ r

2

)

_

= C

−

_

2m

_

h +

µm

r

_

_

(r

′2

+ r

2

)

r

2

= C (3)

Now

h = T + V

=

1

2

m

_

˙ r

2

+ r

2

˙

θ

2

_

−

µm

r

m

_

˙ r

2

+ r

2

˙

θ

2

_

= 2

_

h +

µm

r

_

⇒m

2

_

˙ r

2

+ r

2

˙

θ

2

_

= 2m

_

h +

µm

r

_

(4)

˙ r =

dr

dt

=

dr

dθ

dθ

dt

106

˙ r =

dr

dt

= r

′

˙

θ

θ. =

˙ r

r

′

˙ r = r

′

˙

θ

(4) ⇒m

2

_

r

′2

˙

θ

2

+ r

2

˙

θ

2

_

= 2m

_

h +

µm

r

_

m

2

˙

θ

2

_

r

′2

+ r

2

_

= 2m

_

h +

µm

r

_

In (3) use this

−

¸

¸

¸

_

2m

_

h +

µm

r

_

(r

′2

+ r

2

)

r

2

= C

−

¸

m

2 ˙

θ

2

(r

′2

+ r

2

)

(r

′2

+ r

2

)

r

2

= C

−

_

m

2 ˙

θ

2

r

2

= C

−m

˙

θr

2

= C

˙

θ = −

C

mr

2

Angular momentum is constant

˙

θ

2

=

C

2

m

2

r

4

To ﬁnd the equation of orbit

(3) ⇒−

¸

¸

¸

_

2m

_

h +

µm

r

_

(r

′2

+ r

2

)

r

2

= C

Squaring and rearranging we get

2m

_

h +

µm

r

_

r

4

= C

2

_

r

′2

+ r

2

_

C

2

r

′2

= 2m

_

h +

µm

r

_

r

4

−C

2

r

2

107

r

′2

=

2mr

4

Cdr

2

_

h +

µm

r

_

−r

2

=

2mr

2

C

2

_

hr

2

+ µmr −

C

2

2m

_

_

dr

dθ

_

2

=

2mr

2

C

2

_

hr

2

+ µmr −

C

2

2m

_

dr

dθ

=

¸

2mr

2

C

2

_

hr

2

+ µmr −

C

2

2m

_

dr

¸

2mr

2

C

2

_

hr

2

+ µmr −

C

2

2m

_

= dθ

_

dθ =

C

√

2m

_

dr

_

hr

4

+ µmr

2

−C

2

r

2

2m

θ =

C

√

2m

r

_

r

0

dr

r

2

_

h +

µm

r

−

C

2

2m

=

r

_

r

0

d

_

µm

2

C

2

−

1

r

_

¸

µ

2

m

4

C

4

+

2mh

C

2

−

_

µm

2

C

2

−

1

r

_

θ = sin

−1

_

¸

¸

_

_

µm

2

C

2

−

1

r

_

_

µ

2

m

4

C

4

+

2mh

C

2

_

¸

¸

_

r

r

0

= sin

−1

_

¸

¸

_

_

µm

2

C

2

−

1

r

_

_

µ

2

m

4

C

4

+

2mh

C

2

−

π

2

_

¸

¸

_

sin

_

θ +

π

2

_

=

µm

2

C

2

−

1

r

_

µ

2

m

4

C

4

+

2mh

C

2

108

cos θ

_

µ

2

m

4

C

4

+

2mh

C

2

=

µm

2

C

2

−

1

r

1

r

=

µm

2

C

2

−

_

µ

2

m

4

C

4

+

2mh

C

2

cos θ

Multiplying by

C

2

µm

2

we get

C

µm

2

/r

= 1 −

¸

1 +

2hc

2

µ

2

m

3

cos θ

This is a conic with eccentricity

i.e.,

¸

1 +

2hc

2

µ

2

m

3

_

ℓ

r

= 1 + e cos θ

_

To ﬁnd h :

h =

1

2

m

_

˙ r

2

+ r

2

˙

θ

2

_

−

µm

r

At r = r

0

= r

min

, θ = θ

0

= 0

m

2

_

0 +r

2

˙

θ

2

0

_

= h +

µm

r

0

Also

mr

2

0

θ

0

−C ⇒θ

0

=

−C

mr

2

0

(1) ⇒

m

2

_

r

2

0

C

2

m

2

r

4

0

_

= h +

µm

r

0

C

2

2mr

2

0

= h +

µm

r

0

h =

C

2

2mr

2

0

−

µm

r

0

Example Given a holonomic system with Lagrangian form L =

1

2

m( ˙ x

2

1

+ ˙ x

2

2

+ ˙ x

2

3

)−

mgx

0

and a constraint ˙ x

1

− ˙ x

2

+ ˙ x

3

= 0. We argumented Lagrangian

function to obtain the diﬀerential equation of motion for ¨ x

1

.

109

Solution :

L =

1

2

m

_

˙ x

2

1

+ ˙ x

2

2

+ ˙ x

2

3

_

−mgx

0

constraint:

˙ x

1

− ˙ x

2

+ ˙ x

3

= 0

λ = L + µg

=

1

2

m

_

˙ x

2

1

+ ˙ x

2

2

+ ˙ x

2

3

_

−mgx

3

+ µ( ˙ x

1

− ˙ x

2

+ ˙ x

3

)

d

dt

_

∂λ

∂ ˙ x

1

_

−

∂λ

∂x

1

= 0

we have

d

dt

(m˙ x

1

+ µ) = 0

m¨ x

1

+

dµ

dt

= 0 (1)

d

dt

_

∂λ

∂ ˙ x

2

_

−

∂λ

∂x

2

= 0

d

dt

(m¨ x

2

−µ) = 0

m¨ x

2

−

dµ

dt

= 0 (2)

d

dt

_

∂λ

∂ ˙ x

3

_

−

∂λ

∂x

3

= 0

d

dt

(m˙ x

3

+ µ) +mg = 0

m¨ x

3

+ mg +

dµ

dt

= 0 (3)

(1), (2) and (3) are the diﬀerential equation of motion. Itreating µ

are of the we have

d

dt

_

∂λ

∂ ˙ µ

_

−

∂λ

∂µ

= 0

˙ x

1

− ˙ x

2

+ ˙ x

3

= 0 (4)

110

Adding (1) and (2), we get

¨ x

1

+ ¨ x

2

= 0 ⇒ ¨ x

1

= −¨ x

2

Adding (2) and (3) we get

¨ x

2

+ ¨ x

3

= 0 ⇒ ¨ x

2

= −¨ x

1

(*)

(∗) ⇒ ¨ x

1

− ¨ x

3

= g

¨ x

3

= −g − ¨ x

2

= −g + ¨ x

1

¨ x

1

+ ¨ x

1

+ ¨ x

1

−g = 0

3¨ x

1

= g

¨ x

1

=

g

3

(4) ⇒ ¨ x

1

+ ¨ x

3

= ¨ x

2

¨ x

3

= ¨ x

2

− ¨ x

1

= −¨ x

1

− ¨ x

1

= −2¨ x

1

= −

2g

3

Deﬁnition : Action In mechanics action is deﬁced as

A =

t

1

_

t

0

n

i=1

p

i

˙ q

i

dt.

State and prove Least action or Principle of least action

The actual path of a conservative holonomic system is such that

the action is stationary with respect to varied pathes having the same

energy integral and the same end points in a ‘q’ space.

Proof :

In this case we are considering a more general type of variation. In

111

this variation the point (q + δq, t + δt) corresponds to (q, t).

Let ‘d’ indicates diﬀerential change along individual path.

δ indicates variations in going from actual path to varied path

considering the small quadirlateral in the above ﬁgure.

˙ qdt + δq + dδq = δq + ( ˙ q + δ ˙ q) (dt + dδt)

˙ qdt + dδq = ˙ qdt + ˙ qdδt + δ ˙ qdt + δ ˙ qdδt

Dividing by dt

dδq = ˙ qdδt + δ ˙ qdδt + δ ˙ qdt

d

dt

(δq

i

) = ˙ q

i

d

dt

(δt) + δ ˙ q

i

+ δ ˙ q

i

d

dt

(δt)

Omitting δ ˙ q

i

d

dt

(δt)

d

dt

(δq

i

) = ˙ q

i

d

dt

(δt) + δ ˙ q

i

δ ˙ q

i

=

d

dt

(δq

i

) − ˙ q

i

d

dt

(δt) (1)

Let I =

t

1

_

t

0

L(q, ˙ q, t) dt.

δI = δ

t

1

_

t

0

Ldt =

t

1

_

t

0

δLdt +

t

1

_

t

0

Ld (δt)

=

t

1

_

t

0

_

n

i=1

_

∂L

∂q

i

δq

i

+

∂L

∂q

i

δ ˙ q

i

_

+

∂L

∂t

δt + L

d

dt

(δt)

_

dt

=

t

1

_

t

0

_

n

i=1

_

∂L

∂q

i

δq

i

+

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

_

d

dt

(δq

i

) − ˙ q

i

d

dt

(δt)

__

+

∂L

∂t

δt + L

d

dt

(δt)

_

dt

112

=

t

1

_

t

0

_

n

i=1

_

∂L

∂q

i

δq

i

+

_

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

d

dt

(δq

i

)

_

−

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

˙ q

i

d

dt

(δt)

_

+

∂L

∂t

δt + L

d

dt

(δt)

_

dt

Consider

d

dt

_

n

i=1

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

d

dt

(δq

i

)

_

=

n

i=1

d

dt

_

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

_

d

dt

(δq

i

)

n

i=1

_

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

_

d

dt

(δq

i

) =

d

dt

_

n

i=1

_

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

_

d

dt

(δq

i

)

_

−

n

i=1

d

dt

_

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

_

δq

i

Using this value in above equation we get,

δI =

t

1

_

t

0

_

n

i=1

∂L

∂q

i

δq

i

+

d

dt

_

n

i=1

_

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

_

δq

i

_

−

n

i=1

d

dt

_

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

_

δq

i

−

n

i=1

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

˙ q

i

d

dt

(δt) +

∂L

∂t

δt + L

d

dt

(δt)

_

dt

=

t

1

_

t

0

d

dt

_

n

i=1

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

δq

i

_

dt −

t

1

_

t

0

n

i=1

_

d

dt

_

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

_

−

∂L

∂q

i

_

δ ˙ q

i

dt

−

t

1

_

t

0

_

n

i=1

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

˙ q

i

−L

_

d

dt

(δt) dt +

t

1

_

t

0

∂L

∂t

δtdt (*)

= I

1

−I

2

−I

3

+ I

4

where

I

1

=

t

1

_

t

0

d

dt

_

n

i=1

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

δq

i

_

dt

⇒

_

n

i=1

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

δq

i

_

t

1

t

0

= 0

113

I

2

=

t

1

_

t

0

n

i=1

_

d

dt

_

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

_

−

∂L

∂q

i

_

δ ˙ q

i

dt = 0

I

4

=

t

1

_

t

0

∂L

∂t

δtdt = 0

I

3

= −

t

1

_

t

0

_

n

i=1

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

˙ q

i

−L

_

d (δt) = δI

Every varied path having the same evergy integral h.

n

i=1

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

˙ q

i

−L = h

δI = −

t

1

_

t

0

hd (δt) = −h(δt)

t

1

t

0

δI = −h(δt

1

−δt

0

) (a)

Let us deﬁne the action

A =

t

1

_

t

0

n

i=1

p

i

˙ q

i

dt

=

t

1

_

t

0

n

i=1

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

˙ q

i

dt

=

t

1

_

t

0

(L + h) dt

δA = δ

t

1

_

t

0

Ldt + δ

t

1

_

t

0

hdt

= δI +

t

1

_

t

0

δhdt +

t

1

_

t

0

hd (δt)

= δI + δh(t

1

−t

0

) +h(δt

1

−δt

0

)

= δI + δh(t

1

−t

0

) −δI using (a)

114

h is same as in the actual path and varied path δh = 0

∴ δA = 0

∴ The P.L.A. δA = δ

t

1

_

t

0

n

i=1

p

i

˙ q

i

dt = 0

Hence the theorem.

Derive Hamilton principle form of least action

Solution :

Write down upto form the above.

Let us assume that the variation be contemperaneous. In this case

δt = 0.

∴ Second integral vanished.

Let us assume all the applied force are derivable from a potential

function.

Hence the least integral vanishes.

Let us assume all the varied paths have ﬁxed end points in a q

space.

Hence the I, integral vanishes.

∴ δI = 0

This is Hamilton principle.

Obtain Jacobis form of principle of least action

Solution :

Write the bookwork Least action completely let us assume that the

system be natural.

Now

n

i=1

p

i

˙ q

i

−L = H

n

i=1

p

i

˙ q

i

= L + H

= T

2

−T

0

+ V + T −V

115

= T

2

−T

0

+ T

= T

2

−T

0

+ T

2

+ T

0

+ T

1

= 2T

2

+ T

1

[∵ T + v = h]

= 2T + 0

n

i=1

p

i

˙ q

i

= 2T

For the natural system T

2

= T, T

1

= 0, T

0

= 0.

Least action = δA = δ

t

1

_

t

0

n

i=1

p

i

˙ q

i

dt = 0

A =

t

1

_

t

0

2Tdt = 0

δA = δ

t

1

_

t

0

2Tdt = 0

Deﬁne ds as follows

ds

2

=

i

j

m

ij

˙ q

i

˙ q

j

dt

2

= 2Tdt

2

ds =

√

2Tdt

δA = δ

t

1

_

t

0

√

2T

√

2Tdt

= δ

t

1

_

t

0

√

2Tds

= δ

t

1

_

t

0

_

2 (h −v)ds = 0

This is the principle of least action in Jacobi’s theorem.

116

Problem :

Given a mass spring system consisting of a mass m and a linear

spring of stiﬀness of k as shown in gigure. Find the equation of motion

using the Hamilton’s procedure. Assume that the displacement x is

measure from the unstressed position of the spring.

Solution :

First we ﬁnd the K.E and P.E in the usual form for mass spring

system we obtain

T =

1

2

m˙ x

2

V =

1

2

x

2

k

where k is the stiﬀness.

But we know that

L = T −V =

1

2

m˙ x

2

−

1

2

x

2

k

Angular momentum P =

∂L

∂ ˙ x

=

1

2

m2 ˙ x

= m˙ x[ here x is only the co-ordinates q = x]

P = m˙ x

˙ x =

P

m

T =

1

2

m˙ x

2

=

P

2

2m

The Hamilton function is

H (x, p) = p ˙ x −L

= p (pm) −

_

1

2

m(pm)

2

−

1

2

kx

2

_

=

p

2

m

−

p

2

2m

+

1

2

kx

2

117

=

p

2

m

+

1

2

kx

2

(1)

H (q, p, t) = H (x, p)

Using Hamilton canonical equation

˙ q

i

=

∂H

∂p

; ˙ x =

∂H

∂p

=

2

2m

p =

p

m

⇒ ˙ p = −

∂H

∂x

= −

_

1

2

k · 2x

_

= −kx

Using (1)

∴ ˙ p = −kx (2)

But

p = m˙ x

˙ p = m¨ x (3)

From (2) and (3)

m¨ x = −kx

mx + kx = 0

This is equation of the mass spring system.

Kepler’s problem using Hamilton canonical function.

A particle of mass m is attached to a ﬁxed point ‘O’ by an inverse

square force that is F

r

= −

µm

r

2

where µ is the gravitational co-eﬃcient

using the plane co-ordinates (r, θ) to describe the position of the par-

ticle.

Find the equation of motion

˙ q

i

=

∂H

∂p

i

; p

i

= −

∂H

∂q

i

.

118

Solution:

T =

1

2

m

_

˙ r

2

+ r

2

˙

θ

2

_

V =

_

F

r

dr =

_

−

µm

r

2

dr

The Lagrange’s function

L = T −V

H = T + V

=

1

2

m

_

˙ r

2

+ r

2

˙

θ

2

_

−

µm

r

=

1

2

m

_

p

2

r

m

2

+ r

2

p

2

θ

m

2

r

4

_

−

µm

r

=

p

2

r

2m

+

p

2

θ

2mr

2

−

µm

r

Using the Hamilton equation we have

˙ r =

∂H

∂p

r

=

2p

r

2m

=

p

r

m

(1)

˙ p

r

= −

∂H

∂r

= −

_

1

2m

p

2

θ

(−2) r

3

+

µm

r

2

_

=

p

2

θ

mr

3

−

µm

r

2

(2)

From (1)

˙ r =

p

r

m

⇒ ¨ r =

p ˙ r

m

˙ p

θ

= −

∂H

∂θ

⇒ ¨ r −

1

m

_

p

2

θ

mr

3

_

+

1

m

_

µm

r

2

_

= 0

⇒ m¨ r −

p

2

θ

mr

3

+

µm

r

2

= 0

119

p

θ

is constant say β

⇒m¨ r −

β

2

mr

3

+

µm

r

2

= 0

p

r

= m˙ r

˙ p

r

= m¨ r (3)

From equation (1) and (2)

m¨ r =

β

2

mr

3

−

µm

r

2

m¨ r −

β

2

mr

3

+

µm

r

2

= 0

This is the equation of motion.

Problem

Using the Hamilton equation discuss the motion for a charged par-

ticle in an electro magnetic ﬁeld.

Solution :

The Lagrangian function is

T =

1

2

mv

2

V = ρ

_

¯

φ − ¯ v ·

¯

A

_

L = T −V

=

1

2

mv

2

−ρ

_

¯

φ − ¯ v ·

¯

A

_

Momentum

¯ p = m¯ v + ρ

¯

A

m¯ v = ¯ p −ρ

¯

A

¯ v =

¯ p −ρ

¯

A

m

Assume ρ is the charge our the particle Hamilton H is given by

H = ¯ p¯ v −L

120

= ¯ p¯ v −

1

2

mv

2

+ ρ

_

¯

φ − ¯ v

¯

A

_

=

_

m¯ v + ρ

¯

A

_

¯ v −

1

2

m¯ v

2

+ ρ

¯

φ −ρ¯ v

¯

A

= m¯ v

2

+ ρ

¯

A¯ v −

1

2

m¯ v

2

+ ρ

¯

φ −ρ¯ v

¯

A

=

1

2

m¯ v

2

+ ρ

¯

φ

=

1

2

m

_

p −ρA

m

_

2

+ ρ

¯

φ

=

1

2m

(p −ρA)

2

+ ρ

¯

φ

=

1

2m

_

(p

x

−ρA

x

)

2

+ (p

y

−ρA

y

)

2

+ (p

z

−ρA

z

)

2

¸

+ ρ

¯

φ

˙ x =

∂H

∂p

x

=

1

2m

[2 (p

x

−ρA

x

)]

=

1

m

(p

x

−ρA

x

)

Similarly

˙ y =

1

m

(p

y

−ρA

y

)

˙ z =

1

m

(p

z

−ρA

z

)

∴ v =

1

m

_

p −ρ

A

_

The second canonical equation

˙ x =

∂H

∂p

x

˙ p

x

= −

∂H

∂x

= −

1

2m

_

2 (p

x

−ρA

x

)

_

−ρ

∂A

x

∂x

_

+ 2 (p

y

−ρA

y

)

_

−ρ

∂A

y

∂x

_

+2 (p

z

−ρA

z

)

_

−ρ

∂A

z

∂x

__

+ ρ

∂φ

∂x

121

= −ρ

∂φ

∂x

+

ρ

m

_

(p

x

−ρA

x

)

∂A

x

∂x

+ (p

y

−ρA

y

)

∂A

y

∂x

+(p

z

−ρA

z

)

∂A

z

∂x

_

(1)

Similarly

˙ p

y

= −ρ

∂φ

∂y

+

ρ

m

_

(p

x

−ρA

x

)

∂A

x

∂y

+ (p

y

−ρA

y

)

∂A

y

∂y

+ (p

z

−ρA

z

)

∂A

z

∂y

_

˙ p

z

= −ρ

∂φ

∂z

+

ρ

m

_

(p

x

−ρA

x

)

∂A

x

∂z

+ (p

y

−ρA

y

)

∂A

y

∂z

+ (p

z

−ρA

z

)

∂A

z

∂z

_

But

∇

_

v ·

¯

A

_

= ∇[( ˙ x

i

+ ˙ y

j

+ ˙ z

k

) · (Ax

i

+ Ay

j

+ Az

k

)]

= ∇( ˙ xA

x

+ ˙ yA

y

+ ˙ zA

z

)

=

i

_

˙ x

∂

∂x

A

x

+ ˙ y

∂

∂y

A

y

+ ˙ z

∂

∂z

A

z

_

Substitute the values of ˙ x, ˙ y , ˙ z, we get

∇

_

v ·

¯

A

_

=

1

m

i

_

(p

x

−ρA

x

)

∂A

x

∂x

+ (p

y

−ρA

y

)

∂A

y

∂x

+(p

z

−ρA

z

)

∂A

z

∂x

_

=

i

_

p

˙ x

ρ

+

∂φ

∂x

_

=

_

p

˙ x

ρ

+

∂φ

∂x

_

i +

_

p

˙ y

ρ

+

∂φ

∂y

_

j +

_

p

˙ z

ρ

+

∂φ

∂z

_

k

=

˙ p

ρ

+∇φ

˙ p = ρ∇

_

v ·

A

_

−ρ∇φ

Hence the proof.

Lagender’s Transformation :

122

Derive Hamilton’s cononical equation using Legender transforma-

tion and Lagrange’s equation.

Solution : Suppose the funcion F (u

1

, u

2

, · · · , u

n

, ω

1

, ω

2

, · · · , ω

m

, t)

is associated with the given system.

Hence u’s are active variables and ω’s and t are passive variable.

Let

v

i

=

∂F

∂u

i

(i = 1, 2, · · · , n) . (1)

Let n×m Heissian determinant for the transformation be non-zero.

Then

¸

¸

¸

¸

∂

2

f

∂u

i

∂u

j

¸

¸

¸

¸

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

∂

∂u

j

_

∂F

∂u

i

_¸

¸

¸

¸

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

∂v

i

∂u

j

¸

¸

¸

¸

= 0.

Now let us deﬁne a new function G(v

1

, v

2

, · · · ., v

n

, ω

1

, ω

2

, · · · , ω

n

, t)

according to the equation

G =

n

i=1

u

i

v

i

−f (u, ω, t) . (2)

Consider a variation ∂G associated with arbitrary variation of the

active variable.So

δG =

n

i=1

∂G

∂v

i

δv

i

=

n

i=1

_

u

i

δv

i

+ v

i

δu

i

−

∂F

∂u

i

δu

i

_

or

n

i=1

∂G

∂v

i

δv

i

=

n

i=1

_

u

i

δv

i

+

_

v

i

δu

i

−

∂F

∂u

i

_

δu

i

_

where δu’s and δv’s are assumed to the arbitrary equation .

Equating the co-eﬃcient on both sides

u

i

=

∂G

∂v

i

. (3)

For a holonomic system

123

The Lagrange’s equation is

˙ p

i

=

∂L

∂q

i

, i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , n (4)

where p

i

=

∂L

∂q

i

, i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , n.

Let us choose L(q, ˙ q, t) corresponding to the function F (u, ω, t) .

Also we have

¸

¸

¸

¸

∂

2

L

∂ ˙ q

i

∂ ˙ q

j

¸

¸

¸

¸

= |m

ij

| = 0.

Since the inertia matrix is positive deﬁnite matrix.

Let G(u, ω, t) corresponding to the Hamilton’s funciton

H (p, q, t) =

n

i=1

p

i

˙ q

i

−L

where ˙ q

i

=

∂H

∂p

i

.

∴

∂G

∂v

i

= u

i

∂H

∂q

i

(q, p, t) = −

∂L

∂q

i

(q, ˙ q, t) (5)

From (4) and (5)

∂H

∂q

i

= −˙ p

i

⇒ ˙ p

i

= −

∂H

∂q

i

Problem:

Obtain Hamiton cononical eqn from modiﬁed Hamilton’s principle.

Solution :

Consider a holonomic system having n independent q’s.

By Hamilton’s principle, δI = 0 where I =

t

1

_

t

0

Ldt.

δI = δ

t

1

_

t

0

Ldt

124

we have

h = T + V, L = T −V

H =

p

i

q

i

−L

L =

p

i

˙ q

i

−H (p, q, t)

δ

t

1

_

t

0

Ldt = δ

t

1

_

t

0

_

p

i

˙ q

i

−H (p, q, t)

_

dt

0 =

t

1

_

t

0

_

n

i=1

(p

i

δ ˙ q

i

+ ˙ q

i

δp

i

) −

n

i=1

_

∂H

∂p

i

δp

i

+

∂H

∂q

i

δ ˙ q

i

−

∂H

∂t

δt

_

_

dt

125

UNIT IV

Hamilton -Jacobi theorem

Integrals of Motion :

In a holonomic system consisting of n generalized co-ordinates.

We have n second order non-linear diﬀerential equation with time as

independent variables. Any general analytic solution of this diﬀerential

equation contains one method of expression the general solution.

ie, To obtain ∂R independent funciton of the form

f

i

(q, ˙ q, t) = γ

j

, j = 1, 2, 3, · · · , 2n

We have the γ

j

’s are arbitrary constant.

These two functions are called the integral.

The value of each γ’s are depending on the initial condition. In

principle these 2n equations can be solved for the q’s as function of γ

and t.

It is possible to ﬁnd q’s and ˙ q’s as a function of γ and t.

∴It is possible to ﬁnd

q

i

= q

i

(γ

1

, γ

2

, · · · , γ

2n

, t)

˙ q

i

= ˙ q

i

(γ

1

, γ

2

, · · · , γ

2n

, t)

1. Corresponding Hamilton’s Principle function. Solve the Hamil-

ton poblem giving the motion in phase space as function of time.

Solution :

Let

I =

t

1

_

t

0

Ldt.

Consider the cononical integral which is associating with Hamil-

ton’s principle.

126

We want to evaluate this integral over actual dynamical path of a

holonomic system that obeys standard Lagrange’s equation or Hamil-

ton’s equation. If 2n independent initial conditions as speciﬁed at the

time t

0

any ﬁnal time t

1

.

Let us consider the solution of equations

q

i1

= q

i1

(q

0

, ˙ q

0

, t

0

, t

1

) , i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , n.

Let us assume Jacobian

∂ (q

11

, q

12

, · · · , q

1n

)

∂ ( ˙ q

10

, ˙ q

20

, · · · , ˙ q

n0

)

is non zero. Hence we get

˙ q

i0

= η

i

(q

0

, q

1

, t

0

, t

1

) , i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , n

We can evaluate the integral

t

1

_

t

0

Ldt as a funciton of (q

0

, ˙ q

0

, t

0

, t

1

) .

Then subsititution for ˙ q

i0

from the above equation we have

s = s (q

0

, q

1

, t

0

, t

1

) =

t

1

_

t

0

Ldt.

The function s (q

0

, q

1

, t

0

, t

1

) obtain from the canonical equation.

Required form to be obtained.

Let us assume twice diﬀerentiation in all its arguments. This is

called Hamilton’s principle function.

Let us consider a non contemporaneous system general variation

of the canonical integral with the reference in the actual solution.

We have,

H −H (q

1

, p, t)

dH

dt

=

n

i=1

_

∂H

∂q

i

dq

i

dt

+

∂H

∂p

i

dp

i

dt

_

+

∂H

∂t

dt

127

=

n

i=1

_

∂H

∂q

i

˙ q

i

+

∂H

∂p

i

˙ p

i

_

+

∂H

∂t

(1)

From Hamilton’s canonical equation we have

˙ q

i

=

∂H

∂p

i

, ˙ p

i

= −

∂H

∂q

i

, i = 1, 2, · · · , n

∂L

∂t

= −

∂H

∂t

(1) ⇒

˙

H =

∂H

∂t

= −

∂L

∂t

We know that from the principle of least action

δI =

t

1

_

t

0

n

i=1

d

dt

_

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

_

δq

i

dt +

t

1

_

t

0

∂L

∂t

δt −

__

n

i=1

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

δ ˙ q

i

−L

_

d

dt

_

dt

−

t

1

_

t

0

_

n

i=1

d

dt

_

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

_

−

∂L

∂q

i

_

δq

i

dt

=

t

1

_

t

0

n

i=1

d

dt

(p

i

δq

i

) dt +

t

1

_

t

0

_

−

∂H

∂t

δt −H

d

dt

(δt)

_

dt

=

t

1

_

t

0

n

i=1

d

dt

(p

i

δq

i

) dt −

t

1

_

t

0

d

dt

(Hδt) dt

As our assumtion δS = δI.

∴ δS =

_

n

i=1

p

i

δq

i

−Hδt

_

t

1

t

0

dS =

n

i=1

p

i

δq

i

−

t

1

_

t

0

d

dt

(Hδt) dt.

This is diﬀerence of two forces.

(By writting the above quation in diﬀerential form)

s = s (q

0

, q

1

, t

0

, t

1

)

128

ds =

n

i=1

_

∂s

∂q

i1

δq

i1

+

∂s

∂q

i0

δq

i0

_

+

∂s

∂t

1

δt

1

+

∂s

∂t

0

δt

0

(2)

The (2n+2) arguments of the principle funcitons are independent.

Hence the corresponding co-eﬃcients in (1) and (2) are equal.

p

i1

=

∂s

∂q

i1

, p

i0

= −

∂s

∂q

i0

, i = 1, 2, 3, · · · ., n

H

1

= −

∂s

∂t

1

; H

0

=

∂s

∂t

0

Now, we get p

i0

as function f (q

i0

, q

i1

, t

0

, t

1

) .

Assuning

¸

¸

¸

¸

∂

2

s

∂q

i0

∂q

j1

¸

¸

¸

¸

= 0

We can solve for each q

i1

as a funciton of the initial condition

i.e., q

i1

= q

i1

(q

0

, p

0

, t

0

, t

1

) , i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , n.

If this is substituted in p

i1

=

∂s

∂q

i1

, we have

p

i1

= p

i1

(q

0

, p

0

, t

0

, t

1

) .

This completes the solution of the Hamilton’s problem. Note :

(i)

t

1

_

t

0

Ldt is a fucntion (q

i1

, ˙ q

i1

, t

0

, t

1

) but q

i1

, ˙ q

i1

are the funciton of

q

0

, ˙ q

0

, t

0

, t

1

,

(ii) In the whole discussion ﬁrst ﬁnding the principle funcion without

knowing of solution.

Pfaﬃan Diﬀerential forms :

i) A pfaﬃan form gΩ is the m variables x

1

, x

2

, · · · , x

m

can be writ-

ten as

Ω = X

1

(x) dx

1

+· · · + X

m

(x) dx

m.

129

Let us deﬁne C

ij

=

∂X

i

∂x

j

−

∂X

j

∂x

i

ii) If the pfaﬃan form is an exact diﬀerentiation then all the ds are

zero

we have

ds =

n

i=1

p

i1

dq

i1

−

n

i=1

p

i0

dq

i0

−H

1

dt

1

−H

0

dt

0

.

The R.H.S consists of twon variables are p’s and q’s each expression

can be written as

p

1

q

1

+ p

2

q

2

+· · · + p

n

q

n

+ 0 · dp

1

+· · · + 0 · dp

n

−1 + h(q, p

t

) dt

Now, we have m = 2n + 1 (odd) .

By pfaﬃcan system these equation are of the form

n

i=1

C

ij

dx

i

= 0, j = 1, 2, 3, · · · , m.

Applying this equation to the diﬀerential equaiton,we have

dq

j

−

∂H

∂p

j

dt = 0 (1)

−dp

j

−

∂H

∂q

j

dt = 0 (2)

(1) and (2) can be written as

(1) ⇒ ˙ q

j

=

∂H

∂p

j

(2) ⇒ ˙ p

j

= −

∂H

∂q

j

, j = 1, 2, 3, · · · , n

H = H (q, p, t)

∂H

∂t

=

n

i=1

_

∂H

∂q

i

˙ q

i

+

∂H

∂p

i

˙ p

i

_

+

∂H

∂t

These are the Hamilton’s canonical equation.

130

Also using (2), we have

˙

H =

∂H

∂t

.

Now let us generalized the diﬀerential form

ds =

n

i=1

p

i1

dq

i1

−

n

i=1

p

i0

dq

i0

−H

1

dt

1

+ H

0

dt

0

.

Using the 2n parameter (γ

1

, γ

2

, · · · , γ

2n

) to specify the intial con-

dition in place the q

0

’s and p

0

’s in otherwise.

We assume a transformation

q

i0

= q

i0

(γ

11

, γ

21

, · · · , γ

2n

)

p

i0

= p

i0

(γ

11

, γ

21

, · · · , γ

2n

)

_

(3)

such that

∂ (q

10

, q

20

, · · · , q

n0

, p

10

, p

20

, · · · , p

n0

)

∂ (γ

11

, γ

21

, · · · , γ

2n

)

= 0

Then using (3) we have

n

i=1

p

i0

dq

i0

=

2n

i=1

p

i0

∂q

i0

∂γ

j

(4)

By the theorem that the 2n can be replaced by nα’s and nβ’s where

the function

α

i

= α

i

(γ

11

, γ

21

, · · · , γ

2n

)

β

i

= β

i

(γ

11

, γ

21

, · · · , γ

2n

) , i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , n.

choosen such that

n

i=1

β

i

dα

i

=

2n

i=1

Γ(γ, dγ)

131

in the same manner as (4) we have

Γ

j

(γ) =

n

i=1

β

i

∂α

i

∂γ

j

, j = 1, 2, 3, · · · , n.

It can be show that α’s are not unique

n

i=1

p

i0

dq

i0

=

n

i=1

β

j

dα

i

where α’s and β’s are another representation shows that (q

0

, p

0

) and

(α, β) are connected by a homogeneouss cannonical transformation at

a time t

0

.

Hamilton - Jacobi equation :

Consider a holonomic system giving 2n independent initial condi-

tions at time to as q

0

= p

0

.

Now we have diﬀerential equation

Assume that

ds =

n

i=1

p

i1

dq

i1

−

n

i=1

p

i0

dq

i0

−H

1

dt

1

+ H

0

dt

0

(1)

where s is the Hamilton’s principle funtion. It is associated with

cononical transformation relating the initial and ﬁnal point of a path

in a phase space.

Let the initial condition be speciﬁed by

α

i

= α

i

(q

10

, q

20

, · · · , q

n0

, p

10

, p

20

, · · · , p

n0

)

β

i

= β

i

(q

10

, q

20

, · · · , q

n0

, p

10

, p

20

, · · · , p

n0

)

which satisﬁed.

n

i=1

p

i0

dq

i0

=

n

i=1

β

i

dα

i

∴ ds =

n

i=1

p

i1

dq

i1

−

n

i=1

β

i

dα

i

−H

1

dt

1

+ H

0

dt

0

(2)

132

Now we consider s number can be associated as a function of

s = s (q

i1

, α

i

, t

1

, t

0

)

ds =

n

i=1

ds

dq

i1

dq

i1

+

n

i=1

∂s

∂α

i

dα

i

+

∂s

∂t

1

dt

1

+

∂s

∂t

0

dt

0

(3)

Hence q’s and α’s are independent equality variable.

∴ Equating the corresponding coeﬃcient in ds we have

−β

i

=

∂s

∂α

i

, i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , n.

p

i1

=

∂s

∂q

i1

, H

1

= −

∂s

∂t

1

, H

0

=

∂s

∂t

0

.

Let us assume initial time t

0

= 0 , take the ﬁnal time at t.

i.e., t

1

= t ⇒dt

1

= dt

Hence we can drop the subsorip q’s . Hence (1) becomes

ds =

n

i=1

p

i

dq

i

−

n

i=1

β

i

dα

i

−Hdt. (I)

From this we see that s is a funciton of (q, α, t)

(p is a function of q, ˙ q, r, t )

ds =

n

i=1

∂s

∂q

i

dq

i

+

n

i=1

∂s

∂α

i

dα

i

+

∂s

∂t

dt (II)

Once again assuming

¸

¸

¸

¸

∂

2

s

∂q

i

∂α

j

¸

¸

¸

¸

= 0.

∴ Equating the coeﬃcient in I and II, we have

−β

i

=

∂s

∂α

i

, i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , n (4)

p

i

=

∂s

∂q

i

, i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , n (5)

133

∂s

∂t

= −H (6)

Form (4) we can get q’s as function (α, β, t) using this in equation (5)

we can ﬁnd p as function of (α, β, t) .

Hence we have the solution for Hamilton’s rpinciple.

H is usually as a function of (q, p, t) . Using (5) and (6) we have

∂s

∂t

+ H (q, p, t) = 0

∂s

∂t

+ H

_

q,

∂s

∂q

, t

_

= 0

This is called Hamilton - Jacobi equaiton.

State and prove Jacobi theorem.

Statement :

If s (q, α, t) is any complete solution of the Hamilton Jacobi equa-

tion

∂s

∂t

+ H

_

q,

∂s

∂q

, t

_

= 0

−β

i

=

∂s

∂α

i

, i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , n (1)

p

i

=

∂s

∂q

i

, i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , n

where β’s are arbitrary constant are used to solve for q

i

(α, β, t) and

p

i

(α, β, t) .

Then these expression provide the general solution of the canonical

equation associated with Hamilton H (q, p, t) .

OR

Prove that any complete solution of the Hamilton Jacobi

equation leads to a solution of this Hamilton problem.

Proof :

∂s

∂t

+ H

_

q,

∂s

∂q

, t

_

= 0 (2)

∂s

∂q

i

= p

i

, i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , n (3)

134

which is a function of (q, α, t) . Diﬀerentiating w.r.to α

i

d

2

s

dα

i

∂t

+

n

j=1

∂H

∂p

j

∂p

j

∂α

i

= 0 (4)

where p

j

is considered as a function of (q, α, t) in (3).

[p (q, x, t) are independent to each other

ds

dq

i

= p

i

]

∂s

∂α

i

is a function of (q, α, t) and α’s and β’s are constants.

Now,

∂s

∂α

i

= −β

i

, i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , n

Taking the total time derivation of this w.r.to t

∂

2

s

∂t∂α

i

+

n

j=1

∂

2

s

∂q

j

∂α

i

˙ q

j

= 0 (5)

∂

2

s

∂t∂α

i

+

n

j=1

∂

∂q

j

_

∂q

j

∂t

__

∂s

∂α

i

_

dt = 0

(5) and (4) ⇒ Using (1),(2) and (3), we have

n

j=1

_

˙ q

j

−

∂H

∂q

j

α

i

_

∂

2

s

∂q

j

∂α

i

= 0, i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , n (6)

But

¸

¸

¸

¸

∂

2

s

∂q

i

∂α

j

¸

¸

¸

¸

= 0.

˙ q

j

=

∂H

∂p

j

, j = 1, 2, 3, · · · , n (7)

Now,

∂s

∂t

+H (q, p, t) = 0.p

i

is a function of (q, α, t), diﬀerentiating (1)

partially w.r.to q

j

, we have

∂

2

s

∂q

j

∂t

+

n

i=1

∂H

∂p

i

∂p

i

∂q

j

+

∂H

∂q

j

= 0 (8)

135

(3) ⇒p

j

=

∂s (q, α, t)

∂q

j

, j = 1, 2, 3, ..., n.

Taking the total time derivation of this equation we have to diﬀeren-

tiating w.r.to t

˙ p

j

−

∂

2

s

∂t∂q

j

−

n

i=1

∂

2

s

∂q

j

∂q

i

˙ q

i

= 0 (9)

(6) + (7) ⇒

˙ p

j

+

∂H

∂q

j

+

n

i=1

∂H

∂p

i

∂p

i

∂q

j

−

n

i=1

∂

2

s

∂q

j

∂q

i

˙ q

i

= 0

⇒ ˙ p

j

+

∂H

∂q

j

+

n

i=1

˙ q

i

∂p

i

∂q

j

−

n

i=1

∂p

i

∂q

j

˙ q

i

= 0

⇒ ˙ p

j

+

∂H

∂q

j

= 0, p

i

= −

∂s

∂q

i

, j = 1, 2, 3, ..., n

˙ p

j

= −

∂H

∂q

j

Equations (7) and (10) together give the cononical equation of Hamil-

ton. Thus any complete solution of the Hamilton Jacobi equation leads

to a solution of the Hamilton equation.

Modiﬁed Hamilton Jacobi equation :

Consider a conservative holonomic system with n independent for

this system H is not an explicit function of time t for this system

H (q, p) = α

n

= h where h is the value of the Hamilton Jacobi integral.

∂s

∂t

+ H

_

q,

∂s

∂q

, t

_

= 0

∂s

∂t

+ H (q, p) = 0

∂s

∂t

= −H = −α

n

(1)

136

∴ s can be taken as linera funciton of time t is

s (q, α, t) = −α

n

t + ω (q, α) .

Then we have omitted arbitrary additive constant.

The funciton

ω (q, α) = ω (q

1

, q

2

, ..., q

n

, α

1

, α

2

, ..., α

n

) .

does not contain time explicitly and is known as a characteristic func-

tion.

Now,

∂s

∂α

i

=

∂ω

∂α

i

, i = 1, 2, 3, ..., (n −1) (2)

∂s

∂α

n

=

∂ω

∂α

n

−t (3)

∂s

∂q

i

=

∂ω

∂q

i

, i = 1, 2, 3, ..., n (4)

Using (3) and (4), Hamilton jacobi equaiton Induces to

This is the modiﬁed Hamilton Jacobi equaiton

Note:

We have

β

i

=

∂s

∂α

i

, p

i

=

∂s

∂q

i

∂s

∂α

i

=

∂ω

∂α

i

, i = 1, 2, 3, ..., (n −1)

∂s

∂α

n

=

∂ω

∂α

n

−t

i

∂s

∂q

i

=

∂ω

∂q

i

, i = 1, 2, 3, ..., n

Comparing the equation we have

β

i

=

∂ω

∂q

i

, i = 1, 2, 3, ..., n

137

where β

n

is the intial time to t

0

.

Ignorable co-ordinates :

Consider a holonomic system described by the standard form

d

dt

_

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

_

−

∂L

∂q

i

= 0,

q

i

is said to be an ignorable co-ordinate if

∂L

∂q

i

= 0.

Also p

i

=

∂L

∂q

i

= β

i

only for the ignorable co-ordinate.

Case (i)

Consider a system with ignorable co-ordinates q

1

, q

2

, ..., q

n

.Let us

assume the system is not consecutive. We know that

p

i

= α

i

, i = 1, 2, 3, ..., k.

We can assume principle solution is of the form

s (q, α, t) =

k

i=1

α

i

q

i

+ s

′

(q

k+1

, ..., q

n

, α

1

, α

2

, ..., α

n

, t)

Hamilton Jacobi equation leads to

∂s

∂t

+ H

_

q,

∂s

∂q

, t

_

= 0

∂s

′

∂t

+ H

_

q

k+1

, ..., q

n

, α

1

, α

2

, ..., α

k

,

∂s

′

∂q

′

k+1

, ...,

∂s

′

∂q

′

n

, t

_

= 0.

The complete solution of these equation involve (n − k) non additive

constants exclusive of the known solution of this equation is obtained

form.

−β

i

= q

i

+

∂s

′

∂α

i

, i = 1, 2, 3, ..., k

p

i

= α

i

, i = 1, 2, 3, ..., k

p

i

=

∂s

′

∂q

i

, i = k + 1, k + 2, k + 3, ..., n

p

i

= −q

i0

138

−β

i

=

∂s

′

∂α

i

, i = k + 1, k + 2, k + 3, ..., n

Case (ii)

Consider a system with ignorable co-ordinate q

1

, q

2

, ..., , q

k

and con-

servative with the help of the previous result we have

s (q, α, t) =

k

i=1

α

i

q

i

−α

n

t + ω

′

(q

k+1

, ..., q

n

, α

1

, α

2

, α

n

, t)

The modiﬁed Hamilton Jacobi equation becomes

H

_

q

k+1

, ..., q

n

, α

1

, α

2

, ..., α

k

,

∂ω

′

∂q

′

k+1

, ...,

∂ω

′

∂q

′

n

_

= q

n

The complete solution for ω

′

in this case involve (n −k −1) non addi-

tive constants α

k+1

, α

k+2

, ..., α

n−1

the energy constent α

n

and constant

moments α

1

, α

2

, ..., α

k

.

The motion of the system is given by

−β

i

= q

i

+

∂ω

′

∂α

i

, i = 1, 2, 3, ..., k

−β

i

=

∂ω

′

∂α

i

, i = 1, 2, 3, ..., (k −1)

t −β

n

=

∂ω

′

∂α

n

p

i

= α

i

(i = 1, 2, 3, ..., k) ⇒p

i

=

∂ω

′

∂q

i

, (i = k + 1, k + 2, ..., n)

Ordinary Conservation of linear momentum

This follows from Newton’s second law of motion

d

dt

(mv) =

dp

dt

= F.

If the total force is zero, then

dp

dt

= 0 at the linear momentum is

conserved.

Note :

The word conservation applied in the of connectedness.

139

Conservation of angular momentum :

Angular momentum is the angular of linear momentum in the case

of relational motion.

Consider a particle at mass m and the linear momentum p at a

positin vector r relative to the origin O at an inertial frame.

Angular momentum l at the particle with respect to the origin O

is L = r ×ρ

Moment of a force about a origin is N = r ×F then F =

dp

dt

.

N = r ×F ⇒N = r ×

dp

dt

(1)

⇒ N =

d

dt

(r ×ρ

i

) −

dr

dt

×ρ

⇒ N =

d

dt

(r ×ρ) −v ×mv (2)

⇒ N =

d

dt

(r ×ρ) −0 (3)

∴ N =

d

dt

(r ×ρ) (4)

∴The second term is zero both vectors are parallel now.

N =

d

dt

(r ×ρ)

=

dL

dt

.

Thus the rate of change of angular momentum of a particle is equal

to the force acting on it is the total force N = 0.

Then

dL

dt

= 0,angular momentum is considered in the absence of

an external force.

Principle of conservation of evergy :

Let the only force acting on the given particle be conservation is

of the force are derivable from scalar potential evergy function.

F = −∇V, then the T.E.=K.E.+P.E.

Suppose under the action of such force F particles moves from the

140

position 1 to 2. Then the workdone

ω

2

=

2

_

1

Fds

ω =

_

Fds =

2

_

1

Fds =

2

_

1

dF

dt

ds

The particle moves ds distance in the time dt with velocity ˙ r, so

p = mv = m˙ r.

dr

dt

= ˙ r, dr = ˙ rdt

ω

2

=

2

_

1

d

dt

(m˙ r) ˙ rdt

=

2

_

1

d

dt

_

m˙ r

2

_

dt

=

2

_

1

2

d

dt

_

1

2

m˙ r

2

_

dt

= T

2

−T

1

T

2

, T

1

denote the K.E of the particle of the K.E of the position 2 and

1 respectively.

F = −∇V

ω

12

=

2

_

1

−∇V dr =

2

_

1

−

dV

dx

dr

−

2

_

1

dV = V

1

−V

2

141

From (1) and (2),

T

2

−T

1

= V

1

−V

2

T

2

+ V

2

= V

1

+ T

1

= constant

∴ T + V = constant

⇒T −E of a particle is conserved (constant)

Problem :

For a simple spring system using Hamilton Jacobi method to solve

it.

The K.E and P.E are given by

T =

1

2

m˙ x

2

, V =

1

2

kx

2

P =

∂T

∂ ˙ x

=

1

2

m2 ˙ x = m˙ x

˙ x =

ρ

m

⇒ ˙ x

2

=

P

2

m

2

H = T + V

=

P

2

2m

+

kx

2

2

We are considering a conservative systm.

∴ H = T + V = α

The modiﬁed homilton Jacobi equation is

1

2m

_

∂ω

∂x

_

2

+

1

2

kx

2

= α

_

∂ω

∂x

_

2

= 2m

_

α −

1

2

kx

2

_

142

where α is energy constant.

∂ω

∂x

=

¸

2m

_

α −

1

2

kx

2

_

=

¸

2m

_

2α −kx

2

2

_

=

√

mk

¸

_

2α

k

−x

2

_

Taking

a =

_

2α

mω

2

and ω =

_

k

m

∂ω

∂x

=

x

_

x

0

√

mxdx

x

_

x

0

dt

_

a

2

−ξ

2

ω (x, α) = mω

x

_

x

0

_

a

2

−ξ

2

dt, ω =

_

x

m

∂ω

∂α

= mω

_

1

2

2a

√

a

2

−ω

2

1

2

_

2α

ω

2

m

2

mω

2

dω

= t −β

=

1

ω

x

_

x

0

dt

√

a

2

−t

2

= −

1

ω

x

_

x

0

dt

√

t

2

−a

2

= −

1

ω

_

cos

−1

t

a

_

x

1

x

0

=

1

ω

_

cos

−1

x

0

a

−cos

−1

x

1

a

_

ρ is initial time t

0

. i.e., β = t

0

.

t −t

0

=

1

ω

_

φ −cos

−1

_

x

a

__

ω (t −t

0

) = φ −cos

−1

_

x

a

_

143

φ −ω (t −t

0

) = cos

−1

_

x

a

_

−[ω (t −t

0

) −φ] = cos

−1

_

x

a

_

x = a cos [ω (t −t

0

) −φ]

=

_

2α

mω

2

cos [ω (t −t

0

) −φ] .

Let x(t

0

) = x

0

. Then ˙ x (t

0

) = v

0

. We know that

α = T + V

=

1

2

m˙ x

2

+

1

2

kx

2

=

1

2

mv

2

0

+

1

2

kω

2

x

2

0

=

mω

2

2

_

v

2

0

ω

2

+ x

2

0

_

(1)

sin φ =

_

1 −cos

2

φ

=

_

a

2

−x

2

0

a

2

=

1

a

_

a

2

−x

2

0

=

1

a

_

2α

mω

2

−x

2

0

using (1)

=

1

a

_

v

2

0

ω

2

+ x

2

0

−x

2

0

=

v

0

aω

Now,

x = a cos [ω (t −t

0

) −φ]

= a [cos ω (t −t

0

) cos φ + sin ω (t −t

0

) sin φ]

=

x

0

cos φ

[cos ω (t −t

0

) cos φ + sin ω (t −t

0

) sin φ]

= x

0

cos ω (t −t

0

) +

x

0

cos φ

sin ω (t −t

0

)

v

0

aω

= x

0

cos ω (t −t

0

) + a sin ω (t −t

0

)

v

0

aω

144

= x

0

cos ω (t −t

0

) +

v

0

ω

sin ω (t −t

0

)

Diﬀerentiating,

˙ x = 0

Amplitute oscillation is given by

a =

_

v

2

0

ω

2

+ x

2

0

Kepler’s Problem :

Use Hamilton Jacoi equation to analysis the keplers problem or

modiﬁed Jacobi method.

Solution :

Suppose a particle of unit mass attacted by an inverse square grav-

itational force at a ﬁxed point ‘O’. The position of a given problem

is given interms of the polar co-ordinates (r, θ) in the plane of the

orbits.

The K.E and P.E. are

T =

1

2

m

_

˙ r

2

+ r

2

˙

θ

2

_

V = −

µ

r

where µ is gravitation coeﬃcient.

Lagrangian function is

L = T −V

=

1

2

m

_

˙ r

2

+ r

2

˙

θ

2

_

+

µ

r

We ﬁnd that the generalized momentum are given by

p

r

=

∂L

∂ ˙ r

;

˙

θ =

p

θ

r

2

α

θ

= p

θ

=

∂L

∂

˙

θ

= r

2

˙

θ

145

˙

θ =

α

θ

r

2

The system is natural.

H = T + V

H =

1

2

_

p

2

r

+

p

θ

r

2

_

−

µ

r

= α

t

(1)

where α

t

represents constants values of the total energy (1) does not

appear in H.L.

∴ It is ignorable.

∂L

∂θ

= 0 ⇒

∂L

∂

˙

θ

= p

0

= constant = α

0

The modiﬁed Hamilton Jacobi equation is

1

2

_

∂ω

′

∂r

_

2

+

α

2

θ

2r

2

−

µ

r

= α

t

r is ignorable.

1

2

_

∂ω

′

∂r

_

2

= α

t

+

µ

r

−

α

2

θ

2r

2

_

∂ω

′

∂r

_

2

= 2

_

α

t

+

µ

r

−

α

2

θ

2r

2

_

∂ω

′

∂r

=

_

2α

t

+ 2

µ

r

−

α

2

θ

r

2

ω

′

=

r

_

r

0

_

2α

t

+ 2

µ

r

−

α

2

θ

r

2

dr

We have

β

i

= q

i

+

∂ω

′

∂α

θ −θ

0

= −

∂ω

′

∂α

θ

146

= −

r

_

r

0

_

−

1

r

2

_

2α

θ

2

_

2α

t

+ 2

µ

r

−

α

2

θ

r

2

dr

= −

r

_

r

0

α

θ

r

2

_

2α

t

+ 2

µ

r

−

α

2

θ

r

2

dr

= −

r

_

r

0

dr

r

2

α

θ

_

2α

t

α

θ

+ 2

µ

rα

θ

−

1

r

2

= −

r

_

r

0

dr

r

2

_

2α

t

α

θ

+

2µ

rα

θ

−

1

r

2

= −

r

_

r

0

dr

r

2

¸

2α

t

α

2

θ

+

µ

2

α

4

θ

−

_

1

r

−

µ

α

θ

_

2

= −

r

_

r

0

d

_

1

r

−

µ

α

θ

_

r

2

¸

2α

t

+ α

2

θ

+ µα

α

4

θ

−

_

1

r

−

µ

α

θ

_

2

θ −θ

0

= cos

−1

_

¸

¸

_

1

r

−

µ

α

θ

_

2α

t

α

2

θ

+ µ

2

α

4

θ

_

¸

¸

_

r

r

0

Let θ = θ

0

where r = r

0

.

θ −θ

0

= cos

−1

_

α

2

θ

−µr

r

_

2α

t

+ α

2

θ

+ µ

2

_

−cos

−1

_

−µr

0

r

o

_

µ

2

_

= cos

−1

_

α

2

θ

−µr

r

_

2α

t

+ α

2

θ

+ µ

2

_

−cos

−1

(−1)

cos θ =

−µr + α

2

θ

r

_

2α

t

+ α

2

θ

+ µ

2

147

⇒ θ

0

= 0 where r

0

= 0

_

2α

t

α

2

θ

+ 1 cos θ = −µ

r

+ αθ

2

¸

2α

t

α

2

θ

+ 1

µ

2

cos θ =

−µ +

αθ

2

µ

µ

αθ

2

µ

r

= 1 +

¸

1 + 2α

t

α

2

θ

µ

2

cos θ

This is the form

l

r

= 1 + e cos θ.

This the cone whose eccentricity is

e =

¸

µ

2

+ 2α

t

α

2

θ

µ

2

This is the equation of a conic section having eccentricity.

r =

αθ

2

µ

_

_

1 +

¸

µ

2

+ 2α

t

α

2

θ

µ

2

cos θ

_

_

Hence the Kepler’s problem.

Seperability :

The index of seperability associated with the solution of P.D.E by

a solution to that is by expressing the solution interms of integrals

each involving only one variable.

Orthogonal system :

It is conservative holonomic system whose K.E function contains

only squared forms and no produed tems in this variable. If a system

is seperable that is possible to ﬁnd a charatorstic function ω such that

ω =

n

i=1

ω

i

(q

i

) where each contain only one of the q’s.

Note :

A particularly simple example of a seperable system occure in the

ω all but of the co-ordinates all ignorable.

148

Liouville’s System :

It is an orthogonal system whose K.E. and P.E. are of the form

T =

1

2

_

r

i=1

p

i

(q

i

)

_

n

i=r

_

( ˙ q

i

)

2

R

i

(q

i

)

_

(1)

=

R

1

P

2

1

+ R

2

P

2

2

+ ... + R

n

P

2

n

2 (f

1

+ f

2

+ ... + f

n

)

=

v

1

(q

1

) + v

2

(q

2

) + ... + v

n

(q

n

)

f

1

(q

1

) + f

2

(q

2

) + ... + f

n

(q

n

)

where f

i

, q

i

and v

i

are each function of q

i

. We assume that

n

i=1

f

i

(q

i

) > 0

and R

i

(q

i

) > 0.

1

2

a = φ

2

−ψ

a = 2φ

2

−2ψ

This is identical with (a).

Hence the system is seperable.

Using the pfaﬃan equation, derive the Hamilton canonical equation

from Hamilton funciton

ds =

n

i=1

p

i1

dq

i1

−

n

i=1

p

i0

dq

i0

−H

1

dt

1

+ H

0

dt

0

Solution :

Book Work 5: pﬀ equation.

Discuss the Kepler’s probelm using seperability.

Solution :

Let us consider a particle of unit mass p attached towards ‘O’ by

an inverse square gravitational force. Let T be the K,E, of the system.

Let V be the P.E. of the system.

T =

1

2

_

˙ r

2

+ r

2

˙

θ

2

+ r

2

˙

φ

2

sin

2

θ

_

dr = −

µ

r

149

L = T −V =

1

2

_

˙ r

2

+ r

2

˙

θ

2

+ r

2

˙

φ

2

sin

2

θ

_

+

µ

r

Now

p

r

=

∂L

∂ ˙ r

=

1

2

2 ˙ r = ˙ r

p

θ

=

∂L

∂

˙

θ

=

1

2

r

2

2

˙

θ = r

2

˙

θ

p

φ

=

∂L

∂φ

=

1

2

˙ r

2

sin

2

θ2

˙

φ = r

2

sin

2

θ

˙

φ

T =

1

2

_

p

2

r

+

p

2

θ

r

2

+

p

2

φ

r

2

sin

2

θ

_

where p

r

, p

θ

and p

φ

are the generalized moments. This system is an

orthogonal system.

∴ we have H = T + V = α

t

.

The modiﬁed Hamilton Jacobi equation is

1

2

_

∂ω

r

∂r

_

2

+

1

2r

2

_

∂ω

θ

∂θ

_

2

+

1

2r

2

sin

2

θ

_

∂ω

φ

∂φ

_

1

−

µ

r

= α

t

where

ω = ω

r

(r) + ω

θ

(θ) + ω

φ

(φ) (1)

∵ φ is missing from the above equation since φ is ignorable co-

ordinates.

∵ [r

φ

(φ) = α

φ

(φ)] ∴ p

φ

= α

φ

=

∂ω

φ

∂φ

∴ (1) ×2r

2

⇒r

2

_

∂ω

r

∂r

_

2

−2r

2

_

µ

r

+ α

t

_

+

_

∂ω

φ

∂φ

_

2

+

1

sin

2

θ

(α

φ

)

2

= 0 (2)

The ﬁrst two terms are functions of r only and the last terms are

fuctions of θ.

Hence they are each to seperable constant.

Stackel’s thoorem

150

Statement : Consider an orthogonal system whose K.E is given by

T =

1

2

n

i=1

m

i

˙ q

2

i

=

1

2

n

i=1

c

i

p

2

i

where c

i

(q

1

, q

2

, ..., q

n

) > 0. Stackel’s theorem asserts that this is a

seperable system iﬀ there exists a non-singular matrix n × n[Φ

ij

(q

i

)]

and a column matrix [Ψ(q

i

)] exists such that

i) C

T

Φ = (1, 0, ..., 0)

ii) C

T

Ψ = V, where V (q

1

, q

2

, ..., q

n

) is the P.E. and C is a column

matrix composed of the nc’s.

Proof :

Necesary part :

Let us assume that the general orthogonal system be seperable.

Hence it has a characterstic function ω(q, α) which consist of the

sum of terms of the form ω

i

(q

i

, α

1

, α

2

, ..., α

n

) .

This characteristic function is the complete integral of the modiﬁed

H.J equation

1

2

n

i=1

c

i

_

∂ω

i

∂q

i

_

2

+ V = α

1

(1)

Here α

1

is chosen as the total energy because of the system is assumed

to be separability.

∴

_

∂ω

i

∂q

i

_

2

is a function of (q

i

, α

1

, α

2

, ..., α

n

) .

We can choose the seperation constants such that the d’s appear

linearly.

The most general form involving the single co-ordinate q

i

is

_

∂ω

i

∂q

i

_

2

= −2Ψ

i

(q

i

) + 2

n

j=1

Φ

ij

(q

j

) α

j

(I)

where the mumerical co-eﬃcients are chosen for our convenient for our

convenient

151

Then subustitute (I) in (1)

1

2

n

i=1

c

i

_

−2Ψ

i

(q

i

) + 2

n

j=1

Φ

ij

(q

j

) α

j

_

+ V = α

1

(2)

−

n

i=1

c

i

Ψ

i

(q

i

) +

n

i=1

n

j=1

c

i

Φ

ij

(q

j

) α

j

+ V = α

1

⇒ C

T

Φ + C

T

Φ

α

+ V = α

1

.

Comparing the terms containing α’s we ﬁnd that C

T

Φ = (1, 0, 0, ..., 0) ,which

we recognise as the ﬁrst Stackel’s conditions. Similary the term in (3)

which do not involve α’s must sum to zero reading to C

T

Ψ = V,which

is Stackel’s condition.

Suﬃcient part :

Deﬁne a column matrix a =

_

∂ω

i

∂ ˙ q

i

_

2

.

The modiﬁed Hamilton Jacobi equation (1) can be written as

C

T

(a) + V = α.

Using second Stacicel’s condition

1

2

C

T

a + C

T

Ψ = (1, 0, 0, ..., 0) α (4)

⇒C

T

Φ = (1, 0, 0, ..., 0)

_

C

T

Ψ = V

_

C

T

= (1, 0, 0, ..., 0) Φ

−1

(5)

Sustituting (5) in (4)

1

2

(1, 0, 0, ..., 0) + C

T

Φ = α

1

1

2

(1, 0, 0, ..., 0) Φ

−1

a + (1, 0, 0, ..., 0) Φ

−1

Ψ = (1, 0, 0, ..., 0) α

152

(1, 0, 0, ..., 0)

_

1

2

Φ

−1

a + Φ

−1

Ψ

_

= (1, 0, 0, ..., 0) α

1

2

Φ

−1

a + Φ

−1

Ψ = α

1

2

Φ

−1

a = α −Φ

−1

Ψ

Φ(α −Ψ) =

1

2

a

a = 2 (Φα −Ψ)

This is identical with equation (I).

∴ The system is separable.

Note:

_

∂ω

θ

∂θ

_

2

+

dφ

2

sin

2

θ

= α

2

θ

⇒r

2

_

∂ω

θ

∂θ

_

2

+

∂r

2

_

µα

r

r

+

_ = α

2

θ

We all now assume that the system is separable.

∂ω

r

∂r

=

_

2

_

µ

r

+ dt

_

−

α

2

θ

r

2

∂ω

θ

∂θ

=

¸

α

2

θ

−

dφ

2

sin

2

θ

which is immediatery integrable and ﬁnd ω

r

, ω

θ

are already found out.

Hence the system is separable and hence reduces of quadratare

ω

r

+ ω

θ

+ ω

φ

= 0.

Discuss the kepler’s problem using separability.

Let us consider a particle of unit mass p attached towards O by an

iverse square gravitational force.

Let T be the K.E. of the system.

Let V be the P.E. of the system.

153

T =

1

2

_

˙ r

2

+ r

2

˙

θ

2

+ r

2

˙

φ

2

sin

2

θ

_

dr = −

µ

r

L = T −V =

1

2

_

˙ r

2

+ r

2

˙

θ

2

+ r

2

˙

φ

2

sin

2

θ

_

+

µ

r

Now, we can ﬁnd generalized moments

p

r

=

∂L

∂ ˙ r

=

1

2

2 ˙ r = ˙ r

p

θ

=

∂L

∂

˙

θ

=

1

2

r

2

2

˙

θ = r

2

˙

θ

p

φ

=

∂L

∂φ

=

1

2

˙ r

2

sin

2

θ2

˙

φ = r

2

sin

2

θ

˙

φ ⇒

˙

φ =

p

φ

r

2

sin

2

θ

T =

1

2

_

p

2

r

+

p

2

θ

r

2

+

p

2

φ

r

2

sin

2

θ

_

where p

r

, p

θ

and p

φ

are the generalized moments.

This system is an orthogonal system, ∴ we have H = T +V = dt.

The modiﬁed Hamilton Jacobi equation is

1

2

_

∂ω

r

∂r

_

2

+

1

2r

2

_

∂ω

θ

∂θ

_

2

+

1

2r

2

sin

2

θ

_

∂ω

φ

∂φ

_

1

−

µ

r

= dt (1)

where ω = ω

r

(r) + ω

θ

(θ) + ω

φ

(φ) .

∵ φ is missing from the above equation since φ is ignorable co-

ordinates..

∵ [rφ(φ) = dφ(φ)] ∴ p

φ

= α

φ

=

∂ω

φ

∂φ

∴ (1) ×2r

2

⇒r

2

_

∂ω

r

∂r

_

2

−2r

2

_

µ

r

+ α

t

_

+

_

∂ω

θ

∂θ

_

2

+

1

sin

2

θ

_

∂ω

φ

∂φ

_

2

= 0

The ﬁrst two terms are functions of r only and the last terms are

fuctions of θ.

154

Hence they are each to seperable constant.

r

2

_

∂ω

r

∂r

_

2

−2r

2

_

µ

r

+ α

t

_

= −αθ

2

(2)

_

∂ω

θ

∂θ

_

2

+

1

sin

2

θ

_

∂ω

φ

∂φ

_

2

= αθ

2

(3)

(2) ⇒r

2

_

∂ω

r

∂r

_

2

= −α

2

θ

+ 2r

2

_

µ

r

+ α

t

_

= 2r

2

_

µ

r

+ α

t

_

−α

2

θ

∂ω

r

∂r

=

_

2

_

µ

r

+ α

t

_

−

α

2

θ

r

2

(3) ⇒

_

∂ω

θ

∂θ

_

2

= α

2

θ

−

_

∂ω

φ

∂φ

_

2

1

sin

2

θ

∂ω

θ

∂θ

=

¸

α

2

θ

−

α

2

φ

sin

2

θ

which is immeadiately integrable and ﬁnd ω

r

, ω

θ

are already found out.

Hence the system is separable and hence reduces to quadrative

ω

r

+ ω

θ

+ ω

φ

= 0.

Jacobi Theorem :

If s (q, α, t) is any complete solution of the Hamilton Jacobi equa-

tion

∂s

∂t

+ H

_

q,

∂s

∂q

, t

_

= 0, β

i

=

∂s

∂α

i

, p

i

=

∂s

∂q

i

, i = 1, 2, 3, ..., n

where β’s are arbitrary constants are used to solve q

i

(α, β, t) and p

i

(α, β, t) . Then these expression provide the general solution of the

canonical equation associated with Hamilton H(q, p, t).

155

Proof :

∂s

∂t

+ H

_

q,

∂s

∂q

, t

_

= 0 (1)

Diﬀerentiating (1) w.r.to α

i

, by considering p

j

as a function of (q, α, t)

∂

2

s

∂α

i

∂t

+

n

j=1

∂H

∂p

j

∂p

j

∂α

i

= 0 (2)

Given

∂s

∂α

i

= −β

i

Diﬀerentiating both sides w.r.to t

∂

2

s

∂t∂α

i

+

n

j=1

∂

2

s

∂q

j

∂α

i

˙ q

j

= 0 (3)

(3) −(2) ⇒

n

j=1

˙ q

j

∂

2

s

∂q

j

∂α

i

−

∂H

∂p

i

∂p

i

∂α

i

= 0

p

i

=

∂s

∂q

j

Diﬀerentiating w.r.to α

i

,

∂p

i

∂α

i

=

∂

2

s

∂α

i

∂q

j

Using this into second term (4) becomes

n

j=1

˙ q

j

∂

2

s

∂q

j

∂α

i

−

∂H

∂p

i

∂

2

s

∂α

i

∂q

j

= 0

n

j=1

_

˙ q

j

−

∂H

∂p

i

_

∂

2

s

∂α

i

∂q

j

= 0.

Now

¸

¸

¸

¸

∂

2

s

∂α

i

∂q

j

¸

¸

¸

¸

= 0

156

∴ Each co-eﬃceient must be in this

∴ ˙ q =

∂H

∂p

j

.

This is Hamilton ﬁrst equation.

In order to derive the Hamilton second equation we again diﬀeren-

tiate (1) partially w.r.to q

j

and associated p

i

= f (q, α, t)

∂

2

s

∂q

j

∂t

+

n

i=1

∂H

∂p

i

∂p

i

∂q

j

+

∂H

∂q

j

= 0 (5)

p

j

=

∂s

∂q

j

⇒ ˙ p

j

=

∂

2

s

∂q

j

∂t

˙ p

j

−

∂

2

s

∂q

j

∂t

−

n

i=1

∂

2

s

∂q

j

∂q

i

˙ q

i

= 0 (6)

(5) + (6) ⇒

n

i=1

∂H

∂p

i

∂p

i

∂q

j

+

∂H

∂q

j

+ ˙ p

j

−

n

i=1

∂

2

s

∂q

j

∂q

i

˙ q

i

= 0 (7)

But

∂H

∂q

j

= ˙ q

j

and

∂p

i

∂q

j

=

∂

2

s

∂q

i

∂q

j

∴ First and last terms get called in (8) reduces to

∂H

∂q

j

+ ˙ p

j

= 0

˙ p

j

= −

∂H

∂q

j

This is second kind equation.

157

Unit-V

Canonical transformation

Let us consider only a holonomic system which can be described by

the standard form of either Hamilton’s (or) Lagrange’s equation.

Hamilton’s principle applies to these system the generalized coordi-

nates are q

1

, q

2

, . . . , q

n

. We know that the Hamilton principle is

δI = 0 where I =

t

1

_

t

0

Ldt

∴ δ

t

1

_

t

0

L(q, ˙ q, t) dt = 0

where the endpoints of the varied paths are ﬁxed in both conﬁguration

space and time.

Let L = T −V.

Now if a new set of coordinates Q

1

, Q

2

, . . . , Q

n

is Q related to the

formal set by a point transformation. The Larangian function is given

by,

L

∗

_

Q,

˙

Q, t

_

= L(q, ˙ q, t) = T −V

i.e., L and L

∗

are equal. Now the Hamilton’s principle function

δI = 0 .

δ

t

_

t

0

L

∗

_

Q,

˙

Q, t

_

dt = 0.

Now we consider the Lagrangian equation is

L

∗

_

Q,

˙

Q, t

_

= L(q, ˙ q, t) −

d

dt

φ(q, Q, t)

158

where φ(q, Q, t) is twice diﬀerential. Then,

δI = δ

t

_

t

0

L

∗

_

Q,

˙

Q, t

_

dt

= δ

t

_

t

0

_

L(q, ˙ q, t) −

d

dt

φ(q, Q, t)

_

dt

= δ

t

_

t

0

L(q, ˙ q, t) dt −δ

t

_

t

0

dϕ(q, Q, t)

= δ

t

_

t

0

L(q, ˙ q, t) dt −δ [φ(q, Q, t)]

t

t

0

δI = δ

t

_

t

0

L(q, ˙ q, t) dt

i.e., δq ’s and δQ ’s are zero at the ﬁxed time t

0

and t .

⇒δ

t

_

t

0

L

∗

_

Q,

˙

Q, t

_

= 0.

Now Hamilton are described by the equation

H (q, p, t) =

n

i=1

p

i

˙ q

i

−L(q, ˙ q, t)

K (Q, P, t) =

n

i=1

p

i

˙

Q

i

−L

∗

_

Q,

˙

Q, t

_

where the generalized moment are given by,

p

i

=

∂L

∂ ˙ q

i

, P

i

=

∂L

∗

∂

˙

Q

i

˙ q

i

=

∂H

∂p

i

, ˙ p

i

= −

∂H

∂q

i

, i = 1, 2, . . . , n.

159

Here the function L

∗

_

Q,

˙

Q, t

_

.

∴ The Hamilton canonical function

˙

Q

i

=

∂K

∂P

i

,

˙

P

i

= −

∂H

∂Q

i

, i = 1, 2, . . . , n

A transformation form (q, p) to (Q, P) which preserves the canon-

ical form of the equation of motion is known as canonical transforma-

tion.

Diﬀerential forms of Pfaﬃan diﬀerential equation:

Let us consider a Hamilton function H (q, p, t) suppose the trans-

formation equation is of the form,

Q

i

= Q

i

(q, p, t) , P

i

= P

i

(q, p, t) i = 1, 2, . . . , n

where each function is atleast twice diﬀerentiable. Now the Lagrangian

equation is given by,

L

∗

_

Q,

˙

Q, t

_

= L(q, ˙ q, t) −

d

dt

[φ(q, Q, t)] (1)

Hamilton function is deﬁed by,

H (q, p, t) =

p

i

˙ q

i

−L(q, ˙ q, t) (2)

K (Q, P, t) =

P

i

˙

Q

i

−L

∗

_

Q,

˙

Q, t

_

. (3)

Using (2) and (3) in (1) we get

P

i

˙

Q

i

−K (Q, P, t) =

p

i

˙ q

i

−H (q, p, t) −

d

dt

[φ(q, Q, t)]

⇒

P

i

d

dt

(Q

i

) −K =

p

i

d

dt

(q

i

) −H −

d

dt

(φ)

⇒ dφ =

p

i

dq

i

−Hdt −

P

i

dQ

i

+ Kdt (4)

where φ is the generalized function. Equation (4) is called the diﬀer-

ence of two pfaﬃan diﬀerential equation and (4) is an exact diﬀerential

equation

160

Note: The function φ(q, Q, t) is called the generating function for

the transformation.

Book work: Consider Q =

√

2qe

t

cos p, P =

√

2qe

−t

sin p .

Show that the above transformation is canonical.

Solution: Given that

Q =

_

2qe

t

cos p,

P =

_

2qe

−t

sin p.

We obtained

pδq −PδQ = δψ (1)

δQ = e

t

_

2δq cos p

2

√

2q

δq +

_

2q (−sin p) δp

_

= e

t

_

cos p

√

2q

δq −sin p

_

_

2q

_

δp

_

(1)⇒

pδq −PδQ = pδq −

_

2qe

−t

sin p

_

e

t

_

cos p

√

2q

δq −sin p

_

2qδp

__

= pδq −sin p cos pδq + 2q sin

2

pδp

δψ = [p −sin p cos p] δq + 2q sin

2

pδp (2)

which is the diﬀerential form,

pdx + qdy = f (x)

and

∂P

∂y

=

∂Q

∂x

⇒

∂P

∂p

=

∂Q

∂q

∂

∂p

(p −sin p cos p) = 1 −

_

sin p (−sin p) + cos

2

p

¸

= 1 −

_

−sin

2

p + cos

2

p

¸

= 1 −cos 2p

161

∂

∂p

[p −sin p cos p] = 2 sin

2

p

∂

∂p

[p −sin p cos p] = 2 sin

2

p

Similarly,

∂

∂q

_

2q sin

2

p

¸

= 2 sin

2

p

∴

∂

∂p

[p −sin p cos p] =

∂

∂q

_

2q sin

2

p

¸

∴ The transformation is caonical.

Example: Let us consider the transformation

Q =

1

2

_

q

2

+ p

2

_

, P = −tan

−1

_

q

p

_

Show that the transformation is canonical. Find the new Hamilton

canonical equation.

Solution: Given

P = −tan

−1

_

q

p

_

;

Q =

1

2

_

q

2

+ p

2

_

.

We obtained

pδq −PδQ = dψ (1)

δQ =

1

2

2qδq +

1

2

2pδp

δQ = qδq + pδp

(1) ⇒

pδq −pδQ = pδq + tan

−1

_

q

p

_

(qδq + pδp)

162

= pδq + tan

−1

_

q

p

_

qδq + tan

−1

_

q

p

_

pδp

δψ =

_

p + q tan

−1

_

q

p

__

δq + p tan

−1

_

q

p

_

δp

∂

∂p

_

p + q tan

−1

_

q

p

__

= 1 +q

_

_

_

_

1

1 +

q

2

p

2

_

_

_

_

_

−

q

p

2

_

= 1 +q

_

p

2

p

2

+ q

2

__

−

q

p

2

_

= 1 −

q

2

p

2

+ q

2

=

p

2

+ q

2

−q

2

p

2

+ q

2

=

p

2

p

2

+ q

2

∂

∂p

_

p + tan

−1

_

q

p

__

=

p

2

p

2

+ q

2

∂

∂q

_

p + tan

−1

_

q

p

__

= p

_

¸

¸

_

p

_

_

_

_

1

1 +

q

2

p

2

_

_

_

_

_

¸

¸

_

_

1

p

_

= p

_

p

2

p

2

+ q

2

__

1

p

_

=

p

2

p

2

+ q

2

∴

∂

∂p

_

p + tan

−1

_

q

p

__

=

∂

∂Q

_

p + tan

−1

_

q

p

__

∴The transformation is canonical.

Principle forms of generating functions:

Let us consider a generating function φ(q, Q, t) . The other types

of generating functions namely F

2

(q, P, t) , F

3

(P, Q, t) and F

4

(p, P, t)

163

. Now we show the relationship of F

2

and F

1

and again F

3

and F

4

and

F

1

and F

4

.

The relationship of the generating function F

1

, F

2

, F

3

and F

4

are

called the principle of generating function.

Proof: Given that the generating function φ(q, Q, t) . We know

that the diﬀerential form

p

i

δq

i

−

P

i

δQ

i

−Hdt + Kdt = dF

1

(q, Q, t) . (1)

Let us consider

Q

i

dP

i

−

P

i

dQ

i

= d

_

Q

i

P

i

_

. (2)

Adding (1) and (2) we get

P

i

dq

i

+

Q

i

dP

i

−Hdt + Kdt = dF

2

(q, P, t) (3)

where dF

2

(q, P, t) = dF

1

(q, Q, t) + d

_

n

i=1

Q

i

P

i

_

.

F

2

(q, P, t) = F

1

(q, Q, t) +

Q

i

P

i

. (4)

Equation (4) gives the relationship in between F

1

and F

2

. Now the

total diﬀerential form of F

2

is the form

dF

2

=

∂F

2

∂q

i

dq

i

+

∂F

2

∂P

i

dP

i

+

∂F

2

∂t

dt. (5)

Equating the coeﬃcient in (3) and (5)

P

i

=

∂F

2

∂q

i

, Q

i

=

∂F

2

∂p

i

, K =

∂F

2

∂t

+ H. (6)

Equation (6) is called the canonical transformation of the function F

2

.

Similarly we can derive the following equation associated with

F

3

(p, Q, t) .

164

Consider

F

3

(p, Q, t) = F

1

(q, Q, t) −

q

i

p

i

(7)

(7) ⇒

F

3

= dF

1

(q, Q, t) −

q

i

dp

i

−

p

i

q

i

Using (1),

dF

3

=

p

i

dq

i

−

P

i

dQ

i

−Hdt + Kdt −

q

i

dp

i

−

p

i

dq

i

dF

3

( p, Q, t) = −

P

i

dQ

i

−Hdt + Kdt −

q

i

dp

i

(8)

Then the total diﬀerentiating dF

3

(p, Q, t)

dF

3

(p, Q, t) =

∂F

3

∂P

i

dp

i

+

∂F

3

∂Q

i

dQ

i

+

∂F

3

∂t

dt. (9)

Equating the coeﬃcients in (8) and (9),

−q

i

=

∂F

3

∂P

i

(i = 1, 2, . . . , n)

−P

i

=

∂F

3

∂Q

i

(i = 1, 2, . . . , n)

K = H +

∂F

3

∂t

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(10)

which is the canonical transformation of equation (8).

Similarly for next generating function F

4

(p, P, t) we derived as fol-

lows.

F

4

(p, P, t) = F

2

(q, P, t) −

q

i

P

i

(11)

dF

4

= dF

2

−

p

i

dq

i

−

q

i

dp

i

Using (3),

dF

4

=

p

i

dq

i

+

Q

i

dP

i

−Hdt +Kdt −

p

i

dq

i

−

q

i

dp

i

(12)

dF

4

=

Q

i

dP

i

−Hdt + Kdt −

q

i

dp

i

.

165

Taking the total diﬀerential of F

4

,

dF

4

=

∂F

4

∂p

i

dp

i

+

∂F

4

∂P

i

dP

i

+

∂F

4

∂t

dt (13)

Equating the coeﬃcient in (12) and (13),

Q

i

=

∂F

4

∂P

i

(i = 1, 2, . . . , n)

q

i

= −

∂F

4

∂p

i

(i = 1, 2, . . . , n)

K = H +

∂F

4

∂t

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(14)

which is the canonical transformation of F

4

(p, P, t) .

Equations (4), (7) and (11) gives the relation between the generat-

ing function which is the principle function.

Book Work: Consider the transformation

Q = log

sin p

q

, P = q cot p

Obtain the four major types of generating function associated with

the transformation.

Proof: Given that,

Q = log

sin p

q

, P = q cot p

We know that,

pδq −PδQ = δψ (1)

δQ =

1

sin p

q

_

1

q

cos pδP + sin p

_

−

1

q

2

_

δq

_

=

q

sin p

_

cos p

q

δP −

sin p

q

2

δq

_

= cot pδp −

1

q

δq

166

pδq −q cot p

_

cot pδp −

1

q

δq

_

= δψ

pδq −q cot

2

pδp + cot pδq = δψ

(p + cot p) δq −q cot

2

pδp = δψ

∂

∂p

(p + cot p) = 1 +

_

−cosec

2

p

_

= 1 −cosec c

2

p = −cot

2

p

∂

∂p

(p + cot p) = −cot

2

p

∂

∂q

_

−q cot

2

p

_

= −cot

2

p

∂

∂p

(p + cot p) =

∂

∂q

_

−q cot

2

p

_

= δψ

∴ The transformation is canonical.

Let ψ = pq + q cot p (from (1)).

The geometrical representation of the transformation

sin p =

q

e

−Q

= qe

Q

cos p =

p

e

−Q

= pe

Q

cot p =

cos p

sin p

=

pe

Q

qe

Q

=

p

q

q cot p = p

Now,

p

2

+ q

2

=

_

e

−Q

_

2

= e

−2Q

p

2

= e

−2Q

−q

2

p =

_

e

−2Q

−q

2

167

=

1

e

Q

_

_

1 −q

2

e

2Q

_

We know that

cos p = pe

Q

=

1

e

Q

_

_

1 −q

2

e

2Q

_

e

Q

cos p =

_

1 −q

2

e

2Q

p = cos

−1

_

_

1 −q

2

e

2Q

_

From the principle of generating function

ψ (p, q) = F

1

(q, Q) (2)

F

1

(q, Q) = q cos

−1

_

_

1 −q

2

e

2Q

_

+

_

e

−2Q

−q

2

(3)

∂F

1

∂q

= cos

−1

_

_

1 −q

2

e

2Q

_

= p

∂F

1

∂Q

=

_

e

−2Q

−q

2

= −p

Comparing (2) and (3) equating the coeﬃcient we get

p = cos

−1

_

_

1 −q

2

e

2Q

_

,

p =

_

e

−2Q

−q

2

.

The above canonical can be written as

∂F

1

∂q

= cos

−1

_

_

1 −q

2

e

2Q

_

= p,

∂F

1

∂q

= −

_

_

e

−2Q

−q

2

_

= −p.

168

To ﬁnd the generating function F

2

(q, P) . From the principle of gen-

erating function

F

2

(q, P) = F

1

(q, Q, t) +

Q

i

P

i

F

2

= pq + q cot P + QP (4)

F

2

is the generations function of the variable (q, P) .

We know that

q cot p = P

cot p =

P

q

tan p =

q

P

⇒p = tan

−1

_

q

P

_

From the triangle

P

2

= e

−2Q

−q

2

e

−Q

=

_

p

2

+ q

2

e

Q

=

1

_

p

2

+ q

2

Q = log

_

1

_

p

2

+ q

2

_

= log 1 −log

_

_

p

2

+ q

2

_

= −log

_

_

p

2

+ q

2

_

Substitute p, Q in equation (4) we get

F

2

(q, P) = q tan

−1

_

q

P

_

+ p +

_

−log

_

_

p

2

+ q

2

__

p

= q tan

−1

_

q

P

_

+ p

_

1 −log

_

_

p

2

+ q

2

__

(5)

From (4) and (5) we get

169

∂F

2

∂q

= tan

−1

_

q

P

_

= p

∂F

2

∂p

= 0 −log

_

q

2

+ p

2

= Q

which are the canonical equation of the function F

2

.

To ﬁnd the function F

3

,

F

3

= F

3

(p, Q)

We know that,

F

3

(p, Q) = F

1

(q, Q) −

q

i

p

i

= qp + q cot P −qp

F

3

= q cot p (6)

q cot p = q

cos p

sin p

= q ·

Pe

Q

qe

Q

= p

Next to ﬁnd the function F

4

(p, P) .

Similarly

F

4

(p, P) = F

2

−qp

= qp + q cot p + QP −qp

= q cot p + QP

F

4

(p, P) = P + QP

cos p = p = Pe

Q

e

Q

=

cos P

p

Q = log

_

cos P

p

_

F

4

= p + log

_

cos P

p

_

P

170

F

4

= p + P log

_

cos p

p

_

∂F

4

∂p

= q (−tan p cot p) = −p tan p = −q

∂F

4

∂p

= log

_

cos P

p

_

= Q

Hence the four generating function.

Special transformation

1.Identity transformation:

Let us consider the identity transformation which is an obvious

example of a canonical transformation. It is generated by a function

is of the form,

T

n

=

n

i=1

q

i

p

i

(1)

Then

P

i

=

∂F

2

∂q

i

= p

i

(i = 1, 2, . . . , n)

Q

i

=

∂F

2

∂P

i

= q

i

(i = 1, 2, . . . , n) . (2)

The identity transformation is generated by

F

3

=

n

i=1

P

i

Q

i

.

2. Orthogonal transformation:

This is the simple canonical transformation. The orthogonal trans-

formation of q ’s and p ’s generated by

F

2

=

n

i=1

n

j=1

a

ij

p

i

q

j

,

where a

i

’s are constant meeting the orthogonality conditions

n

i=1

a

ij

a

jk

= δ

jk

.

171

δ

jk

is the kroneckal delta the orthogonality can be written in the matrix

form

a · a

−1

= a

−1

· a = 1.

The transformation equation are

P

j

=

∂F

2

∂q

i

=

a

ij

, Q

i

=

∂F

2

∂p

i

=

a

ij

q

j

.

These equation can be solved for p

i

’s in terms of P

i

’s and Q

i

’s in

terms of q

i

’s then the transformation equations are

Q

i

=

n

j=1

a

ij

q

i

P

i

=

n

j=1

a

ij

P

j

(i = 1, 2, . . . , n)

These equations represents the equal rotation is q -space and p -space.

3. Translation:

We know that F

2

=

q

i

P

i

, replace q

i

by q

i

+c

i

and replace P

i

by

P

i

−d

i

F

2

=

q

i

P

i

=

(q

i

+ c

i

) (P

i

−d

i

)

=

q

i

p

i

+ c

i

P

i

−d

i

We have to omit c

i

d

i

. Now,

p

i

=

∂F

2

∂q

i

= P

i

−d

i

Q

i

=

∂F

2

∂P

i

= q

i

+ c

i

Q

i

= q

i

+ c

i

,

P

i

= P

i

+ d

i

(i = 1, 2, . . . , n)

172

which represents the required translation.

Homogeneous Canonical transformation:

We know that the diﬀerential form is

n

i=1

p

i

δq

i

−

n

i=1

P

i

Q

i

= δψ (1)

is an exact diﬀerential. Consider the function φ and ψ are identically

zero. Then

n

i=1

(P

i

δq

i

−P

i

δQ

i

) = 0

and the corresponding transformation is called a homogeneous canon-

ical transformation. This transformation is also known as Mathieu

transformation (or) contact transformation.

Point transformation:

We consider the class of homogeneous canonical transformation for

which full set of n independent function Ω

j

(q, Q, t) exist and equal to

zero.

This implies that the two n ×n coeﬃcient matrices of

n

i=1

∂Ω

j

∂q

j

δq

i

+

n

i=1

∂Ω

j

∂Q

i

δQ

i

= 0 (j = 1, 2, . . . , m)

are non singular and the corresponding determinants are non zero,

that is,

¸

¸

¸

¸

∂Ω

j

∂q

i

¸

¸

¸

¸

= 0,

¸

¸

¸

¸

∂Ω

j

∂Q

i

¸

¸

¸

¸

= 0.

Hence we can solve for the Q’s in terms of (q, t) on for the q ’s as

functions of (Q, t) .

We have n equation is of the form

Q

i

= f

i

(q, t) i = 1, 2, . . . , n

where the f

i

’s are twice diﬀerentiable. These equations represent

a point transformation. i.e., they represent a mapping of points in

173

conﬁguration space. If one also includes the equations for the P ’s,

the entire set represents a transformation in phase space and is known

as extended point transformation.

Momentum transformation:

The momentum transformation equation are obtained from

p

i

=

n

j=1

P

j

∂Q

i

∂q

i

(i = 1, 2, . . . , n)

which in this case takes the form

p

i

=

n

j=1

∂f

i

∂q

i

(i = 1, 2, . . . , n) .

Thus the p ’s are homogeneous linear functions of the P ’s and vice

versa. If we deﬁne nΩ ’s of the form

Ω

j

= Q

j

−f

j

(q, t) (j = 1, 2, . . . , n)

If the represents the transformation is called the momentum transfor-

mation.

Non homogeneous point transformation:

Let the basic diﬀerential form be

n

i=1

p

i

δq

i

−

n

i=1

P

i

δQ

i

= δψ. (1)

Consider

Q

i

= f

i

(q, t) ,

Q

j

= f

j

(q, t)

⇒ δQ

j

=

n

j=1

∂f

i

∂q

i

δq

i

. (2)

174

Substitute the equation (2) in (1) implies

n

i=1

p

i

δq

i

−

n

i=1

P

i

_

n

j=1

∂f

i

∂q

i

δq

i

_

= δψ. (3)

In general,

δψ =

n

i=1

∂ψ

∂q

i

δq

i

+

n

i=1

∂ψ

∂P

i

δp

i

(4)

Here the δq ’s and δp ’s are independent.Equation (3) and (4) we get

∂ψ

∂q

i

=

n

i=1

p

i

−

n

i=1

P

i

n

j=1

∂f

j

∂q

i

=

n

i=1

_

p

i

−P

i

n

j=1

∂f

j

∂q

i

_

p

i

=

∂ψ

∂q

i

+ P

i

n

j=1

∂f

i

∂q

i

(i = 1, 2, . . . , n)

⇒

∂ψ

∂p

i

= 0

Equation (4) implies ψ (q, t) is not an explicit function of the p ’s.

Furthermore it has the proper form for a generating function of the

type of f

i

. Hence we can choose F

1

to be identically equal to ψ for a

point transformation.

Example: Illustrate the theory for the nonhomogeneous case, sup-

pose we are given sceleronomic extended point transformation

Q = tan q, P = (p −mν

0

) cos

2

q,

where m and ν

0

are constants.

Solution: Given that Q = tan q, P = (p −mν

0

) cos

2

q , we wish

to show that the transformation is canonical.

δQ = sec

2

qδq

= Pδq =

_

(p −mν

0

) sec

2

q

¸

sec

2

qδq

175

= δψ

∴ pδq = pδq + mν

0

δq = δψ

⇒ mν

0

δq = δψ (1)

which is an exact diﬀerential integrating

F

1

= ψ = mν

0

q. (2)

Hence this is a nonhomogeneous canonical transformation. Now the

point transformation is,

Q

i

(q, t) = f

i

(q, t)

Q = tan q −f (q) .

From the non homogeneous point transformation

Ω

j

= Q

i

−f

i

(q, t)

Ω = Q−tan q

which yields K = H . Thus the two Hamilton functions are equal

F

2

(q, P) = F

1

+ QP

= mv

0

q + QP

= mv

0

q + tan qP

p =

∂F

2

∂q

= mv

0

+ P sec

2

q

Q =

∂F

2

∂P

= tan q.

Here the canonical equations for the generating functionF

2

.

To ﬁnd F

3

:

F

3

(P, Q) = F

1

−qP

176

= mv

0

q −qP

∂F

3

∂P

= −q,

∂F

3

∂Q

=

mv

0

1 +Q

2

.

To ﬁnd F

4

:

F

4

(p, P) = F

2

−qp = F

1

+ QP −qp

= mv

0

q + tan qP −qp

∂F

4

∂p

= −q,

∂F

4

∂P

= tan q.

Now let us apply this transformation to a speciﬁc physical situation.

Consider a mass spring system which is attached to a plane that is

translating with a constant velocity v

0

as shown in the following ﬁgure.

0

v

k

m

0

q + l

The unstressed length of the spring. Hence we have a conservative

holonomic system (or) Hamilton’s equations.

L = T −V

L =

1

2

m(v

0

+ ˙ q)

2

−

1

2

Kq

2

p =

∂L

∂ ˙ q

=

1

2

m2 (v

0

+ ˙ q) = m(v

0

+ ˙ q)

The Hamilton function is H = T

2

− T

0

+ V from the mass spring

system.

H =

p

2

2m

−v

0

p +

1

2

Kq

2

177

Hence the canonical equation of the motion for (q, p) variables are,

˙ q =

∂H

∂p

=

p

m

−v

0

,

˙ p = −

∂H

∂q

= −

1

2

K (2q) = −Kq

Now let us obtain L

∗

_

Q,

˙

Q

_

relative to the moving frame. Here,

T =

1

2

m˙ q

2

V =

1

2

Kq

2

Given that Q = tan q ⇒q = tan

−1

Q.

˙ q =

1

1 +Q

2

˙

Q

L

∗

= T −V

=

1

2

m

_

˙

Q

2

(1 + Q

2

)

2

_

−

1

2

K

_

tan

−1

Q

_

2

=

1

2

m

˙

Q

2

(1 + Q

2

)

2

−

1

2

K

_

tan

−1

Q

_

2

P =

∂L

α

∂

˙

Q

=

m2

˙

Q

2 (1 +Q

2

)

2

=

m

˙

Q

(1 + Q

2

)

2

Given that

P = (p −mv

0

) cos

2

q

cos

2

q =

P

p −mv

0

=

m

˙

Q

(1 +Q

2

)

2

m˙ q

=

˙

Q

˙ q (1 + Q

2

)

2

cos

2

q =

Q

˙ q

(1 +Q

2

)

2

=

1 + Q

2

(1 + Q

2

)

2

=

1

1 + Q

2

_

Since

˙

Q

˙ q

= 1 + Q

2

_

178

cos q =

1

_

1 + Q

2

In this case in K.E consist of T

2

terms only Hamiltonian function.

H = T

2

+ V

=

p

2

2m

+

1

2

Kq

2

K = T + V

=

1

2

m˙ q

2

+

1

2

Kq

2

=

1

2

m

_

˙

Q

2

(1 + Q

2

)

2

_

+

1

2

K

_

tan

−1

Q

_

2

We know that

P =

m

˙

Q

(1 + Q

2

)

2

m

˙

Q = P

_

1 +Q

2

_

2

˙

Q =

P (1 + Q

2

)

2

m

K =

1

2

m

˙

Q

˙

Q

(1 +Q

2

)

2

+

1

2

K

_

tan

−1

Q

_

2

=

1

2

p

(1 + Q

2

)

2

(1 + Q

2

)

2

p

(1 +Q

2

)

2

m

+

1

2

K

_

tan

−1

Q

_

2

=

p

2

2m

_

1 + Q

2

_

2

+

1

2

K

_

tan

−1

Q

_

2

Here the canonical equations are

˙

Q =

∂K

∂p

=

1

2m

2p

_

1 + Q

2

_

2

=

p

m

_

1 +Q

2

_

2

˙

P = −

∂K

∂Q

= −

_

p

2

2m

__

1 + Q

2

_

2θ

¸

+

1

2

K2 tan

−1

Q

_

1

1 + Q

2

__

179

= −

2p

2

Q

m

_

1 + Q

2

_

−

K tan

−1

Q

1 + Q

2

.

Hence the canonical equation.

Lagrangian and Poisson brackets:

Lagrangian brackets:

Suppose the given transformation equation

Q

i

= Q

i

(q, P, t)

P

i

= P

i

(q, p, t)

(i = 1, 2, · · · , n)

Let us consider the canonical diﬀerential form

n

i=1

p

i

δq

i

−

n

i=1

P

i

δQ

i

= δψ (1)

δQ

i

=

n

i=1

∂Q

i

∂q

i

δq

i

+

n

i=1

∂Q

i

∂P

j

δP

j

(2)

Using (2) in (1)

n

i=1

p

i

δq

i

−

n

i=1

P

i

_

n

j=1

∂Q

i

∂q

j

δq

j

+

n

j=1

∂Q

i

∂P

j

δP

j

_

= δψ

n

j=1

_

p

j

−

n

i=1

P

i

∂Q

i

∂q

j

_

δq

j

−

n

i=1

n

j=1

P

i

∂Q

i

∂P

j

δP

j

= δψ

Now,

∂

∂q

k

_

p

j

−

n

i=1

P

i

∂Q

i

∂q

i

_

=

∂

∂q

j

_

p

k

−

n

i=1

P

i

∂Q

i

∂q

k

_

∂

∂p

k

_

n

i=1

P

i

∂Q

i

∂p

j

_

=

∂

∂p

j

_

n

i=1

P

i

∂Q

i

∂P

k

_

∂

∂p

k

_

p

j

−

n

i=1

P

i

∂Q

i

∂q

j

_

=

∂

∂q

j

_

−

n

i=1

P

i

∂Q

i

∂p

k

_

180

where j, k = 1, 2, . . . .n.These equation can be written as

n

i=1

_

∂Q

i

∂q

i

∂P

i

∂q

k

−

∂P

i

∂q

i

∂Q

i

∂q

k

_

= 0

n

i=1

_

∂Q

i

∂p

j

∂P

i

∂p

K

−

∂P

i

∂p

j

∂Q

i

∂p

K

_

= 0

n

i=1

_

∂Q

i

∂q

j

∂P

i

∂p

K

−

∂P

i

∂q

j

∂Q

i

∂p

K

_

= δ

jk

where δ

jk

is the kronecker delta.

Deﬁnition: Lagrangian brackets expression of two variable (u, v)

by using the notation

[u, v] =

n

i=1

_

∂Q

i

∂u

∂P

i

∂v

−

∂P

i

∂u

∂Q

i

∂v

_

where u andv are any two variables q

1

, q

2

, . . . , q

n

, p

1

, p

2

, . . . , p

n

.

Skew symmetry: As a consequence of a two skew symmetry of

the Lagrangian bracket is

[u, v] = −[v, u]

and

[u, u] = [v, v] = 0.

Invariant: A general characteristic of the Lagrangian bracket is

invariant under a canonical transformation.

Example: If the 2n variables (q, p) and in variable (Q, P) are

related by a canonical transformation. The either set may be used in

equating a given bracket evaluation. Thus we have

[u, v] =

n

i=1

_

∂q

i

∂u

∂p

i

∂v

−

∂p

i

∂u

∂q

i

∂v

_

=

n

i=1

_

∂Q

i

∂u

∂P

i

∂v

−

∂P

i

∂u

∂Q

i

∂v

_

181

where each set of dynamical variable in assume to be a function of

(u, v) as well as other variable.

Poisson brackets: Suppose that the function of the dynamical

variable and time namely u = u(q, p, t) and v = v (q, p, t). The poisson

bracket expression for function is

(u, v) =

n

i=1

_

∂u

∂q

i

∂v

∂p

i

−

∂u

∂p

i

∂v

∂q

i

_

.

In the case of Lagrangian brackets, we have

(u, v) = −(v, u)

(u, u) = (v, v) = 0.

The poisson brackets is useful testing whether the transformation is

canonical (or) not.

Poisson theorem:

Statement: If u(q, p) and v (q, p) are integrals of a Hamiltonian

system, then the Poisson bracket (u, v) is also an integral, that is (u, v)

is constant of the motion.

Proof: Let u and v be integrals of the motion. We know that,

df

dt

= (f, H) +

∂f

∂t

,

(u, H) +

∂u

∂t

= 0, (1)

(v, H) +

∂v

∂t

= 0. (2)

Also,

d

dt

(u, v) = [(u, v) , H] +

∂

∂t

(u, v)

d

dt

(u, v) = [(u, v) , H] +

_

∂u

∂t

+ v

_

+

_

u,

∂v

∂t

_

(3)

182

From (1) and (3)

d

dt

(u, v) = [(u, v) , H] −[(u, H) , v] −[u, (v, H)]

= [(u, 0) , H] + [(H, u) , v] + [(v, H) , u]

By Jacobi identity,

[u, (v, w)] + [v, (w, u)] + [w, (u, v)] = 0

∴

d

dt

(u, v) = 0.

Hence the proof.

Example: Consider the transformation

Q =

_

e

−2q

−p

2

, P = cos

−1

(pe

q

) .

Use the poisson bracket to show that it is canonical.

Solution: We know that the poisson bracket

(u, v) =

n

i=1

_

∂u

∂q

i

∂v

∂p

i

−

∂u

∂p

i

∂v

∂q

i

_

. (1)

Given that

Q =

_

e

−2q

−p

2

,

P = cos

−1

(pe

q

) .

Here u = Q, v = P.

(Q, P) =

∂Q

∂q

∂P

∂p

−

∂Q

∂q

∂P

∂p

(2)

Q =

_

e

−2q

−p

2

∂Q

∂q

=

1

2

_

e

−2q

(−2)

_

e

−2q

−p

2

_

183

= −

e

−2q

_

e

−2q

−p

2

=

−p

_

e

−2q

−p

2

P = cos

−1

(pe

q

)

∂P

∂q

=

(−1) pe

q

_

1 −p

2

e

2q

=

−p

_

e

−2q

−p

2

∂P

∂p

=

−e

2q

_

1 −p

2

e

2q

=

−1

_

e

−2q

−p

2

.

Using these values in (2) we get

(Q, P) =

e

−2q

_

_

e

−2q

−p

2

_

2

−

p

2

_

_

e

−2q

−p

2

_

2

=

e

−2q

−p

2

e

−2q

−p

2

= 1

We know that (u, u) = (v, v) = 0

⇒(Q, Q) = 0, (P, P) = 0

Hence the given transformation is canonical.

Bilinear co-variant:

This is the another method which may be used in testing whether

a given transformation is canonical involves the bilinear co-variant.

Suppose we consider the Pfaﬃan diﬀerential

Ω =

n

i=1

X

i

(x) dx

i

(1)

where the δx ’s are an independent set of inﬁnitesimal displacements

from the same reference point. Now we can write,

δΩ =

n

i=1

(δX

i

dx

i

+ X

i

δdx

i

)

184

dQ =

n

j=1

(dX

j

δx

j

+ X

j

dδx

j

)

where

δX

i

=

n

j=1

∂X

j

∂x

j

δx

j

,

dX

j

=

n

i=1

∂X

j

∂x

i

dx

i

.

Then we obtain

δΩ −dQ =

n

i=1

n

j=1

_

∂X

i

∂x

j

−

∂X

j

∂x

i

_

dx

i

δx

j

=

n

i=1

n

j=1

[(δX

j

dx

i

−dx

j

δx

j

) + (X

j

δdx

i

−Xδx

j

)] (2)

note that δdx

i

= dδx

i

Now, considering contemporaneous variants where

τ

ij

=

∂X

i

∂x

j

−

∂X

j

∂x

i

.

We ﬁnd that

δΩdθ =

n

i=1

n

j=1

τ

ij

dX

i

δx

j

This is the bilinear co-variant associated with the diﬀerential equation

(1).

185

UNIT I

Introduction : Mechanics forms the basis of physics it contributes to our knowledge of people working of nature and universe classical mechanics deals with the description of actual or possible motion of points like as well as extended bodies. The motion of celestial bodies as well as man made objects such as space problems. Satellites etc., are ﬁelds. The various classical dynamics, Hamilton mechanics, provides most modern research in frontial areas. Particularly relation between symmetric property or conservation law. Application : Mechanics is the study of motion of physical bodies. The motion of celestial bodies planets, stars etc., path of an artillery shell or of a space satellites send from a earth to a planet are among its problems. Classical mechanics denotes part of Mechanics. Classical dynamics will also be interpreted to include the type of mechanical assising to include the type of Mechanical assising out of the special theory of relativity. Mechanics of a system of particles : When a Mechanical system consists of two (or) more particles we must distinguish between the external forces acted upon the particles of the system forces not belongs to the system. The internal forces assising on account of interaction between themselves. Mechanics of a particles : Let r be a radius of the particle from some given origin and v its the vector velocity then v= dr . dt

The linear momentum p of the particle is deﬁned as the product of particle mass and its velocity. In consequence of interaction with external objects and ﬁeld the particle may experience forces of various types. 2

For example, gravitation or electro dynamics. The Mechanic of particle is contained in Newton second law motion. Equation of Motion : The motion of particle is described by the diﬀerential equation F ∝ a − → → F = m− a = m =

→ d− v dt

d d → (m− ) = v (p) dt dt − → dp F = dt d (mv) dt d dr = m dt dt ∴F =m

F =

=m d2 r dt2

d2 r dt2

Thus the equation of motion is a diﬀerential equation of second order. Equation of motion of System : The equation of motion of a system of N particles is written as

·· → → → − − mi − = Fi + Ri (i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , N ) r

− → where mi is the mass of the ith particle, Fi is the applied force − → and Ri the constraint force. Generalized coordinates : To described the conﬁguration of the system we select the smallest possible number of variables which deﬁne conﬁguraiton of the system. These are called the generalized co-ordinates of the system. 3

Conﬁguration : A set of generalized co-ordinates is any set of co-oirdinates which described the conﬁguration. Notation for generalized Co-ordinates : symbols q1 , q2 , · · · , qn corresponding to the co-ordinates that we choose Generalized co-ordinates are q1 , q2 , · · · , qn (qi , i = 1, 2, · · · , n) the

to describe the motion.

1. When the particle move in a plane it described by cartesian coordinates (x, y) or polar co-ordinates and soon q1 = x q2 = y q1 = r q2 = θ

or

2. Some spherical symmetry the sherical co-ordinates is q1 = r = x2 + y 2 z x2 + y 2 y x

q2 = θ = cot−1 q3 = φ = tan−1 Deﬁnitions : 1. Newton fundamental equation 2. System of particle 3. Degree of freedom 4. Generalized Co-ordinates 5. Conﬁguration space 6. Holonomic constraints 7. Non polynomic constraints 4

8. Scleronomic constraints 9. Rheonomic constraints 10. Clarnomic system 11. Realnomic system 12. Polyateral constraints 13. Unilateral constraints Degree of freedom : The number of degree of freedom is equal to the number of coordinates minus the number of independent equation of constraints. (or) If the conﬁguration of a system of a N particles described using degree N cartesian relation these co-ordinates then the degrees of fredom equals 3N − ℓ. Example : Let 3 particles connected by the rigid rods to form a triangular body with the particles are at the corners. There particles are ﬁxed by a cartesian co-ordinates each rigid rod is represonted mathematically by indepenent constraints equation. All together there are three constraints. Hence degree of freedom equals 9 − 3 = 6. Generalized co-ordinates : A set of parameters used to represent the conﬁguration of a system without ambiguity are called Generalized co-ordinates. Conﬁguration Space : Let n be the degree of freedom of a system of N - particles. Let its conﬁgurations be speciﬁed by n - generalized co-ordinates. The n - dimensional space representing these Co-ordinates as a single point q (q1 , q2 , · · · , qn ) is called a conﬁguation space. Holonomic constraints : Let the conﬁguration of a system be speciﬁed by n - generalized Co-ordinates (q1 , q2 , · · · , qn ). 5

Let us assume that ethere are k independent equation of constraints of the form φj (q1 , q2 , · · · , qn , t) = 0, j = 1, 2, 3, · · · , k.

A constraints which can be expressed in this fashion is known as a Holonomic constraints. Holonomic system : A system is said to be Holonomic if its constraints are always Holomomic. Example : Consider the motion of 2 particles connected by a rigid rod of length ℓ in xy - plane constraint equation is given by (x2 − x1 )2 + (y2 − y1 )2 = ℓ2 . Scleronomic constraints : The constraints is said to be scleronomic if time t does not appear explicity. Example: Consider the motion of two particle in the xy plane they are connectd by a rigid rod of length ℓ. The corresponding constraint equation is ℓ2 = (x2 − x1 )2 + (y2 − y1 )2 . where x1 , x2 , y1 , y2 are cartesian co-ordinates of 2 particles. The equation does not contain the time t explicity. Scleronomic system : A system is said to be scleronomic if its constraints are scleronomic. Rhenomic system : A system is said to be Rhenomic if its constraints are Rhenomic. Rhenomic constraints : If the length ℓ have been generalized as an explicity function of time then the constraint is Rhenomic. OR Constraint relation depend 6

· · · . · · · . f (q1 . where r is trhe radius.Holonomic constraints : Let a system has m contraints which are non . 2. If (x. The negative displacement is also allowable then the constraints are called bilateral constraint. Unilateral constraint : In any conﬁguration of the system for every small allowable displacement in any ﬁxed time either a positive or negative displacement is allowable then the constraints are called unilateral constraints. Non . They are expressed as equalities. j = 1. · · · . m
where a′ s is a function of the q ′ s and t. q2 . qn .integrable and differential expression is of the form
n
i=1
aji dqi + ajt dt = 0.explicity on time. They are experessed as in equlities. y. 3.Holom Holkonomic constraints. x2 . qn . Bilateral constraints : If any conﬁguration of the system for every small allowable displacement in any ﬁxed time. q2 . This type of constraints are known as non. t) = 0 (Bilateral) Example : Let a free from particle be contained in a ﬁxed hollowsphere of radius r if its centre at the origin of a cartesian co-ordinates system. t) ≤ 0 (unilateralconstraints) f (q1 . · · · . z) are the co-ordinates of the particle then x2 + y 2 + z 2 ≤ 0 Virtural displacement : Let a system of N particles is given by 3N cartesian co-ordinates x1 . x3N with respect to some intertial frame adn may be subject 7
.

sponding Let f1 . Sliding motion on a frictionless susface.to the contraints. f2 . which is consistent with the constraint. x2 . At any given time let us assume that the co-ordinates have small inﬁnite displacement δx1 . Book work : The virtual displacement is not ingeneral a possible real displacement. δx2 . Workless constraints : A workless constraints is any bilateral constraint such that the virtual work done by the corresponding constraint force is zero for any virtual displacement. Rolling contact without slipping. r The forces are assumed to be constant through out the virtual displacement. They are assumed to occure without passing of tiem and donot
necessary conform to the constraints. Proof : In the virtual displacement. · · · . These small change Sk in the conﬁguration is known as Virtual displacement. Let the conﬁguration to represented by the cartesian co-ordinates x1 . the moving constraints are 8
. · · · . δx3N . f3N are the component forces applied at the corre-
Co-ordinates in a positive sense then the virtual workdone (δW ) of these forces for a virtual displacement δx is given by
3N
δW =
j=1
− −→ →− Fj δxj
Note :
N
In a vector form δW =
i=1
− − → → − → Fi · δ ri where Fi is the applied force of
→ ith particle −i is the positive vector. x3N . 2. Examples : 1. · · · . Virtual work : Consider a system of N particles.

t) = 0. 3. 3. q3N . · · · . · · · . 2. Let the system have k holonomic constraints. · · · . 2. · · · . · · · . 2. k. k. k. x2 . 3. k.
Virtual displacement dt = 0. dxi = δxi
n
i=1
aji δxi = 0 (j = 1. 2. dt = 0
3N
(2) j = 1. x3N . t) = 0. · · · . Then
3N
i=1
aji dxi + ajt dt = 0. q2 . m)
Form (1) and (2) shows that any holonomic constraint must also 9
.
∂φj ∂φj ∂φj ∂φj dx1 + dx + · · · + dx3N + dt = 0. j = 1. 2. dxi + ∂xi ∂t
Case (i) : Suppose te system has non-holonomic constraint. φj (q1 . dφj = j = 1. ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3N ∂t
Virtual displacement dxi = δxi . (1)
Let us take the totla diﬀerential of φ and obtain dφj = ∂φj ∂φj ∂φj ∂φj dq1 + dq2 + · · · + dq3N + dt = 0.
dφj =
i=1
∂φj ∂φj dt = 0. ∂q1 ∂q2 ∂q3N ∂t
Suppose the system is subject to k holonomic constraints φj (x1 . 3. 3.assumen to be slopped. · · · . j = 1.

j = 1. ∂φj = 0. Let us assume that their system is in static equilibirium.. These constraint are not ment in the general case. − → Ri is the constraint force acting on ith particle is − − − → → → Fi + Ri δ ri = δW.be scleronomic constraint i. State and prove the principle of virtual work : Statement: The necessary and suﬃcient condition for the static equilibrium of an initially mottionless sceleronomic which is subject of the system in to the virtual workdone for an arbitrary virtual displacement satisfying the constraint is zero. 2. 2.e. Then for each particle − − → → Fi + Ri = 0
− → where Fi is the external force. · · · . k ∂t
Suppose non-holonomic constraint aj = 0 . n
→ where −i is the position vector of ith particle.
N
− − − → → → Fi + Ri δ ri = 0
N
i=1 N
− − → → Fi δ ri +
− − → Ri δ → = 0 ri
i=1
i=1
10
. Hence a virtual displacement is not possible as a real displacement. i = 1. · · · . Proof : Case (i) Let us assume that we are given an sclernomic system of N particles. r ∴ Virtual workdone by all the force in moving through an arbitrary vitrual displacement consistant with the constraint is zero. 3. 3.

e.N
constraints are workless.e. δ − . The motion is s to C we can always choose a virtual displacement in the direction of actual motion at each particle. But it is not in static equlibirium. Show that virtual workdowne by the constraint forces on a system of two particles connected by the rigid massless rod is zero.. the virual workdone by the applied force is zero. − is the unit vector along the rod. the virtual work is positive
N
− − → → Fi δ ri + δW =
N
− − → Ri δ → > 0 ri − − → → − → Fi δ ri > 0. Case (ii) : Let us assume that the same system of particles are initially motionless. In this case. 1. Fi s = 0 δW > 0
i=1
i=1 N
i=1
If the system is not in equlibrium then the virtual workdone is not zero. then
i=1 N
− − → Ri δ → = 0 ri
− − → → Fi δ ri = 0 δW = 0
i=1
i. They are opoosite in sense with equal magnitude. Solution : − − → → Ri . δ − are the virtual dis→ → → er r1 r2 placement at the ends virtual workdone by a constraint force is given 11
. Ri are the constraint force along the rod on the 2 particles.. i.
⇒ workdone = 0.

Virtual workdone by external force (F ) = 0 Workdone by constraint force (R) = 0 We have mg(δx1 ) + F2 (δx2 ) = 0.by − → − → → δWC = R1 δ − + R2 δr2 r1 − → → → R1 = R1 (−− ) = −R− er er − → → R2 = R2 (− ) = −R1 er virtual displacement along the rod all equal → → δ − er = δ − er r1 r2 → → → → δWC = −R1 − δ − + R2 − δ − er r1 er r2 → = (R − R ) − δr e
2 1 r 1
δWC = 0 (∵ R2 = R1 equal magnitude) . Solve for the force F2 . Given an equation of scleronomic with workless constraints (bilateral) to which the principle of the virtual work can be applied (or) Two frictionless blocks of equal mass m all connected by the massless rigid rod using x1 and x2 as co-ordinates. Solution : R1 and R2 are the external constraint acting at the wall and ﬂoor repectively. Example for bilateral constraints : 2. If the system is in static equlibirium. The applied forces are the gravitational force acting in the blocks and the external forces F2 system is in static equlibirium. ∴ δx1 sin θ = δx2 cos θ 12 (2) (1)
. The virtual displacement along the rod at ends are equal.

Solution : Let us assume a cube of mass is placed between two frictionless mutually perpenticular plane. It has components F1 . Le x1 = x2 = 0 at the equilibirium position then unilateral constraints are x1 ≥ 0. The only applied force is the weight mg. Using a suitable example. Assume that the motion is an vertical plane. ⇒ mg sin θδx1 + F2 sin θδx2 = 0 mgδx2 cos θ + F2 sin θδx2 = 0 (mg cos θ + F2 sin θ) δx2 = 0. show how the concept of virtual work can be applied to system with unilateral constraints. F2 in x1 and x2 direction. mg cos θ + F2 sin θ = 0 F2 sin θ = −mg cos θ F2 = −mg cot θ 3. But displacement δx2 = 0. x2 ≥ 0. A frictionless system which is constrained to move in the vertical plane.Multiply (1) by sin θ.
g
R1
45
0
x2
m
x1 R2
45
0
When in equilibuim R1 = −F1 and R2 = −F2 mg δWC = √ (δx1 + δx2 ) > 0 2 13
.

·· → Let −i be the acceleration of ith particle relative to an inertial r ·· →r frame.
1. 2 Hence for a system with unilateral constraints 2.mg F1 = F2 = − √ 2 Virtual workdone by applied forces is −mg δW = √ (δx1 + δ 2 ) ≤ 0 2 Thus the virtual δW ≤ 0 for any virtual displacement consistent To ﬁnd workdone by constraint forces mg R1 = R2 = √ 2 Virtual workdone by constraint forces mg δWC = R1 δx1 + R2 δx2 = √ (δx1 + δx2 ) ≥ 0. Workdone by constraint force is + ve. 2. − → Let Ri be constraint force of particle. 14
. m→
i i
with unilateral constraints. Consider on ith particle to the system mi is the mass of the particle. Workdone by external force is −ve. N. D’ Alembert’s Principle : Let the system has N particles. → ri − → Fi is applied force of particle. − is the position vector of particle.
Now we have the equation
·· − − −− → → →→ Fi + Ri − mi ri = 0. − − is the intertial force acting on the ith particle. 3. · · · . i = 1.
(1)
(The sum of all the force real and inertial acting on each particle of a system is zero) This result is known as D’ Alembert’s principle.

· · · . φ is the angle between a verticla plane through a supporting point and a vertical plane containing the pendulum.Note : − → − → Fi and Ri together are called as real forces. 3.θ is measured from the upward vertical. ri
i=1
This equation is the Lagrange’s form of D’ Alemberts principle. 2. − → − → Fi is the applied forced and Ri is the constraint force on the ith particle. ·· →r −− i −i is inertial force acting on the particle. Let mi be the mass of the ith particle frame. N ) . Now we have the m→ equation
·· − − −− → → →→ Fi + Ri − mi ri = 0
(i = 1. Lagrange’s form of D’ Alembrt’s Principle : Let us assume that the system has N particles. Obtain the diﬀerential equation of the given pendulum (sphericla pendulum) or A particle of mass m is subspended by a massless wire of length r = a + b cos ωt(a > b > 0) to form a sphorical pendulum. Find the equation of motion.
Now the virtual workdone by the system is
N ·· − − −− → → →→ − Fi + Ri − mi ri δ →i = 0 r
i=1
− → Ri is the workless constraint forces
N
− − → Ri δ → = 0 ri
i=1 N ·· − −− → →→ − Fi − mi ri δ → = 0. 1. 15
. Solution : Let us assume that the spherical co-ordinates θ and φ.

q O
g r
f m eq er ef
The acceleration of a particle whose spherical co-ordinates are (r. r eθ eφ The applied gravitational force is. → → → δ − = rδθ− + r sin δφ− . − . θ. φ) is as follows − = → r
·· · · ·· ·· · · → → r − rθ − rφ sin2 θ − + rθ + 2rθ − rφ2 sin θ cos θ − er eθ ·· · · · · → + rφ sin θ + 2rφ sin θ + 2rθφ cos θ − eφ 2 ·
→ → → where − . − → → → F = mg cos 1800 − θ − + mg sin 1800 − θ − er eθ − → → → F = −mg cos θ− + mg sin θ− er eθ we have − → ·· → F − mr δ − = 0 (By D’ Alemberts principle) r 16
. eθ er eφ A virtual displacement constraint with the constraint is. − are unit vectors forming an orthogonal triad.

∴ co-eﬃceient are equal to zero respectively mr g sin θ − rθ + 2rθ − rφ sin θ cos θ Since mr sin θ = 0 − sin θmr rφ sin θ + 2rφ sin θ + 2rθφ cos θ
·· · · · · ·· · · · ·· · · · · ·· · · ·
=0
(1)
=0
(2)
r = a + b cos ωt r = −bω sin ωt (1) ⇒ (a + b cos ωt) φ sin θ−2bω sin ωtθ−(a + b cos ωt) φ sin θ cos θ−g sin θ = 0 (2) ⇒ (a + b cos ωt) φ sin θ−2bω sin ωt sin θφ+2 (a + b cos ωt) θφ cos θ = 0. F2 . F3N is applied 17
·· · · · ·· · ·2
. Generalized forces : to system of N particles. · · · .→ → (−mg cos θ− + mg sin θ− ) − m er eθ
·· · · → + rθ + 2rθ − rφ2 sin θ cos θ − + eθ ·
· · ·· → r − rθ − rφ sin2 θ − er
2
·· · · · · → → → rφ sin θ + 2rφ sin θ + 2rθφ cos θ − × rδθ− + r sin θδφ− = 0 eφ eθ eφ
Taking dot product. Let us assume that a given set of force F1 . mgr sin θ − mr rθ + 2rθ − rφ2 sin θ cos θ δθ −m rφ sin θ + 2rφ sin θ + 2rθφ cos θ r sin θδφ = 0 δφ and δθ are independent Virtual displacements. . These are diﬀerential equation of the motion.

3N. Let these are related by the relations xj = xj (q1 .
Principle of work and kinetic evergy : Statement: The increase in K.The virtual workdone by these force is
3N
δW =
j=1
Fj δxj
(1)
Let us suppose that the 3N ordinary constraint co-ordinates are related with the n . 3.E. Using displacement is virtual workdone we get. 2. q2 . 2. t). · · · . 3N ) = ∂qi i=1
3N n
(1) ⇒ δW =
3N
Fj
j=1 i=1
∂xj δqi ∂qi
n
3N
=
i=1 j=1
Fj
∂xj ∂qi
δqi
Fj
j=1
∂xj is called the generalized force. qn . · · · .E. of a particle as its moves from one arbitary point to another point is equal to the workdone by the force acting on the particle during the given intervals (or) chang in K. q2 . qn . · · · . j = 1. ∂qi
n
δW =
i=1
Qi δqi . = workdone. Proof: 1 Kinetic Energy is given by T = mv 2 v is the velocity of particle and 2 18
. dxj = δxj δxj ∂xj ∂xj ∂xj ∂xj dt dq1 + dq2 + · · · + dqn + ∂q1 ∂q2 ∂qn ∂t ∂xj ∂xj ∂xj = δq1 + δq2 + · · · + δqn ∂q1 ∂q2 ∂qn n ∂xj δqi (j = 1.generalized co-ordinates q1 . · · · .

− → Proof : Let F be the conservative force acting on the particle at the 19
. − → Let W be the workdone by the force F in moving particle from A to B is
B
W =
A B
− − → → F ·dr → → m − d− . Statement: Let the only force acting on the given particle be conservative. r r
·· ·· − → → ∵ F = m− r
=
A
B
= m
A
− d− → → r r
B
··
1 m W = 2 = 1 m 2 m 2 m 2
d dt
− − dt →→ r r
· 2
·
·
A B
→ d − r → d − r
· 2
A B
=
A B
= = = = W =
d v2
A
m 2 B v A 2 m 2 2 v − vA 2 B 1 2 1 2 mvB − mvA 2 2 TB − TA
Book work : State and prove the principle of conservation of energy.m is the mass of the particle.

· · · .E. x3N ). By principle of virtual work the necessary condition for the static equilibrium of the system is δW = 0. y. from A to B W = VA − VB = TA − TB Since the points A and B are arbitrary. T is the K. W is the workdone of the particle. j = 1. · · · . x2 . TA + VA = TB + TB = E of the energy is conservative.E. z). 3N. ∂V = 0. Book work : An equilibrium conﬁguration at a conservative holonomic system with workless ﬁxed constraints must occur at a position where the P.point (x. 2. δV = 0. m is the mass of the particle. function V (x1 . Proof : consider a system of N particles whose applied forces are conservative and derived from the P. We conclude that the total mechanical evergy E remains constant during the motion of the particle. The virtual workdone by the forces
3N
δW =
j=1
F xj δxj
But F xj =
−∂V ∂xj
3N
Workdone δW =
j=1
−∂V ∂qi
δxj = −δV. has a stationary value. of the particle. This is the principle of conservation of evergy. 3. ∂xj 20
.
This is the ﬁrst variation of the P.E.E.

q2 . (i) If ∆V > 0 ⇒ The equilibrium is stable (ii) If ∆V < 0 ⇒ The equilibrium is unstable 21
. from its value of equation position. ∂qi These condition imply that the P. q2 .E has a stationary value.E.E. · · · . · · · . i = 1. · · · . ∴ δV = 0 ∂V ⇒ = 0. The δq’s represent inﬁnitesimal change from this reference conﬁguration. q ′ s are independent ∂xi
We conclude that an equilibrium conﬁguration of a conservative holonomic system with workless ﬁxed constraints must occur at a position.Let us assume the P. qn )
n
=
i=1
∂V (δqi ) . 2. 3. Consider the stability of this system at position of static equilibrium. ∆V = V − V0 1 ∂2V = 2 2 ∂q1
δ 2 q1 +
∂2V ∂q1 ∂q2
(δq1 δq2 ) +
1 2
∂ 2V 2 ∂q2
δ 2 q2 + · · ·
where a zero subscript on a function implices that it is to be evaluated at the reference value of the q’s. n. Where the P. is at a stationary value system. value V0 . function V (q1 . qn ) about the reference ∂V ∂V δq1 + δq2 + · · · ∂q1 0 ∂q2 0 ∂2V ∂ 2V (δq1 δq2 ) + · · · (δq1 )2 + · · · + 2 ∂q1 ∂q1 ∂q2
= V0 + + 1 2
∴ ∆V is the change in P. we have V Expanding the P.E.E is interms of generalized co-ordinates V δV = V (q1 .

E.E. of the system. due to a particle having a mass equal to the total mass of the system and moving with the velocity of the centre of mass and (ii) the K. of the system of particle..
mj
r ri
c.
z mi r rC
.
N
T =
· i=1 ·
· 1 −2 mi → r 2 ·
− = − +− → → r rC → ρi 22
. Proof : Consider a system of N particles.(iii) If ∆V = 0 ⇒ The equilibrium is nutral. due to the motion the system relative to its centre of mass. Let T be the K. → Let −i be the position vector of the ith particle (whose mass is no) r relative to a point O ﬁxed in an inertial frame. rC Let mi be the mass of the system.m r rC mi
y
O
x
→ Let − be the position vector of the mass centre om.E.E. of a system is equal to the sum of (i) The K. Find the K.E. Konig’s Theorem : The total K.

E.(centre of mass) Book work : Kinetic Energy of a system of a particle using an arbitrary reference point.m.m ri rC r r rC ri
P mk y
O
23
. → Let P be an arbitrary point. of a particle of mass m with vector of c. Proof : → Consider a system of N . K.m.E.E of mass centre + K. − is the position vector of mass rC centre c.
z mi r r c. relative to the centre of mass.particle.− → r
· 2
→ → → → = − C + −i 2 + 2− C −i r ρ r ρ
N
· 2
·
·
1 T = 2 = = T =
mi
i=1 · 2 N i=1 N
· 2 − +1 → rC 2
N
→ mi − i + ρ
· 2 ·
· 2
N
→ → mi − C − i r ρ → mi − i ρ → mi − i = 0 ρ
· ·
·
·
i=1
1− → r 2 C 1− → r 2 C
· 2
mi + mi +
i=1 N
1 2 1 2
N
→ → mi − i + − C ρ r → mi − i ρ
· 2
i=1 N
i=1 N
i=1 N
∵
i=1
i=1 · 2
1 − 1 m→C + r 2 2
· 2
→ mi − i ρ
i=1
T = K. Let −i be the position vector r of an ith particle (mass m) relative to a point O ﬁxed in an inertial frame.

E.E. 3. due to the particle having a mass and moving with reference point P . 1. is the sum of this 3 parts. The K. The K. m ρi = 24
· · · · · · ·
m ρC +
mρj
m ρC
·
. The sclar product of the velocity of the reference point and the linear momentum of the system relative to a reference point.
N
T =
· i=1 ·
· 1 −2 mi → r 2 ·
− = − +− → → r rρ → ρi − = → ri
· 2
− +− → rρ → ρi
· 2
·
·
2
·
→ → → → = − ρ + −i 2 + 2− ρ −i r ρ r ρ T = = T = 1 2 1 2
N
·
·
→ mi − ρ + r
· 2
· 2
i=1 N
1 2
N
→ mi − i + ρ
·
· 2
N
→ → mi − ρ − i r ρ → mi − i ρ ρC = 1 m → mi − C ρ
· ·
·
·
i=1 · 2
i=1
1→ → → r mi − i + − ρ m + − ρ ρ r 2
N · 2 ·
i=1 N
i=1 ·
1 1 − m→ρ + r 2 2
· 2
→ → → mi − i + − ρ m− C ρ r ρ
i=1
Hence the total K. Note : ρi = ρC + ρj ρi = ρC + ρj mρi = But mρj = 0.E. → ρc Let T be the kinetic energy of the system.− is the position vector of mass centre relative to the point P . 2. of the system due to its motion relative to P .

particles.E of system of N .Kinetic Energy of rigid body : Take CM as the origin of vectors. ω To ﬁnd − = − ×− → → → ρ ω ρ
· 2 ·
− → ρ
→ →2 → → → = (− × − ) = − · − × − ω ρ ω ρ ρ
·
·
→ → → → → → → = (− × − ) · − = − · − − × − ω ρ ρ ω ρ ω ρ
·
− → ρ
· 2
→ → → → → → → = − · [(− · − ) − − (− · − ) − ] ω ρ ρ ω ρ ω ρ 25
.E Each element of a rigid body can be considered as a particle of inﬁnite small mass. Let dV be a small volume element of a rigid body with density. The ﬁrst term is called translational K. rotational K. Then the K. ie. The typical volume element dV can be chosen so small. and second term is called rotational K.E of the system T = =
· 1 1 −2 m→C + r 2 2 N
→ mi − i ρ
· 2
· 2
i=1
1 − 1 m→C + r 2 2
V
· 2
→ ρ− i dV ρ
− is the position vector of volume element dV relative to mass → ρ centre c.E is negligibe compared with its translational K. Each element of the rigid body is having in general translational and rotational velocity. We can assume that the rigid body is having instantaneous axis of rotaion. → Let assume that the body be rotating with angular velocity − .m. m=V ×ρ Hence the limiting case of K. m is the mass of the body.E.E.

I and product of inertial as follows.− → ρ
· 2
→ →→ → → → = − · − 2 − − (− · − ) − ω ρ ω ρ ω ρ → →→ → → → = − · − 2 − − (− · − ) − ω ρ ω ρ ρ ω
Let ρ = xi + y j + z k ω = ω x i + ω y j + ω z k
ω · ρ2 ω − (ρ · ω) ρ = = = x2 + y 2 + z 2 ω x i − (xω x + yω y + zω z ) xi ω y 2 + z 2 ω x − xyω y − xzω z y 2 + z 2 ω x − (xyω y + xzω z ) i + [ ]j + [ ]k ω 1 2
. ·
T =
− − 2 dV →→ ρ ρ − → ρ
V 1 = ω 2
y 2 + z 2 ω x − (xyω y + xzω z )
i
V
+ [ ]j + [ ]k ω dV
Deﬁne m. Let Ixx =
V
→ y 2 + z 2 − dV ρ → z 2 + x2 − dV ρ
V
Iyy = Izz =
V
→ x2 + x2 − dV ρ → (xy) − dV ρ
V
Ixy = Iyx = − Iyz = Izy = −
V
→ (yz) − dV ρ
26
.

Izx = Ixz = −
V
→ (zx) − dV ρ
Trot =
1 1 1 Ixx ω 2 + Iyy ω 2 + Izz ω 2 + Ixy ω x ω y + Iyy ω y ω z + Izx ω z ω x x y z 2 2 2 3 3 1 Iij ω i ω j = 2 i=1 j=1
1− T − → I→ ω ω 2 T Ixx Ixy Ixz ωx 1 ω y Iyx Iyy Iyz = 2 Izx Izy Izz ωz → 1 − T− − = (→) I (→) ω ω 2 =
·
ωx ωy ωz
1 → Kinetic Enery of rigid body = 2 m− + − T I − rc → → ω ω
Angular Momentum of a system : The angular momentum of a system of N particles and the total mass ‘M ’ about a ﬁxed point O is equal to the angular momentum about θ of a single particle of mass m which is moving with centre of mass plus the angular momentum of the system about the centre of mass m. Proof : ith Let us consider a system of N .particles Let mi is the mass of the → particle whole position vectors given by − . r
i
The angular momentum of the ith particle = r × ρ = r × mv 27
. moment of momentum = Angular momentum. Find the angular momentum of a system of particles about a ﬁxed point θ.

Note :
Tra =
1− → η − × (− × − ) dV → → → ω ρ ω ρ 2 → 1− − →H ω C = 2
Angular momenum of a rigid body : Le dV be small volume element of a rigid body having density η. → → ri r
·
But
i=1
→ mi −i = 0 ⇒ ρ
→ ρ mi −i = 0
·
i=1
Angular momentum of the system = → ×− m + 0 + 0 + rC
· N · N
i=1
− × m− → → ρi ρ
·
·
→ → = − × m− + rC rC
·
i=1
→ − × m− → ρ ρi
H=
− × m− + H → → rC rC C
wher HC is the angular momentum of the system relative to a centre of mass. 28
. Each element of the rigid body is having translation and relation. We can assume that the rigid body is having instantaneous axis of rotation.→ = m− × r r · → → AM = −i × m− r r
·
N
Angular momentum of the system H =
i=1 N N
− × m− . The typical volume element dV can be chosen so small.

N · · − → → → The angular momentum of a systme of particle H = − × m− + rC rC
i=1
− × m− . ρ ω ρ ω → → → → → →→ → → → ∴ − × − = − × (− × − ) = − 2 − − (− · − ) − ρ ρ ρ ω ρ ρ ω ρ ω ρ Let us consider a cartesian system with its origin at the centre of mass. → → → → → → → − = x− + y − + z − .Its rotational K. − = ω − + ω − + ω − → ρi i j k ω x i y j z k → ρ2 ω· (ω) ρ = x2 + y 2 + z 2 ω − (xω + yω + zω )− x
x x y z I ·
= = Ixx =
V
− → y 2 + z 2 ω x − (xyω y + xzω z ) i
y 2 + z 2 ω x − (xyω y + xzω z ) i y 2 + z 2 ηdV z 2 + x2 ηdV
V
Iyy = Izz =
V
x2 + y 2 ηdV (xy) ηdV
V
Ixy = Iyx = − Iyz = Izy = −
V
(yz) ηdV (zx) ηdV
V
Izx = Ixz = −
29
.E is negligible compared with its translational K. where − is the angular velocity of the rigid body.E each element of rigid body can be considered as particle of inﬁnite decimal mass. → → ρi ρC
In the case of rigid body
· − → − → → H = rC × m − + rC ·
V
→ → η − × − dV ρ ρ
·
→ → → → But − = − × − .

→ → Let − be the angular velocity of the body. − is the position of the rigid ρ body is the position vector of elementary volume dv with respect to centre of mass. rC rC ω
Problem:
→ 1→ − Prove that Trot = − · HC . Let − be the position ω rC 30
.∴
V
→ → η − × − dV ρ ρ → → → →→ η − 2 − − (− · − ) − dV ρ ω ρ ρ ω
V
··
= =
V
− → ηy 2 + z 2 ω x − ηxyω y − ηxzω z i
− → + η z 2 + x2 ω y −ηyzω x − ηyxω x j − → + η x2 + y 2 ω x −ηzxω y − ηzyω y k dV − → − → − → − → = Ixx ω x i + Iyy ω y j + Izz ω z k + Ixy ω y i − → − → − → − → − → +Iyz ω z j + Izx ω x k + Ixz ω z i + Iyx ω x j + Izy ω y k
− → − → − → HC = (Ixx ω x + Ixz ω z + Ixy ω y ) i + (Iyy ω y + Iyz ω z + Iyx ω x ) j − → + (Izz ω z + Izx ω x + Izy ω y ) k Ixx Ixy Ixz
− → → HC = I − where I = Iyx Iyy Iyz ω Izx Izy Izz
· − → → → − → → − → ∴ H = − × m− + HC where HC = I − . ω 2 Proof: The rotational K.E of a rigid body M given by T = 1 2
V
→ η − dV ρ
·
(1)
→ η is the density of the rigid body.

→ Angular momentum of the ith particle w. to O.to p = ρi mi −i . rP → mi is the position of the ith particle with position vector −i .r.− → vector of centre of mass w. − is the position vector of P w.r. c. to origin ‘O’. ρ Angular moment of the system about the position P is − → HP =
N ·
− = − −− → → r ρi ri → P 31
i=1
− ×m− → → ρi i ρi
·
.r. to ‘P ’.m. is r → the centre of mass of the system.r. − is the position vector of the ith ρ
i
particle w. Then H = − → HC − → → → → ρ ω ρ where HC = η (− × (− × − )) dV
V
− × m− + → → rC rC (2)
·
But − → ρ
· 2
→→ → → → = − ·− = − · (− × − ) ρ ρ ρ ω ρ → → → = − · − ×− ω ρ ρ → → → = (− × − ) · − ω ρ ρ
· ·
·
·
·
→ → → → = − · − × − ×− ω ρ ρ ω
·
Trot =
1 2
V
− ηdV → ρ → → → → η − [− × (− × − )] dV ω ρ ω ρ
V
· 2
=
1 2
→ 1− − → · H ( using (2)) ω = C 2 Angular momentum with respect to an arbitrary point : → Let P be arbitrary point.

→ −− × rC → +− × ρC But
i=1 N
→ r → → → → mi −i + − × m− − − × m− r rC rC ρC C → ρ → → → → mi −i − − × m− + − × m− ρ rC ρC ρC C
· · ·
i=1
N
− → = rC
→ mi −i r mi
i=1 N
N
⇒
→ mi − C = r − → = rC 32
·
i=1 N
→ mi −i r → mi −i r
·
i=1
i=1 N
i=1
.But − = − −− → → → rP r C ρC − = − − − −− → → → ρi ri rC ρ→ C − −− +− → r → ρ → = r
· i ·
C C
− = − −− +− → → r → ρi ri → ρC C
·
·
− → HP = =
N
i=1 N
− −− +− ×m − −− +− → r → → r → ri → ρC ri → ρC i C C → → → r → → ρ → r → mi −i × −i − −i × − + −i × − − − × r r r r C C C
· · · · · · · ·
·
·
·
− +− × − − − × − + − × − − − × − + − × − → r → → → → r → → → → ri → rC rC ρC ρC → ρC rC ρC ρC C i AM of the system about the arbitrary point
N
i=1 ·
=
i=1
− ×m− − → → ri i ri
N ·
·
N
i=1
→ → r mi −i × − + r C
·
·
N
i=1
→ → ρ mi −i × − r C
·
.

qn . · · · . z). Obtain the expression for the rational K. If V = V (q. 33
. y.E of a system of N particles show with usual notation that
· 1 1 → rC T = m− 2 + 2 2 N
→ ρi mi − 2
·
i=1
2.
Note : i) L is almost a function of quadratic in q ′ s. then ∂qi ∂qi ∂qi ii) Consider a particle of mass in with cortesian co-ordinates (x. q2 . Hence pi is a ∂T ∂V ∂L = − . Let us deﬁned the Lagrangian function L q.E of the system. The generalized momentum pi associated with qi is deﬁned as pi = ∂L ∂ qi
· ·
=
∂T ∂ qi
·
∵
∂V ∂ qi
·
=0 . Considering the K. (Rigid body on system of particle)
Generalized Momentum : Consider a system with n .generalized co-ordinates q1 . t as follows L=T −V.AM of the system about the arbitrary point
· · · · − → − → → → → → → → → → H P = H · m− C × − C + m− C × − C − − C × m− C + − C × m− C r r r ρ r r r r · · · · · → → → → → → → → − − C × m− C + − C × m− C − − C × m− C + − C × m− C r ρ ρ r ρ r ρ ρ · · − → → → → → = H − − × m− + − × m− r r ρ ρ C C C C N
=
i=1
− × m − − − × m− + − × m− → → → → → ri rC r C →C ρ ρC i r i
·
·
·
1. Let T be K. Prove with usual notation that → 1 →− ω Trot = − H C 2 3. t).E. q. V is the potential energy of the system. linear function of q ′ s.

then T = pr pθ pφ
·2 ·2 1 ·2 m r + r2 θ + r2 φ sin2 θ 2 1 ∂T · · = · = m2r = mr 2 ∂r · 1 2 · ∂T 2 = · = mr 2θ = mr θ 2 ∂θ · · ∂T 1 = = mr2 2φ sin2 θ = mr2 sin2 θφ · 2 ∂φ
pr is called linerar momentum component radial direction. x2 . x3 ) or by the generalized co-ordinates (q1 .E and gen-
.The K.E. Solution : Let T be the K. 1. x2 = 2 eralized momentum. pφ is called vertical component of angular momentum. Three particles are conneeted by 2 rigid rods having a joint between them to form a system verticla force F and a momentum M are applied as shown in ﬁgure. If the position of the particle is given by spherical polar co-ordinates (r. Find the expression for K. θ.E of the particle is given by T = px 1 ·2 ·2 ·2 m x +y +z 2 1 ∂T · · = · = m2x = mx 2 ∂x
· ·
Similarly py = my and pz = mz px is the x component of the linear momentum. q3 ) where x1 = q1 + q2 + 1 q3 . q2 . ∴T = 1 ·2 ·2 ·2 m x1 + x2 + x3 2 34
1 q1 − q3 . The conﬁguration of the system is given by the ordinary co-ordinates (x1 . pθ is called horizandal component of hte angular momentum. of the system. x3 = q1 − q2 + 2 q3. φ) .

q 2 . 2 Three particles are connected by two rigid rods having a joint between them to form the system shown in the ﬁgure. p3 are called the generalized moment equal are inertial co-eﬃceient.1 x1 = q1 + q2 + q3 2 x2 = q1 − q3 1 x3 = q1 − q2 + q3 2 1· · · · x1 = q 1 + q 2 + q 3 2 · · · x2 = q 1 − q 2 1· · · · x3 = q 1 − q 2 + q 3 2 1 ·2 ·2 m 3q 1 + 2q 2 + ∴T = 2 ∂T 1 · p1 = · = m3 2q 1 2 ∂ q1 p2 = p3 ∂T
·
3 ·2 q 2 3 = 3mq 1
·
1 · · = m4q 2 = 2mq 2 2 ∂ q2 ∂T 1 3 · 3m · = q · = m 2q 3 = 2 2 2 3 ∂ q3
p1 . A virtual force F and momentum m are applied to the system as shown the conﬁguration of the system is given by the ordinary co-ordinates (x 1 . q 3 ). F3 = . x2 = q1 − q3 . F2 = Assume small motions the applied force on the system F1 = 4 F m m − . Find the 2 2 generalized force Q1 . x 2 . Q 2 . where x1 = q1 + q2 + 1 q3 . Q 3
m
3l 4
m
M
m
x1
x2
x3
l
l
3F . p2 . x 3 ) or by the gneralized co-ordinates (q 1 . 4 ℓ ℓ 35
Solution :
. x3 = q1 − q2 + 1 q3.

Q2 =
∂x2 ∂x3 ∂x1 + F2 + F2 ∂q1 ∂q1 ∂q1 3F m m F + (1) + − 4 4 ℓ ℓ F 3F + =F 4 4 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 F1 + F2 + F2 ∂q2 ∂q2 ∂q2 3F m m F (0) + (−1) (1) + − 4 4 ℓ ℓ m 3F − 4 ℓ ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂x1 + F2 + F2 F1 ∂q1 ∂q1 ∂q1 3F 1 m 1 F m + (−1) + − 4 2 4 ℓ ℓ 2 3F F m m − + + 8 4 ℓ 2ℓ 3m F + 8 2ℓ
3F 4
Energy of momentum conservative systems : − → Let (x. Q3 be the corresponding generalized forces on the system. y. z) be the position of a particle. Qi ∂xj ⇒ = Fj ∂qi j=1
3N 3N
Fj
j=1
∂xj ∂qi
Q1 = F1 = = Q2 = = = Q1 = = = = Thus Q1 = F. z) is the potential energy function depending on position − → → r Book work : Prove that for any constervative force F × d− = 0 − → Proof : Let F be the conservative force acting on the particele at 36 only. Fy = − . y.
. In this case F is called conservative force. Fz = − ∂x ∂y ∂τ
−
m ℓ
and Q3 =
F 8
+
3m . Q2 .Let Q1 . Let F be the total force acting on the partical with components Fx = − ∂V ∂V ∂V . 2ℓ
where V (x.

Let V (x. z) Thus dW is an exact diﬀerential equation − − → → F · d r = −dV
dz
− → Let W be the workdone by the force F is the moving particle from A to B. z). y. y. z) be the potential energy of the particle. y. Workdone is moving around a closed curve is − − → → Fdr =0 ∵ √ A= √ B
37
. Fz = − ∂x ∂y ∂y
Workdone = W =
− → − → − → − → − → − → Fx i + Fy j + Fz k · d x i + y j + z k F dr
− → dW = F · dr = Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz ∂V ∂V ∂V dx + − dy + − = − ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂V ∂V ∂V = − dx + dy + dz ∂x ∂y ∂z dW = −dV (x. Fx = − ∂V ∂V ∂V . Fy = − .
B
B
Total workdone = W =
A
− dV = −
A
dV = − [V ]B = VA − VB A
∴ Workdone on the particle is depending on the initial and ﬁnal positions.(x.

xk =
twice diﬀerentiable with respect to the q ′ s and t. we get 1 ∴ T = 2 1 = 2 = 1 2
3N 3N · ·
·
·
=
i=1
∂xk · ∂xk · ∂xk ∂xk · q1 + q2 + · · · + qn + = ∂q1 ∂q2 ∂qn ∂t n ∂xk · ∂xk = qi + ∂qi ∂t i=1
n
mk
k=1 n i=1 n
∂xk · ∂xk qi + ∂qi ∂t
2
mk
k=1 n n i=1 j=1 3N
∂xk ∂xk · · q q +2 ∂qi ∂qj i j ∂xk ∂xk · · qq + ∂qi ∂qj i j mk ∂xk ∂t
2
n
i=1 n
∂xk · ∂xk + q ∂qi i ∂t
3N
∂xk ∂t
2
mk
i=1 j=1 k=1
mk
i=1 k=1
∂xk ∂xk · qi ∂qi ∂t
+
1 2
3N
. x3N . q.
k=1
38
. 2. · · · . qn be the generalized co-ordinates of the system. Let q1 . · · · . q2 . t) . x2 . 3. second particle respectively.UNIT II
Lagrange’s Equation : Let us consider a system of N particles whose positions relative to an inertial frame are given by the cartesian co-ordinates x1 . We ﬁnd that
n
xk (q. m4 = m5 = m6 is the mass of the ﬁrst particle. Kinetic energy of the system 1 T = 2
3N
m k xk
k=1
·2
(1)
where m1 = m2 = m3 . k = 1. 3N where we assume that tehse functions are ∂xk · ∂xk qi + ∂qi ∂t
xk q. · · · . t xk xk Put in (1).

t .
where T2 is a homogeneous quadratic in q ′ s. q.Let
∂xk ∂xk = mij and mk ∂qi ∂qj k=1 1 2
n n
3N
3N
mk
k=1
∂xk ∂xk = ai ∂qi ∂t
n
T = T q. q. 2. Obtain Lagrange’s equatin from D’ Alembert’s principle interms of generalized co-ordinates. Note: (i) T is a functin of q. t
·
mij q i q j +
i=1 j=1 i=1
· ·
ai q i +
·
1 2
3N
mk
k=1
∂xk ∂t
2
= T2 + T1 + T0 . T1 is homogeneous linear function in q i . q. Proof : Let us assume that the system has N particles with 3N cartesian co-ordinates from D’ alembert’s principle. t
· · ·
(ii) For a sceleronomic system T0 = 0 T1 = 0 ∂xk since = 0 ∂t In this case T = T2 . 39
. we have
3N
k=1
Fk − mk xk δxk = 0
··
(1)
where Fk is the applied force component associated with xk . ∴ T = T q. T0 is a function of q ′ s and t′ s in general.

· · · . q2 .Let us assume that the system is determined by n-generalized coordinates q1 .r. xk xk δxk = xk (q. t) = xk (q1 .to q i
∂ xk ∂ qi d dt ∂ xk ∂ qi
· · ·
·
=
∂xk ∂qi
·
(3)
d = dt 1 T = 2 pi
3N
∂xk ∂qi mk x k
·2
∂ xk = ∂qi
k=1
1 = · = 2 ∂ qi
3N ·
∂T
∂ xk mk 2xk ∂qi k=1
· ·
3N
·
∂ xk = m k xk ∂qi k=1
d dt
∂T ∂ qi
·
3N
=
k=1
∂ xk · d + m k xk m k xk ∂qi dt
··
·
∂ xk ∂qi
·
40
. qn . q2 . · · · . t)
n
=
i=1 3N
∂xk ∂xk δqi + δt ∂qi ∂t
n
(1) ⇒
k=1
Fk − mk xk
··
i=1
∂xk δqi = 0 ∂qi
n
3N
i=1 k=1 n
Fk − mk xk
··
∂xk δqi = 0 ∂qi
(2)
xk =
i=1 ·
·
∂xk · q ∂qi i
Diﬀerentiating w. qn .

Hence the co-eﬃceient of δq’s in equation (7) must be zero. n.
′ The δqi s are independent. qn .independet generalized co-ordinates q1 . · · · . The above discussion the system is under instantaneous constraints. · · · . Book work : Obtain the standard form of Lagrange’s equation for a 41
. Let us assume the system be holonomic and described by n. 2.∂xk ·· · ∂ xk xk + m k xk = mk ∂qi ∂qi k=1 k=1 1 ∂T = ∂qi 2 d dt ∂T ∂qi ∂ xk mk 2xk ∂qi k=1
· 3N 3N ·
3N
3N
·
(4)
(5) ∂xk ∂qi
∂T − = ∂qi
mk x k
k=1
··
(6)
Let us deﬁne the generalized force Qi asq
3N
Qi =
k=1
Fk
∂xk ∂qi
By (2) we have
n
i=1
∂xk ·· ∂xk δqi = 0 − m k xk Fk ∂qi ∂qi k=1 k=1
n
3N
3N
i=1
Qi −
d dt
∂T ∂ qi
·
+
∂T δqi = 0 ∂qi
(7)
This is the Lagrange’s form of D’ Alemberts principle interms of generalized co-ordinates. ∴ co-eﬃcient of δq = 0 d dt ∂T ∂ qi
·
−
∂T = Qi . 3. i = 1. q2 . ∂qi
These equations are Lagrange equations from holonomic system. q’s are independent.

i = 1. 3. t) as let the system is holonomic conservative. The standard form of Lagrange’s equations d dt ∂T ∂ qi
· ·
=
∂L ∂ qi ∂L ∂ qi
· ·
∵ L q. 3. · · · . Let us assume the generalized forces Qi is not completly deriva42
. q.
−
∂L = 0. i = 1. ∂qi ∂L ∂ qi
·
since pi = ∴
d ∂L (Pi ) − = 0 dt ∂qi
where pi =
∂L . ∂qi 2. N. ∂T ∂ qi d dt Note : 1. t
·
∂T ∂ qi
·
−
= 0. 3.
Qi = − =
dV dqi ∂T ∂ qi
·
d dt
−
∂T ∂V =− ∂qi ∂qi
d dt d dt
∂T ∂ qi ∂T ∂ qi
· ·
− −
∂T ∂V + ∂qi ∂qi
= 0
∂ (T − V ) = 0 ∂qi
Let L = T − V (Lagarangian function) T = L + V. 2. 2. N. n.holonomic system. · · · . 2. Proof : Let us assume that all the generalized forces are derivable form a potential function V (q. · · · . i = 1.

Hence we have. 3. Proof : Let us assume that system has ‘m’ non holonomic constraint equation
n
i=1
aji dqi + aji dt = 0 (j = 1. m
(1)
The constraints are assumed to be workless. 2.tive from a potential function Qi = − we have d dt ∂T ∂ qi ∂T ∂ qi − ∂L ∂ qi
· · ·
∂V + Q′i ∂qi ∂T = Qi ∂qi
−
d dt d dt Let L = T − V. · · · .
Let us assume a virtual displacement consistent with the constraints. 2. 2. Now we have
n
i=1
aij δqi = 0. m) . · · · . i = 1. 3. d dt ∂T ∂qi ∂T ∂ qi
·
− +
∂T ∂V = − · + Q′i ∂qi ∂ qi ∂T = Q′i ∂qi
−
∂L ∂ qi
·
= Q′i . · · · . n. j = 1.
Book work : Obtain the Lagrange’s equation for a non-holonomic system.
n
ci δqi = 0
i=1
(2)
43
. 3.

Solution : Let use the spherical co-ordinates θ and φ. 2. φ is the angle between a vertical plane through supporting point ‘O’ and a vertical plane containing the pen44
. 2. m
(3)
Adding these m equations and subtracting from (2) we get
n m
(2) − (3) ⇒
i=1
ci −
λj aji δqi = 0
j=1
Choose the λ′ s arbitrary such that
m
ci =
j=1
λj aji . 3. · · · . θ is measured from the upward vertical. 3. n ∂ξ i
In our discussion Q′i nothing but the ci d dt ∂L ∂ qi
·
∂L − = ∂qi
m
j=1
λj aji . n. 2. · · · . Find the diﬀerential equation of motion for a spherical pendulum of length ℓ (using Lagrange’s equation). i = 1. QQi = − we have d dt ∂L ∂ξ i − ∂V + Q′i . m
of the generalized forces are not wholly derivable form a potential function. 1. 2. · · · . i = 1.where ci is the generalized constraints force Multiply equation (1) by Lagrange’s multiply λj
n
λj
i=1
aji δqi = 0. · · · . ∂qi
∂L = Q′i . 3. j = 1. 3. i = 1.
This is the standard form of Lagrange’s equation for the non-holonomic systyem.

θ.E. φ) for this problem.q
l cos q
l
f
mg
l sin q
45
.dulum. qi = ℓ. The spherical co-ordinates are (r. q2 = 0. For our ∂qi
∂θ · 1 2 · 1 mℓ 2θ − mℓ2 φ2 2 sin θ cos θ + mgℓ sin θ = 0 2 2
·· ·
−
∂L =0 ∂θ
mℓ2 θ − mℓ2 φ2 sin θ cos θ − mgℓ sin θ = 0 Dividing by mℓ ℓθ − ℓφ2 sin θ cos θ − g sin θ = 0
·· ·
(1)
q O
180 . and V is the P. T = V
·2 ·2 1 m ℓ2 θ + ℓ2 φ sin2 θ 2 = −mg (−ℓ cos θ) = mgℓ cos θ
L = T −V ·2 ·2 1 m ℓ2 θ + ℓ2 φ sin2 θ − mgℓ cos θ = 2 The Lagrange’s equation is given by d dt problem. r = ℓ (constant) ⇒ r′ = 0 Let T be the K. we have d dt d dt ∂L
·
∂L ∂ qi
·
−
∂L = 0. q3 = φ.E.

Also d dt d dt
·
∂L ∂φ
·
−
∂L = 0 ∂φ
1 2 mℓ 2φ sin2 θ − 0 = 0 2 · d mℓ2 φ sin2 θ = 0 dt
Diﬀerentiating w.r.to t mℓ2 sin2 θφ + 2mφℓ2 sin θ cos θθ = 0 Dividing by mℓ
·· · ·
h = cos q l
g
h = l cos q
h
m
sin2 θφ + 2 sin θ cos θφθ = 0 sin θφ + 2 cos θφθ = 0 we have ∂L = 0 ∂φ d dt ∂L ∂φ 46
· ·· · · ·· · ·
(2)
= 0
.

Inertial Co-eﬃceient : The co-eﬃcient of the q is the expression for the generalized moments are known an inertial co-eﬃceient.
O q
l
& lf
& lq
m
f -q
B
q
& lf
T =
1 2 1 2 mv + mv 2 1 2 2
· · ·2
v 1 = ℓθ v2 = T = ℓ2 φ2 + ℓ2 θ + 2ℓφℓθ cos (φ − θ)
· ·
· ·2 · · 1 2 ·2 1 mℓ θ + m ℓ2 φ2 + ℓ2 θ + 2ℓφℓθ cos θ 2 2
47
. are inertial co-eﬃceient.E of the system and V is the potential energy of the system.φ = pφ = constant where pφ is the angular momentum above a vertical axis ﬂow the supporting point. mℓ2 sin2 θ. Let V be the velocity of the particle. 2 2 A doubel pendulum consists of particles supported by mass less rods assuming that all motions take place in a vertical plane. Find the diﬀerential equation of the motion linearise these equations assuming small motions.e.. 2m.∴
∂L = pφ = constant ∂φ
·
i. Solution : Let T be the K.
f -q
Let L = T − V. V = The velocity of upper particle + velocity of the lower particle. 3m In the Book work 2. 3n.

V
· · · · 1 2 2 mℓ 2θ + φ2 + 2φθ cos (φ − θ) = 2 = −mg [ℓ cos θ + ℓ cos φ + ℓ cos θ]
= −mg (2 cos θℓ + ℓ cos φ) L = T −V · · · · 1 2 = mℓ 2θ2 + φ2 + 2φθ cos (φ − θ) + mg (2 cos θ + ℓ cos φ) 2
A l
B
std level
l cosq
p1 (mg )
l cosq
C
f f l cosf
mg
∴The equation d dt ∂L ∂θ
·
−
∂L =0 ∂θ
d 1 2 · 1 2 · mℓ 2.2φ cos (φ − θ) dt 2 2
· · 1 − mℓ2 2θφ {− sin θ (φ − θ) (−1)} + (−2mgℓ sin θ) = 0 2
48
.2θ + mℓ .

g
O
l
q
m
l
f
mℓ2
· · · · d 2θ + φ cos (φ − θ) − mℓ2 θφ sin (φ − θ) + 2mgℓ sin θ = 0 dt ·· ·· · · ·
mℓ2 2θ + φ cos (φ − θ) + φ (− sin (φ − θ)) φ − θ −mℓ2 θφ sin (φ − θ) + 2mgℓ sin θ = 0
· ·
mℓ2 2θ + φ cos (φ − θ) − φ2 sin (φ − θ) + 2mgℓ sin θ = 0 Now the equation
··
··
·
(1)
∂L ∂L − =0 ˙ ∂φ ∂φ 1 2 ˙ 1 ˙˙ θ mℓ 2φ + 2´ cos (φ − θ) − mℓ2 2θφ(− sin (φ − θ)) − mgℓ sin φ 2 2 d ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙˙ φ + θ cos (φ − θ) + mℓ2 θφ sin φ − θ + mgℓ sin φ = 0 mℓ2 dt ¨ θ ˙2 mℓ2 φ + ¨ cos (φ − θ) + θ sin (φ − θ) + mgℓ sin φ = 0 d dt d dt 49
=0
(2)
.

slides on a horizontal surface. sin (φ − θ) = φ − θ Neglecting higher order terms equation (1) becomes θ ¨ mℓ2 2¨ + φ + 2mgℓθ = 0 and equation (2) becomes θ ¨ mℓ2 ¨ + φ + mgℓφ = 0 3 A block of mass m2 can slide on another block of mass m1 which in turn. Solve for the accelerations of the two blocks as they move under the inﬂuence of gravity. let x2 be the displacement of m2 relative to m1 . Find the fore of interaction between the blocks. assuming that all surfaces are frictionless. Using x1 and x2 as co-ordinates. as shown in the ﬁgure. ∴ sin θ = θ. Let us assume the system having small oscillations (θ. T = v1 1 1 2 2 m 1 v1 + m 2 v2 2 2 = x1 ˙
x2 + x2 − 2x1 x2 cos 450 ˙1 ˙2 ˙ ˙ √ = x 2 + x 2 − 2x 1 x 2 ˙1 ˙2 ˙ ˙ √ 1 1 ˙ ˙ ∴T = m1 x2 + m2 x1 + x2 − 2x1 x2 .
Solution : Let x1 be the displacement of m1 . ˙1 ˙ ˙ 2 2 v2 = 50
. φ) are small. sin φ = φ cos (φ − θ) = 1. Let v1 be the velocity of m1 and v2 be the velocity of m2 relative to m1 . obtain the diﬀerential equations of motion.(1) and (2) are the diﬀerential equation of motion linearise the equation.

E.x2 m2 x1
450
Let V be the P. of the system 1 V − m2 gx2 sin 450 = − √ m2 gx2 2
∴L = T −V √ 1 1 1 = ˙ ˙ m1 x2 + m2 x2 + x2 − 2x1 x2 + √ m2 gx2 ˙1 ˙1 ˙2 2 2 2 x1 − Lagrange’s equation is ∂L d ∂L − dt ∂ x1 ˙ ∂x1 1 1 1 ¨ m1 2x1 + m2 2x1 − √ m2 x2 ˙ ˙ 2 2 2 1 ¨ m 1 x1 + m 2 x1 − √ m 2 x2 ¨ ¨ 2 1 (m1 + m2 ) x1 − √ m2 x2 ¨ ¨ 2 [width=6cm]m12 x2 − Lagrange’s equation is d ∂L dt ∂ x2 ˙ 1 1 m1 2x2 − √ m2 x1 ˙ ˙ 2 2 ∂L = 0 ∂x2 1 − √ m2 g = 0 2 1 1 ¨ m 2 x2 − √ m 2 x1 = √ m 2 g ¨ 2 2 − 51 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 (1)
d dt
d dt
(2)
.

E of the particle of mass m. of the particle. as shown in ﬁgure write the diﬀerential equation of motion. Let T be the K. T = 1 ˙2 m r2 θ + r2 ω 2 sin2 θ 2 1 2 ˙2 = mr θ + ω 2 sin2 θ 2 = mgh = mgr cos θ
V
L = T −V 1 2 ˙2 = mr θ + ω 2 sin2 θ − mgr cos θ. r is constant 2 52
. the tube rotates about a vertical diameter with a constant angular velocity ω.V is the P.E.(1) + (2)
1 1 1 √ m 2 x2 − √ m 2 x1 = √ m 2 g ¨ ¨ 2 2 2 1 1 ¨ (1) ⇒ (m1 + m2 ) x1 = √ √ m2 x1 + m2 g ¨ 2 2 1 m2 g m2 x1 = √ √ ¨ m1 + m2 − 2 2 2 m2 g x1 = ¨ 2m1 + m2
(1) ⇒ (m1 + m2 ) x2 ¨
1 m2 g ¨ = √ m 2 x2 2m1 + m2 2 √ (m1 + m2 ) g = 2 2m1 + m2
4 A particle of mass m can side without friction on the inside of a small tube which is bent in the form of a circle of radius r.
Solution : Let ‘O’ be the centre of the tube and r be the radius of the tube.

Assuming that the particle moves without friction on a horizontal plane. Let O taken as origin of refeence length ℓ. ˙ ˙˙ In this probem.to ρ.The Lagrange’s equation is ∂L d ∂L − =0 ˙ dt ∂ θ ∂θ 1 d 1 2 ¨ mr 2θ − mr2 ω 2 2 sin θ cos θ + mgr sin θ = 0 dt 2 2 d 1 mr2 ¨ − mr2 ω 2 2 sin θ cos θ + mgr sin θ = 0 θ dt 2 2¨ 2 mr θ − mrω sin θ cos θ − mgr sin θ = 0 5 Mass spring system : A particle of mass m is connected by a massless spring of stiﬀness K and unstressed length r0 to a point P which is moving along a circubr path of radius a at a uniform angular rate ω. ρ is the velocity of the particle w.r.r. ρC = ρ T =
· · 1 ·· 1 ·2 · mrrP + mρ + rP mρC 2 2
rP = aω ρ
· ·2 ·
˙ = r2 + r2 θ ˙
2
˙ rP mρ = maω r sin (θ − ωt) + rθ cos (θ − ωt) ˙ 53
. we have dealing with a single particle of mass ‘m’. rP is the position vector of the point P w.r. V is the P.E.to the point O. ﬁnd the diﬀerential equations of motion. of the particle. Solution : ˙ Resolving r and rθ along aω and rθ .
· 1 ·· 1 ·2 · T = mrrP + mρ + rP mρO 2 2 · ·
ρO is the position vector of the system w.E of th+e particle. Let T be the K.to P. In the above case.

T =
V
1 K (r − r0 )2 2 L = T −V 1 2 2 1 ˙2 = ma ω + m r2 + r2 θ ˙ 2 2 1 ˙ +maω r sin (θ − ωt) + rθ cos (θ − ωt) − K (r − r0 )2 ˙ 2 =
1 2 2 1 ˙2 ma ω + m r2 + r2 θ ˙ 2 2 ˙ +maω r sin (θ − ωt) + rθ cos (θ − ωt) ˙
The Lagrange’s r equation is
∂L d ∂L =0 − dt ∂ r ˙ ∂r d 1 m2r + maω sin (θ − ωt) − ˙ dt 2 1 1 ˙ ˙2 m2rθ + maω θ cos (θ − ωt) − K2 (r − r0 ) 2 2 ˙ ˙2 m¨ + maω cos (θ − ωt) θ − ω − mrθ − r ˙ maω θ cos (θ − ωt) + K (r − r0 ) = 0 ˙2 m¨ − maω 2 cos (θ − ωt) − mrθ + K (r − r0 ) = 0 r
=0
The Lagrange’s θ equation is given by ∂L d ∂L − =0 ˙ dt ∂ θ ∂θ d 1 ˙ m2r2 θ + maω cos (θ − ωt) − dt 2 ˙ maω r cos (θ − ωt) −maωrθ sin (θ − ωt) = 0 ˙
mr2 ¨ + 2mrθ + maω r cos (θ − ωt) − θ ˙˙ ˙
˙ maωrθ sin (θ − ωt) + maωr2 sin (θ − ωt) − maω r cos (θ − ωt) + maω r sin (θ − ωt) = 0 ˙ ˙ m¨ + 2mrθ + maω 2 r cos (θ − ωt) = 0 r ˙˙ 54
.

Solution : Let (x. Hence it has no velocity along the rod.edge supports at the two particles prevent either particle from having a velocity component along the rod.Knife edge problem : Example of a non-holonomic rheonomic system. Solve for x. y) be the co-ordinates of the CM at time the system has translational and rotational K.
i=1
The velocity of centre of mass exsited only in a direction perpendicular to the rod. 55
. y and the constraint force as functions of time if the center of mass is initially at the origin and has a velocity v0 in the positive y direction. Find the diﬀerential equations of motion. but the particles can slide without friction in a direction perpendicular to the rod. Knife . Two particles are connected by a rigid massless rod of length ℓ which rotates in a horizontal plane with a constant angular vlocity ω.E Velocity component along the rod = 0 ∴ (x1 + x2 ) cos ωt + (y1 + y2 ) sin ωt = 0 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ (1)
T =
1 1 m x2 + y1 + m x2 + y2 ˙ 1 ˙2 ˙ 2 ˙2 2 2 1 = m x 2 + x 2 + y1 + y2 ˙ 1 ˙ 2 ˙2 ˙2 2 1 ω2 = m 2x2 + 2y 2 + ℓ2 ˙ ˙ 2 2 2 2ω 2 2 = m x + y + +mℓ ˙ ˙ 4 ∴V =0
Lagrange’s equation of for non-haolonomic system is d dt ∂L ∂ qi ˙ ∂L − = ∂qi
m
λj aij = λ1 a11 .

q1 = x1 .ℓ cos ωt 2 ℓ y1 = y − sin ωt 2 ℓ x2 = x + cos ωt 2 ℓ y2 = y + sin ωt 2 ℓω sin ωt x1 = x + ˙ ˙ 2 ℓω y1 = y − ˙ ˙ cos ωt 2 x1 = x − x2 = x − ˙ ˙ y2 From (1) and (2) x cos ωt + y sin ωt = 0 ˙ ˙ x cos ωt + y cos 900 − ωt ˙ ˙ = 0 ℓω sin ωt 2 ℓω cos ωt = y+ ˙ 2
(2)
x cos ωt + y sin ωt = 0 ˙ ˙
(A)
ℓω ℓω sin ωt + x − ˙ sin ωt cos ωt + 2 2 ℓω ℓω cos ωt + y + ˙ cos ωt = 0 sin ωt y − ˙ 2 2 x+ ˙
2x cos ωt + 2y sin ωt = 0 ˙ ˙ cos ωtdx + sin ωtdy = 0
n
aji dqi + ajt dt = 0
i=1
a11 x + a12 y = 0. q2 = y2 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙
56
.

a11 = cos ωt a12 = sin ωt d dt ∂L ∂x ˙ −
n
aji aij = 1
i=1
∂L = λa11 ∂x L = T −V = m x2 + y 2 + ˙ ˙ ∂L = 2mx ˙ ∂x ˙
m 2 2 ℓω 4
d (2mx) − 0 = ˙ ∴ dt
n
λj aji = λ1 cos ωt
i=1
2m¨ = λ1 cos ωt x d dt ∂L ∂y ˙ − ∂L = λa12 ∂y
(B)
d (2my) = λ1 a12 ˙ dt 2m¨ = λ1 sin ωt y y ¨ (C) ⇒ tan ωt = (B) x ¨ x cos ωt + y sin ωt ˙ ˙ x ˙ − y ˙ y ¨ x ¨ 2¨x + 2¨y x˙ y˙ 2xd (x) + 2yd (y) ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ d 2 x + y2 ˙ ˙ dt d 2x2 + 2y 2 ˙ ˙ dt 2x2 + 2y 2 ˙ ˙ = 0 = tan ωt = − = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = constant x ˙ y ˙ (C)
57
.

t = 0 C2 = 0 v0 ∴y = sin ωt ω Eliminating t by ω. we have x = −v0 sin ωt ˙ y = v0 cos ωt ˙ dx = −v0 sin ωt dt dx = −v0 sin ωtdt dx = − x = v0 sin ωtdt v0 cos ωt + C1 ω
x = 0. 2 x2 + y 2 = v 0 ˙ ˙
x cos ωt + y sin ωt = 0 ˙ ˙ Hence the centre of mass moves with constant velocity. y = 0. satisfying those equation.Initially x = 0. t = 0 v0 0 = + C1 ω v0 C1 = − ω v0 v0 cos ωt − ω ω v0 (cos ωt − 1) = ω
x =
y0 = 0. x and y we have circular path. The generalized
58
. ˙ ˙
2 0 + v0 = 0.

but some of the q ′ s. Since ∂qi 59
Let (q. · · · . These k− co-ordinaties are called ig∂L is zero for each ignorable co-ordinate. i = 1. t) containing all q1 . n ∂qi
are missing from the Lagrangian. · · · . j = 1. · · · . qn . norable co-ordinates. q2 . · · · . 3.3 Integrals of the motion: Ignorable co-ordinates: Let the holnomic system be described by n standard Lagrange’s equation d dt ∂L ∂ qi ˙ − ∂L = 0. 3. 2. m
C1 = λ1 a11 C1 = cos ωt 2m¨ x 2m¨ x ∵ λ1 = cos ωt cos ωt x = −v0 sin ωt ˙ x = −v0 ω cos ωt ¨ ∴ C1 = −2m (v0 cos ωt) C2 = λ2 a12 2m¨ y = sin ωt cos ωt −2mv0 sin ωt cos ωt = cos ωt = −2mv0 sin ωt Note: In the above case. v0 x = (cos ωt − 1) ω v0 v0 = cos ωt x+ ω ω v0 2 v2 x+ = y+ 0 ω ω2 Hence the system moves in a circular path with radius v0 /ω. q.forces are
m
Ci =
i=1
λj aji . 2. qn ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙
. say q1 . 2. q2 .

2. · · · . The Lagrangian function is 1 2 µ ˙2 r + r2 θ + ˙ 2 r
L=T −V = L is a independent co-ordinates Lagrangian ‘r’ equation is
∂L d ∂L = 0 − dt ∂ r ˙ ∂r 1 d µ ˙2 (r) − ˙ 2rθ + 2 = 0 dt 2 r µ 2 ˙ r − rθ + 2 = 0. Hence we ﬁnd that the generalized momentum corresponding to each ignorable co-ordinate is constant. · · · . ¨ r
(1)
Since θ does not appear explicity in the Lagrangian function. it is an integral of the motion. it is an 60
. i = 1. (i = 1. k) .
∂L = β i . that is. Example : Let us consider the Kepler’s problem. 3. k ∂ qi ˙
where the β ′ s are constants evaluated from the initial conditions. the kinetic and potential evergies are T = V 1 2 ˙2 r + r2 θ ˙ 2 µ = − r
where µ is a positive constant known as the gravitational coeﬃceient. the problem of the motion of a particle of unit mass which is attracted by an inverse square gravitational force to a ﬁxed point O. 3. Using polar co-ordinates. that is. 2.it follows that d dt or pi = ∂L ∂ qi ˙ = 0.

Solution : 61
.. · · · .
k
R=L− where β i =
β i qi ˙
i=1
∂L . qk+1 . β 2 . qn .ignorable co-ordinate. q2 . · · · . 3. · · · . The θ equation of motion is d ˙ r2 θ = 0 dt or ∂L = constant ˙ ∂θ β 1 2 ˙ ˙ r 2θ = β ⇒ θ = 2 2 r β r2 = ˙ θ particle about the attracting centre O. · · · . β k . q2 . · · · . β 1 . t) ˙ ˙ as follows. qn . t) . ∂ qi ˙ Obtain the Lagrange’s equation using Routhian funcion. q1 . qn . · · · . ˙ ˙ ˙ Now let us deﬁne a Routhian function R (qk+1 . qn . r−r ¨ µ β2 + 2 = 0 ( using (2) in (1)) 4 r r β µ r− 3 + 2 = 0 ¨ r r
(2)
where β is constant and is equal to the angular momentum of the
The Routhian function : Consider a standard holonmic system with q1 . i = 1. 2. qk are ignor-
able co-ordinates
L = L (qk+1 . · · · . k.

. · · · . qn . Letq1 . .Consider the holonomic system with ‘n’ independent generalized co-ordinates q1 . · · · . qn . · · · . qk be the ignorable co-ordinates. 2. β k . ˙ ˙ ˙ Now
∂L = β i . The
Legrangian function is
L = L (qk+1 . q2 . · · · . qn . · · · .. t) . qn . · · · . k ∂ qi ˙
(1)
Now the Routhian funciton is given by
k
R=L−
β i qi ˙
i=1
(2)
Subsitute the values for q1 . qk+1 . q2 . q2 . t) . · · · . · · · . · · · . β 1 .qn . q2 ... q1 . β 2 . ˙ ˙ Diﬀerentiating (2)
k
δR = δL − δ
β i qi ˙
i=1
(3)
∂L δL = δqi + ∂qi i=k+1
n
n
k
∂R ∂R δqi + δ qi + ˙ δR = ∂qi ∂ qi ˙ i=k+1 i=k+1
i=1 n
∂L ∂L ∂L δt δ qi + ˙ δ qi + ˙ ∂ qi ˙ ∂ qi ˙ ∂t i=k+1
n
n
i=1
∂R ∂L δt δβ i + ∂β i ∂t
(4)
k
k
δ
i=1
β i qi = ˙
i=1
∂L δ qi + ˙ ∂ qi ˙ 62
k
qi δβ i ˙
i=1
. qk ˙ ˙ ˙ Using (1) we have R = R (qk+1 . 3. i = 1.

· · · . · · · . 3. k ∂β i ∂L ∂R = . i = 1. n ∂qi ∂qi ∂R ∂L = . ∂t ∂t qi = − ˙ Now let us substitute from equation (6) in to Lagrangian equations and obtain d dt ∂R ∂ qi ˙ − ∂R = 0. k + 2. Let T be the kinetic energy of the particle. 3. 2. ∂L ∂R = . n ∂ qi ˙ ∂ qi ˙ and ∂R . n ∂qi ∂R = −qi . · · · . 1 2 ˙2 r + r2 θ ˙ 2 µ V = − r L = T −V T = 63
. i = k + 1. k + 3. k ˙ ∂β i
(6)
Illustrate Kepler’s problem using Routhian method. i = 1. Solution : Let us assume that the particle has unit mass. k + 3.(3)⇒
k
δ L−
β i qi ˙
i=1
∂L ∂L ∂L δt (5) δqi + δ qi − ˙ qi δβ i + ˙ = ∂qi ∂ qi ˙ ∂t i=1 i=k+1 i=k+1
n
n
k
From (4) and (5) The corresponding coeﬃcients must be equal. k + 2. · · · . i = k + 1. Let (r. k + 3. V is the potential evegy of the particle. 2. θ) be the polar co-ordinates of the particle. · · · . i = k + 1. k + 2.

θ) ∂L = β ( constant) ˙ ∂θ ∴The Routhian equation is only at r d (r) − ˙ dt − 1 µ = 0 − β 2 −2r−3 2 r 2 µ β2 r+ − 3 = 0 ¨ r r
or
β2 µ r− 3 + =0 ¨ r r 64
.=
1 2 µ ˙2 r + r2 θ + ˙ 2 r
∂L = 0 ∂θ ∴ θ is ignorable solution ∂L ˙ = β ⇒ r2 θ = β ˙ ∂θ Now the Routhian function is given by
˙ R = L − βθ 1 2 µ ˙ ˙2 = r + r2 θ + − β θ ˙ 2 r 1 2 1 2 β2 µ β2 r + r 4 + − 2 ˙ = 2 2 r r r 2 1 2 µ 1β r + − ˙ = 2 r 2 r2 Routhian equation is given by d dt d dt ∂R ∂ qi ˙ ∂R ∂r ˙ − − ∂R ∂ qi ˙ ∂R ∂r ˙ = 0 = 0 (1)
Here there are two co-ordinates (r.

˙ Now let us consider the total derivative αjt = dL = dt
n
∂φ ∂t
n
i=1
∂L q+ ¨ ∂ qi ˙
m
i=1
∂L qi ˙ ∂qi
(2)
(1) ⇒ (2) ⇒
∂L d = ∂ qi ˙ dt dL = dt
n
∂L ∂qi d dt
−
λj aji
j=1 m n
i=1
∂L ∂qi 65
−
˙ λj aji qi +
j=1 i=1
∂L qi ¨ ∂ qi ˙
. n
(1)
where L (q. all the coeﬃcients are equal to zero.Conservative system : Write down the 3 condition deﬁning a conservative system and show that these conditions are suﬃceient to ensure the existence of an energy integral or Jacobi integral. · · · . Proof : 1. 3. Any constraint equatins can be expressed in the diﬀerential form
n
i=1
aji dqi = 0. The Legrangian function L is not an explicit function of time. 2. q) is not an explicit function of time. · · · . m
ie. i = 1. The standard form of Lagrange’s equation (holonoic or nonholonomic) applies. j = 1. 3. 2. Consider the standard nonholonomic form of Lagrange’s equation d dt ∂L ∂ qi ˙ ∂L − = ∂ qi ˙
n
i=1
λj aji . 2.

Prove that for a conservative system. Book work : Deﬁne a natural system.to t
n n
i=1
i=1
∂L ∂qi
qi − L = 0 ˙
i=1
∂L ∂qi
qi − L = h ( constant) ˙
n
∴h =
i=1 n
∂L ∂qi ∂L ∂qi
qi − L ˙ qi − h ˙
L =
i=1
h = T2 − T0 + V n ∂L = qi − L ˙ ∂qi i=1 This integral is called Jacobi integral or energy integral. Proof : For every conservative system h = T2 − T0 + V 66
.r.n
=
i=1
d dt
n
∂L ∂qi ∂L ∂qi ∂L ∂qi
n
∂L qi + ˙ qi − ¨ ∂ qi ˙
m n
n
m
λj aji qi ˙
i=1 j=1
=
d dt
i=1 n
qi − ˙
aji qi λj ˙
j=1 i=1
dL d = dt dt
i=1
qi − 0 ˙ ∂L ∂qi qi = 0 ˙
d L− dt d dt Integrating w. Jacobi integral is not equal to the total evergy. This energy integral exists for all conservative system.

For the conservative system energy integral
n
h =
i=1
∂L ∂ qi ˙
qi − L ˙
(1)
L = T −V = T2 + T1 + T0 − V We know that T2 1 = 2
n n m
mji qi qj ˙ ˙
i=1 j=1
T1 = T0 = 1 2
ai q i ˙
i=1 3N
mk
k=1
∂xk ∂t
2
n
∴
i=1
∂L qi = ˙ ∂ qi ˙ =
n
i=1 n
∂T qi ˙ ∂ qi ˙ ∂T2 ∂T1 ∂T0 + + ∂ qi ˙ ∂ qi ˙ ∂ qi ˙ qi
i=1
= 2T2 + T1 + 0
(1) ⇒ h = 2T2 + T1 − T1 − (T − V ) = 2T2 + T1 − T2 − T0 + V = T2 − T0 + V = T ′ + V ′ ∴ The energy T ′ + V ′ is constant for any conservative system but it is not equal to total energy. Proof : A system is said to be natural system if 67
. Natual system : A natual system is a consevative system.

68
.(i) it is described by standard form of holonomic Lagrangian equation. To prove Jacobi integral = Total energy for the natural system. (ii) the Lagrangian function L is not an explicit function of time.spring system is attached to a frame which is translating with a uniform velocity v0 as shown in ﬁgure. Let ℓ0 be the unstressed spring length and use the elongation x as the generalized co-ordinate. L = T2 − V ∂T2 ∂L = ∂ qi ˙ ∂ qi ˙ n ∂L ∂T2 qi = ˙ qi = 2T2 [ by the above Book work] ˙ ∂ qi ˙ ∂ qi ˙ i=1
n
n
i=1
h =
i=1
∂L qi − L ˙ ∂ qi ˙
= 2T2 − (T2 − V ) = T2 + V Jacobi integral = Total evergy. 1 T = 2
n m
mij qi qj = T2
i=1 j=1
T0 = 0. Example : 1 Suppose a mass . T1 = 0 We know that L = T − V. (iii) any constraint equation can be expressed in the diﬀerential form
n
aji dqi = 0
i=1
(iv) the K.E is expressed as homogeneous quadratic functio of q’s. Find the Jacobi integral for the system.

Solution : Let m be the mass of the body. Let x be the displacement of the body from the relating postion at time t .

l0 + x

k

v0

Velocity of the body = x ˙ Velocity of the system = v0 + x ˙ 1 ˙ The K.E of the system = m (v0 + x)2 2 T = T2 T1 T0

m

1 2 m v0 + x2 + 2v0 x ˙ ˙ 2 1 m x2 ˙ = 2 1 = mv0 x ˙ 2 1 2 = mv 2 0

Let V be the potntial Energy of the system. ∴V 1 2 kx 2 L = T −V 1 1 2 1 mv0 + mx2 + mv0 x = kx2 ˙ ˙ = 2 2 2 =

L is independent of ‘t’ Hence the system is conservative. Jacobian integral h = T2 − T0 + V h = ∂L x−L ˙ ∂x ˙ 1 2 1 1 mv0 + mx2 + mv0 x2 − kx2 ˙ ˙ 2 2 2 69

= (mx + mv0 ) x − ˙ ˙

1 2 1 1 = mx2 + mv0 x − mv0 − mx2 − mv0 x2 + kx2 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 = mx2 − mv0 + kx ˙ 2 2 2 = T2 − T0 + V Example 2 : A small tabe, bent in the form of a circle of radius r, rotates about a vertical diameteer with a constant angular velocity ω. A particle of mass m can slide without friction inside the tube. At any given time, the conﬁguration of the system is speciﬁed by the angle θ which is measured from the upward vertical to the line connecting the center O and the particle. Find the Jacobi integral. Solution :

w

g

m

q

r

O

Let O be the center of the tube. The transformation equations relating the generalized co-ordinate θ and the position (x, y, z) of the particle. x = r sin θ cos ωt y = r sin θ sin ωt z = r cos θ 70

AP = sin θ ⇒ AP = r sin θ OP OA = cos θ ⇒ OA = r cos θ OP where r is the radius of the tube. Let T be the K.E of the particle of mass m, V is the P.E of the particle T = 1 ˙2 m r2 θ + r2 ω 2 sin2 θ 2 1 2 ˙2 = mr θ + ω 2 sin2 θ 2

1 1 ˙2 V = mgr cos θ, T2 = mr2 θ , T1 = 0, T0 = mr2 ω 2 sin2 θ 2 2 1 ˙2 L = T − V = mr2 θ + ω 2 sin2 θ − mgr cos θ 2 L is independent of t. Hence the system is conservative Jacobi method.

n

h =

i=1

∂L qi − L ˙ ∂ qi ˙

= = =

∂L ˙ θ−L ˙ ∂θ ˙ ˙ mr2 θ θ − 1 2 ˙2 1 2 2 2 mr θ + r ω sin θ − mgℓ cos θ 2 2

1 2 ˙2 1 2 2 2 mr θ − r ω sin θ + mgℓ cos θ 2 2 = T2 − T0 + V.

Example 3 : Two particles, each of mass m, are connected by a rigid massless rod of length ℓ. The particles are supported by knife edges placed perpendicular of the rod. Assuming that all moion is conﬁned to the horizontal xy plane, ﬁnd the Jacobi integral. Solution: Let (x1 , y1 ), (x2 , y2 ) be the co-ordinate of the two ends of 71

= 0 1 1 m x2 + y1 + m x2 + y2 ˙ 1 ˙2 ˙ 2 ˙2 T = 2 2 ℓ x1 = x + ω sin ωt ˙ ˙ 2 ℓ x2 = x − ω sin ωt ˙ ˙ 2 ℓ y1 = y − ω cos ωt ˙ ˙ 2 λ y2 = y + ω cos ωt ˙ ˙ 2 ω ℓ2 2 2 2 2 2 2 x1 + x2 + y1 + y2 = 2 x + y + ω cos ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ 2 2 ℓ2 ω 2 = 2 x2 + y 2 + 2 ˙ ˙ 4 72 V
. of the system. of the system.E. Let V be the P. Let (x. y) be the co-ordinates of the cm and we have holonomic constraint (x1 − x2 )2 + (y1 − y2 )2 = ℓ2 We know that tan ωt = y2 − y1 y2 − y1 x2 − x1 = (x2 − x1 ) tan ωt ℓ cos ωt 2 ℓ x + cos ωt 2 ℓ y − sin ωt 2 ℓ y + sin ωt 2 2x (1)
(2)
x1 = x − x2 = y1 = y2 = x1 + x2 =
y1 + y2 = 2y Let T be the K.the rod at time ‘t’.E.

Orthogonal System : Orthogonal system is an natural system.T = V0 = T0 = h =
mℓ2 ω 2 m x +y + ˙ ˙ 4 0.
n
Jacobi integral h =
i=1
∂L qi − L ∂qi
=
∂L ∂L x+ ˙ y−L ˙ ∂x ˙ ∂y ˙
2 2
mℓ2 ω 2 = (2mx) x + (2my) y − mx + my + ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ 4 1 2 2 = mx2 + my 2 − mℓ ω . iii) The K. 4 T2 − T0 + V
2 2
L = T −V =T −0=T L is independent of t. A natural system is said to be orthogonal if i) It is described by standard holonomic Lagrangian equation. T2 = mx2 + my 2 ˙ ˙ mℓ2 ω 2 .E contain’s only qi and no cross products in the q ′ s. ˙2 ˙ Liouville’s system : A system is said to be Liouville’s system if 73
. ˙ ˙ 4 These result show that the toal mass is M.I about the cente of mℓ2 /2. cos ωtx + sin ωty = 0 ˙ ˙ aji t = 0 The system is conservative. ii) The Lagrangian function L is not an explicit functio of time.

i) It is described by standard holomic Lagrange’s equation.E.T = 2 P.E. (Or) Explain one of the Quadratic system to be orthogonal system. 3. V are given by 1 f K. iii) Any constraint equation can be expressed in the diﬀerential form
n
i=1
aji dqi = 0.E. ii) The Lagrange’s function is not an explicit function of time. · · · . m
iv) The K. T = V = 1 f 2 1 f
n n 2 qi i=1 n
vi (qi )
i=1
f =
i=1
fi (qi > 0)
Proof : Lagrange’s equation is in the form d dt ∂L ∂ qi ˙ − ∂L =0 ∂qi 74
.E. Tand P. j = 1.V = 1 f
n n
mi (qi ) (qi )2 where mi (qi ) > 0
i=1 n
vi (qi )
i=1
f =
i=1
fi (qi > 0)
Liouville’s system special case of orthogonal system. 2. Book Work : Liouville’s system special case of orthogonal system (OR) With usual notation show that the following system is separable (or) Reduce the orthogonal system to quadrature.

qi = qj 1 f 2
n
qj + V ˙2
j=1
= h h−V f
1 2
n
qj = ˙2
j=1
(1) ⇒
h−V d (f qi ) − ˙ dt f
1 ∂vi V − f ∂qi f d 1 h ∂fi + (f qi ) − ˙ dt f ∂qi f ∂fi ∂qi +
∂vi ∂qi ∂vi ∂qi
= 0 = 0
Multiply 2f qi on both sides ˙ 2f qi ˙ 2f qi ˙ d ∂fi h + (f qi ) − 2f qi ˙ ˙ dt f ∂qi f d ∂fi 2f qi ˙ + 2qi ˙ (f qi ) − 2hf qi ˙ ˙ dt ∂qi dqi ∂fi d 2 2 + 2qi ˙ f qi − 2h ˙ dt dt ∂qi d dqi ∂fi + 2qi ˙ (f qi )2 − 2h ˙ dt dt ∂qi 75 ∂vi ∂qi ∂vi ∂qi ∂vi ∂qi ∂vi ∂qi = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0
.f = f1 (q1 ) + f2 (q2 ) + · · · + fi (qi ) + · · · + fn (qn ) L = T −V ∂ (T − V ) d ∂ (T − V ) − =0 dt ∂ qi ˙ ∂qi ∂T ∂V d ∂T − + =0 dt ∂ qi ˙ ∂qi ∂qi d 1 ∂fi (f qi ) − ˙ dt 2 ∂qi
n
qi + ˙2
i=1 n
1 ∂vi 1 ∂fi − 2 f ∂qi f ∂qi
n
vi (qi ) = 0
i=1
d 1 ∂fi (f qi ) − ˙ dt 2 ∂qi This is a natural system.
qj + ˙2
j=1
1 ∂vi v ∂fi − =0 f ∂qi f ∂qi
(1)
∴ T + V = h.

independent constant of motion. 76
.d (f qi )2 − 2h ˙ dt
dqi dt
∂fi ∂qi
+2 ∂fi ∂t
∂vi ∂qi +2
d (f qi )2 − 2h ˙ dt
dqi dt ∂vi ∂t
= 0 = 0
(2)
d ∂vi ∂fi −2 (f qi )2 = 2h ˙ dt ∂t ∂t d = 2 (hfi − vi ) dt n 1 T +V = f q2 + V = h 2 i=1 i 1 f 2
n n
qi ˙2
i=1
+2
i=1
vi (qi ) = h
Multiﬂy 2f on both sides. ˙2
n n
2
i=1
ci = 0 ⇒
ci = 0 [by (3)]
i=1
Here c′i s and h together comprise n .
n n
f2
i=1
qi + 2 ˙2
i=1
vi (qi ) − 2f h = 0
(3)
(2) ⇒ d 2 2 d (hfi − vi ) fi qi = 2 ˙ dt dt d d 2 2 f qi = 2 ˙ (hfi − vi ) dt dt f 2 qi = 2 (hfi − vi ) + 2ci ˙ 2 qi = ˙2 (hfi + ci − vi ) f2 Let 2ci = f 2 qi − 2f hi + 2vi .

· · · . The equation (4) ⇒ dq1 Q1 (q1 ) = dq2 Q2 (q2 ) = ··· = dqn Qn (qn ) = dt = dτ f
Qi (qi ) = f1 dq1 Q1 (q1 ) =
2 (hfi − vi + ci ) . f =
i=1 i=1
fi (qi ) > 0
A natural system of this type is Liouville’s system. 2. 3. i = 1.qi = ˙2 qi = ˙ dqi = dt dqi 2 [(hfi − vi ) + ci ] dq1 2 [(hf1 − v1 ) + c1 ] =
2 [(hfi − vi ) + ci ] fi2 2 [(hfi − vi ) + ci ] f 2 [(hfi − vi ) + ci ] f dt f
=
dq2 2 [(hf2 − v2 ) + c2 ] dqn 2 [(hfn − vn ) + cn ]
= ··· = dt = dτ f (4)
··· =
Hence required system reduced to quadratures. Note: Replacing dqi by mi (qi )dqi
n
1 f T = 2 V = 1 f
mi (qi ) qi where mi (qi ) > 0 ˙2
i=1 n n
vi (qi )i . n mi f2 dq2 Q2 (q2 ) = ··· = 77 fn dqn Qn (qn ) = f · dt f
.

f1 dq1 Q1 (q1 )
+
f2 dq2 Q2 (q2 )
+ ··· +
fn dqn
(f1 + f2 + · · · + fn ) dt f Qn (qn ) f = dt = dt f =
n
∴ dt =
i=1
fi dqi Q1 (qi )
= t + β 1 . 1 ˙2 ˙2 m ℓ2 θ + ℓ2 φ sin2 θ + mgℓ cos θ 2 1 ˙2 ˙2 m ℓ2 θ + ℓ2 φ sin2 θ − mgℓ cos θ L = 2 h = L is an independent on φ. whereβ 1 is constant. Solution : T = V 1 ˙2 ˙2 m ℓ2 θ + ℓ2 φ sin2 θ 2 = mgℓ cos θ
where m is the mass of the particle.
Show that spherical pendularn problem can be solved completly by quadratures. ∂L = ˙ ∂φ a constant = αφ
1 2 ˙ mℓ 2φ sin2 θ = αφ 2 2φ ˙ φ = 2 sin2 θ mℓ 1 2 ˙ 2 1 mℓ2 αφ2 sin2 θ + mgℓ cos θ mℓ θ + (1) ⇒ h = 2 2 m2 ℓ4 sin4 θ 1 2 ˙2 αφ2 = + mgℓ cos θ mℓ θ + 2 2mℓ2 sin2 θ 78
. ∴ φ is ignorable. h = T + V. L = T − V The system is conservative and natural.

dt This values apply dφ
θ
mℓ2 sin θ 2mℓ2 sin θ (h − mgℓ cos θ) − 2φ
2 2
t
dθ =
t0
dt = t − t0
θ0
And αφ ˙ = φ mℓ2 sin2 θ αφ dφ = dt mℓ2 sin2 θ αφ dt dφ = 2 sin2 θ mℓ αφ mℓ2 sin θdθ αφ mℓ2 sin θ × (1) ⇒ 2 dt = 2 mℓ2 sin θ 2mℓ2 sin θ (h − mgℓ cos θ) − αφ2 αφdθ = sin θ 2mℓ2 sin2 θ (h − mgℓ cos θ) − αφ2
φ θ
dφ =
φ0 θ0 θ
αφdθ sin θ 2mℓ2 sin2 θ (h − mgℓ cos θ) − αφ2 αφdθ sin θ 2mℓ2 sin2 θ (h − mgℓ cos θ) − αφ2
φ − φ0 =
θ0
where φ0 = φ (t0 ) . Now we have obtained the required four constraints of motion 79
.Multiply by 2mℓ2 sin2 θ. ˙2 m2 ℓ4 sin2 θ θ + 2φ2 = 2mℓ2 sin2 θ (h − mgℓ cos θ) ˙ θ = 2mℓ2 sin2 θ (h − mgℓ cos θ) − 2φ2 mℓ2 sin θ dθ ˙ θ= .

φ0 . Mφ = 1.namely αφ. Discuss probem of the spherical pendulum considering it as a Lioville’s system. Solution : We know that T = V For Lioville’s system 1 T = f 2 V = 1 f
n n
1 ˙2 ˙2 m ℓ2 θ + ℓ2 φ sin2 θ 2 = mgℓ cos θ
mi (qi ) qi ˙2
i=1
vi (qi )i
i=1
1 ˙2 ˙2 (fθ + fφ ) = mθθ + mφφ 2 1 ˙2 ˙2 mℓ2 θ + mℓ2 sin2 θφ = 2 (fθ + fφ ) Mθ = mℓ2 (fθ + fφ ) Mφ = mℓ2 sin2 θ Mθ 1 1 = 2 . n) Mi 2 (hfθ − vθ + cθ ) = Mθ 80 [∵ fφ = 0]
. · · · . 2. Mθ = Mφ sin θ sin2 θ (fθ + fφ ) v = v1 (θ) + v (φ) M ℓ2 sin2 θ × mgℓ cos θ = v1 (θ) vθ = m2 gℓ3 sin2 θ cos θ v1 (θ) = m2 gℓ3 sin2 θ cos θ fθ + fφ = mℓ2 sin2 θ fθ = mℓ2 sin2 θ We know that φi (qi ) = φθ 2 (hfi − vi + ci ) (i = 1. h. t0 .

=
φφ
2 hmℓ2 sin2 θ − m2 gℓ3 sin2 θ cos θ Mθ = 2 sin2 θ M ℓ2 sin2 θ (h − mgℓ cos θ) + cθ 2 [hfφ − vφ + cθ ] = Mφ = 2 [h (0) − 0 + cφ ] = 2cφ
Using
n
f 2 φ2 = 2 [hfi (gi ) − vi (qi ) + ci ] i ∂L = mℓ2 φ sin2 θ = αφ ∂φ ˙2 (fθ + fφ )2 φ = 2 [h (0) − 0 + cφ ] mℓ2 φ sin2 θ = 2cφ ˙ 2cφ = −2cθ = mℓ2 φ sin2 θ
n
ci = 0
i=1
= 2 [hfφ − vφ + cφ ]
2cθ = −2cφ = −2φ2
2
= αφ2
fi dqi φi (qi )
θ
= t + β1
i=1
fθ dθ φθ (θ)
= t − t0
θ0 θ
mℓ2 sin2 θ φθ (θ)
dθ = t − t0
θ0
We have dq1 φ1 (q1 ) − dqi φj (qj ) = β j . j = 1. 3. · · · . 2. n
81
.

. qn .θ
φ
dθ φ0 (θ) αφ dθ φ0 (θ)
=
φ0
θ0 θ
dφ ∵ φφ = 2cφ 2cφ
= φ − φ0
θ0
Now we have obtained four required constraint cθ . Let us assume the system consists N . q2 . Let v0 be the reference point is zero. The P. Small motion near a positon of equilibrium. Book work :Small Oscillations Obtain the equation of the natural system by given a small motion about its equilibrium position. · · · · · · .particles with caresian Co82
. q3 .E.
0
Neglecting terms of higher p order terms the second in the q ′ s we obtain V V = = 1 2 1 2
n n
i=1 j=1 n n
∂2v ∂qi ∂qj
qi qj
0
kij qi qj where kij =
i=1 j=1
∂2v ∂qi ∂qj
is the stiﬀness co-eﬃcient. OR Obtain the equation of natural system in matrices form as m¨ + kq = 0 q Proof : Let the natural system be given by ‘n’ independent generalized coordinates q1 . V is the homogenous as quoctratic of the q ′ s for small motion near. φ0 . cφ . Let us assume all the q ′ s all measurable from a position of equilibrium. Consider small motion about this equilibrium position. φℓ . can be written in the form 1 ∴V = 2
n n
i=1 j=1
∂ 2v ∂qi ∂qj
qi qj = 0.

· · · .ordinates x1 .. · · · . v2 = ℓ2 θ + ℓ2 φ + 2ℓθφ cos (φ − θ) 1 2 2 m v1 + v2 T = 2 83
. 2.E of the system is given by 1 T = 2
3N n n
mij qi qj ˙ ˙
i=1 j=1
where mij = mji =
k=1
mk
∂xk ∂qi
∂xk ∂qj
L = T −V n n 1 1 mij qi qj − ˙ ˙ = 2 i=1 j=1 2
n
n
kij qi qj
i=1 j=1
(1)
The standard Lagrange’s equation for a holomic system is d dt ∂L ∂ qi ˙ − ∂L = 0. i = 1. x3N then the K. n ∂qi
n
n
(1) ⇒
mij qj + ¨
j=1 j=1
kij qj
= 0 = 0
mj qj + kij qj ¨
∴ m¨ + kq = 0 q This is the equation of natural system Memory point : i) For a spherical pendulum L = T −V 1 ˙2 ˙2 T = m ℓ2 θ + ℓ2 φ sin2 θ 2 V = mgℓ sin θ ii) For double pendulum ˙2 ˙˙ ˙2 ˙ v1 = ℓθ.. 3. x2 .

L = T − V r ˙ R = L − βθ T = vi) Two particles each of masses m ﬁnd Jjacobi integral.V
1 2 ˙2 1 ˙2 ˙2 ˙˙ mℓ θ + m ℓ2 θ + ℓ2 φ + 2ℓθφ cos (φ − θ) 2 2 = −mgℓ (2 cos θ + cos φ) =
iii) For a small tube bent is T = 1 ˙2 m r2 θ + r2 ω 2 sin2 θ 2 L = mgr cos θ
iv) For mass storing system T =
·· 1 2 2 1 · · mr ρ + mρ + rP mρC ˙ 2 2 ·2 1 1 ·2 · = mr P + mρ + r P 2 2 · ˙2 = aω. (x1 − x2 )2 + (y1 − y2 )2 = ℓ2 y2 − y1 tan ωt = x2 − x1 (y2 − y1 ) = (x2 − x1 ) tan ωt
84
. ρ = r2 + r2 θ ˙
rP
· ··
·
˙ rP mρ = maω r sin (θ − ωt) + rθ cos (θ − ωt) ˙ T =
1 2 2 1 ˙2 ma ω + m r2 + r2 θ ˙ 2 2 ˙ +maω r sin (θ − ωt) + rθ cos (θ − ωt) ˙ 1 k (r − r0 )2 2
V
=
v) For Kepler’s Probem 1 2 ˙2 r + r2 θ ˙ 2 µ V = − .

UNIT III
Hamilton’s Equations Stationary Value : To ﬁnd the stationary values of the function f = z subject to constraints φ1 = x2 + y 2 + z 2 − 4 = 0 φ2 = xy − 1 = 0 combined force F = f + λ1 φ1 + λ2 φ2 . Solution: Let augmented function be F = z + λ1 φ1 + λ2 φ2 ∂F ∂x ∂F ∂y ∂F ∂z ∂F ∂λ1 ∂F ∂λ2 = z + λ1 x2 + y 2 + z 2 − 4 + λ2 (xy − 1) = 2xλ1 + λ2 y = 0 = 2yλ1 + λ2 x = 0 = 1 + 2zλ1 = 0 = x2 + y 2 + z 2 − 4 = 0 = xy − 1 = 0 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
(2) ⇒ (1) ⇒
2y −x = 2x −y 2 x = y 2 ⇒ x = ±y ⇒ y = ±x
(5) ⇒
xx − 1 = 0 x2 − 1 = 0 x2 = 1 85
.

−1. λ1 = ± √ 2 2 2 2
1 (2) ⇒ 2 (1) √ + λ2 = 0 2 2 1 1 λ2 = − √ . Solution : Suppose we wish to ﬁnd the stationary of
x1
I=
x0
f [y (x) . y = −1 (4) ⇒ x = 1. 1. y ′ . √ 2 are the constraints of maxi-
mum oints and the other two points are minimum points. y ′ (x) . 1. y = 1 ⇒ 1 + 1 + z2 − 4 = 0 √ z2 = 2 ⇒ z = ± 2 √ √ 2 . λ2 = √ 2 2 1 λ2 = ± √ 2 It is seen that 1.x = ±1 If x = 1. −1. 1. −1. −1. √ √ . y = 1 and if x = −1. dx
Let us assume that derivatives f (y. 1.
√ −1 (3) ⇒ 1 + 2zλ1 = 0 ⇒ λ1 = √ if z = 2 2 2 √ 1 1 If z = − 2. 2 and −1. We have to ﬁnd a function y ′ (x) which 86
. x] dx
where y ′ (x) =
dy and the limits are ﬁxed. we have stationary at 1. Euler Lagrage equation or stationary values a deﬁnite integral. x) has two continuous derivatives in each of its arguments. − 2 . λ1 = √ . −1. √ 2 . − 2
Here solving the equation.

x) = y ∗ (x) + αη (x) . y (α. α) = y ∗ (x) + αη (x) ∂y ∂y ′ = η (x) .
We see that the integral I is a function of α only for any given η (x) .gives a stationary value for I we’ve y (x) = y ′ (x) + δy (x) where δy (x) is small variation in y. i. Hence for any given η (x) we can consider the varied curve y to be function of α and x.e. But small variation δy = αη (x) ∴ δy (x) = αη (x) ∴ y (x) = y ∗ (x) + 2η (x) where η (x) is a arbitary function having the required smoothness and α is an parameter which does not independent of x. x1 are independent on α
=0
α=0
y (x. I having a stationary value y ∗ (x) dI dα
δI = ∴ x0 . = η ′ (x) ∂α ∂α 87
..
Let us assume the variation δy = 0 at the end points 2η (x0 ) = 0 and αη (x1 ) = 0 ∴ y (x0 ) . y (x1 ) are ﬁxed.

Branchistochrone Probem : It is a ﬁnd a curve y (x) between origin ‘O’ and the point (x1 . x) dx ∂f ∂y ′ ∂f ∂y + ′ ∂y ∂α ∂y ∂x
x
dx = 0
x0
∂f η (x) dx + ∂y
∂f ′ η (x) dx = 0 ∂y ′
x0
x0
Since η (x0 ) = 0. y1 ) such that a particle starting from rest at ‘O’ and sliding down the curve without friction under the inﬂuence of uniform gravity ﬁeld in a minimum time to reach the end of the curve.x
I = dI = dx
x x0 x
f (y.Lagrage’s equation for any curve y = y ∗ (x) which result in a stationary value of I. η (x1 ) = 0. y ′ . we have
x
∂f ∂f η (x) dx + η (x) ′ ∂y ∂y
x x0
x
−
x0
η (x)
d dx
∂f ∂y ′
dx = 0
x0
x
∂f ∂f η (x) dx + η (x) ′ ∂y ∂y
x
x x0
x
−
x0 x
η (x)
d dx d dx
∂f ∂y ′ ∂f ∂y ′
dx = 0
x0
∂f η (x) dx − ∂y
η (x)
x0
dx = 0
x0
Since η (x) is arbitary we have ∂f d ∂f − ∂y dx ∂y ′ d ∂f ∂f ⇒ − ′ dx ∂y ∂y = 0 = 0
This equation is known as Euler. 88
.

Solution : The vertical distance described by the particle to corresponding to the point (x1 . y ′ . y1 ) is x with velocity. From principle of conservation of energy we obtain mgx = 1 2 mv 2 v = ± 2gx
Let t be the time taken to reach the point (x1 . x) =
1 + y ′2 . 2gx
0
Let f (y. y1 ) is found by noting ﬁrst that an inﬁnitesimal path element ds is given by from O ds = ±
s
1 + y ′2 dx
x1
t=
0
ds = v
1 + y ′2 √ dx. The Euler Lagrang equation is 2gx d ∂F − ∂y dx ∂F ∂y ′ =0 (1)
0−
d dx
∂F = 0 ∂y ∂F = 0 ∂y ′ ∂F = C where C is constant ∂y ′
∂F ∂ = ′ ∂y ∂y ′ 89
1+y =C 2gx
′2
. Let P be the position of the particle at time with velocity v.

4gC 2 (1 − cos θ) 1 (1 − cos θ) 1 − 2gC 2 4gC 2
Let x = a (1 − cos θ) where a = y′ = 2gC 2 · 1 4gC 2
1 (1 − cos θ) 2 = 1 1 − (1 − cos θ) 2 1 − cos θ = 2 − cos θ
1 (1 − cos θ) 2 1 (1 − cos θ) 1 − 2gC 2 4gC 2 1 − cos θ = 1 + cos θ sin θ 2 θ 2 cos2 2 θ sin 2 dx ⇒ dy = θ cos 2 2 sin2
θ dy 2 = θ dx cos 2 θ sin 2 a sin θdθ dy = θ cos 2 90
.⇒ 2
1 1 + y ′2 2gx √ y′
·
2y ′ = C 2gx
= C 2gx 1 + y ′2 y ′2 = C 2 2gx 1 + y ′2 = 2C 2 gx + 2gxC 2 y ′2 = 1 − 2gxC 2 − 2gxC 2
y ′2 − 2gxC 2 y ′2 = 2C 2 gx ⇒ y ′2 1 − 2gxC 2 = 2C 2 gx 2C 2 gx y ′2 = (1 − 2gxC 2 ) y′ = 2C 2 gx (1 − 2gxC 2 ) 1 .

θ = 0 ⇒ c = 0. ˙
θ 2 a2 sin θ cos θ dθ θ 2 2 cos 2 θ 2a sin2 dθ 2 θ 2a sin2 dθ = a (1 − cos θ) dθ 2 −a (θ − sin θ) + c sin
constant ‘a’ is choosen δt the poth always through the point (x1 . Note:
Path is y = a(θ − sin θ). By comparing other paths through ‘O’ and (x1 . x = a (1 − cos θ) which is cycloid. y1 ) we can prove only the cycloid path has minimum time. The
√ √
= c 1 + y ′2 √ 1 − 1 + y ′2 α − y = c α−y Taking square on both sides
α − y 1 + y ′2 −1
y ′2 − 1 − y ′2
= c
1 + y ′2 (α − y) =
√
α−y dy = dx c1 − α + y
√
1 = c1 c2 c1 c1 − α + y y ′2 = −1= α−y α−y c1 − α + y take y ′ = − y′ = ± α−y dy c1 − α + y = − dx α−y
c1 − α + y α−y
(1) 91
.=
= dy = y = At x = y = 0. y1 ).

To prove this let us consider the equation of the problem. (or) Find the path of minimum length between two given points on the two dimensional surface of a sphere of radius ‘r’ Let the spherical co-ordinate. The shortest path between two points is given space is the path which forms a greaest circle which is the geodesic. We know that x = r sin θ cos φ y = r sin θ sin φ z = r cos θ The diﬀerential elements of length ds is given by ds2 = r2 dθ2 + r2 sin2 θdφ2 = r2 dθ2 1 + sin2
2
dφ dθ
2
2
ds = r
θ′
1 + sin
dφ dθ
dθ dφ . dy = −c1 2 sin cos d 2 2 2 2 Geodesic Problem : Deﬁnition : The Problem of ﬁnding the shortest path between two points in a given space is called geoclesic. (θ. dθ
s = r
θ0
1 + φ2 sin2 θdθ where φ′ = 1
92
. Proof: Let us use the spherical co-ordinate (θ. φ) as variable since r is a constant. φ) of the point of spherical surface. Find the geodesic for the spherical surface.θ θ θ θ Take α − y = c1 sin2 .

∴ Using (1) Euler’s Lagrangian equation d dθ ∂f = 0 ∂φ′ ∂f = c ∂φ′ φ′ sin2 θ ∂F = =c ∂φ′ 1 + φ′2 sin2 θ φ′ sin2 θ = c Squaring and rearranging we get sin4 θφ′2 = c2 1 + φ′2 sin2 θ sin2 θφ′2 sin2 θ − c2 = c2 c2 sin2 θ sin2 θ − c2 c sin θ sin2 θ − c2 c sin2 θ − c2 1 + φ′2 sin2 θ
φ′2 = φ′ = φ = 93
sin θ
dθ
. ′ = ′2 2 ∂φ ∂φ 2 1 + φ sin θ ∂f ∂φ′ = 0. ∴ ∂F ∂f 1 2φ′ sin2 θ = 0. ∴we have to ﬁnd the stationary value of Euler .Lagrangian equation is ∂f d − ∂y dx ∂f ∂y ′ = 0.Let f (φ.
But here f is a function of (φ. φ′ . φ′ .We want to ﬁnd the shortest dis-
tance of the path P and Q. θ) =
1 + φ′2 sin2 θ. θ) . The new Euler’s Lagrangian equation for thus problem is ∂f d − ∂φ dθ But f = 1 + φ′2 sin2 θ.

=
φ = = = = =
φ = cos
dθ c2 sin2 θ 1 − sin2 θ c √ dθ 2 sin θ 1 − c2 cosec2 θ c cosec2 θ √ dθ 1 − c2 cosec2 θ cosec2 θ c dθ 1 − c2 (1 + cot2 θ) d (cot θ) −c √ 1 − c2 − c2 cot2 θ d (cot θ) −c 1 − c2 − cot2 θ c c2
−1
c
= cos
−1
cot θ
1 − c2 c2 cot θ 1 − c2 c2
+ φ0
= cos−1 cos (φ − φ0 ) = √
cos φ cos φ0 − sin φ sin φ0 Multiply by r sin θ.
c cot θ 1 − c2 c cot θ = √ 1 − c2 c cos θ = √ 1 − c2 sin θ
c cot θ √ 1 − c2
r sin θ cos φ cos φ0 + r sin θ sin φ sin φ0 = √
cos θ c r sin θ 1 − c2 sin θ c r cos θ = √ 1 − c2
94
.

r2 . Here L is a function L (q. rN be the position vectors of the N particles. By the form of D’ Alembert’s principle
N
r
i=1
Fi − mi ri δri = 0 95
··
. y1 .q is a n dimensional point q1 .
We have found a necessary condition for a stationary value of I. yn .x0 . qn . y2 . q2 . State and prove Hamilton’s principle : Variational principle or integration principle[Integrated form of D’Alemberts principle] Statement : The actual path in conﬁguration space followed by a holonomic dynomical system during the ﬁxed interval t0 to t1 is such that the
t1
integral I =
t0
Ldt is the stationary value with respect to path vari-
ation which vanish at the end points δI = 0. x) . yn . r are ﬁxed limits.The above equation becomes x cos φ0 + y sin φ0 = √ c z 1 − c2
Then the equation of the form ax + by + cz = 0 . · · · . Proof : Let r1 . y2 . · · · . This represents the plane through the origin. General Euler’s Lagrangian equation : Let I=
x0 x1 ′ ′ ′ f (y1 . q ′ . · · · . t) . · · · . Here φ0 and c are two constants which are adjustable such that the greats circle will pass through P and Q. This plane intersects the sphere along a great circle which is geodesic.

1 δT = δ 2 = 1 2
N N
mi r i
i=1
·
mi 2ri δ ri
i=1 N
·
·
δT =
i=1
mi r i δ r i
·
·
(2)
But d dt where
N
mi ri δri =
i=1 i=1
·
N
mi ri δri +
i=1
··
N
mi r i δ r i
·
·
(3)
· d (δri ) = δ ri = δW + δT dt
From (2) and (1) d dt
N
mi ri δri
i=1
·
N
=
i=1
mi ri δri +
i=1 N
··
N
mi δ r i r i
· ·
= δT +
i=1
Fi δri
d ⇒ δT + δW = dt ⇒ (δT + δW ) dt = d
N
mi ri δri
i=1 N
·
(∵ equation (3))
mi ri δri
i=1
·
96
.where Fi is the applied force acting on the ith particle.F.
N N
i=1
Fi δri −
mi ri δri = 0
i=1
··
(1)
N
Virtual work of A.
Now variation in K.E.workdone = δW =
i=1
Fi δri .

∴ δW = −δV
t1 t1
(4) ⇒
t0
(δT + δW ) dt =
t0 t1
(δT − δV ) dt = 0 δ (T − V ) dt = 0
t0 t1
=
=
t0
δLdt = 0
97
. This case of generalized forces equation (4) can be written in the form
t1 N
δT +
t0 i=1
Qi δqi dt = 0
(5)
Version of Hamilton’s principle : Let us assume all the applied forces and derivable from a potentaial function V (q. t) .
N
⇒ ⇒
mi ri δri
i=1 t1 t0
·
t1
=0
(δT + δW ) dt = 0
t0
(4)
For a given virtual displacement and a time the value of δT and δW are independent of these Co-ordinates system.t1
t1
N
(δT + δW ) dt =
t0 t0
d
i=1 N ·
mi ri δri
t1
·
=
i=1
mi ri δri
t0
=0
Now let us assume that the conﬁguration of the system is ﬁxed at the time t0 to t1 implying the variation δri are zero at these times.

t1

= δ

t0

δLdt

t1

δI = 0 ⇒ δ

t0

Ldt = 0 is Hamilton’s principle.

Hamilton principle and lagrangian equation are equivalent. (Or) Derive the lagrangian equation from Hamilton principle. Solution : By Hamilton’s principle δI = 0

t1

where I =

t0

L (q, q, t) dt. ˙

Hence L (q, q, t) corresponds to f (y, y, x). Assuming δq ′ s are inde˙ ˙ pendent and using Euler Lagrangian equation takes the form ∂L d ∂L = 0 − ∂qi dt ∂ qi ˙ d ∂L ∂L − = 0 for all i = 1 to n. dt ∂ qi ˙ ∂qi Hamilton’s equation or Hamilton’s cononical equation of motion : Consider a holonomic system which can be described by the standard form by of lagrangian equation, namely. d dt ∂L ∂ qi ˙ − ∂L = 0 , i = 1 to n. ∂qi (1)

The generalized momentum conjugate to qi is given by pi = ∂L ∂ qi ˙ (2)

98

(1) ⇒

∂L d (pi ) − = 0 dt ∂qi d ∂L (pi ) = dt ∂qi ∂L = pi ˙ ∂qi

(3)

**Now, let us deﬁne the Hamilton’s function H (q, p, t) for the system as H (q, p, t) =
**

i=1 ′ n

pi qi − L (q, q, t) ˙ ˙

(4)

**H is an explict function of q s and p′ s and t
**

N

H (q, p, t) =

i=1 n

**pi qi − L (q, q, t) ˙ ˙ ∂H δqi + ∂qi
**

n n

δH =

i=1 n

i=1

**∂H ∂H δt δpi + ∂pi ∂t
**

n

=

i=1 n n

p i δ qi + ˙

i=1

**∂H δpi − ∂pi
**

n

i=1

**∂L δpi − ∂qi
**

n

n

i=1 n

∂L ∂L δt δ qi − ˙ ∂ qi ˙ ∂t ∂L δt ∂t

i=1

∂H ∂H ∂H δqi + δpi + δt = ∂qi ∂pi ∂t i=1

p i δ qi + ˙

i=1 i=1

qi δpi − ˙

i=1

pi δqi − ˙

Equating co-eﬃcients on both sides δpi ⇒ δqi ∂H = qi ˙ ∂pi ∂H ∂H ∂L ⇒ =− = −pi ; ˙ ∂qi ∂t ∂t ∂H ∂H = qi ; ˙ = −p ˙ ∂pi ∂qi ∂L ∂H =− ∂t ∂t The 2n ﬁrst order Lagrangian equations is given the set of equation (5) is called Hamilton equationn of motion. Hamiton’s funciton is generalized quadratic in the p’s or 99 (5)

**the form of Hamiltons’s function. Proof : We have ∂T = pi = ∂ qi ˙
**

n n

mij (q, t) qj + ai (q, t) ˙

j=1

=

n j=1 n

mij qj + ai ˙

n n

p i qi = ˙

i=1 i=1 j=1

mij qi qj +

i=1

qi qi = 2T2 + T1 ˙

**We know that
**

n

H =

i=1 n

pi qi − L (q, q, t) ˙ ˙ pi qi − (T − V ) ˙

=

i=1

= 2T2 + T1 − T1 − T2 − T0 + V T2 = T2 − T0 + V n n 1 mij qi qj . ˙ ˙ = 2 i=1 j=1

This can be put in the matrix form as follows 1 ˙˙ T2 = mT q q. 2 But q = b (p − a) bm−1 . Both b, m are symmetric matrix. ˙ ∴ bT = b, m = mT

∴T

2

=

=

1 T b (p − a)T bb−1 (p − a) 2 1 b (p − a) (p − a)T 2 100

V are function of q ′ s and t adding we have 1 H (q.e. t) = 2
n n n
i=1 j=1
bij pi pj −
i=1
1 bij ai pi + 2 j=1
n
n
n
i=1 j=1
bij ai aj −T0 +V
Grouping term by their degree H = H2 + H1 + H0 n n 1 bij pi pj H2 = 2 i=1 j=1
n n
H1 = − H0 = 1 2
bij pj ai
i=1 j=1 n n
i=1 j=1
bij ai aj − T0 + V
Hence the Hamilton’s function is in general quadratic in p’s.. H0 = V i.Expanding this 1 T2 = 2
n n n
i=1 j=1
bij pi pj −
i=1
1 bij ai pi + 2 j=1
n
n
n
bij ai aj
i=1 j=1
T0 . Let us consider a system of cartesian co-ordinates do not certain time t explicity. H = T + V 101
. In sceleronomic system T0 = T1 = 0. The Hamilton function of scleronomic system is equal to toal energy. p. H2 = T2 ∴ T1 = T2 and H1 = 0. It follows that a’s all zero and T = T2 .

dH ˙ =H = dt ˙ H =
i=1 n
i=1 n
∂H ∂pi ∂H ∂qi + ∂qi ∂t ∂pi ∂t ∂H ∂H qi + ˙ pi ˙ ∂qi ∂pi +
+ ∂H ∂t
∂H ∂t ∂t ∂t
Using Hamilton’s canonical equation ∂H ∂H = qi .K. Solution : Let us have a conservative holonomic system we have H = H (q. ∴ ∂L ˙ =0⇒H=0 ∂t ∴ H = C ( constant)
Hence the proof.holonomic system has a constant Hamilton’s function. t) = 2
n n
bij pi pj + V (q. p’s are after considered as ˙ ˙ components of a single vector X. Phase space : Hamilton’s canonical eqn of motion consisting of a set of 2n ﬁrst order equation giving q. t)
i=1 j=1
Non . ∂t ∂t
If the system is conservative. p as function q’s. 1 ∴ H (q. t) . L does not contain t explicity. ˙ = −pi ˙ ∂pi ∂qi and ∂H ∂L =− ∂t ∂t
n
(A)
˙ ∴H=
i=1
(−pi qi + pi qi ) − ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙
∂L ∂L =− .∴The Hamilton’s function of sceleronomic system is equal to T. p. Thus the equation of motion for a standard holonomic system can 102
. p.

We can show that volume of each phase ﬂuid is constant 103
.Non autonomous : In a conservative system H is not explicit function of time and conﬁguration of motion of form x = X (x) . pi ) these can be expresed as function of q’s and p’s by canonical ˙ ˙ equation qi = ˙ ∂H ∂H . 2n dimensional x space is called phase space. · · · . This space is called extened phase space. · · · . xn and p’s as xn+1 . dq2 . Autonomous . pi = − ˙ ∂pi ∂qi Consider the q’s as x1 . dp2 . Consisting the moving points of a ﬂuid being called phase ﬂuid. t) where X is a 2n dimensional vector consist˙ ing of nq’s and np’s. x2n . xn+2 . dp1 .This
As a given volume elements of the phase ﬂuid moves it will ingeneral change in it shape. Proof : Let a holonomic system be described by n independents q’s. let us consider the variable qn+1 as choose a parameter q as the new independent variable. · · · . Particle is given by the 2n component (qi . Extended phase space : In a non-holonomic conservative system. ˙ A holonomic system described by equation of this form is called autonomous where as x = X (x) is called non autonomous.be written as x = X (x. This system consist of (n + 1)q’s and corresponding (n + 1)p’s. x2 . Let us consider a gropp of phase p’s described fraectorcies in a 2n dimensional phase space. dpn . Considering the moving points in a small elementry volume dV = dq1 . · · · . The phase velocity v of a ﬂuid. dqn . But the neighbouring particles will remain close to each other. ˙ Liouville’s theorem : The phase ﬂuid incompressibel.

during the motion.
V
µm µm . Solution : Let a particle of mass m be attracted to a ﬁxed point O by an inverse square force. Kepler’s problem : Use the Jacobi form of the principle of least action. Fr = − 2 r r 1 2 1 ˙2 mv = m r2 + r2 θ ˙ T = 2 2 h = T +V 1 µm ˙2 = m r2 + r2 θ − ˙ 2 r = −
(1)
By Jacobi form of principle of least action δ ⇒δ 2 (h − v)ds = 0 2 h+ µm ds = 0 r (2)
104
.
n
∇v = =
i=1 n
∂ ∂ qi + ˙ pi ˙ ∂qi ∂pi ∂ ∂qi ∂H ∂pi + ∂ ∂pi − ∂H ∂qi
i=1 n
=
i=1
∂2H ∂ 2H =0 − ∂qi ∂pi ∂pi ∂qi
∇v = 0 A geometric interpretation of this results that the phase ﬂuid is incompressible. Obtaing the orbit for the Kepler’s problem.

r′ ) =
2m (r′2 + r2 ) h + 105
µm r
. ∂r
The corresponding energy integral ∂L qi − L = h ˙ ∂ qi ˙ ∂f ′ r − f = C ( constant) ∂r′
f (r.we have ds2 = m dr2 + r2 dθ2 ds dθ
2
= m
dr dθ
2
+ r2
= m r′2 + r2 ds = dθ ds = m (r′2 + r2 ) m (r′2 + r2 )dθ
⇒ δ ⇒ δ
µm m (r′2 + r2 )dθ = 0 r µm 2m h + (r′2 + r2 )dθ = 0 r 2 h+
where the end points this is the form of
θ
δ
θ0
f (r. r′ ) we have d dθ ∂f ∂r′ − ∂f = 0. r′ ) dθ = 0
where f (r. r′ ) =
2m h +
µm (r′2 + r2 ). r
Applying the Euler’s Lagrange’s equation for f (r.

∂f = ∂r′
µm 2r′ r µm 2 2m (r′2 + r2 ) h + r µm ′ r 2m h + r = µm 2m (r′2 + r2 ) h + r µm 2m h + r r′ = (r′2 + r2 ) 2m h +
r′ 2m h + µm r r′ · r′ − (r′2 + r2 ) 2m h + µm r
∂f −f = C ∂r′ µm r = C = C = C
2m (r′2 + r2 ) h + r′2 (r′2 + r2 ) µm r −
(r′2 + r2 )
2m h +
r′2 − r′2 − r2 (r′2 + r2 )
2m h + − Now
µm r r2 = C ′2 + r 2 ) (r
(3)
h = T +V 1 µm ˙2 = m r2 + r2 θ − ˙ 2 r µm 2 2 ˙2 = 2 h+ m r +r θ ˙ r ˙ ⇒ m2 r 2 + r 2 θ ˙ r = ˙
2
= 2m h +
µm r
(4)
dr dθ dr = dt dθ dt
106
.

dr ˙ = r′ θ dt r ˙ θ. = ′ r ˙ r = r′ θ ˙ r = ˙
˙ ˙ (4) ⇒ m2 r′2 θ + r2 θ ˙ m2 θ In (3) use this 2m h + − −
2 2
2
2
r′2 + r2
µm r µm = 2m h + r = 2m h +
µm r r2 = C (r′2 + r2 )
˙ m2 θ (r′2 + r2 ) 2 r = C (r′2 + r2 ) − ˙ m2 θ r 2 = C ˙ −mθr2 = C C ˙ θ = − 2 mr
2
Angular momentum is constant C2 ˙2 θ = 2 4 mr To ﬁnd the equation of orbit 2m h + (3) ⇒ − µm r r2 = C (r′2 + r2 )
Squaring and rearranging we get 2m h + µm 4 r = C 2 r′2 + r2 r µm 4 C 2 r′2 = 2m h + r − C 2 r2 r 107
.

r
′2
µm 2mr4 h+ − r2 = 2 Cdr r 2mr2 C2 = hr2 + µmr − C2 2m
dr dθ
2
= dr = dθ
C2 2mr2 hr2 + µmr − C2 2m 2mr2 C2 hr2 + µmr − C2 2m
dr C2 2mr2 hr2 + µmr − C2 2m
= dθ
C dθ = √ 2m C θ = √ 2m
r r
dr hr4 + µmr2 − C 2 dr r2 d h+ µm C2 − r 2m 2 µm 1 − 2 C r r2 2m
r0
µm2 1 µ2 m4 2mh + 2 − − C4 C C2 r r µm2 1 − C2 r −1 θ = sin 2 4 2mh µm + 2 C4 C r0 2 µm 1 − π C2 r −1 = sin − 2 µ2 m4 2mh + 2 C4 C 2 1 µm − π C2 r = sin θ + 2 4 2 µm 2mh + 2 4 C C
r0
=
108
.

To ﬁnd h :
1+
µm 1 ˙2 ˙ h = m r2 + r2 θ − 2 r
At r = r0 = rmin .cos θ
µ2 m4 2mh µm2 1 + 2 = − C4 C C2 r 2 µm 1 µ2 m4 2mh = − + 2 cos θ r C2 C4 C C2 we get µm2 C =1− µm2 /r 2hc2 cos θ µ2 m 3
Multiplying by
1+
This is a conic with eccentricity 2hc2 µ2 m 3 ℓ = 1 + e cos θ r
i.. ¨
1 ˙1 ˙2 ˙3 Example Given a holonomic system with Lagrangian form L = m (x2 + x2 + x2 )− 2 mgx0 and a constraint x1 − x2 + x3 = 0. θ = θ0 = 0 m µm ˙2 0 + r2 θ0 = h + 2 r0 Also
2 mr0 θ0 − C ⇒ θ0 =
−C 2 mr0
(1) ⇒
µm m 2 C2 = h+ r0 2 4 2 m r0 r0 C2 µm = h+ 2 2mr0 r0 2 C µm h = − 2 2mr0 r0
function to obtain the diﬀerential equation of motion for x1 .e. We argumented Lagrangian ˙ ˙ ˙
109
.

Solution : 1 ˙1 ˙2 ˙3 L = m x2 + x2 + x2 − mgx0 2 constraint: x1 − x2 + x3 = 0 ˙ ˙ ˙ λ = L + µg 1 = m x2 + x2 + x2 − mgx3 + µ (x1 − x2 + x3 ) ˙1 ˙2 ˙3 ˙ ˙ ˙ 2 d dt we have d (mx1 + µ) ˙ dt dµ m¨1 + x dt d ∂λ ∂λ − dt ∂ x2 ˙ ∂x2 d (m¨2 − µ) x dt dµ m¨2 − x dt ∂λ d ∂λ − dt ∂ x3 ˙ ∂x3 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 (2) (1) ∂λ ∂ x1 ˙ − ∂λ =0 ∂x1
d (mx3 + µ) + mg = 0 ˙ dt dµ = 0 m¨3 + mg + x dt
(3)
(1). Itreating µ are of the we have d dt ∂λ ∂µ ˙ − ∂λ =0 ∂µ (4)
x1 − x2 + x3 = 0 ˙ ˙ ˙ 110
. (2) and (3) are the diﬀerential equation of motion.

In 111
. ˙
State and prove Least action or Principle of least action The actual path of a conservative holonomic system is such that the action is stationary with respect to varied pathes having the same energy integral and the same end points in a ‘q’ space. we get x1 + x2 = 0 ⇒ x1 = −¨2 ¨ ¨ ¨ x Adding (2) and (3) we get x2 + x3 = 0 ⇒ x2 = −¨1 ¨ ¨ ¨ x (*)
(∗) ⇒ x1 − x3 = g ¨ ¨ x3 = −g − x2 ¨ ¨ = −g + x1 ¨ x1 + x1 + x1 − g = 0 ¨ ¨ ¨ 3¨1 = g x g x1 = ¨ 3
(4) ⇒ x1 + x3 = x2 ¨ ¨ ¨ x3 = x2 − x1 ¨ ¨ ¨ = −¨1 − x1 x ¨ = −2¨1 = − x 2g 3
Deﬁnition : Action In mechanics action is deﬁced as
t1 n
A=
t0 i=1
pi qi dt.Adding (1) and (2). Proof : In this case we are considering a more general type of variation.

t). ˙
t1
t1
t1
δI = δ
t0 t1
Ldt =
t0 n
δLdt +
t0
Ld (δt) d ∂L δt + L (δt) dt ∂t dt
=
t0 t1 i=1 n
∂L ∂L δqi + δ qi ˙ ∂qi ∂qi
+
=
t0 i=1
∂L d d ∂L δqi + (δqi ) − qi (δt) ˙ ∂qi ∂ qi dt ˙ dt
+
d ∂L δt + L (δt) dt ∂t dt 112
. t + δt) corresponds to (q. t) dt. q. Let ‘d’ indicates diﬀerential change along individual path.this variation the point (q + δq. δ indicates variations in going from actual path to varied path considering the small quadirlateral in the above ﬁgure. qdt + δq + dδq = δq + (q + δ q) (dt + dδt) ˙ ˙ ˙ qdt + dδq = qdt + qdδt + δ qdt + δ qdδt ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ Dividing by dt dδq = qdδt + δ qdδt + δ qdt ˙ ˙ ˙ d d d (δqi ) = qi (δt) + δ qi + δ qi (δt) ˙ ˙ ˙ dt dt dt Omitting δ qi ˙ d (δt) dt d d (δqi ) = qi (δt) + δ qi ˙ ˙ dt dt δ qi = ˙
t1
d d (δqi ) − qi (δt) ˙ dt dt
(1)
Let I =
t0
L (q.

t1 n
δI =
t0 i=1
d ∂L δqi + ∂qi dt
n
n
i=1
∂L ∂ qi ˙
n
δqi −
i=1
d dt
∂L ∂ qi ˙
δqi
−
t1
i=1
∂L d ∂L d δt + L (δt) dt qi (δt) + ˙ ∂ qi dt ˙ ∂t dt
t1 n
=
t0
d dt
t1
n
i=1 n
∂L δqi dt − ∂ qi ˙
t0
i=1
d dt
t1
∂L ∂ qi ˙
−
∂L δ qi dt ˙ ∂qi (*)
−
t0
i=1
d ∂L qi − L ˙ (δt) dt + ∂ qi ˙ dt
∂L δtdt ∂t
t0
= I1 − I2 − I3 + I4 where
t1
I1 =
t0
d dt
n
n
i=1
∂L δqi dt ∂ qi ˙
t1
⇒
i=1
∂L δqi ∂ qi ˙
=0
t0
113
.t1
n
=
t0 i=1
∂L ∂L d ∂L d (δqi ) − δqi + qi (δt) ˙ ∂qi ∂ qi dt ˙ ∂ qi dt ˙
+ Consider d dt
n n
d ∂L δt + L (δt) dt ∂t dt
i=1
∂L d (δqi ) ∂ qi dt ˙ ∂L ∂ qi ˙
n
=
i=1
d dt
n
∂L ∂ qi ˙ ∂L ∂ qi ˙ ∂L ∂ qi ˙
d (δqi ) dt d (δqi ) dt δqi
i=1
d d (δqi ) = dt dt
n
i=1
−
i=1
d dt
Using this value in above equation we get.

t1
n
I2 =
t0 t1 i=1
d dt
∂L ∂ qi ˙
−
∂L δ qi dt = 0 ˙ ∂qi
I4 =
t0
∂L δtdt = 0 ∂t
t1 n
I3 = −
t0
i=1
∂L qi − L d (δt) = δI ˙ ∂ qi ˙
Every varied path having the same evergy integral h.
n
i=1
∂L qi − L = h ˙ ∂ qi ˙
t1
δI = − hd (δt) = −h (δt)t1 t0
t0
δI = −h (δt1 − δt0 ) Let us deﬁne the action
t1 n
(a)
A =
t0 t1 i=1 n
pi qi dt ˙ ∂L qi dt ˙ ∂ qi ˙
=
t0 t1 i=1
=
t0
(L + h) dt
t1 t1
δA = δ
t0
Ldt + δ
t0 t1
hdt
t1
= δI +
t0
δhdt +
t0
hd (δt)
= δI + δh (t1 − t0 ) + h (δt1 − δt0 ) = δI + δh (t1 − t0 ) − δI using (a) 114
.

Now
n
i=1
p i qi − L = H ˙
n
p i qi = L + H ˙
i=1
= T2 − T0 + V + T − V 115
.h is same as in the actual path and varied path δh = 0 ∴ δA = 0
t1 n
∴ The P.L. Hence the I. Let us assume all the applied force are derivable from a potential function. Obtain Jacobis form of principle of least action Solution : Write the bookwork Least action completely let us assume that the system be natural. Let us assume all the varied paths have ﬁxed end points in a q space. δA = δ
t0 i=1
pi qi dt = 0 ˙
Hence the theorem. Let us assume that the variation be contemperaneous. integral vanishes. ∴ Second integral vanished. Hence the least integral vanishes. ∴ δI = 0 This is Hamilton principle. In this case δt = 0. Derive Hamilton principle form of least action Solution : Write down upto form the above.A.

116
. T0 = 0.
t1
n
Least action = δA = δ
t0 t1 i=1
pi qi dt = 0 ˙
A =
t0
2T dt = 0
t1
δA = δ
t0
2T dt = 0
Deﬁne ds as follows ds2 =
i
mij qi qj dt2 ˙ ˙
j 2
= 2T dt √ 2T dt ds =
t1
δA = δ
t0 t1
√ √
√ 2T 2T dt
= δ
t0 t1
2T ds
= δ
t0
2 (h − v)ds = 0
This is the principle of least action in Jacobi’s theorem.= T2 − T0 + T = T2 − T0 + T2 + T0 + T1 = 2T2 + T1 [∵ T + v = h] = 2T + 0
n
pi qi = 2T ˙
i=1
For the natural system T2 = T. T1 = 0.

E in the usual form for mass spring system we obtain T = V where k is the stiﬀness. p) = px − L ˙
= p (pm) −
1 1 m (pm)2 − kx2 2 2 2 2 p p 1 = − + kx2 m 2m 2 117
. Find the equation of motion using the Hamilton’s procedure.E and P. But we know that 1 1 ˙ L = T − V = m x2 − x2 k 2 2 1 ∂L = m2x ˙ ∂x ˙ 2 = mx [ here x is only the co-ordinates q = x] ˙ 1 m x2 ˙ 2 1 2 = xk 2
Angular momentum P =
P = mx ˙ P x = ˙ m 1 P2 2 T = mx = ˙ 2 2m The Hamilton function is H (x. Assume that the displacement x is measure from the unstressed position of the spring.Problem : Given a mass spring system consisting of a mass m and a linear spring of stiﬀness of k as shown in gigure. Solution : First we ﬁnd the K.

pi = − . Kepler’s problem using Hamilton canonical function.x = ˙ = p= ∂p ∂p 2m m 1 ∂H =− k · 2x = −kx ⇒p = − ˙ ∂x 2 qi = ˙ Using (1) ∴ p = −kx ˙ But p = mx ˙ p = m¨ ˙ x From (2) and (3) m¨ = −kx x mx + kx = 0
(1)
(2)
(3)
This is equation of the mass spring system. Find the equation of motion qi = ˙ ∂H ∂H . p) Using Hamilton canonical equation ∂H ∂H 2 p . ∂pi ∂qi 118
.p2 1 2 + kx = m 2 H (q. p. θ) to describe the position of the particle. t) = H (x. A particle of mass m is attached to a ﬁxed point ‘O’ by an inverse µm square force that is Fr = − 2 where µ is the gravitational co-eﬃcient r using the plane co-ordinates (r.

Solution: T = V = 1 ˙2 m r2 + r2 θ ˙ 2 Fr dr = − µm dr r2
The Lagrange’s function L = T −V H = T +V µm 1 ˙2 m r2 + r2 θ − ˙ = 2 r 1 µm p2 p2 r = m + r2 2θ 4 − 2 2 m mr r 2 2 pr p µm = + θ2− 2m 2mr r
Using the Hamilton equation we have r= ˙ 2pr pr ∂H = = ∂pr 2m m (1)
pr = − ˙
∂H ∂r
= −
µm 1 2 pθ (−2) r3 + 2 2m r 2 pθ µm = − 2 3 mr r
(2)
From (1) r = ˙ pθ ˙ pr pr ˙ ⇒r= ¨ m m ∂H ⇒r− ¨ = − ∂θ p2 ⇒ m¨ − θ 3 + r mr
1 µm 1 p2 θ + =0 3 m mr m r2 µm =0 r2 119
.

Problem Using the Hamilton equation discuss the motion for a charged particle in an electro magnetic ﬁeld.pθ is constant say β µm β2 + 2 = 0 ⇒ m¨ − r 3 mr r pr = mr ˙ pr = m¨ ˙ r From equation (1) and (2) m¨ = r β2 µm − 2 3 mr r (3)
µm β2 + 2 = 0 m¨ − r 3 mr r This is the equation of motion. Solution : The Lagrangian function is T = V 1 2 mv 2 ¯ ¯ ¯ = ρ φ−v·A
L = T −V 1 2 ¯ ¯ ¯ = mv − ρ φ − v · A 2 Momentum ¯ p = m¯ + ρA ¯ v ¯ m¯ = p − ρA v ¯ ¯ p − ρA ¯ v = ¯ m Assume ρ is the charge our the particle Hamilton H is given by H = pv − L ¯¯ 120
.

1 = pv − mv 2 + ρ ¯¯ 2 ¯ ¯ = m¯ + ρA v − v = = = = =
1 2 ¯ m¯ + ρφ − ρ¯A v v¯ 2 ¯ ¯v 1 v v¯ m¯2 + ρA¯ − m¯2 + ρφ − ρ¯A v 2 1 2 ¯ m¯ + ρφ v 2 2 1 p − ρA ¯ m + ρφ 2 m 1 ¯ (p − ρA)2 + ρφ 2m 1 ¯ (px − ρAx )2 + (py − ρAy )2 + (pz − ρAz )2 + ρφ 2m ∂H ∂px 1 = [2 (px − ρAx )] 2m 1 (px − ρAx ) = m
¯ ¯¯ φ − vA
x = ˙
Similarly y = ˙ 1 (py − ρAy ) m 1 z = ˙ (pz − ρAz ) m ∴v= The second canonical equation x = ˙ px ˙ ∂H ∂px ∂H = − ∂x 1 ∂Ax ∂Ay = − 2 (px − ρAx ) −ρ + 2 (py − ρAy ) −ρ 2m ∂x ∂x ∂Az ∂φ +2 (pz − ρAz ) −ρ +ρ ∂x ∂x 121 1 p − ρA m
.

y . we get ˙ ˙ ˙ ¯ ∇ v·A ∂Ax ∂Ay 1 i (px − ρAx ) + (py − ρAy ) m ∂x ∂x ∂Az + (pz − ρAz ) ∂x px ∂φ ˙ = i + ρ ∂x px ∂φ py ∂φ pz ∂φ ˙ ˙ ˙ = i+ j+ + + + ρ ∂x ρ ∂y ρ ∂z p ˙ + ∇φ = ρ =
k
p = ρ∇ v · A − ρ∇φ ˙ Hence the proof. Lagender’s Transformation : 122
.= −ρ
ρ ∂Ay ∂Ax ∂φ + + (py − ρAy ) (px − ρAx ) ∂x m ∂x ∂x ∂Az + (pz − ρAz ) ∂x
(1)
Similarly py = −ρ ˙ ∂φ ∂y ρ ∂Ax ∂Ay ∂Az + (px − ρAx ) + (py − ρAy ) + (pz − ρAz ) m ∂y ∂y ∂y ∂φ = −ρ ∂z ρ ∂Ax ∂Ay ∂Az + (px − ρAx ) + (py − ρAy ) + (pz − ρAz ) m ∂z ∂z ∂z
pz ˙
But ¯ ∇ v·A = ∇ [(xi + yj + zk ) · (Axi + Ayj + Azk )] ˙ ˙ ˙ = ∇ (xAx + yAy + zAz ) ˙ ˙ ˙ ∂ ∂ ∂ ˙ ˙ = i x Ax + y Ay + z Az ˙ ∂x ∂y ∂z Substitute the values of x. z.

ω m .
(2)
Consider a variation ∂G associated with arbitrary variation of the active variable.So
n
δG =
i=1 n
∂G δvi ∂vi ui δvi + vi δui − ∂F δui ∂ui ∂F ∂ui
=
i=1
or
n
i=1
∂G δvi = ∂vi
n
i=1
ui δvi + vi δui −
δui
where δu’s and δv’s are assumed to the arbitrary equation . · · · . ∂uj
=
according to the equation
Now let us deﬁne a new function G (v1 . t) . 2. n) .
(1)
Let n×m Heissian determinant for the transformation be non-zero.Derive Hamilton’s cononical equation using Legender transformation and Lagrange’s equation. Let vi = ∂F (i = 1. v2 . · · · . Solution : Suppose the funcion F (u1 . ω 2 . t)
n
G=
i=1
ui vi − f (u. ω 1 . un . ω.. t) Hence u’s are active variables and ω’s and t are passive variable. ω 1 . vn . ω 2 . u2 . · · · . Then ∂ ∂2f = ∂ui ∂uj ∂uj ∂F ∂ui ∂vi = 0. ω n . Equating the co-eﬃcient on both sides ui = For a holonomic system 123 ∂G . · · · . ∂vi (3)
. ∂ui
is associated with the given system. · · · .

n ∂qi (4)
where pi =
∂L . t) ˙ ∂qi ∂qi ∴
(5)
From (4) and (5) ∂H ∂H = −pi ⇒ pi = − ˙ ˙ ∂qi ∂qi Problem: Obtain Hamiton cononical eqn from modiﬁed Hamilton’s principle. q. · · · . ω. ∂ qi ∂ qj ˙ ˙
Since the inertia matrix is positive deﬁnite matrix. Solution : Consider a holonomic system having n independent q’s. ∂qi Let us choose L (q.
t1
By Hamilton’s principle. q.
δI = δ
t0
Ldt
124
. t) = − (q. t) corresponding to the Hamilton’s funciton
n
H (p. q. 3. Let G (u. · · · . i = 1.The Lagrange’s equation is pi = ˙ ∂L . p. t) =
i=1
p i qi − L ˙
where qi = ˙
∂H . 2. δI = 0 where I =
t0 t1
Ldt. t) corresponding to the function F (u. 3. n. t) . i = 1. 2. ∂pi ∂G = ui ∂vi ∂L ∂H (q. ˙ Also we have ∂2L = |mij | = 0. ω.

we have h = T + V, L = T − V H = L = p i qi − L pi qi − H (p, q, t) ˙

t1

t1

δ

t0

Ldt = δ

t0 t1 n

pi qi − H (p, q, t) dt ˙

n

0 =

t0 i=1

(pi δ qi + qi δpi ) − ˙ ˙

i=1

∂H ∂H ∂H δt δpi + δ qi − ˙ ∂pi ∂qi ∂t

dt

125

UNIT IV

Hamilton -Jacobi theorem Integrals of Motion : In a holonomic system consisting of n generalized co-ordinates. We have n second order non-linear diﬀerential equation with time as independent variables. Any general analytic solution of this diﬀerential equation contains one method of expression the general solution. ie, To obtain ∂R independent funciton of the form fi (q, q, t) = γ j , j = 1, 2, 3, · · · , 2n ˙ We have the γ j ’s are arbitrary constant. These two functions are called the integral. The value of each γ’s are depending on the initial condition. In principle these 2n equations can be solved for the q’s as function of γ and t. It is possible to ﬁnd q’s and q’s as a function of γ and t. ˙ ∴It is possible to ﬁnd qi = qi (γ 1 , γ 2 , · · · , γ 2n , t) qi = qi (γ 1 , γ 2 , · · · , γ 2n , t) ˙ ˙ 1. Corresponding Hamilton’s Principle function. Solve the Hamilton poblem giving the motion in phase space as function of time. Solution : Let I=

t0 t1

Ldt.

Consider the cononical integral which is associating with Hamilton’s principle. 126

We want to evaluate this integral over actual dynamical path of a holonomic system that obeys standard Lagrange’s equation or Hamilton’s equation. If 2n independent initial conditions as speciﬁed at the time t0 any ﬁnal time t1 . Let us consider the solution of equations qi1 = qi1 (q0 , q0 , t0 , t1 ) , i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , n. ˙ Let us assume Jacobian ∂ (q11 , q12 , · · · , q1n ) ∂ (q10 , q20 , · · · , qn0 ) ˙ ˙ ˙ is non zero. Hence we get qi0 = η i (q0 , q1 , t0 , t1 ) , i = 1, 2, 3, · · · , n ˙

t1

**We can evaluate the integral
**

t0

Ldt as a funciton of (q0 , q0 , t0 , t1 ) . ˙

**Then subsititution for qi0 from the above equation we have ˙
**

t1

s = s (q0 , q1 , t0 , t1 ) =

t0

Ldt.

The function s (q0 , q1 , t0 , t1 ) obtain from the canonical equation. Required form to be obtained. Let us assume twice diﬀerentiation in all its arguments. This is called Hamilton’s principle function. Let us consider a non contemporaneous system general variation of the canonical integral with the reference in the actual solution. We have, H − H (q1 , p, t)

n

dH dt

=

i=1

∂H ∂H dqi ∂H dpi + dt + ∂qi dt ∂pi dt ∂t 127

(By writting the above quation in diﬀerential form) s = s (q0 .n
=
i=1
∂H ∂H ∂H qi + ˙ pi + ˙ ∂qi ∂pi ∂t
(1)
From Hamilton’s canonical equation we have ∂H ∂H .
n t1
∴ δS =
i=1 n
pi δqi − Hδt
t1
t0
dS =
i=1
pi δqi −
t0
d (Hδt) dt. dt
This is diﬀerence of two forces. · · · . pi = − ˙ . t1 ) 128
. q1 . i = 1. t0 . 2. n ∂pi ∂qi ∂L ∂H = − ∂t ∂t ∂L ∂H ˙ =− (1) ⇒ H = ∂t ∂t qi = ˙ We know that from the principle of least action
t1 n
δI =
t0 i=1
d dt
∂L ∂ qi ˙
t1
δqi dt +
t0 t1 n
∂L δt − ∂t d dt ∂L ∂ qi ˙
n
i=1
∂L δ qi − L ˙ ∂ qi ˙
d dt
dt
−
t0 t1 n
i=1 t1
−
∂L δqi dt ∂qi
=
t0 t1 i=1 n
d (pi δqi ) dt + dt
−
t0 t1
∂H d δt − H (δt) dt ∂t dt
=
t0 i=1
d (pi δqi ) dt − dt
d (Hδt) dt dt
t0
As our assumtion δS = δI.

Assuning ∂2s =0 ∂qi0 ∂qj1
We can solve for each qi1 as a funciton of the initial condition i. 3. If this is substituted in pi1 = ∂s . t0 . qi1 = qi1 (q0 . t1 ) . ˙
(ii) In the whole discussion ﬁrst ﬁnding the principle funcion without knowing of solution. 129
. n. n ∂qi1 ∂qi0 ∂s ∂s = − . we have ∂qi1
pi1 = pi1 (q0 . t1 . Pfaﬃan Diﬀerential forms : ten as i) A pfaﬃan form gΩ is the m variables x1 . · · · . Hence the corresponding co-eﬃcients in (1) and (2) are equal. t0 . t0 . qi1 . t0 . xm can be writΩ = X1 (x) dx1 + · · · + Xm (x) dxm. t1 ) . i = 1. Note :
t1
(i)
t0
Ldt is a fucntion (qi1 . 2. i = 1. 3. x2 .e. we get pi0 as function f (qi0 ..n
ds =
i=1
∂s ∂s δqi1 + δqi0 ∂qi1 ∂qi0
+
∂s ∂s δt1 + δt0 ∂t1 ∂t0
(2)
The (2n + 2) arguments of the principle funcitons are independent. t1 ) but qi1 . t0 . t1 ) .. q0 . This completes the solution of the Hamilton’s problem. H0 = ∂t1 ∂t0
Now. pi1 = H1 ∂s ∂s . p0 . 2. qi1 . pi0 = − . · · · . p0 . qi1 are the funciton of ˙ ˙ q0 . · · · .

130
. t) (1) ⇒ qj = ˙ ∂H ∂t
n
(1) (2)
=
i=1
∂H ∂H ∂H qi + ˙ pi + ˙ ∂qi ∂pi ∂t
These are the Hamilton’s canonical equation. · · · .
Applying this equation to the diﬀerential equaiton. pt ) dt Now. 3. 2. j = 1.Let us deﬁne Cij =
∂Xi ∂Xj − ∂xj ∂xi ii) If the pfaﬃan form is an exact diﬀerentiation then all the ds are we have
n n
zero
ds =
i=1
pi1 dqi1 −
i=1
pi0 dqi0 − H1 dt1 − H0 dt0 . p.
The R.H.we have ∂H dt = 0 ∂pj ∂H dt = 0 −dpj − ∂qj dqj − (1) and (2) can be written as ∂H ∂pj ∂H . j = 1. 3. n (2) ⇒ pj = − ˙ ∂qj H = H (q. By pfaﬃcan system these equation are of the form
n
i=1
Cij dxi = 0. · · · . we have m = 2n + 1 (odd) . 2. m.S consists of twon variables are p’s and q’s each expression can be written as p1 q1 + p2 q2 + · · · + pn qn + 0 · dp1 + · · · + 0 · dpn − 1 + h (q.

γ 2 . γ 2n ) .Also using (2). n. γ 2n )
(3)
Then using (3) we have
n 2n
pi0 dqi0 =
i=1 i=1
pi0
∂qi0 ∂γ j
(4)
By the theorem that the 2n can be replaced by nα’s and nβ’s where the function αi = αi (γ 11 . choosen such that
n 2n
β i dαi =
i=1 i=1
Γ (γ. · · · . · · · . γ 21 . γ 21 . p20 . γ 2n )
qi0 = qi0 (γ 11 . γ 21 . q20 . γ 2n ) to specify the intial con-
pi0 = pi0 (γ 11 . 3. · · · . · · · . p10 . dγ)
131
. · · · . · · · . · · · . · · · . γ 2n ) β i = β i (γ 11 . qn0 . · · · . 2. γ 21 . i = 1. H= ∂t Now let us generalized the diﬀerential form
n n
ds =
i=1
pi1 dqi1 −
i=1
pi0 dqi0 − H1 dt1 + H0 dt0 . We assume a transformation
Using the 2n parameter (γ 1 . γ 21 .
dition in place the q0 ’s and p0 ’s in otherwise. we have ∂H ˙ . γ 2n ) such that ∂ (q10 . pn0 ) =0 ∂ (γ 11 .

Now we have diﬀerential equation Assume that
n n
ds =
i=1
pi1 dqi1 −
i=1
pi0 dqi0 − H1 dt1 + H0 dt0
(1)
where s is the Hamilton’s principle funtion.in the same manner as (4) we have
n
Γj (γ) =
i=1
βi
∂αi . p10 . pn0 ) β i = β i (q10 . Let the initial condition be speciﬁed by αi = αi (q10 . · · · . j = 1. · · · . It is associated with cononical transformation relating the initial and ﬁnal point of a path in a phase space. Hamilton . p20 . 3. · · · . p0 ) and (α. p20 . · · · . q20 . qn0 . p10 . 2.
n n
pi0 dqi0 =
i=1 n n i=1
β i dαi
∴ ds =
i=1
pi1 dqi1 −
i=1
β i dαi − H1 dt1 + H0 dt0
(2)
132
. qn0 . pn0 ) which satisﬁed. n.Jacobi equation : Consider a holonomic system giving 2n independent initial conditions at time to as q0 = p0 . ∂γ j
It can be show that α’s are not unique
n n
pi0 dqi0 =
i=1 i=1
β j dαi
where α’s and β’s are another representation shows that (q0 . · · · . q20 . β) are connected by a homogeneouss cannonical transformation at a time t0 .

t ) ˙
n
ds =
i=1
∂s dqi + ∂qi
n
i=1
∂s ∂s dαi + dt ∂αi ∂t
(II)
∂ 2s = 0. i = 1. H1 = − . ∂qi ∂αj ∴ Equating the coeﬃcient in I and II. i = 1. take the ﬁnal time at t. n ∂qi 133 (4)
(5)
. we have Once again assuming −β i = pi = ∂s .. i. t1 = t ⇒ dt1 = dt Hence we can drop the subsorip q’s . 3. i = 1. H0 = . t1 . · · · . ∴ Equating the corresponding coeﬃcient in ds we have −β i = pi1 ∂s . · · · . ∂αi ∂s ∂s ∂s .
(I)
From this we see that s is a funciton of (q. t) (p is a function of q.Now we consider s number can be associated as a function of s = s (qi1 . 2.e. t0 )
n
ds =
i=1
ds dqi1 + dqi1
n
i=1
∂s ∂s ∂s dαi + dt1 + dt0 ∂αi ∂t1 ∂t0
(3)
Hence q’s and α’s are independent equality variable. n ∂αi ∂s . = ∂qi1 ∂t1 ∂t0
Let us assume initial time t0 = 0 . Hence (1) becomes
n n
ds =
i=1
pi dqi −
i=1
β i dαi − Hdt. n. αi . r. 2. · · · . 2. 3. α. 3. q.

β. · · · . t) . p. t) using this in equation (5)
H is usually as a function of (q. β.
(6)
Form (4) we can get q’s as function (α. i = 1. Hence we have the solution for Hamilton’s rpinciple. 2. . · · · . β. n ∂qi 134
. Using (5) and (6) we have ∂s + H (q. n ∂αi ∂s .Jacobi equaiton. Statement : If s (q. t) is any complete solution of the Hamilton Jacobi equation ∂s ∂s + H q. Then these expression provide the general solution of the canonical equation associated with Hamilton H (q.∂s = −H ∂t we can ﬁnd p as function of (α. t = 0 ∂t ∂q This is called Hamilton . i = 1. t ∂t ∂q =0 (2) (3)
∂s = pi . 2. 3. t) and pi (α. 3. · · · . p. p. State and prove Jacobi theorem. t ∂t ∂q −β i = pi = =0 (1)
∂s . . t) . t) . n ∂qi
where β’s are arbitrary constant are used to solve for qi (α. 3. Proof : ∂s ∂s + H q. α. . β. 2. t) . OR Prove that any complete solution of the Hamilton Jacobi equation leads to a solution of this Hamilton problem. t) = 0 ∂t ∂s ∂s + H q. i = 1.

r. n ∂pj (7)
Now. t) are independent to each other ds = pi ] dqi
∂s is a function of (q. n ∂αi
Taking the total time derivation of this w. · · · .to αi d2 s + dαi ∂t
n
j=1
∂H ∂pj =0 ∂pj ∂αi
(4)
where pj is considered as a function of (q. i = 1. · · · . ∂qi ∂αj qj = ˙ ∂H .to qj .(2) and (3). t) . ∂s = −β i .
∂s ∂t
+ H (q. t). Diﬀerentiating w. α.to t ∂2s + ∂t∂αi ∂ 2s + ∂t∂αi
n n
j=1
∂2s qj = 0 ˙ ∂qj ∂αi ∂qj ∂t ∂s ∂αi
(5)
j=1
∂ ∂qj
dt = 0
(5) and (4) ⇒ Using (1). · · · . α.r. 2. diﬀerentiating (1)
partially w. i = 1. we have ∂2s + ∂qj ∂t
n
i=1
∂H ∂pi ∂H + =0 ∂pi ∂qj ∂qj 135
(8)
. 2. 2. we have
n
j=1
qj − ˙
∂H ∂qj αi
∂2s = 0. p. [p (q.r. t) in (3). x.pi is a function of (q. ∂αi Now. α. t) = 0. 3. 3.which is a function of (q. j = 1. n ∂qj ∂αi
(6)
But
∂ 2s = 0. 3. t) and α’s and β’s are constants. α.

. n ∂qj ∂qi ∂H = − ∂qj
Equations (7) and (10) together give the cononical equation of Hamilton.r. . 2.. 3.. p) = 0 ∂t ∂s = −H = −αn ∂t 136
(1)
. n. 2. Thus any complete solution of the Hamilton Jacobi equation leads to a solution of the Hamilton equation. t) . α.(3) ⇒ pj = tiating w. .. pi = − . t = 0 ∂t ∂q ∂s + H (q.. . p) = αn = h where h is the value of the Hamilton Jacobi integral.. 3.to t
∂s (q. ∂qj
Taking the total time derivation of this equation we have to diﬀeren∂2s pj − ˙ − ∂t∂qj (6) + (7) ⇒ ∂H + pj + ˙ ∂qj
n n
i=1
∂ 2s qi = 0 ˙ ∂qj ∂qi
(9)
i=1
∂H ∂pi − ∂pi ∂qj
n
i=1
∂ 2s qi = 0 ˙ ∂qj ∂qi
∂H + ⇒ pj + ˙ ∂qj ⇒ pj + ˙ pj ˙
n
i=1
∂pi − qi ˙ ∂qj
n
i=1
∂pi qi = 0 ˙ ∂qj
∂H ∂s = 0. ∂s ∂s + H q.
Modiﬁed Hamilton Jacobi equation :
Consider a conservative holonomic system with n independent for this system H is not an explicit function of time t for this system H (q. j = 1. j = 1.

αn ) . 2. qn . i = 1.. The funciton ω (q. α. α) = ω (q1 . i = 1. Hamilton jacobi equaiton Induces to This is the modiﬁed Hamilton Jacobi equaiton Note: We have βi = ∂s ∂αi ∂s ∂αn ∂s i ∂qi ∂s ∂s . α2 ..∴ s can be taken as linera funciton of time t is s (q. 2.. n ∂qi 137
. 3... n ∂qi ∂qi Using (3) and (4). . . t) = −αn t + ω (q. ∂ω ∂s = . Now. α) . 3.... 2. . 3. i = 1. n ∂qi (2) (3) (4)
Comparing the equation we have βi = ∂ω . .. pi = ∂αi ∂qi ∂ω = .. (n − 1) ∂αi ∂ω = −t ∂αn ∂ω = . .. (n − 1) ∂αi ∂αi ∂ω ∂s = −t ∂αn ∂αn ∂ω ∂s = . α1 . ... 3... does not contain time explicitly and is known as a characteristic function. 2.. i = 1. 3. 2.. q2 . i = 1.. Then we have omitted arbitrary additive constant. ....

. k ∂s′ = .. . . αn .. t) =
i=1
αi qi + s′ (qk+1 . .. qn .. . .. 3. t = 0 ∂t ∂q ′ ∂s ∂s′ ∂s′ + H qk+1 . .. αk . α2 .. . We can assume principle solution is of the form
k
s (q. Ignorable co-ordinates : Consider a holonomic system described by the standard form d dt ∂L ∂ qi ˙ − ∂L = 0. t ∂t ∂qk+1 ∂qn
= 0.... α1 .. ∂qi ∂L = 0.. 2.... ′ . i = 1. 2.. ′ .. k..where β n is the intial time to t0 .. 3. . ∂qi
qi is said to be an ignorable co-ordinate if Also pi = Case (i)
∂L = β i only for the ignorable co-ordinate... .. i = k + 1. .. n ∂qi = −qi0 138
. We know that pi = αi . . 3. q2 . −β i = qi + pi pi pi ∂s′ .. qn .. α2 . qn . k + 3.. i = 1. i = 1. k ∂αi = αi .
The complete solution of these equation involve (n − k) non additive constants exclusive of the known solution of this equation is obtained form.. α.. k + 2. ∂qi
Consider a system with ignorable co-ordinates q1 . 2. t)
Hamilton Jacobi equation leads to ∂s ∂s + H q. α1 .Let us assume the system is not consecutive..

α. 2. αn−1 the energy constent αn and constant moments α1 . q2 . 139 dp = 0 at the linear momentum is dt
. t) =
i=1
αi qi − αn t + ω ′ (qk+1 . The motion of the system is given by −β i = qi + −β i = t − βn ∂ω ′ . dt dt If the total force is zero. αk . k) ⇒ pi =
Ordinary Conservation of linear momentum This follows from Newton’s second law of motion d dp (mv) = = F.. . 2. k + 2. α1 .. αn ... 3... i = 1.. .. Note : The word conservation applied in the of connectedness.. .... (k − 1) ∂αi ∂ω ′ = ∂αn ∂ω ′ .. 3.. i = k + 1....... .. (i = k + 1.. αk+2 .. n) ∂qi
pi = αi (i = 1. k + 2. 2. k ∂αi
The complete solution for ω ′ in this case involve (n − k − 1) non addi-
∂ω ′ . .. αk .. ′ ′ ∂qk+1 ∂qn = qn
tive constants αk+1 ... . . ... α2 . then conserved. .. n ∂αi
Consider a system with ignorable co-ordinate q1 .. ∂ω ′ ∂ω ′ . qk and conservative with the help of the previous result we have
k
s (q.. 3. α1 . t)
The modiﬁed Hamilton Jacobi equation becomes H qk+1 .. .. k + 3. . α2 . i = 1. . .−β i = Case (ii)
∂s′ . α2 .. qn .. qn .

Principle of conservation of evergy : Let the only force acting on the given particle be conservation is of the force are derivable from scalar potential evergy function.E. N = d (r × ρ) dt dL = . dt (1)
(2) (3) (4)
∴The second term is zero both vectors are parallel now. dt
Thus the rate of change of angular momentum of a particle is equal to the force acting on it is the total force N = 0. Angular momentum l at the particle with respect to the origin O is L = r × ρ Moment of a force about a origin is N = r × F then F = N = r×F ⇒N =r× ⇒ N= ⇒ N= ⇒ N= ∴ N= dp dt d dr (r × ρi ) − ×ρ dt dt d (r × ρ) − v × mv dt d (r × ρ) − 0 dt d (r × ρ) dt dp .angular momentum is considered in the absence of dt an external force. Suppose under the action of such force F particles moves from the 140
.=K. F = −∇V. then the T.E. Consider a particle at mass m and the linear momentum p at a positin vector r relative to the origin O at an inertial frame. dL Then = 0.Conservation of angular momentum : Angular momentum is the angular of linear momentum in the case of relational motion.E.+P.

so ˙ p = mv = mr. T1 denote the K.
F = −∇V
2
2
ω 12 =
1 2
− ∇V dr =
1
−
dV dr dx
− dV
1
= V1 − V2 141
. ˙ dr = r.E of the position 2 and 1 respectively. Then the workdone
2
ω = 2
1
F ds
2 2
ω =
F ds =
1
F ds =
1
dF ds dt
The particle moves ds distance in the time dt with velocity r. dr = rdt ˙ ˙ dt
2
ω = 2
1 2
d (mr) rdt ˙ ˙ dt d mr2 dt ˙ dt
1 2
=
=
1
2
d dt
1 2 mr dt ˙ 2
= T2 − T1 T2 .position 1 to 2.E of the particle of the K.

E are given by T = P = x = ˙ H = = 1 1 mx2 .E and P. V = kx2 ˙ 2 2 ∂T 1 = m2x = mx ˙ ˙ ∂x ˙ 2 ρ P2 ⇒ x2 = 2 ˙ m m T +V P2 kx2 + 2m 2
We are considering a conservative systm. ∴H =T +V =α
The modiﬁed homilton Jacobi equation is
1 2m
∂ω ∂x
2
1 + kx2 = α 2 ∂ω ∂x
2
1 = 2m α − kx2 2
142
.From (1) and (2). The K. T2 − T1 = V1 − V2 T2 + V2 = V1 + T1 = constant ∴ T + V = constant ⇒ T − E of a particle is conserved (constant) Problem : For a simple spring system using Hamilton Jacobi method to solve it.

where α is energy constant..e.
=
x0
x1 1 x0 − cos−1 cos−1 ω a a
x 1 φ − cos−1 ω a −1 x ω (t − t0 ) = φ − cos a t − t0 =
143
. β = t0 . ω = 2a 1 √ 2 a2 − ω 2
∂ω = mω ∂α = t−β 1 = ω
x
2
2 1 dω 2α mω 2 ω2m
√
x0 x
a2
dt − t2 dt t2 − a2
x1
1 = − ω
√
x0
t 1 cos−1 = − ω a ρ is initial time t0 . i. α) = mω
x0
a2 − ξ 2 dt. ∂ω = ∂x = = Taking a = ∂ω = ∂x
x
1 2m α − kx2 2 2m √ mk 2α − kx2 2 2α − x2 k
2α and ω = mω 2 √
x
k m
mxdx
x0 x
dt a2 − ξ 2 x m
x0
ω (x.

a2 − x 2 0 2α − x2 using (1) 0 mω 2 2 v0 + x2 − x2 0 0 ω2
x = a cos [ω (t − t0 ) − φ] = a [cos ω (t − t0 ) cos φ + sin ω (t − t0 ) sin φ] x0 = [cos ω (t − t0 ) cos φ + sin ω (t − t0 ) sin φ] cos φ v0 x0 sin ω (t − t0 ) = x0 cos ω (t − t0 ) + cos φ aω v0 = x0 cos ω (t − t0 ) + a sin ω (t − t0 ) aω 144
. Then x (t0 ) = v0 . mω 2
Let x (t0 ) = x0 . We know that ˙ α = T +V 1 1 = mx2 + kx2 ˙ 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 mv + kω x0 = 2 0 2 2 mω 2 v0 = + x2 0 2 ω2
(1)
sin φ = = =
1 − cos2 φ a2 − x 2 0 2 a
1 a 1 = a 1 = a v0 = aω Now.x a −1 x − [ω (t − t0 ) − φ] = cos a x = a cos [ω (t − t0 ) − φ] φ − ω (t − t0 ) = cos−1 =
2α cos [ω (t − t0 ) − φ] .

are T = V 1 ˙2 m r2 + r2 θ ˙ 2 µ = − r
2 v0 + x2 0 ω2
where µ is gravitation coeﬃcient. Lagrangian function is L = T −V µ 1 ˙2 m r2 + r2 θ + ˙ = 2 r We ﬁnd that the generalized momentum are given by pr = αθ pθ ∂L ˙ . θ) in the plane of the orbits. The K. Solution : Suppose a particle of unit mass attacted by an inverse square gravitational force at a ﬁxed point ‘O’. The position of a given problem is given interms of the polar co-ordinates (r.= x0 cos ω (t − t0 ) + Diﬀerentiating.
v0 sin ω (t − t0 ) ω
x=0 ˙ Amplitute oscillation is given by a= Kepler’s Problem : Use Hamilton Jacoi equation to analysis the keplers problem or modiﬁed Jacobi method.E and P.E.θ = 2 ∂r ˙ r ∂L ˙ = pθ = = r2 θ ˙ ∂θ 145
.

αθ ˙ θ = 2 r The system is natural.L.
∴ It is ignorable. ∂L ∂L =0⇒ = p0 = constant = α0 ˙ ∂θ ∂θ The modiﬁed Hamilton Jacobi equation is 1 2 r is ignorable. H =T +V H= 1 2 pθ µ pr + 2 − = α t 2 r r (1)
where αt represents constants values of the total energy (1) does not appear in H. 1 2 ∂ω ′ ∂r ∂ω ′ ∂r
2
∂ω ′ ∂r
2
+
µ α2 θ − = αt 2 2r r
= αt +
2
α2 µ − θ2 r 2r µ α2 − θ2 r 2r µ α2 θ − 2 r r µ α2 θ − 2 dr r r
= 2 αt +
∂ω ′ = ∂r
r
2αt + 2
ω′ =
r0
2αt + 2
We have β i = qi + θ − θ0 ∂ω ′ ∂α ∂ω ′ = − ∂αθ 146
.

θ − θ0 = cos−1 = cos−1 cos θ =
θ − θ0 = cos−1
r 1 µ − r αθ α2 + µ2 2αt θ 4 α θ r0
r r
α2 − µr −µr0 θ − cos−1 2αt + α2 + µ2 ro µ 2 θ α2 − µr θ − cos−1 (−1) 2 2 2αt + αθ + µ
r
−µr + α2 θ 2 2αt + αθ + µ2
147
.r
= −
r0 r
−
1 r2
2αθ dr
µ α2 θ 2 2αt + 2 − 2 r r αθ r2
= −
r0 r
µ α2 θ 2αt + 2 − 2 r r dr
dr
= −
r0 r
r 2 αθ
2αt µ 1 +2 − 2 αθ rαθ r dr 2αt 2µ 1 + − 2 αθ rαθ r dr
2
= −
r0 r
r2
= −
r0
r2
2αt µ2 + 4− α2 αθ θ d
µ 1 − r αθ
r
= −
r0
µ 1 − r αθ µ 1 − r αθ
2
r2
2αt + α2 + µα θ − α4 θ
Let θ = θ0 where r = r0 .

r This the cone whose eccentricity is µ2 + 2αt α2 θ µ2
e=
This is the equation of a conic section having eccentricity.D. Orthogonal system : It is conservative holonomic system whose K. If a system is seperable that is possible to ﬁnd a charatorstic function ω such that
n
ω=
i=1
ω i (qi ) where each contain only one of the q’s. 148
. αθ 1+ µ
2
r=
µ2
+ µ2 cos θ
2αt α2 θ
Hence the Kepler’s problem.E by a solution to that is by expressing the solution interms of integrals each involving only one variable.⇒ θ0 = 0 where r0 = 0 2αt α2 + 1 cos θ = −µr + αθ2 θ 2αt α2 + 1 θ cos θ = µ2 αθ µ r This is the form
2
−µ + µ
αθ2 µ
= 1+
1 + 2αt α2 θ cos θ 2 µ
l = 1 + e cos θ.
Note : A particularly simple example of a seperable system occure in the ω all but of the co-ordinates all ignorable.E function contains only squared forms and no produed tems in this variable. Seperability : The index of seperability associated with the solution of P.

. Using the pfaﬃan equation. + fn ) v1 (q1 ) + v2 (q2 ) + . and P. + vn (qn ) = f1 (q1 ) + f2 (q2 ) + . are of the form 1 T = 2 =
r n
pi (qi )
i=r
2 2 R2 P2 + .Liouville’s System : It is an orthogonal system whose K. Discuss the Kepler’s probelm using seperability. derive the Hamilton canonical equation from Hamilton funciton
n n
ds =
i=1
pi1 dqi1 −
i=1
pi0 dqi0 − H1 dt1 + H0 dt0
Solution : Book Work 5: pﬀ equation. + fn (qn ) n
i=1 2 R1 P1 +
(qi )2 ˙ Ri (qi )
(1)
where fi .. of the system.E. Hence the system is seperable.. of the system. Let T be the K. + Rn Pn 2 (f1 + f2 + ... 1 a = φ2 − ψ 2 a = 2φ2 − 2ψ This is identical with (a). We assume that
i=1
fi (qi ) > 0
and Ri (qi ) > 0.. 1 2 ˙2 ˙2 r + r2 θ + r2 φ sin2 θ ˙ 2 µ dr = − r T = 149
.E.. Let V be the P.E. qi and vi are each function of qi .. Solution : Let us consider a particle of unit mass p attached towards ‘O’ by an inverse square gravitational force.E.

This system is an orthogonal system. Hence they are each to seperable constant. The modiﬁed Hamilton Jacobi equation is 1 2 where ω = ω r (r) + ω θ (θ) + ω φ (φ) (1) ∂ω r ∂r
2
1 + 2 2r
∂ω θ ∂θ
2
1 + 2 2 2r sin θ
∂ω φ ∂φ
1
−
µ = αt r
∵ φ is missing from the above equation since φ is ignorable coordinates. ∵ [rφ (φ) = αφ (φ)] ∴ pφ = αφ = ∴ (1) × 2r2 ⇒r
2
∂ω φ ∂φ
∂ω r ∂r
2
− 2r
2
µ + αt + r
∂ω φ ∂φ
2
+
1 2 2 (αφ ) = 0 sin θ
(2)
The ﬁrst two terms are functions of r only and the last terms are fuctions of θ.L=T −V = Now pr = pθ pφ
1 2 µ ˙2 ˙2 r + r2 θ + r2 φ sin2 θ + ˙ 2 r
1 ∂L = 2r = r ˙ ˙ ∂r ˙ 2 1 ∂L ˙ ˙ = r2 2θ = r2 θ = ˙ 2 ∂θ 1 ∂L ˙ ˙ = r2 sin2 θ2φ = r2 sin2 θφ ˙ = ∂φ 2 T = p2 1 2 p2 φ θ pr + 2 + 2 2 2 r r sin θ
where pr . Stackel’s thoorem 150
. pθ and pφ are the generalized moments. ∴ we have H = T + V = αt .

α2 . Hence it has a characterstic function ω(q.. α1 .. and C is a column matrix composed of the nc’s. This characteristic function is the complete integral of the modiﬁed H... 0. qn ) > 0. αn ) . The most general form involving the single co-ordinate qi is ∂ω i ∂qi
2 n
= −2Ψi (qi ) + 2
Φij (qj ) αj
j=1
(I)
where the mumerical co-eﬃcients are chosen for our convenient for our convenient 151
. .. .Statement : Consider an orthogonal system whose K..J equation 1 2
n
ci
i=1
∂ω i ∂qi
2
+ V = α1
(1)
Here α1 is chosen as the total energy because of the system is assumed to be separability. q2 .. Proof : Necesary part : Let us assume that the general orthogonal system be seperable. ∴ ∂qi We can choose the seperation constants such that the d’s appear linearly... 0) ii) C T Ψ = V. . qn ) is the P. α1 .. 2 ∂ω i is a function of (qi . Stackel’s theorem asserts that this is a seperable system iﬀ there exists a non-singular matrix n × n [Φij (qi )] and a column matrix [Ψ (qi )] exists such that i) C T Φ = (1.E. .. α2 . αn ) .. q2 ..E is given by 1 T = 2
n
m i qi ˙2
i=1
1 = 2
n
ci p2 i
i=1
where ci (q1 .. where V (q1 . α) which consist of the sum of terms of the form ω i (qi .. .

.. 0) + C T Φ = α1 2 1 (1.... 0) . 0. .... 0) Φ−1 Ψ = (1.. 0.. Suﬃcient part : ∂ω i Deﬁne a column matrix a = . 0) α 2 ⇒ C T Φ = (1. 0. 0. . Similary the term in (3) which do not involve α’s must sum to zero reading to C T Ψ = V. 0.. 0.. 0) Φ−1 Sustituting (5) in (4) 1 (1. 0) C T Ψ = V C T = (1... ∂ qi ˙ The modiﬁed Hamilton Jacobi equation (1) can be written as C T (a) + V = α.. 0.. .which we recognise as the ﬁrst Stackel’s conditions. 0.Then subustitute (I) in (1) 1 2
n n
i=1
ci −2Ψi (qi ) + 2
Φij (qj ) αj + V = α1
j=1
(2)
n
n
n
− ⇒
ci Ψi (qi ) +
i=1 i=1 j=1
ci Φij (qj ) αj + V = α1
C T Φ + C T Φα + V = α1 . . ..
Comparing the terms containing α’s we ﬁnd that C T Φ = (1... 0... Using second Stacicel’s condition 1 T C a + C T Ψ = (1. . 0) α 2 152 (5) (4)
2
. 0. 0. .which is Stackel’s condition... 0. 0. 0.. 0. . 0. 0) Φ−1 a + (1.

Let V be the P.. 0. Let us consider a particle of unit mass p attached towards O by an iverse square gravitational force. Discuss the kepler’s problem using separability. ω θ are already found out. 0.. of the system. 0)
1 −1 Φ a + Φ−1 Ψ = (1. 0) α 2 1 −1 Φ a + Φ−1 Ψ = α 2 1 −1 Φ a = α − Φ−1 Ψ 2 1 Φ (α − Ψ) = a 2 a = 2 (Φα − Ψ)
This is identical with equation (I).E.E.. 0. Hence the system is separable and hence reduces of quadratare ω r + ω θ + ω φ = 0. ∂ω r = ∂r ∂ω θ = ∂θ 2 α2 θ α2 µ θ + dt − 2 r r dφ2 − sin2 θ
which is immediatery integrable and ﬁnd ω r . 153
. ... 0. Note: ∂ω θ ∂θ ⇒r
2 2
+ +
dφ2 = α2 θ sin2 θ = α2 θ
∂ω θ ∂θ
2
∂r2 µαr + r
We all now assume that the system is separable. .. ∴ The system is separable. of the system. Let T be the K.(1.

∴ we have H = T + V = dt. This system is an orthogonal system. ∵ φ is missing from the above equation since φ is ignorable coordinates. The modiﬁed Hamilton Jacobi equation is 1 2 ∂ω r ∂r
2
1 + 2 2r
∂ω θ ∂θ
2
1 + 2 2 2r sin θ
∂ω φ ∂φ
1
−
µ = dt r
(1)
where ω = ω r (r) + ω θ (θ) + ω φ (φ) .. pθ and pφ are the generalized moments. ∵ [rφ (φ) = dφ (φ)] ∴ pφ = αφ = ∴ (1) × 2r2 ⇒ r2 ∂ω r ∂r
2
∂ω φ ∂φ
− 2r2
µ + αt + r
∂ω θ ∂θ
2
+
1 sin2 θ
∂ω φ ∂φ
2
=0
The ﬁrst two terms are functions of r only and the last terms are fuctions of θ. we can ﬁnd generalized moments pr = pθ pφ ∂L 1 = 2r = r ˙ ˙ ∂r ˙ 2 1 ∂L ˙ ˙ = r2 2θ = r2 θ = ˙ 2 ∂θ 1 pφ ∂L ˙ ˙ ˙ = r2 sin2 θ2φ = r2 sin2 θφ ⇒ φ = 2 2 ˙ = ∂φ 2 r sin θ T = p2 1 2 p2 φ θ pr + 2 + 2 2 2 r r sin θ
where pr .1 2 ˙2 ˙2 r + r2 θ + r2 φ sin2 θ ˙ 2 µ dr = − r T = L=T −V = µ 1 2 ˙2 ˙2 r + r2 θ + r2 φ sin2 θ + ˙ 2 r
Now. 154
.

t). i = 1. β i = ∂s ∂s . β.Hence they are each to seperable constant.. t) is any complete solution of the Hamilton Jacobi equation ∂s ∂s + H q. p. pi = . 2... Hence the system is separable and hence reduces to quadrative ω r + ω θ + ω φ = 0. β. Jacobi Theorem : If s (q. 155
. α. t) . 3. t) and pi (α. n ∂αi ∂qi
where β’s are arbitrary constants are used to solve qi (α. . ∂ω r ∂r ∂ω θ ∂θ
2 2
r2
− 2r2 + 1 sin2 θ
µ + αt = −αθ2 r ∂ω φ ∂φ
2
(2) (3)
= αθ2
(2) ⇒ r2
∂ω r ∂r
2
= −α2 + 2r2 θ = 2r2
µ + αt r
µ + αt − α2 θ r
∂ω r = ∂r ∂ω θ ∂θ
2
2
µ α2 θ + αt − 2 r r ∂ω φ ∂φ α2 φ sin2 θ
2
(3) ⇒
= α2 − θ α2 − θ
1 sin2 θ
∂ω θ = ∂θ
which is immeadiately integrable and ﬁnd ω r . ω θ are already found out. . Then these expression provide the general solution of the canonical equation associated with Hamilton H(q. t ∂t ∂q = 0.

α.
j=1
∂H qj − ˙ ∂pi
∂ 2s ∂αi ∂qj
Now
∂2s =0 ∂αi ∂qj
156
.Proof :
∂s ∂s + H q.r.r.to αi .
∂s ∂qj
∂2s ∂pi = ∂αi ∂αi ∂qj Using this into second term (4) becomes ∂2s ∂H ∂ 2 s qj ˙ − ∂qj ∂αi ∂pi ∂αi ∂qj j=1
n n
= 0 = 0. . t) ∂ 2s + ∂αi ∂t Given
n
j=1
∂H ∂pj =0 ∂pj ∂αi
(2)
∂s = −β i ∂αi
Diﬀerentiating both sides w.r.to αi . by considering pj as a function of (q. t ∂t ∂q
=0
(1)
Diﬀerentiating (1) w.to t ∂2s + ∂t∂αi (3) − (2) ⇒
n n
j=1
∂ 2s qj = 0 ˙ ∂qj ∂αi
(3)
qj ˙
j=1
∂ 2s ∂H ∂pi − =0 ∂qj ∂αi ∂pi ∂αi
pi = Diﬀerentiating w.

In order to derive the Hamilton second equation we again diﬀerentiate (1) partially w.∴ Each co-eﬃceient must be in this ∴q= ˙ This is Hamilton ﬁrst equation. t) ∂2s + ∂qj ∂t pj =
n
∂H .to qj and associated pi = f (q. ∂pj
i=1
∂H ∂pi ∂H + =0 ∂pi ∂qj ∂qj
(5)
∂s ∂2s ⇒ pj = ˙ ∂qj ∂qj ∂t
n
∂2s − pj − ˙ ∂qj ∂t (5) + (6) ⇒
n
i=1
∂2s qi = 0 ˙ ∂qj ∂qi
(6)
i=1
∂H ∂pi ∂H + + pj − ˙ ∂pi ∂qj ∂qj
n
i=1
∂ 2s qi = 0 ˙ ∂qj ∂qi
(7)
But
∂H ∂pi ∂2s = qj and ˙ = ∂qj ∂qj ∂qi ∂qj
∴ First and last terms get called in (8) reduces to ∂H + pj = 0 ˙ ∂qj ∂H pj = − ˙ ∂qj This is second kind equation.r. α.
157
.

Now if a new set of coordinates Q1 . q2 . . q. δ
t0 t
˙ L∗ Q. t) ˙ dt 158
. q. t) dt = 0 ˙
where the endpoints of the varied paths are ﬁxed in both conﬁguration space and time. q. We know that the Hamilton principle is
t1
δI = 0 where I =
t0 t1
Ldt
∴δ
t0
L (q. Q. t) − φ (q. t) = T − V ˙ i. t dt = 0. Q. Q2 .e. . t = L (q. .. ˙ L∗ Q. .Unit-V
Canonical transformation
Let us consider only a holonomic system which can be described by the standard form of either Hamilton’s (or) Lagrange’s equation. Q. . Q. . Qn is Q related to the formal set by a point transformation. L and L∗ are equal. . Let L = T − V. qn . Now the Hamilton’s principle function δI = 0 .
Now we consider the Lagrangian equation is d ˙ L∗ Q. . t = L (q. The Larangian function is given by. Hamilton’s principle applies to these system the generalized coordinates are q1 .

Then. q.where φ (q. q.
t
⇒δ
t0
˙ L∗ Q. Q. pi = qi ˙ ∂L ∂L∗ . t) dt dt
t
= δ
t0 t
L (q. n.. δq ’s and δQ ’s are zero at the ﬁxed time t0 and t . q. q. .
Now Hamilton are described by the equation
n
H (q. . q. t) =
i=1
pi qi − L (q.
. t) is twice diﬀerential. 2.e. Q. P. . t) dt − δ [φ (q. Q. t
where the generalized moment are given by. t) dt − δ ˙
t0
dϕ (q. t dt d φ (q. t)]t0 ˙ t L (q. Q. Q. Q. . t) dt ˙
t0
δI = δ
i. t) =
i=1
˙ ˙ pi Qi − L∗ Q. t = 0. t) − ˙
= δ
t0 t
L (q. Pi = ˙ ∂ qi ˙ ∂ Qi ∂H ∂H . p. = ∂pi ∂qi 159
i = 1. t) ˙ ˙
n
K (Q. Q.
t
δI = δ
t0 t
˙ L∗ Q. pi = − ˙ . t)
= δ
t0 t
L (q.

t) i = 1. Q. q. ∂Qi i = 1. t)] dt pi qi − L (q. t) − [φ (q. t)] ˙ dt Hamilton function is deﬁed by. Equation (4) is called the diﬀerence of two pfaﬃan diﬀerential equation and (4) is an exact diﬀerential equation 160
. Q. P. . n
A transformation form (q. p. t) − ˙ d [φ (q. . Diﬀerential forms of Pfaﬃan diﬀerential equation: Let us consider a Hamilton function H (q. Qi = Qi (q. Now the Lagrangian equation is given by.˙ Here the function L∗ Q. 2. P ) which preserves the canonical form of the equation of motion is known as canonical transformation. . (2) (3) (1)
d d d (Qi ) − K = pi (qi ) − H − (φ) dt dt dt ⇒ dφ = pi dqi − Hdt − Pi dQi + Kdt
(4)
where φ is the generalized function. n
where each function is atleast twice diﬀerentiable. p. . t) ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ Pi Qi − L∗ Q. Q. t) . p) to (Q. t) suppose the transformation equation is of the form. . t . Pi = Pi (q. H (q. Q. . p. p. t . p. Q. . d ˙ L∗ Q. ∴ The Hamilton canonical function ∂K ˙ Qi = . ∂Pi ∂H ˙ Pi = − . . q. t) = K (Q. t) = Using (2) and (3) in (1) we get ˙ Pi Qi − K (Q. t) = ⇒ Pi pi qi − H (q. P. 2. t = L (q.

2qe−t sin p. Q.
δψ = [p − sin p cos p] δq + 2q sin2 pδp which is the diﬀerential form. pdx + qdy = f (x) and ∂P ∂y = ∂Q ∂P ∂Q ⇒ = ∂x ∂p ∂q
(2)
∂ (p − sin p cos p) = 1 − sin p (− sin p) + cos2 p ∂p = 1 − − sin2 p + cos2 p = 1 − cos 2p 161
. √ 2qet cos p. Book work: Consider Q = Solution: Given that Q = P = We obtained pδq − P δQ = δψ δQ = et = et (1)⇒ pδq − P δQ = pδq − cos p √ δq − sin p 2q 2 = pδq − sin p cos pδq + 2q sin pδp 2qe−t sin p et 2qδp 2δq cos p √ δq + 2q (− sin p) δp 2 2q cos p √ δq − sin p 2q δp 2q (1) 2qet cos p. P = √ 2qe−t sin p .
Show that the above transformation is canonical.Note: The function φ (q. t) is called the generating function for the transformation.

1 2 q + p2 . Solution: Given P = − tan−1 Q = We obtained pδq − P δQ = dψ 1 1 2qδq + 2pδp 2 2 δQ = qδq + pδp δQ = (1) ⇒ pδq − pδQ = pδq + tan−1 162 q p (qδq + pδp) (1) q p . Find the new Hamilton canonical equation.
Example: Let us consider the transformation Q= 1 2 q + p2 . 2
. 2 P = − tan−1 q p
Show that the transformation is canonical. ∂ 2q sin2 p ∂q ∴ = 2 sin2 p
∂ ∂ [p − sin p cos p] = 2q sin2 p ∂p ∂q ∴ The transformation is caonical.∂ [p − sin p cos p] = 2 sin2 p ∂p ∂ [p − sin p cos p] = 2 sin2 p ∂p Similarly.

t) . F3 (P. t) and F4 (p. P. t) . P. Q. t) 163
.= pδq + tan−1 δψ = p + q tan−1
q q qδq + tan−1 pδp p p q q δq + p tan−1 δp p p
∂ p + q tan−1 ∂p
q p
= 1+q
q 2 − 2 q p 1+ 2 p 2 q p − 2 = 1+q 2 + q2 p p 2 2 2 p +q −q = p2 + q 2 p2 = 2 p + q2 q p p2 p2 + q 2
1
=1−
q2 p2 + q 2
∂ p + tan−1 ∂p
=
∂ p + tan−1 ∂q
q p
p2 p2 + q 2 p2 = 2 p + q2 = p ∂ p + tan−1 ∂p q p
= p p
1 1+
p2
q 2 1 p
1 p
∴
=
∂ p + tan−1 ∂Q
q p
∴The transformation is canonical. Principle forms of generating functions: Let us consider a generating function φ (q. Q. The other types of generating functions namely F2 (q.

Similarly we can derive the following equation associated with F3 (p. Now we show the relationship of F2 and F1 and again F3 and F4 and F1 and F4 .
(2)
(3)
where dF2 (q. t) = dF1 (q. t) = F1 (q. We know that the diﬀerential form pi δqi − Let us consider Qi dPi − Adding (1) and (2) we get Pi dqi + Qi dPi − Hdt + Kdt = dF2 (q. Qi Pi . Q. F3 and F4 are called the principle of generating function. (4)
F2 (q. Q.. P. t) .
(1)
Pi dQi = d
Qi Pi . Q. t)
n
Pi δQi − Hdt + Kdt = dF1 (q. t) . Now the total diﬀerential form of F2 is the form dF2 = ∂F2 dqi + ∂qi ∂F2 ∂F2 dt. 164
. F2 . Proof: Given that the generating function φ (q. t) +
Equation (4) gives the relationship in between F1 and F2 . t) + d
i=1
Qi Pi . dPi + ∂Pi ∂t (5)
Equating the coeﬃcient in (3) and (5) Pi = ∂F2 ∂F2 ∂F2 + H. Q. K= ∂qi ∂pi ∂t (6)
Equation (6) is called the canonical transformation of the function F2 . P. . Qi = . t) . The relationship of the generating function F1 . Q. P.

P. . . t) dF3 (p. dF4 = pi dqi + Qi dPi − Hdt + Kdt − pi dqi − qi dpi (12) pi dqi − qi Pi qi dpi (11)
dF4 =
Qi dPi − Hdt + Kdt − 165
qi dpi . 2. Similarly for next generating function F4 (p. Q. t) − dF4 = dF2 − Using (3). . F4 (p. Q. t) − (7) ⇒ Using (1). dQi + ∂Qi ∂t (9)
Equating the coeﬃcients in (8) and (9). 2. P. Q. .Consider F3 (p. n) (i = 1. t) − qi dpi − qi p i (7)
p i qi
dF3 ( p. . . Q. Q. . ∂F3 −qi = ∂Pi ∂F3 −Pi = ∂Qi (i = 1. . dF3 = pi dqi − Pi dQi − Hdt + Kdt − qi dpi − pi dqi F3 = dF1 (q.
. t) = −
Pi dQi − Hdt + Kdt −
qi dpi
(8)
Then the total diﬀerentiating dF3 (p. t) = F2 (q. P. Q. t) = F1 (q. t) we derived as follows. t) = ∂F3 dpi + ∂Pi ∂F3 ∂F3 dt. n) ∂F3 K=H+ ∂t
(10)
which is the canonical transformation of equation (8).

. ∂F4 Qi = (i = 1. .Taking the total diﬀerential of F4 . Proof: Given that. Book Work: Consider the transformation Q = log sin p . n) ∂Pi ∂F4 qi = − (i = 1. t) . P. n) ∂pi ∂F4 K=H+ ∂t
(14)
which is the canonical transformation of F4 (p. Q = log We know that. pδq − P δQ = δψ (1) sin p . . Equations (4). P = q cot p q
Obtain the four major types of generating function associated with the transformation. . . . 2. dF4 = ∂F4 dpi + ∂pi ∂F4 ∂F4 dt dPi + ∂Pi ∂t (13)
Equating the coeﬃcient in (12) and (13). 2. . (7) and (11) gives the relation between the generating function which is the principle function. . P = q cot p q
δQ =
1 1 1 cos pδP + sin p − 2 sin p q q q sin p cos p q δP − 2 δq = sin p q q 1 = cot pδp − δq q 166
δq
.

1 pδq − q cot p cot pδp − δq = δψ q pδq − q cot2 pδp + cot pδq = δψ (p + cot p) δq − q cot2 pδp = δψ
∂ (p + cot p) = 1 + ∂p
− cosec2 p
∂ (p + cot p) = − cot2 p ∂p ∂ −q cot2 p = − cot2 p ∂q
= 1 − cosec c2 p = − cot2 p
∂ ∂ (p + cot p) = −q cot2 p = δψ ∂p ∂q ∴ The transformation is canonical. Let ψ = pq + q cot p (from (1)). p2 + q 2 = e−Q
2
= e−2Q
p2 = e−2Q − q 2 p= e−2Q − q 2 167
. The geometrical representation of the transformation sin p = cos p = cot p = q e−Q p e−Q = qeQ = peQ
peQ p cos p = Q = sin p qe q q cot p = p Now.

q) = F1 (q. ∂q ∂F1 e−2Q − q 2 = −p.
The above canonical can be written as
∂F1 = cos−1 1 − q 2 e2Q = p. Q) F1 (q.= We know that
1 eQ
1 − q 2 e2Q
cos p = peQ 1 1 − q 2 e2Q eQ = Q e cos p = 1 − q 2 e2Q p = cos−1 1 − q 2 e2Q
From the principle of generating function ψ (p. Q) = q cos−1 1 − q 2 e2Q + e−2Q − q 2 (2) (3)
∂F1 = cos−1 1 − q 2 e2Q = p ∂q ∂F1 = e−2Q − q 2 = −p ∂Q Comparing (2) and (3) equating the coeﬃcient we get
p = cos−1 p=
1 − q 2 e2Q . =− ∂q 168
.
e−2Q − q 2 .

Q. From the principle of generating function F2 (q. We know that
q cot p = P P cot p = q q q ⇒ p = tan−1 tan p = P P From the triangle
P 2 = e−2Q − q 2 e−Q = eQ = p2 + q 2 1 p2 + q 2 1 p2 + q 2 p2 + q 2
Q = log
= log 1 − log = − log
p2 + q 2
Substitute p. P ) = q tan−1 = q tan−1 From (4) and (5) we get 169 q P q P + p + − log + p 1 − log p2 + q 2 p2 + q 2 p (5)
. Q in equation (4) we get F2 (q. P ) = F1 (q.To ﬁnd the generating function F2 (q. P ) . t) + Qi Pi (4)
F2 = pq + q cot P + QP F2 is the generations function of the variable (q. P ) .

Q) = F1 (q. Similarly
F4 (p. Q) We know that. P ) = P + QP cos p = p = P eQ cos P eQ = p cos P Q = log p cos P F4 = p + log p 170
P
. To ﬁnd the function F3 . P ) = F2 − qp = qp + q cot p + QP − qp = q cot p + QP F4 (p.∂F2 q = tan−1 =p ∂q P ∂F2 = 0 − log q 2 + p2 = Q ∂p which are the canonical equation of the function F2 . Q) − F3 = q cot p q cot p = q P eQ cos p =q· Q =p sin p qe qi p i
= qp + q cot P − qp (6)
Next to ﬁnd the function F4 (p. F3 = F3 (p. P ) . F3 (p.

n) ∂qi ∂F2 = qi (i = 1. . 2. .
2. 2.
i=1
171
.Identity transformation: Let us consider the identity transformation which is an obvious example of a canonical transformation. ∂Pi (2)
Qi =
The identity transformation is generated by
n
F3 =
i=1
Pi Qi . . . Special transformation 1. Orthogonal transformation: This is the simple canonical transformation.F4 = p + P log
cos p p
∂F4 = q (− tan p cot p) = −p tan p = −q ∂p ∂F4 cos P =Q = log ∂p p Hence the four generating function. . . n) . It is generated by a function is of the form. Tn =
i=1 n
qi p i
(1)
Then Pi =
∂F2 = pi (i = 1. The orthogonal transformation of q ’s and p ’s generated by
n n
F2 =
i=1 j=1
aij pi qj . . .
where ai ’s are constant meeting the orthogonality conditions
n
aij ajk = δ jk .

replace qi by qi + ci and replace Pi by
F2 = = = We have to omit ci di . 2.
These equation can be solved for pi ’s in terms of Pi ’s and Qi ’s in terms of qi ’s then the transformation equations are
n
Qi =
j=1 n
aij qi aij Pj (i = 1. 2. n) 172
. . 3. n)
j=1
Pi =
These equations represents the equal rotation is q -space and p -space. . .
Pi = Pi + di (i = 1. .δ jk is the kroneckal delta the orthogonality can be written in the matrix form a · a−1 = a−1 · a = 1. . Qi = ∂F2 = ∂pi aij qj . pi = Qi Qi
qi Pi (qi + ci ) (Pi −di ) qi pi + ci Pi − di
∂F2 = Pi − di ∂qi ∂F2 = = qi + c i ∂Pi = qi + c i . Translation: We know that F2 = Pi − di qi Pi . The transformation equation are Pj = ∂F2 = ∂qi aij . . . Now. .

. .. t) . . = 0. 2. Consider the function φ and ψ are identically zero.which represents the required translation. that is.e. Point transformation: We consider the class of homogeneous canonical transformation for which full set of n independent function Ωj (q. ∂Ωj ∂Ωj = 0. m)
are non singular and the corresponding determinants are non zero. n
where the fi ’s are twice diﬀerentiable. This implies that the two n × n coeﬃcient matrices of
n
i=1
∂Ωj δqi + ∂qj
n
i=1
∂Ωj δQi = 0 ∂Qi
(j = 1. t) on for the q ’s as functions of (Q. . . 2. t) exist and equal to zero. Then
n
i=1
(Pi δqi − Pi δQi ) = 0
and the corresponding transformation is called a homogeneous canonical transformation. Q. . These equations represent a point transformation. ∂qi ∂Qi Hence we can solve for the Q’s in terms of (q. they represent a mapping of points in 173
. . Homogeneous Canonical transformation: We know that the diﬀerential form is
n n
i=1
pi δqi −
Pi Qi = δψ
i=1
(1)
is an exact diﬀerential. t) i = 1. i. This transformation is also known as Mathieu transformation (or) contact transformation. We have n equation is of the form Qi = fi (q. .

the entire set represents a transformation in phase space and is known as extended point transformation. ∂qi
(2)
174
. . If one also includes the equations for the P ’s. . . ∂qi
Thus the p ’s are homogeneous linear functions of the P ’s and vice versa. . . Qj = fj (q. . n) ∂qi
which in this case takes the form
n
pi =
j=1
∂fi (i = 1. . . t) .conﬁguration space. Momentum transformation: The momentum transformation equation are obtained from
n
pi =
j=1
Pj
∂Qi (i = 1. 2. t)
n
⇒ δQj =
j=1
∂fi δqi . 2. Non homogeneous point transformation: Let the basic diﬀerential form be
n n
i=1
pi δqi −
Pi δQi = δψ. . If we deﬁne nΩ ’s of the form Ωj = Qj − fj (q. . t) (j = 1. 2. n) . . n)
If the represents the transformation is called the momentum transformation.
i=1
(1)
Consider Qi = fi (q. .

t) is not an explicit function of the p ’s. P = (p − mν 0 ) cos2 q. ∂qi
(3)
In general. Hence we can choose F1 to be identically equal to ψ for a point transformation.Equation (3) and (4) we get ∂ψ ∂qi
n n n
=
i=1 n
pi −
Pi
i=1 n j=1
∂fj ∂qi
=
i=1
pi − Pi
n
j=1
∂fj ∂qi
pi =
∂ψ + Pi ∂qi
j=1
∂fi (i = 1. . . suppose we are given sceleronomic extended point transformation Q = tan q. 2. δψ =
n
i=1
∂ψ δqi + ∂qi
n
i=1
∂ψ δpi ∂Pi
(4)
Here the δq ’s and δp ’s are independent. where m and ν 0 are constants. Example: Illustrate the theory for the nonhomogeneous case. . Solution: Given that Q = tan q. . P = (p − mν 0 ) cos2 q . Furthermore it has the proper form for a generating function of the type of fi . n) ∂qi
∂ψ ⇒ =0 ∂pi Equation (4) implies ψ (q. δQ = sec2 qδq
= P δq = (p − mν 0 ) sec2 q sec2 qδq 175
.Substitute the equation (2) in (1) implies
n n n
i=1
pi δqi −
Pi
i=1 j=1
∂fi δqi = δψ. we wish
to show that the transformation is canonical.

= δψ
∴ pδq = pδq + mν 0 δq = δψ ⇒ mν 0 δq = δψ which is an exact diﬀerential integrating F1 = ψ = mν 0 q. P ) = F1 + QP = mv0 q + QP = mv0 q + tan qP ∂F2 = mv0 + P sec2 q p = ∂q ∂F2 Q = = tan q. Thus the two Hamilton functions are equal F2 (q. t) Ω = Q − tan q which yields K = H . Now the point transformation is. Q) = F1 − qP 176
. (2) (1)
Hence this is a nonhomogeneous canonical transformation. t) = fi (q. ∂P Here the canonical equations for the generating functionF2 . From the non homogeneous point transformation Ωj = Qi − fi (q. t) Q = tan q − f (q) . To ﬁnd F3 : F3 (P. Qi (q.

H= p2 1 − v0 p + Kq 2 2m 2 177
.∂F3 ∂P To ﬁnd F4 :
= mv0 q − qP ∂F3 mv0 = −q. ∂Q 1 + Q2
F4 (p. = tan q.
l0 + q
k
m
v0
The unstressed length of the spring. = . Hence we have a conservative holonomic system (or) Hamilton’s equations. L = T −V 1 1 m (v0 + q)2 − Kq 2 ˙ L = 2 2 ∂L 1 p = = m2 (v0 + q) = m (v0 + q) ˙ ˙ ∂q ˙ 2 The Hamilton function is H = T2 − T0 + V from the mass spring system. P ) = F2 − qp = F1 + QP − qp = mv0 q + tan qP − qp ∂F4 ∂F4 = −q. ∂p ∂P Now let us apply this transformation to a speciﬁc physical situation. Consider a mass spring system which is attached to a plane that is translating with a constant velocity v0 as shown in the following ﬁgure.

Here. Q relative to the moving frame.
q = ˙ L∗
1 ˙ Q 1 + Q2 = T −V ˙ Q2 1 m = 2 (1 + Q2 )2
1 − K tan−1 Q 2
2
˙2 1 1 mQ 2 −1 Q 2 − K tan 2) 2 (1 + Q 2 α ˙ ˙ mQ m2Q ∂L = P = 2 = ˙ 2 (1 + Q2 ) (1 + Q2 )2 ∂Q =
Given that P = (p − mv0 ) cos2 q P cos2 q = p − mv0 ˙ ˙ mQ Q = = (1 + Q2 )2 mq ˙ q (1 + Q2 )2 ˙ cos2 q = 1 + Q2 1 Q = 2 = q ˙ 1 + Q2 (1 + Q2 ) (1 + Q2 )2 178 Since ˙ Q = 1 + Q2 q ˙
. T = V 1 2 mq ˙ 2 1 2 Kq = 2
Given that Q = tan q ⇒ q = tan−1 Q.Hence the canonical equation of the motion for (q. ∂p m ∂H 1 p = − ˙ = − K (2q) = −Kq ∂q 2 q = ˙ ˙ Now let us obtain L∗ Q. p ∂H = − v0 . p) variables are.

cos q =
1 1 + Q2
In this case in K. H = T2 + V 1 p2 + Kq 2 = 2m 2 K = T +V 1 2 1 2 = mq + Kq ˙ 2 2 ˙ 1 Q2 1 + K tan−1 Q = m 2 )2 2 2 (1 + Q We know that P = ˙ mQ (1 + Q2 )2
2 2
2
˙ mQ = P 1 + Q2 P (1 + Q2 ) ˙ Q = m
K =
˙ Q 1 ˙ 1 mQ + K tan−1 Q 2 )2 2 2 (1 + Q
2 2
2
1 (1 + Q2 ) (1 + Q2 ) 1 p = p + K tan−1 Q 2 )2 2 (1 + Q m 2 2 1 p 2 2 1 + Q2 + K tan−1 Q = 2m 2 Here the canonical equations are ∂K 1 2 ˙ Q = = 2p 1 + Q2 ∂p 2m p 2 = 1 + Q2 m ∂K ˙ P = − ∂Q 1 p2 1 + Q2 2θ + K2 tan−1 Q = − 2m 2 179
2
1 1 + Q2
.E consist of T2 terms only Hamiltonian function.

= − m 1 + Q2 Hence the canonical equation. n)
Let us consider the canonical diﬀerential form
n n
i=1
pi δqi −
n
Pi δQi = δψ
i=1 n
(1) (2)
δQi =
i=1
∂Qi δqi + ∂qi
i=1
∂Qi δPj ∂Pj
Using (2) in (1)
n n n
i=1 n
pi δqi − pj −
Pi
i=1 n j=1
∂Qi δqj + ∂qj
n
n
j=1 n
∂Qi δPj ∂Pj
= δψ
j=1
i=1
∂Qi Pi δqj − ∂qj
Pi
i=1 j=1
∂Qi δPj = δψ ∂Pj
Now.K tan−1 Q 2p2 Q 2 1+Q − . t) Pi = Pi (q. P. 2. ∂ ∂qk
n
pj − ∂ ∂pk
i=1 n
∂Qi Pi ∂qi Pi ∂Qi ∂pj
∂ = ∂qj = ∂ ∂pj
n
pk −
n
Pi
i=1
∂Qi ∂qk
Pi
i=1 n
∂ ∂pk
i=1 n
∂Qi ∂Pk Pi ∂Qi ∂pk
pj −
i=1
∂Qi Pi ∂qj
∂ = ∂qj 180
−
i=1
. t)
(i = 1. Lagrangian and Poisson brackets: Lagrangian brackets: Suppose the given transformation equation
Qi = Qi (q. p. · · · .

. v] =
i=1
∂Qi ∂Pi ∂Pi ∂Qi − ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂v
where u andv are any two variables q1 . . Thus we have
n
[u. v] = − [v. . . k = 1. u] and [u. q2 .n. u] = [v. Example: If the 2n variables (q. . p) and in variable (Q. 2. . . v) by using the notation
n
[u. . v] = 0. P ) are related by a canonical transformation. qn . Skew symmetry: As a consequence of a two skew symmetry of the Lagrangian bracket is [u. Deﬁnition: Lagrangian brackets expression of two variable (u. p2 . pn . p1 . .These equation can be written as
n
i=1 n
∂Qi ∂Pi ∂Pi ∂Qi − ∂qi ∂qk ∂qi ∂qk ∂Pi ∂Qi ∂Qi ∂Pi − ∂pj ∂pK ∂pj ∂pK ∂Qi ∂Pi ∂Pi ∂Qi − ∂qj ∂pK ∂qj ∂pK
= 0 = 0 = δ jk
i=1 n
i=1
where δ jk is the kronecker delta. v] =
i=1 n
∂qi ∂pi ∂pi ∂qi − ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂v ∂Qi ∂Pi ∂Pi ∂Qi − ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂v 181
=
i=1
. . The either set may be used in equating a given bracket evaluation.where j. Invariant: A general characteristic of the Lagrangian bracket is invariant under a canonical transformation. . .

v) = [(u. t) and v = v (q. ∂t Also.where each set of dynamical variable in assume to be a function of (u. ∂ d (u. p. The poisson bracket expression for function is
n
(u. v) . v) = − (v. v) dt ∂t d ∂v ∂u (u. then the Poisson bracket (u. H) + . u) (u. We know that. v) = 0. p. H) + = 0. The poisson brackets is useful testing whether the transformation is canonical (or) not. ∂t ∂v (v. Proof: Let u and v be integrals of the motion. Poisson brackets: Suppose that the function of the dynamical variable and time namely u = u (q. v) is constant of the motion. H] + + v + u. v) is also an integral. dt ∂t ∂u (u.
In the case of Lagrangian brackets. ∂f df = (f. v) = [(u. H] + (u. t). dt ∂t ∂t 182
(1) (2)
(3)
. v) as well as other variable. Poisson theorem: Statement: If u (q. H) + = 0. that is (u. v) =
i=1
∂u ∂v ∂u ∂v − ∂qi ∂pi ∂pi ∂qi
. p) are integrals of a Hamiltonian system. we have (u. v) . p) and v (q. u) = (v.

v] + [(v. P = cos−1 (peq ) . u)] + [w. H) . v) = 0. Here u = Q. v) . v] − [u. (u. v = P.
Use the poisson bracket to show that it is canonical. ∴ dt Hence the proof.
P = cos−1 (peq ) . (v. H] + [(H. Solution: We know that the poisson bracket
n
(u. Example: Consider the transformation Q= e−2q − p2 . u] By Jacobi identity. H) .
(1)
Given that Q = e−2q − p2 . 0) . (v. v) = [(u. u) . (w.
(Q. v) =
i=1
∂u ∂v ∂u ∂v − ∂qi ∂pi ∂pi ∂qi
. w)] + [v.From (1) and (3) d (u. H)] dt = [(u. v)] = 0 d (u. P ) = Q =
∂Q ∂P ∂Q ∂P − ∂q ∂p ∂q ∂p e−2q − p2 e−2q (−2) e−2q − p2
(2)
∂Q 1 = ∂q 2
183
. H] − [(u.
[u.

Now we can write. P ) = 0
Hence the given transformation is canonical. Q) = 0. P ) = e−2q
2
e−2q − p2
−
p2
2
=
e−2q − p2
e−2q − p2 =1 e−2q − p2
We know that (u. Suppose we consider the Pfaﬃan diﬀerential
n
(P.
Ω=
i=1
Xi (x) dxi
(1)
where the δx ’s are an independent set of inﬁnitesimal displacements from the same reference point. u) = (v. Bilinear co-variant: This is the another method which may be used in testing whether a given transformation is canonical involves the bilinear co-variant. v) = 0 ⇒ (Q.= − =
e−2q e−2q − p2 −p
e−2q − p2 P = cos−1 (peq ) (−1) peq ∂P = ∂q 1 − p2 e2q −p = −2q − p2 e −e2q ∂P = ∂p 1 − p2 e2q −1 . = −2q − p2 e Using these values in (2) we get (Q.
n
δΩ =
i=1
(δXi dxi + Xi δdxi ) 184
.

∂xj ∂Xj dxi . ∂xi
dXj =
i=1
Then we obtain
n n
δΩ − dQ = =
i=1 j=1 n n
∂Xi ∂Xj − ∂xj ∂xi
dxi δxj
i=1 j=1
[(δXj dxi − dxj δxj ) + (Xj δdxi − Xδxj )] (2)
note that δdxi = dδxi Now. ∂xj ∂xi
n n
τ ij dXi δxj
This is the bilinear co-variant associated with the diﬀerential equation (1).n
dQ =
j=1
(dXj δxj + Xj dδxj )
where
n
δXi =
j=1 n
∂Xj δxj . considering contemporaneous variants where τ ij = We ﬁnd that δΩdθ =
i=1 j=1
∂Xi ∂Xj − .
185
.