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Unit 13.1: Structured Qn 1

(ai) Algae
ii) Young mayfly/ blackfly larvae

(bi) Population of blackfly larvae would increase;

Sci Bio nit13

as fewer young stonefly feed on the blackfly

l i d ay larvae;
Dec Ho ework T10 U
ii) Population of young stonefly and caddis fly
larvae would decrease; as they are fed on by the
Jan 20

Unit 13.1: Structured Qn 2 Unit 13.1: Structured Qn 2

(ai) Caterpillars/Flies/Mice; (biii) Snakes have 2 possible food sources,

ii) Snakes/Sparrows/Sparrowhawks; mice and sparrows, whereas sparrowhawks
(bi) Insecticide kills flies/caterpillars and hence feed solely on sparrows;
sparrows have less food; Hence when sparrows decline in numbers, but
Biological amplification of insecticides may the number of mice does not change, the
occur down the food chain, killing off some of sparrowhawks are more affected than the
the sparrows; snakes;
ii) Insecticides have no effect on trees or
snakes which are the food source and predator
of mice respectively;

Unit 13.1: Structured Qn 3 Unit 13.1: Structured Qn 4

(ai) Small insect;  centipede;  frog;
(ai) Chicken/water flea; (Reject: Human) ii) Small insect;
ii) Corn/algae; (b) Energy is lost as it is transferred from one level
to another via excretion, egestion and respiration;
(bi) Light energy from the sun As the total energy level decreases progressively
ii) Y down the chain, the energy available for the next
iii) Energy is lost as it is transferred from one tropic level can support only a smaller number of
level to another via excretion, egestion and organisms;
respiration; Hence, the average number of frogs is less than
As the total energy level decreases the centipedes, and the average number of
progressively down the chain; centipedes is less than the insects;
Y being the shortest food chain would give (c) Not possible to count all organisms in entire
humans the largest proportion of energy leaf litter, hence sampling was carried out;
absorbed by the producer; Using a few samples increases accuracy;


Unit 13.1: Structured Qn 5 Unit 13.1: Structured Qn 5b

(ai) Not in syllabus i) Respiration;
ii) They secrete enzymes to break down the ii) From weeks 0-3, bacteria & fungi/
organic molecules in dead plant material, decomposers multiply and breakdown plant
releasing simple inorganic molecules like material, releasing an increasing amount of
nitrates & carbon dioxide, which return to the heat due to increasing activity;
environment for the plants to use; From weeks 3-8, the amount of material
available for the decomposers decreases,
Notes say: and the decreasing activity results in a
Microorganisms (mainly fungi & bacteria) which decrease in heat production;
are saprophytes and live on dead organic
matter. They secrete digestive enzymes onto
the material and absorb the products of

Unit 13.2: Structured Qn 1 Unit 13.2: Structured Qn 1c

(ai) X: Respiration/decomposition; (ci) Sunlight;
ii) Y: Combustion; ii) Energy is lost through respiration and in the
(b) Photosynthesis by green plants removes the form of heat to the environment;
inorganic carbon dioxide in the air; As the animals do not consume & assimilate the
To form organic glucose by combining with entire plant, energy contained in those
hydrogen from water; molecules are also lost;
In the process, light energy is converted into
chemical energy stored in the glucose

Unit 13.2: Structured Qn 2 Unit 13.2: Structured Qn 2

(b) 1. Combustion;
2. Respiration/Decay;
(c) The increased burning of fossil fuels
by industries leads to the release of
more carbon dioxide into the
The increase in deforestation reduces
the number of plants in the environment.
Hence, less carbon dioxide is absorbed
by the plants for photosynthesis;


Unit 13.3: Structured Qn 1 Unit 13.3: Structured Qn 1

1 a) sulphur dioxide

  Source: From burning of fossil fuels. eg. Coal in power c) Insecticides

stations or petroleum products;
 Source: From farmers using insecticides to
  Effect: Causes bronchitis in Man and forms acid rain eliminate pests;
which can kill aquatic life;  Effect: Insecticides accumulate along the food
chain and kills birds of prey which are on the
b) Sewage top of the food chain due to bioamplification.
Also, when left on crops, can cause poisoning
  Source: From raw untreated sewage being dumped when man eats the crops;
into rivers/water bodies;

  Effect: Causes water to be deoxygenated due to the

increase in number of bacteria, hence water is unable
to support aquatic life;

Unit 13.3: Essay Qn 2a Unit 13.3: Essay Qn 2a

 Sulphur dioxide dissolves in rain water to form   From 1980 to 1990, the number of plant species
decreased from 537 to 340 as the amount of sulphur
acid rain which increases soil acidity thus released increased from 4.5 to 5.7 tons, which
destroying the root system of the plants, increased the amount of acid rain produced;
killing them/ reacts with minerals in soil,   In 1995, the amount of sulphur released decreased
reducing minerals available for plant growth; from 5.7 to 2.6 tons, hence the number of plant
species increased from 340 to 347 as the species
 Sulphur dioxide in the air can enter the leaves could slowly recover from the effects of acid rain;
via the stomata and dissolve in the water
  In 2000, though there was a slight increase in the
covering the cells forming sulphuric acid. The amount of sulphur released to 2.9 tons, the number of
acid causes the leaves to die thus plant species continued to recover, increasing to 365;
photosynthesis cannot take place;

Unit 13.3: Essay Qn 2b

  The increase in nitrates (eutrophication) leads to an

excessive growth of algae and aquatic plants as nitrates are
used to produce amino acids and proteins;

  The submerged plants then die due to the lack of sunlight as

surface plants and algae block entry of light;

  The dead plants are decomposed by bacteria which then

multiply and consume more oxygen in the water;

  The lack of oxygen will then lead to the death of aquatic

animals and further bacterial decomposition;

  The river will thus be unsustainable to aquatic life;